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The University of Sheffield DIGITAL HUMANITIES PROCEEDINGS

http://www.shef.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.209115!/file/dhc-abstracts.pdf

Analy in! "i! #$lt$ral data %atterns in &'&(( #overs of )e*a Ma!a ine+ Marcio !ilio dos "a#tos $%esearcher& 'ederal (#i)ersity of *ui+ de 'ora - ('*', -icero .#acio da "il)a $/rofessor& 'ederal (#i)ersity of "ao /aulo - (0.' "/, A"stra#t
1he i#creasi#2 capacity of co!putatio#al data a#alysis is dri)i#2 co!puter scie#tists a#d desi2#ers i#to the de)elop!e#t of #ew features to )isuali+e a#d u#dersta#d cultural artifacts i# a differe#t !a##er. "ocial scie#tists& di2ital hu!a#ities researchers are i#)esti2ati#2 how to create what we ca# call 3cultural al2orith!s3 to disco)er or re)eal #ew tre#ds about a field of i#)esti2atio# that ca# be related to fil! studies& literature& co!!u#icatio# a#d so o# a#d so forth. 'ollowi#2 the theoretical approach created by 4e) Ma#o)ich about his studies related to 3cultural a#alytics3& this paper will prese#t a o#e year research o# the )isuali+atio# of the e#tire collectio# of co)ers of the 5e6a !a2a+i#e& co#sidered the !ost i!porta#t weekly !a2a+i#e i# 7ra+il. 1he )isuali+atio# that we created i# our 4ab at the 'ederal (#i)ersity of *ui+ de 'ora $www.uf6f.br/sws, a#alyses a#d de!o#strates practical uses for cultural )isuali+atio#& si#ce we ca# ha)e critical a#alytical details about all the co)ers such as the 2e#der that is !ore fre8ue#t i# the co)ers $!asculi#e,& the colors that the !a2a+i#e uses re2ularly& a!o#2 others. 9e ca# also use i!a2e reco2#itio# al2orith!s so we ca# cross data with wikipedia& for e:a!ple& a#d disco)er who was !ore fre8ue#tly featured i# the co)ers& e.2. politicia#s or !edia stars.

1his article addresses the use of co!putatio#al resources to build ad)a#ced )isuali+atio# syste!s i# the di2ital hu!a#ities field& followi#2 the theoretical approach created by 4e) Ma#o)ich& !ai#ly his #ew work called 3-ultural ;#alytics3. 1he "oftware "tudies 4ab at the 'ederal (#i)ersity of *ui+ de 'ora $('*', has part#ered with the "oftware "tudies .#itiati)e 4ab& coordi#ated by 4e) Ma#o)ich a#d *ere!y <ou2lass& based at -;4.12 $-alifor#ia .#stitute for 1eleco!!u#icatio# a#d .#for!atio# 1ech#olo2y, a#d at -(0= >raduate ce#ter& i# order to de)elop pro6ects o# the data )isuali+atio# field. 1he co#te#t that this article prese#ts a#d discusses is the result of a o#e year research o# the )isuali+atio# of the e#tire collectio# of co)ers of the 5e6a !a2a+i#e& co#sidered the !ost i!porta#t weekly !a2a+i#e i# 7ra+il. 1he ;#alysis that we de!o#strate was perfor!ed o)er ?? years of the 5e6a !a2a+i#e publicatio#. 1his !a2a+i#e was created i# "epte!ber of 19@A& duri#2 the !ilitary dictatorship i# 7ra+il. B)er the years the !a2a+i#e represe#ted political !o!e#ts& social a#d eco#o!ic 2rowth& passi#2 throu2h the period of political ope##ess& direct electio# of the first ci)ilia# preside#t after C0 years of

