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You are on page 1of 79

28902B

DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Examination for the Degree of

Meng in Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Simulation

Monday 17th April 1995

09.30

- 12.30

(1)

Answer ALL the questions and try to confine your answer to the space provided on the

paper.

(2)

The amount of space and the relative mark for the question will give you some idea of the

detail that is required in your answer.

(3)

If you need more space in order to answer a question then continue on the back of the

same page indicating clearly (by PTO) that you have done so.

(4)

The total number of marks in this examination is 262; this will be rescaled to give an

appropriate weighted percentage for the exam. The marks are relative and, together with

the space available, should give an approximate guide to the level of detail required.

(5)

There is a compulsory 15 minute reading time on this paper during which you must not

write anything.

(6)

Q1.

List two uses of numerical reservoir simulation for each of the following stages of field

development.

(i)

1.

(2)

2.

(2)

(ii)

At a stage well beyond the maximum oil production in a large North Sea field:

1.

(2)

2.

(2)

Q2.

At any stage in a reservoir development by waterflooding, the engineer may use material

balance calculations and/or numerical reservoir simulation. Under which particular cir

cumstances would you use each of these approaches?

(i) Material Balance?

(3)

(3)

Q3. Given all the problems and inaccuracies, which are known to exist in the application of

reservoir simulation, why do engineers still use it?

(2)

2

Q4

Water

injector

Water

injector

Producer

High k

Continuous or

Discontinuous

Shales ???

Low k

OWC

2000 m

Vertical scale

100 m

Reservoir X is a light oil reservoir (35 API) being developed by waterflooding. The reservoir

comprises a high average permeability massive sand overlying lower average permeability

laminated sands. The thickness of each sand is approximately equal and there are shales at the

interface of these two sands. However, the operator is uncertain if these shales are continuous or

discontinuous.

The following questions refer to Figure 1 above.

(i)

What would the main differences be between the cases where the shales in the above

reservoir were continuous and where they were discontinuous?

(4)

(ii)

Say briefly how you would go about investigating this using reservoir simulation.

(4)

3

(iii)

Suppose a reservoir engineer took 10 vertical grid blocks (NZ=10) in a simulation model

of this system. Would you expect the local (kv.kh) values in each of the main reservoir

sands to be similar or different? Explain your answer briefly.

Similar/different

(1)

Explain

(4)

(iv)

If this reservoir well had a gas cap, then gas coning might be a problem.

(4)

How would you use reservoir simulation to investigate this problem?

(4)

4

(v)

In which two ways would the grid used to investigate gas coning be different from that

which was used in the full field waterflooding simulation?

1.

(2)

2.

(2)

Q5.

Two of the main numerical problems/errors that arise in reservoir simulators are due to

numerical dispersion and grid orientation.

Explain each of these terms briefly saying - what it means, its origin and how we might get

round it. Draw a simple hand drawn sketch illustrating each.

(i)

(5)

(ii)

(5)

5

(iii)

(4)

(iv)

(4)

Q6.

2

P P

= 2

t x

(i)

Eq. 1

Write down how this equation is discretised in an explicit finite difference scheme - briefly

explain your notation.

(4)

(ii)

If an implicit finite difference scheme was used to solve Eq. 1, then a set of linear

equations would arise which could be solved using either a direct or an iterative linear

equation solution technique. Briefly explain each of the bold terms above:

(4)

Set of linear equations

(4)

Direct linear equation solution technique

(4)

Iterative linear equation solution technique

(4)

7

Q7.

Statement: The Equations of Two Phase Flow can be derived easily simply by using

Material Balance and Darcys Law.

Explain this statement with reference to two phase flow - you do not need to actually derive the

equations and, indeed, you may not use any equations other than Darcys law.

(8)

Q8.

(i)

Draw a schematic sketch of a single grid block of size Dx by Dy by Dz, showing the

porosity f, the oil and water saturations So and Sw (only 2 phases present).

(2)

(ii)

(a)

Using the sketch in part (i) above, derive expressions for (a) the volume of oil in the grid

block, Vo; (b) the mass of oil in the grid block, Mo, introducing the formation volume

factor, Bo.

Vo?

(3)

(b)

Mo?

(3)

(iii)

Write an expression for the oil flux, Jo, saying briefly what it is, any units it might be

expressed in and explaining any terms you introduce.

(6)

9

Q9.

(i)

Name three ways in which a Black Oil reservoir simulation differs from a

Compositional simulation model.

1.

2.

3.

(6)

(ii)

Draw a simple sketch of a single grid block showing what is meant by a component and a

phase.

(4)

(iii)

Using the notation CIJ to denote the mass composition of component I per unit volume of

phase J (dimensions of CIJ are mass/volume), derive an expression - based on the

quantities labelled in your sketch in (ii) above - for the mass of component I in the grid

block.

(6)

10

(iv)

Give one example of (a) where you would use a Black Oil model and (b) where you would

use a Compositional simulation model.

(a)

(3)

(b)

(3)

Q10. Figure 2: The figure below shows the basic idea of upscaling or Pseudo-isation.

OIL

"Rock"

Propts.

"Pseudo-"

Propts.

11

(i)

(2)

(ii)

permeabilities?

(4)

(iii)

Methodology and Upscaling Mathematical Techniques. Explain very briefly the

meaning of the bold terms.

Methodology

(4)

Techniques?

(4)

12

Q11. (i)

Sketch (roughly) a semi variogram for each of the following permeability models:

(a)

a correlated random field with a range of 100m and a sill of 10,000 mD2; and

(b)

a laminated system where the laminae are of constant width of 1cm and where the high

permeability = 2D and the low permeability = 1D. Label your sketches clearly.

(a)

(6)

(b)

(6)

(ii)

What can you deduce about the standard deviation of the correlated random field in (i)(a)

above.

(3)

13

(iii)

(5)

k = 0.5 D

2 cm

k = 2.0 D

5 cm

k = 1.0 D

1 cm

(i) Calculate the effective permeability of the above model in the x-direction; show your working.

(5)

14

(ii)

Calculate the effective permeability of the above model in the y-direction, show your

working.

(6)

(ii) Suppose we put a very find grid (say of size 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm) on the 3 layer model in Figure 3

above. If we jumbled up all the grid blocks randomly so that the new model had no discernable

structure, would the new effective permeability be: greater than that in (i) and (ii)?; less than that in (i)

and (ii)?; in between these values? Explain your answer.

(6)

15

Q13. In miscible flow in a random correlated field, explain how the mixing zone grows with

time in each of the following cases (illustrate your answers with simple sketches):

(i) dispersive flow

(4)

(ii) fingering flow

(4)

(iii) channelling flow

(4)

(iv) On the same diagram below, sketch the expected type of fractional flow curve f(c) vs c) you

would expect for each type of flow.

(6)

16

Q14. In the Kyte and Berry pseudo-isation (upscaling) method, describe briefly (using a

diagram) how numerical dispersion is taken into account (no detailed mathematics is

required).

(10)

17

Q15. (i)

List the main categories in the hierarchy of stratal sedimentary elements - give one

short sentence explaining each of these.

(8)

(iii)

Describe which of the above length scales of sedimentary heterogeneity are likely to have

most significance for the following reservoir flow phenomena:

(3)

* Gravity slumping or water over-ride:

(3)

* Vertical sweep efficiency:

(3)

* Residual/Remaining oil saturation

(3)

18

Frequency

Q16. You have been given the following distribution of core-plug permeabilities in a particular

reservoir unit which includes a higher permeability a fluvial channel sand overlying a

lower permeability deltaic sand:

Permeability (md)

With reference to Figure 4 above: (a) explain the probable reason that the permeability

distribution has the above form; (b) sketch the sort of permeability models (laminar, bed and

formation scale) you might use for the flow simulation of this unit.

(a)

(3)

(b)

(10)

19

Q17. (i) Draw a sketch of water displacement of oil across the laminae in a water-wet

laminated system at (a) low flow rate (capillary dominated) and (b) high flow rate

(viscous dominated); in this sketch show where the residual remaining oil is and

give a sentence or two of explanation.

(a)

(8)

(b)

(8)

20

(ii)

Is the effective water permeability at residual (i) remaining oil saturation (across the

laminae) higher in case (a) or (b) in part (i) above? Explain.

(6)

(iii)

What are the implications of the results in (i) and (ii) above for upscaling in reservoir

simulation?

(6)

21

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8 Pages

Date:

Subject:

Reservoir Simulation

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

No.

Mk.