!ilitary dictatorship& his i!peach!e#t& eco#o!ic rise a#d stabili+atio#& electio# of the first preside#t co!i#2 fro! the worki#2 class u#til the electio# of a wo!a# preside#t& the actual /reside#t <il!a %ousseff. 1he )isuali+atio# theory could be di)ided i#to two basic classes: scie#tific )isuali+atio# a#d i#for!atio# )isuali+atio#. 1he i#for!atio# )isuali+atio# has bee# i!pro)ed to offer #ew tools that shifts the predo!i#a#ce of co2#iti)e !odalities for !athe!atic represe#tatio#& i.e. based i# si!ple !ethods of i!a2e !odels to co!ple: syste!s of )isual i#for!atio# based i# li#es& charts& drawi#2s a#d i#teracti)e tools. B# the other ha#d& scie#tific )isuali+atio# syste!s based o# di2ital tools ca# a!plify the le)el of abstractio# a#d co!ple:ity for the researchers i# order to i!pro)e the !ea#i#2 of rele)a#t aspects of a search based o# a al2orith!ic !odel o# a i!a2e. Bther approach is based i# !athe!atical or 2raphical represe#tatio#s operated by 2eo!etric pri!iti)es that ca# prese#t the co#te#t directly a#d relate it to a co!ple: co#te:t based i# a )isual descriptio# of the i!a2e itself. .# the desi2# of our pro6ect& whe# we decided to apply to the syste! !easure!e#ts of color saturatio# o# the e#tire set of the co)ers of 5e6a !a2a+i#e& for e:a!ple& the outco!e could ha)e bee# a traditio#al chart that showed the pre)ale#ce of this topic& such as a 2radie#t. Dowe)er& usi#2 the )isuali+atio# !ethod of a#alysis the result was built with the i!a2e of the co)ers a#d o)er it we applied a !appi#2 co#te:t with the ele!e#ts the!sel)es appeari#2 o)er the i!a2es& creati#2 a )isual perceptio# of the e#tire set a#d at the sa!e ti!e the researcher ca# see the 2radie#t& saturatio#& colors a#d other aspects of the set of co)ers. -o!pari#2 the set of i!a2es we ca# see a 2radual !o)e!e#t fro! the #u!erical represe#tatio# $based o# tables, to a 2raphical represe#tatio# based o# 2eo!etric pri!iti)es $the li#e 2raph, a#d fi#ally the represe#tatio# based o# a )isual !ap which co#tai#s data a#aly+es of the i!a2es that were arra#2ed accordi#2 to the results of the !easure!e#ts of the ob6ects represe#ted i# the set of co)ers. 1he i#for!atio# )isuali+atio# shows the a:is of a represe#tatio# of 2eo!etric pri!iti)es i#to a direct represe#tatio# of !apped ob6ects that creates the #eed for a use of special de)ices $usually a# array of scree#s, for )iewi#2 lar2e i!a2e for!ats. 1his #ecessity is because each ele!e#t $a co)er sca##ed i# CA0:?90 pi:els, occupies a relati)ely lar2e space if we use a default pa2e si+e ;? paper or a co!puter scree#. 'or this reaso#& the )isuali+atio# tech#olo2y is beco!i#2 !ore popular a#d allowi#2 studies that are #ot restricted to a si#2le display wi#dow scree#& but that are !ore a#d !ore pro!oti#2 the use of a lar2e a!ou#t of tiles $usually for!i#2 a# array with !ore tha# ? scree#s,& whose syste!s are si2#ifica#tly i!pro)i#2 the )isuali+atio# characteristics of the results of a research i# a lar2e array of acade!ic fields. EEfi2ure fileFGset_)e6a_low.6p2GHH 1he creatio# of )isual represe#tatio#s of i#for!atio# ca# be arra#2ed i#to two basic pri#ciples: the reductio# of 2eo!etric pri!iti)es throu2h the use of spatial )ariables to represe#t key differe#ces betwee# the! a#d the data a#alytics that