1. Complete the sections above but do not seal until the examination is finished.

2. Insert in box on right the numbers of the questions attempted.

3. Start each question on a new page.

4. Rough working should be confined to left hand pages.

5. This book must be handed in entire with the top corner sealed.

6. Additional books must bear the name of the candidate, be sealed and be affixed to

the first book by means of a tag provided

Answer Notes

#

=>

[] =>

extra information good but not essential for full marks - may get bonus.

Q1

(i)

development options e.g. waterflooding, gas flooding etc.

some other spatial factor such as well-placement or aquifer effect.

(ii)

#

pressure blowdown etc.

after same development twice and to use this to assess various IOR

strategies e.g. gas injection, WAG or chemical flooding.

Q2

(i)

#

single material balance to assess your field performance - to see if DP

decline tallies with estimated field size, sources of influx and

production.

(ii)

Would be used when a more complex development strategy requiring

spatial information is essential e.g. well placement, assessment of shale

effects, gravity segregation etc.

Q3

(#)

development/flow problems which extends material balance. Clearly, it

is much better than simple material balance alone.

Q4

(i)

The shale continuity strongly affects the hi/lo permeability layer

vertical communication (both pressure and fluid flow). Thus, it will

affect the effective kv/kh (lower or zero for continuous shales) and

will strongly influence gravity slumping of water in a waterflood. In

the situation above with high k on top, some vertical communication will

help recovery.

(ii)

Set up a simple 2D cross sectional model with , say, 50 blocks in the x direction and 10 vertical grid blocks - 5 in each layer. Run waterflood

cases with and without shales - and some in-between cases with

transmissibility modifiers set beween Tz = 0.0 0.01 0.1 0.5 1.0.

Compare water saturation fronts and recoveries as fraction of pv

water throughput. Result will allow us to assess the effects of the

shales in the waterflood.

(iii)

Different

The high perm massive sand would have a small scale kv/kh ~1 which

would result in a similar larger scale value. In the laminated sands, the

small scale (say core plug scale) would have a low kv/kh of say 0.1 to

0.01 and this would result in a correspondingly lower kv/kh at the grid

block scale.

(iv)

Well

Gas

Oil

and

Water

Gas

Oil

and

Water

= perforations

Gas Coning It is the drawdown of the highly mobile (low mg) gas into

the perforations. Pattern is shown here in figure. Causes high GOR

production at a level well above the solution gas value.

set reservoir near-well rock properties e.g. Layering, Tz modifiers,

Rel. perms. etc.

communication, gas/oil/water Rel. perms. etc

Generally needs a fine Dr, Dz grid, often finer near the well where

most rapid changes of Sg and pressure with time occur.

(v)

1. The geometry would be different: r/z for coning and cartesian or

corner point for full field.

2. The fineness of the grid would be different. Very fine for nearwell; much coarser for full field.

Q5

(i)

(ii)

Numerical dispersion is the artificial spreading of saturation fronts

due to the numerical grid block structure in the simulation. It arises

because we take large grids to represent moving fronts. It can be

improved by refining the grid (globally or locally) or by using improved

numerical methods.

(iii)

Wells same distance

apart in Figs A and B

L

I

Fluid tends to

flow along (parallel)

to the grids

Fig A

Fig B

I = injector ;

P = producer

(iv)

The injected fluid tends to flow parallel with the grid from the

injector (I) to the producer (P) - see previous page. This means that

early breakthrough and poorer recoveries are seen in A then in B

above. i.e.

Fig B

Actual Recovery

Fig A

%00IP

Producer

Pv or Time

Q6

(i)

(ii)

2 P

In this scheme the spatial term in Eq. 1 i.e.

would be specified at

x 2

the new time level n+1

a21 X1 + a22 X2 + a23 X3 = b2

a31 X1 + a32 X2 + a33 X3 = b3

coefficients and bs are a known right-hand side.

Elimination) is an algorithm

with a fixed number of steps which will solve these linear equations

(under certain conditions). [Typically forward elimination is applied to

get an upper triangular A* matrix and back substitution is then easily

applied to get the X solution]

unknown vector X (0) where the (o) denotes 0th iteration: This is then

improved by some algorithm to a better and better solution of the

original linear equations i.e. X(1) X(2) X(V) until the method

converges e.g.

/ X(V+1) - X(V)/ < small number TOL. [Methods such as the Jacobi, LSOR,

etc. are examples of this].

Q7

In block (i, j), then material balance

can be applied for each phase (e.g.

oil and water) for 2-phase flow.

mo

mw

mo

i, j

Mass

Accumulation of

Amount that

Amount that

flows in over

Dt

Dt

Dt

between blocks i.e.

A.k.kro ( So )

Qoil ( i -1, j ) ( i , j )

Po - Poi -1 j

mo

i - 1 ij

2

Thus the two phase Darcy Law supplies the relation for volumetric flow

rate and pressure in the grid block. These volumetric flows can be

converted to MASS flows (x by density) and then put into the material

10

equation for oil and water.

Q8

(i)

(ii)

(a)

Vo = Dx Dy Dz f So

(b)

11

(iii)

Q9

1. The black oil model essentially treats a phase (o,w,g) as the basic

conserved unit or pseudo component

of components (CH4, C10, H2O etc.) - the black oil model simply treats

gas dissolution in oil through Rso - gas solubility

oil whereas the black oil model relies on the simple Rso type treatment.

12

(iii)

(iv)

#

with pressure maintenance.

system - gas recycling etc]

Q10

(i)

Upscaling in a waterflood essentially means getting the correct

(effective) parameters (-e.g. rel. perm.) for the larger scale grid blocks

which will reproduce a correct fine grid model.

(ii)

Rock relative permeabilities are meant to be the intrinsic

representative properties of a representative piece of reservoir rock

at the small (i.e. core plug) scale.

gridblock) scale which incorporate other effects and artefacts (e.g.

13

rock rel. perms.

(iii)

Methodology

This is a geologically consistent approach to the task of upscaling. i.e.

data collection, sedimentological framework,

mechanically right answer.

Techniques?

These refer to the actual mathematical algorithm to go from a fine

grid coarse grid. E.g. Kyte and Berry, Stones method, two phase

tensors etc

[N.B. This just needs to reproduce the fine grid result - even if it is

WRONG - at the coarse scale]

14

Q11

(i)

(ii)

It takes a lag distance of about the range to see the field variability

(standard dev. - i.e. ~ 100mD) of the field.

15

(iii)

lag

Q12

(i)

(ii)

The effective permeability is clearly the harmonic (thickness weighted) average as follows:

16

(iii)

The keff in the randomised model would be between the two answers

in (i) and (ii) above (the answer in (ii) being the lower).

value tends to the geometric average (kg) in 2D

kg - is less than the arithmetic (along layer) answer.

kg - is greater than the harmonic (across layer) answer.

Q13

(i)

Note - we take the same contour values (c= 0.1, 0.5, 0.8) in all sketches

below.

17

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

18

interface only. Thus, if the fine grid water (say) flows have not

reached the coarse grid interface

19

Q15

(i)

Lamina The simplest unit within which we can assume (almost)

homogeneous k. (length mm m)

Lamina set A collection of the above (cm m) e.g. core.

hi k

lo k

form 3D beds.

20

e.g.

Tabular cross-bedding

2m

~50cm

Bottom sets

or climbing ripples

Para-sequence/sequence-stacks of bedforms

(ii)

Q16

(a) There is a double peak - the bimodality probably arises from the

lower perm plugs from deltaic sands, and the higher permeability plugs

from the fluvial channel.

21

(b)

laminated sand

pseudo

Tightly laminated

deltaic sands

A

Crossbeddes

fluvial

channel

-stacked crossbeds

- bedform pseudo B

Q17

(i)

(a)

hi

lo

hi

lo

hi

lo

Slow Flow

CAPILLARY DOMINATED

High water Sw in

LOW perms in a

water-wet system

Sw

HIGH "remaining"

oil in hi k

Spontaneous water inhibition into the LOW k laminae occurs in

Pc-dominated flow. This traps oil in the HIGH k laminae behind the

front where it is well above "residual" but it can't move because the

Rel. Perm. to oil in the low k water-filled laminae is so low.

22

(b)

hi

lo

hi

lo

hi

lo

VISCOUS DOMINATED

WATERFRONT

"Fast" Flow

of water

High water Sw

LOW perm in a

water-cut system

Sw

which reduces the oil in all layers to its local "residual" level.

Recovery of oil is better in this case since it is not "stranded" by

downstream capillary imbibition.

(ii)

It is higher in case (a) for the reasons already explained.