ca# re)eal patter#s a#d represe#t those relatio#ships i# a lar2e i#teracti)e i!a2e& usually )isuali+ed o# a array of tiles. .# a reductio#ist perspecti)e& scie#tists were creati#2 u#til #ow a whole syste! of represe#tatio# based i# bar 2raphs& )ectors etc. to u#dersta#d ob6ects a#d the relatio#s betwee# the!. 1he basis for this reductio#& a!o#2 !a#y reaso#s& was due to the populari+atio# of the pa2e for!at support. 1his pa2e for!at forced a# adaptatio# of )isuali+atio# syste!s for s!all for!ats that should be !obile a#d easily !a#ipulated by the producer or the reader of the data. 9ith the e:ceptio# of !aps a#d architectural pla#s& the e#tire i#for!atio# display syste! was bei#2 built o# this reduced pa2e for!at. 1he hu!a# #eed to study co!ple: syste!s with lar2e a!ou#ts of data was supplied by a strate2y based o# the reductio# of the data& which pro!oted a possibility of represe#tatio# of basically all i!porta#t $i# a #o# co!ple: society, co!po#e#ts i# a s!all )iewi#2 space. .# this se#se the 2eo!etric pri!iti)es are take# as a poi#t represe#ti#2 a specific ti!e a#d they represe#t a phe#o!e#o# described with a li#e or cur)e& a#d their beha)ior o)er ti!e was desi2#ed usi#2 a pla# !ap related to its de)elop!e#t i# a certai# co#te:t. -urre#tly the co!puters scree#s still si!ulate the pa2e si+e to establish relatio#s with the pri#ted pa2e& such as ;? a#d 4etter patter#s to be )iewed i# its e#tirety duri#2 the productio# of writte# docu!e#ts or 2raphics. 1his brou2ht a stiff desi2# i#terface for data )isuali+atio# i# lar2e for!ats& because the pre)aili#2 culture deter!i#ed the si+e of the wi#dow to be si!ilar of a pri#ted pa2e. "o!e fields started pushi#2 for cha#2es. 1he ci#e!a& the scie#tific field of bi2 data co!puti#2 a#alysis& all of the! #eed lar2e display for!ats to study a#d test their fi#al products. 1he first a)ailable solutio#s were by pro6ecti#2 o# scree#s or flat surfaces the i!a2es& but these atte!pts o#ly !a2#ified the sa!e relatio# to the pa2e& #ot i#creasi#2 the space for the co#structio# of a theory of )isuali+atio#. )e# e#lar2ed& the scree# co#tai#s the sa!e a!ou#t of i#for!atio# that a pa2e. ;ccordi#2 to 4e) Ma#o)ich& the seco#d pri#ciple of the )isuali+atio# is the use of spatial )ariables $positio#& shape& si+e a#d& !ore rece#tly& !o)e!e#t, to represe#t !a6or differe#ces i# the data a#d re)eal patter#s a#d relatio#ships. 1his pri#ciple withi# the area of <i2ital Du!a#ities could be better u#derstood as Ico!ple: )iew of dataG a#d pro)ides a# alter#ati)e !ethodolo2y to the i#teresti#2 field of Du!a#ities& Media "tudies a#d cultural i#stitutio#s because u#like the reductio# perspecti)e& it prese#ts )isual represe#tatio#s of real ob6ects of )isual !edia $i!a2es& )ideos, or o#ly their parts. 1his direct represe#tatio# helps the researcher u#dersta#d the !ea#i#2s a#d the causes behi#d the patter#s he ca# )isuali+e i# the i!a2e& as well as fi#d additio#al patter#s that arise i# the co!positio# of a )isual !ap. .# this work& the disco)ery of patter#s a#d ele!e#ts ca# be show# o# the )isual a#alysis of particles that represe#t the co#structio# of sta#dards i# all the co)ers that were e:tracted fro! the #u!ber of particles co!posi#2 the fi#al i!a2e of each co)er close to each other but for the first ti!e represe#ted i# 6ust o#e lar2e i!a2e. 1he )isual result shows a ki#d of tria#2le that bri#2s to2ether the )ast !a6ority of the co)ers. Dowe)er& we hi2hli2ht a few co)ers that are beyo#d the sta#dard a#d dra!atically illustrate what we call the Ico!ple: )iew of dataG& because the researcher ca# directly a#aly+e re8uested ele!e#ts usi#2 a Icultural