[I give a slightly over-detailed answer to part (a) and (b) above].

(iii)

The central implications are twofold.

(a) The two phase pseudo relative perms. are highly anisotropic for

such laminar systems. Along and across layer water displacement in

laminar system gives widely different pseudos.

23

Along

Across

systems which, in simulation/upscaling, moves the pseudo rel. perm. end

points. (see above).

24

25

Course:- 28117

Class:- 28912

DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Examination for the Degree of

Meng in Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Simulation

Tuesday 20th April 1999

09.30 - 13.30

( 100% of Total marks )

1.

2.

3.

completion of Script Book front covers and attachment of loose pages. Do not write your

name on any loose pages which are submitted as part of your answer.

4.

5.

6.

7.

State clearly any assumptions used and intermediate calculations made in numerical

questions. No marks can be given for an incorrect answer if the method of calculation is

not presented. Be sure to allocate time appropriately.

Q.1: Consider the following statement which is made referring to a reservoir development plan

for a field which has been in production for some time:

A reservoir engineer should always apply Material Balance calculations and should usually but not always - use Numerical Reservoir Simulation.

(i) Why should you always perform some sort of material Material Balance calculations ?

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................

(4)

(ii) What is the main disadvantage of using material balance calculations in reservoir

development?

..............................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................

(2)

(iii) In the above context, explain when you would use Reservoir Simulation and when you may

not use it. Give an example of each case.

When you would use Reservoir Simulation + Example:

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................

(4)

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................

(4)

Q.2: Various types of 2D and 3D grids are used in reservoir simulation calculations. Describe

what you think the best type of grid is for performing calculations on each of the reservoir

processes described below and say why.

Reservoir processes:

(i) Modelling of likely gas and water coning and its effect on (vertical) well productivity in a

light oil reservoir with a gas cap and an underlying aquifer;

(ii) Simulating a large number of options in an injector/producer well pair in a gas injection

scheme where the objective is to look at the effects of formation heterogeneity on gas - oil

displacement and to develop some pseudo relative permeabilities to use in a full field model;

(iii) Carrying out an appraisal of an entire flank of a complex faulted field which has several

injector and producer wells.

(i) Which grid?............................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................... (4)

Why?...........................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................... (4)

..................................................................................................................................................... (4)

Why?...........................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................... (4)

(iii) Which grid?..........................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................... (4)

Why?..........................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................... (4)

Q.3: Numerical dispersion and grid orientation are two of the main numerical problems that

occur in reservoir simulation. Explain in your own words, with the help of a simple sketch,

the meaning of each of these terms:

(i) Numerical dispersion ? Sketch:

(5)

Numerical dispersion ? Explanation:

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (5)

(ii) Grid orientation ? Sketch:

(5)

Grid orientation ? Explanation:

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (5)

5

Q4.

Figure 1 below shows the results of a series of 6 waterflooding and gas flooding

calculations (labelled A - F) in a 2D vertical cross-sectional numerical simulation model.

Results are plotted as Oil Recovery at 1PV Injection vs. 1/NZ , where NZ is the number

of vertical grid blocks in the simulation. Assume (a) that the number of grid blocks in the

x-direction (NX) is sufficiently large and is constant in all calculations; and (b) that the

axes of the graph are quantitative.

Figure 1

2D cross-section

Key

gas injection

waterflood

blocks = NZ

Oil recovery

at 1PV

injection

60%

A

50%

D

E

40%

F

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

(i) How many vertical grid blocks (NZ) were used in case F? .........

(3)

(ii) Do the simulated waterflood and gas flooding calculations become more optimistic or

pessimistic as we take more vertical grid blocks in the calculation?

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

Q4. (continued)

(iii) Extrapolate each of the calculations to NZ --> for both the waterflood and the gas flood

on Figure 1. Estimate the % recovery for each and the incremental recovery of the gas flood

compared with the waterflood. Comment on the implications of your result for carrying out a

gas flooding project in this reservoir.

Estimations...........................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (6)

Comment:

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

End of Q.4

Q5. on next page

Q. 5

Figure 2 below shows a control volume - block i - for single-phase compressible flow in

1D. The quantities qi+1/2 and qi-1/2 are the volumetric flow rates of the fluid at the

boundaries of block i. All grid blocks are the same size in the x-direction (x) and the

cross-sectional area is constant, A = y.z (where y and z are the block sizes in the yand z-directions). The density and porosity are denoted by symbols - and respectively.

Figure 2

i-1

Area

=A

= y. z

i+1

q i-1/2

qi-1/2

x

x

With reference to the above figure,

(i) Write a clear mathematical expression for the change in mass in block i over a time step t

due to flow:

Change in mass due to flow over time step t =

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (6)

(ii) Write a clear mathematical expression for the change in mass in block i from the beginning

of the time step to the end (i.e. the accumulation):

Difference in mass in block i over time step t =

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (6)

(iii) Considering the above two expressions, what equation can you now write from material

balance ?

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (6)

Q.5 (continued)

(iv) Are there any assumptions in the equation you have just written in part (iii) above? Briefly

explain.

......................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

(v) Now use the single-phase Darcy Law in the equation you wrote in (iii) above and show how by taking Limits x, t --> 0 - you obtain the pressure equation for single-phase compressible

flow: Show the steps you take.

(8)

(vi) If you have written down the answer to part (v) above correctly, then you should have

written down a non-linear partial differential equation (PDE). What does non-linear mean in

this context and explain in physical terms what the main problem is with this sort of equation.

Non-linear?...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

The problem?...............................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

9

Q.6: (i) From the four assumptions listed below, show clearly how Equation 1 arises from the

non-linear equation you derived in Q.5 part (v) above. Indicate clearly where you use each

of the assumptions in your derivation.

2

P P

=

2

t x

Equation 1

The term is a constant (Greek kappa - not permeability, k). Other quantities which may be

used are Cf - the fluid compressibility, - the density; k - the permeability; - the fluid viscosity;

- the porosity.

Assumptions:

2. Permeability (k) and viscosity () are constant.

3. The fluid has a constant compressibility, C f =

1

.

P

P

4. Pressure gradients are small - hence 0

x

2

(i) Answer:

(12)

(continue on the back of this page if necessary indicating that you have done so)

10

Q.6 (continued)

(ii) From your answer to part (i) above, write down what constant is in terms of the other

constants.

= .............................................................................................................................................. (4)

(iii) Using the notation in Figure 3 below, apply finite differences to Equation 1 above and define

the discretised spatial derivative at the new time level, (n+1) (i.e. an implicit method). Show each step

in your working and show clearly how this leads to a sparse set of linear equations.

Figure 3

P in+1

n+1

x

Time

level

All x and

t fixed.

P in

n

i-1

i+1

Space --->

(12)

(continue on the back of this page if necessary indicating that you have done so)

11

Q.6 (continued)

(iv) We can write down the set of linear equations that arises from applying finite differences to

the flow equations as follows:

A.x = b

Equation 2

where A is a matrix, x is the vector of unknowns and vector b is known. Write out Equation 2

explicitly for three equations and rearrange these to show how a simple iterative scheme can be

formulated. Say very briefly how this is solved. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of

an iterative scheme.

(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)

(10)

12

Advantage?......................................................................................

(2)

Disadvantage?.................................................................................

(2)

Q.7: The oil flux, Jo, into and out of a grid block is shown in Figure 4 below. Other quantities

are denoted as follows: Oil saturation So; porosity, ; Formation volume factor, Bo; Oil

density at standard conditions, osc; Darcy velocity of oil, vo (similar quantities apply to the

water phase).

Figure 4

Oil Flux

Jo

Jo

z

x

x

x + x

(i) Write an expression for the oil flux, Jo, giving any possible units.

(6)

(ii) The concentration of oil, Co, is defined as the mass of oil per unit volume of reservoir. Write

an expression for Co in terms of the quantities defined above.

(6)

13

Q.7 (continued)

(iii) Prove that, in 1D two-phase flow, then for the oil phase:

(Jo/x) = - (Co/t)

Equation 3

(10)

(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)

14

Q.7 (continued)

(vi) State the two-phase Darcys law for oil using (Po/x) for the pressure gradient and kro for the

relative permeability, and substitute this into Equation 3 above and derive the oil conservation

equation.

Two-phase Darcy Law for the oil phase (in terms of Darcy velocity, vo)

(4)

(8)

End of Q.7

15

Q.8 In three-phase flow (oil, water and gas), we can define a gas flux, Jg, and a gas concentration,

Cg, in exactly the same way as was defined for oil in Q. 7 above.