al2orith!G to a#aly+e the data set of co)ers EEfi2ure fileFG)e6a_)is_spacial.6p2GHH 1he ad)a#ces that the co!puter 2raphics tech#i8ues brou2ht to the Du!a#ities field lo2ically i#flue#ced the )isual results of this field. 1his ob)iously ca# be i#tri#sically li#ked to a hybridi+atio# of the culture 2e#erated by the software i# the di2ital a2e. .# the past& a !a6or criticis! a2ai#st of the use of statistical or #u!erical represe#tatio#s i# the area of Du!a#ities was its possible li#k with a positi)ist )iew a#d the difficulty of represe#ti#2 processes that could re8uest a !ore or2a#ic !ethodolo2ical )iew of so!e theory tha# a Isi!pleG !echa#ical feature that could 6ust show a !athe!atical result& i.e. a #eed to use !ore ele!e#ts to tra#sfor! the discrete cate2ories used to !easure cultural aspects& creati#2 #ew cate2ories of )isual !aps represe#ted by cur)es a#d co!ple: surfaces. "o!e i#itial a#alysis that we perfor!ed to de!o#strate what we did i# our ob6ect $the e#tire set of co)ers of 5e6a !a2a+i#e, were: EEfi2ure fileFG)e6a_the!es.6p2GHH a, a# a#aly+e of the chro!atic characteristics o# the set of co)ers of 5 *; tryi#2 to ide#tify a patter# o# the 2raphics a#d also to pro!ote a differe#t ki#d of )iew& or i# other ter!s& a# i#te2ral )isuali+atio# of the e#tire collectio# of !ore tha# ?0 years of history throu2h co)ers of a !a2a+i#e& with the i#te#tio# to show how ad)a#ced tech#i8ues of )isuali+atio# ca# cha#2e the way that we see historical !o!e#ts a#d also to show that fro! #ow o# we ca# ha)e at our ha#ds the 3e#tire sce#ario3 of so!ethi#2& or i# other words& that i# so!e se#se it is !uch !ore reliable to ha)e a#d defi#e a bi2 picture of so!e fact. 1he seco#d !o!e#t of our research was the a#aly+e of the 2raphics aspects u#der a !ore 2eo2raphic perspecti)e tryi#2 to !o)e fro! the )ery li#ear a#alyses that were established i# the #i#etee# ce#tury a#d that are still arou#d o# the acade!ic real!& addi#2 #ew )isual aspects such as the!es& 2e#der a#d eth#ic 2roups. (sually the results of this ki#d of a#aly+es will prese#t li#es& colu!#s a#d pie charts. 7ut what we are tryi#2 to show is that by usi#2 the data )isuali+atio# perspecti)es it is possible to create a !ore deep& co!prehe#si)e a#d co!ple: way to )isuali+e history& a syste! a#d& why #ot to say& 3cultural al2orith!s3 that ca# be created a#d ru# o)er bi2 databases& allowi#2 at the sa!e ti!e that the user 2et 8ua#titati)e data a#d )isuali+e the se!a#tic 8uestio#s o)er the e#tire set of co)ers of a !a2a+i#e& such as this o#e that we did o)er the ob6ect prese#ted i# this a#alysis. Theori in! vis$ali ation 4e) Ma#o)ich started his "oftware "tudies lab at (-"< i# 200J a#d si#ce the# he is

creati#2 #ew for!s of a#aly+es of what it is called the 3software society3. .# (K we also ha)e a deep research a#d bra#d #ew 6our#als o# the field& such as the -o!putatio#al -ulture 6our#al coordi#ated by Matthew 'uller a#d also the "oft-ul %e)iew *our#al& that we are editi#2 at our u#i)ersity. 1he di2ital hu!a#ities is a field that is also related to "oftware "tudies& si#ce they share i# so!e ways the sa!e ob6ect& i.e. the software. 7ut& i# our field we are also co#cer#ed with the "oftware as a !achi#e that ca# disturb& cha#2e a#d co#trol certai# aspects of our life. 'or e:a!ple& we ca# say that probably o#e scholar would take !ore or less 10 years to fi#d out how !a#y ti!es a wo!a# was showed o# a co)er of certai# !a2a+i#e i# a cou#try. ;#d why this would be i!porta#t for a scholarL 9ell& if we take i#to accou#t that if you are a cultural studies specialist a#d if you work with 2e#der& this could help you i# so!e ways to pro)e that wo!e# do #ot ha)e a# i!porta#t role i# society 6ust because they were #ot or are #ot bei#2 represe#ted i# the !edia $i!porta#t o#es, i# a cou#try. 1his is what we ha)e decided to call 3cultural al2orith!s3 deri)ed fro! the 3cultural a#alytics3 de)eloped by Ma#o)ich at his "oftware 1akes -o!!a#d 7ook. .# so!e ways& if a corporatio# such as >oo2le decides to create its data a#alytics to sell 2oods a#d to co#trol what people wa#t to see o)er the i#ter#et& why #ot to take ad)a#ta2e of the sa!e resources a#d use this a#alysis to thi#k i# ter!s of culture& to fi#d out the way that a society beha)es or 6ust to cha#2e the way that they see the!sel)esL 1his is what we did i# a certai# way. Bur pro6ect uses bi2 data a#alysis to create a#d show how 2e#der is represe#ted i# 5e6a co)ers. 1he results are the followi#2: EEfi2ure fileFG)e6a_fe!ale.6p2GHH EEfi2ure fileFG2e#der_eth#icity.6p2G captio#: 7esides the fact that accordi#2 to official 7ra+ilia# records that de!o#strate that 50M of the fe!ale populatio# declare the!sel)es africa# a!erica# desce#da#ts& o#ly 0&CCM of the co)ers were dedicated to this sector of the 7ra+ilia# society.HH EEfi2ure fileFG)e6a_!ale.6p2G captio#: 1he !a2a+i#e o#ly published 2M of the co)ers of africa# a!erica# !ales a#d they were focused !ai#ly i# three issues: ?0M of the co)ers were related to sports& 11M cri!e a#d 19M politics.HH Con#l$sion ;d)a#ced tech#i8ues of 5isuali+atio# are a #ew for! to represe#t k#owled2e i# the di2ital hu!a#ities field by pro)idi#2 differe#t for!s of a#alysis of culture co#te#ts. .f we use to ha)e a li#ear for! to thi#k i# ter!s of history& #ow we ca# ha)e a# e#tire sce#ario a#d cut a#d paste what is our i#terest o# a field of studies de!o#strati#2 )isually a poi#t of )iew. 1his approach cha#2es the way that )isual co#te#t is see# i# !ethodolo2ical theoretical studies. .f a# i!a2e was usually see# as 6ust a 3illustratio#3& #ow this i!a2e ca# pro)ide us with i#for!atio# that ca# switch the way that we were thi#ki#2 about so!ethi#2. .# so!e ways we ca# say that this )isuali+atio#s 3thi#k by the!sel)es3. ;#other i!porta#t issue is that we

ca# cha#2e a#d cross data i# o#e day that could take 20 to C0 years for a# scholar without the help of co!putatio#al resources. :a!ple: if we cross all the 5e6a !a2a+i#e co)ers usi#2 face reco2#itio# al2orith!s with wikipedia database a#d create a 3cultural al2orith!3 that asks to data what ter!s were !ostly used o# the co)ers duri#2 dictatorship i# 7ra+il we ca# ha)e a 3ta2 cloud3 that could represe#t basically all the words that were i!porta#t at that ti!e a#d 2et& i# a certai# way& the zeitgeist of the !o!e#t& which would take a lo#2 ti!e for a researcher to do usi#2 #o# di2ital hu!a#ities !ethodolo2ies. %efere#ces Ma#o)ich& 4e). "oftware takes co!!a#d. "a# <ie2o: "oftware "tudies .#itiati)e& 2009. 'uller& Matthew. "oftware "tudies. -a!brid2e: M.1 /ress& 200A. Kitchi#& %. N <od2e& M. -ode/"pace. -a!brid2e: M.1 /ress& 2011 B#li#e: "oftware studies i#itiati)e at -alit2 a#d -(0=:

http://lab.softwarestudies.co!/2012/0@/)e6a)is-pro6ect-di2ital-hu!a#ities-2012.ht!l