(i) Explain physically why the gas flux and the gas concentration are more complicated than the

corresponding quantities for the flow of oil or water.

.........................................................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

(ii) Using Rso and R to denote the gas solubility factors, derive expressions for Jg and Cg showing

your working.

(12)

(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)

16

Q. 8 (continued)

(iii) Use your expressions for Jg and Cg in the conservation Equation 3 (for gas) to write down the

first step in obtaining the conservation equation for gas.

(6)

End of Q.8

Q.9: Explain what history matching is in a reservoir simulation of a field saying briefly how it is

done and what can go wrong.

History matching? How is it done? What can go wrong?

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................(10)

(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)

17

Q.10 (i) Write down the formulae for the arithmetic (ka), harmonic (kh) and geometric (kg) averages

of a permeability field with permeabilities k1, k2, .... kM. The number of data points you have = M.

ka =

kh =

kg =

(10)

(ii) State how you would use these averages for calculating the effective permeabilities in the

horizontal and vertical directions in the models in Figures 5(a) and 5(b) below.

Figure 5

(a)

(b)

(8)

18

Q.10 (continued)

For Figure 5(b): Horizontal keff & Vertical keff :

(8)

(iii) Calculate the effective permeability for flow across the laminae in Figure 6 below. Show your

working.

20 mD, 1 cm

100 mD, 2 cm

10 mD, 1 cm

Figure 6

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................(6)

End of Q.10

19

Q.11 The diagram in Figure 7 below shows a grid consisting of 2 coarse grid blocks, with 7 x 3 fine

blocks in each of these coarse blocks.

Figure 7

i=1 2

3 4

6 7

9 10 11 12 13 14

j= 1

2

z

3

x

Suppose you are calculating the pseudo relative permeabilities for the left coarse block using the

Kyte and Berry method. Assume that you have all the necessary information (saturations, pressures,

flows etc.) from a fine-scale (3x14) simulation.

(i) Show clearly on Figure 7 which part of the grid you would use for calculating the following

quantities and give a brief sentence of explanation:

the average water saturation

(3)

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................(4)

(3)

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................(4)

(3)

...........................................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................... (4)

(ii) What is the formula for the average water saturation?

Sw =

20

(5)

Q. 11 (continued)

(iii) What is the weighting for the average pressure? Give a brief sentence of explanation.

(5)

..........................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................ (3)

qw =

(5)

End of Q.11

21

Q.12 (i) By means of a simple sketch, show how a cubic packing of spherical grains is arranged.

Sketch:

(4)

(ii) Use the sketch to help you calculate the specific surface of the sample per unit volume of solid,

Ss (in m2/m3).

Specific surface - working:

(6)

(iii) If the grain radius is taken to be 10m, determine the porosity () of the sample

Porosity working:

22

(6)

Q.12 (continued)

(iv) If the grain radius was 100m instead of 10m, what would the porosity () of the sample now

be?

(v) What do the results of parts (iii) and (iv) above suggest concerning the porosity of cubic sphere

packs?

Ans.............................................................................................................................................

(2)

(vi) Write down the Carman-Kozeny equation in terms of the grain diameter (D), porosity (), and

the specific surface per unit volume of solid, Ss

Carman-Kozeny equation:

k=

(6)

(vii) Taking the grain radius to be 10 m and the tortuosity of the sample to be T=1, calculate an

approximate permeability in Darcies for a cubic packing of spheres (NB Use the porosity found in

Q.12 part (iii) in this calculation) .

Working:

(6)

23

Q.13 (i) Describe the meaning of the term contact angle and draw a rough sketch to illustrate

your answer

Contact angle?...................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

(4)

Sketch

(4)

(ii) If an oil/water meniscus is at equilibrium in a cylindrical capillary tube, what is the equation

that relates the capillary pressure, Pc, to the tube radius R and the contact angle ?

Pc=

(5)

..................................................................................................................................................... (3)

24

Q. 13 (continued)

(iii) Oil is introduced at the inlet face of the water-filled pore network shown in Figure 8 on the

next page. The numbers on Figure 8 refer to pore radii (in microns, m). The pores are taken to be

capillary tubes and are water-wet, the contact angle is = 60o in every pore and the oil/water

interfacial tension is 80 mN/m. The capillary pressure of the system is gradually increased and oil

begins to invade the network.

Shade in the pores that become oil-filled at each of the 4 capillary pressure values Pc1, Pc2, Pc3

and Pc4 in Figure 8 (NB 14.7 psi = 105 Newtons/m2).

25

Q. 13 (continued)

Figure 8: Shade in the pores that become oil-filled at each of the 4 capillary pressure values Pc1,

,

c

2

5

2

Pc3 and Pc4 below (NB 14.7 psi = 10 Newtons/m ).

15

11

2

1

Oil

Water

10

20

3

3

12

12

15

11

2

1

Oil

Water

10

20

3

3

12

12

15

11

2

1

Oil

Water

10

20

3

3

12

12

15

11

2

1

Oil

Water

10

20

3

12

3

12

(20)

26

Q.14 (i) Explain the differences between a drainage flood and an imbibition flood at the porescale, paying particular attention to the roles played by pore size, film-flow and accessibility to

the inlet (sketch each displacement in the boxes provided below to illustrate your answer).

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

..............................................................................

(10)

(continue on the back of this page, if necessary, indicating you have done so)

Imbibition

Sketch

(4)

Drainage

Sketch

(4)

27

Q. 14 (continued)

(ii) The strongly water-wet network in Figure 9 below is initially completely filled with oil and the

capillary pressure is so high that no water can currently imbibe. If the capillary pressure is slowly

decreased, so that water can invade via film-flow and snap-off, how is the residual oil distributed at

the end of imbibition (i.e. when Pc=0)? Shade in the residual oil using the network template

provided in Figure 10. The numbers on the bonds again refer to the tube radii in microns (m).

Note this network is deliberately different from that in Figure 8. Also, oil cannot enter the water

reservoir due to the presence of a water-wet membrane.

Figure 9

Initial distribution of oil

15

11

2

1

Water

Oil

10

20

3

3

12

12

Figure 10

15

11

2

1

Water

Oil

10

20

3

12

3

12

(8)

End of Q.14

28

Q15. You have been supplied with the table of mercury injection data below.

Table 1

Mercury

saturation

0

P c (air/mercury)

(psia)

2

(psia)

0

0.2

0.4

0.5

4

5

6

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.8

0.9

7

20

60

0.6

0.8

0.9

(i) Sketch the air/mercury capillary pressure curve using the axes provided

(6)

(ii) Write down the equation used to re-scale mercury injection data to oil/water systems and use it

to complete Table 1 (assume the following values for interfacial tensions and contact angles:

mercury/air = 360x10-3 N/m, oil/water = 60x10-3 N/m, mercury/air = oil/water = 0o

Equation:

(6)

Now complete Table 1 at the top of this page

(8)

29

Q. 15 (continued)

(iii) Plot the oil/water capillary pressure curve using the axes provided below

Sketch.

(5)

(iv) Write down the equation that determines the Leverett J-function from capillary pressure datai.e. complete the following equation:

30

(5)

Q. 15 (continued)

(v)

Using the capillary pressure data shown below in Table 2, calculate an appropriate J-function

and complete the table below : assume the values k = 100 mD, = 0.1, interfacial tension, =10

x10-3 N/m, and contact angle, = 0o. Choose any suitable units but label your sketch clearly.

Sketch the J-function below.

Table 2

Complete the table

Wa te r S a tu ra tio n P c (p s ia )

1

0

0.8

2

0.6

4

0.5

6

0.4

10

0.2

20

J (S w)

(6)

Write down the form of the J-function here:

J(Sw)=

(4)

(6)

31

Q.16 (i) Name the two most popular tests used to determine the wettability of a reservoir rock.

The .................................................................. Test

(2)

(2)

(ii) Give the three rules of thumb that can often be used to distinguish between water-wet and

oil-wet relative permeability curves.

Rule 1 ................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................(4)

Rule 2 ................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................(4)

Rule 3 ................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................(4)

(iii) Capillary pressure curves in Figure 11 below have been measured on two different core samples.

The two plots are shown below. Use your knowledge of wettability variations at the pore scale to

answer the following:

Figure 11

Pc

Pc

Sw

(A)

Sw

(B)

(iv) Which sample is probably the more water-wet? Explain your choice.

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................................................(6)

32

Q.16 (continued)

(v) Give a physical explanation for the negative leg shown in the capillary pressure curve in Figure 11(A).

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................................................

(6)

33

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