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Instructions to write the research papers

1. Use the standard page setup: 8.5 by 11 inch paper, with 1 inch margins on all sides. 2. Compose a title page. The paper's title should appear on one line. The author's name should follow on the next. The third line should include the name of the school or association. All three should be centered vertically and horizontally. 3. on the top left of the title page type "Running Head:" followed by a shorter version of your title in all caps. This shorter version of your title will appear on this, and all subsequent pages, on the top right of the page. There, the shorter version of your title should be in all caps, followed by 5 spaces and the page number. On the title page, both appear simply to inform the reader. 4. On the second page, include an abstract, if applicable. Center the word "Abstract" on the page followed by a 75- to 100-word summary of your paper. 5 .The body of your essay should use straightforward language. Properly cite your sources. 6. For quotes within the body of the paper, include the Author's last name, the year and page number(s) in parentheses directly after the quotation mark. This information should be separated by commas. The following sample sentence includes a proper citation: A recent study has found that " citations are becoming increasingly important to avoid charges of plagiarism." (Johnson, 2004, p.144) 7. If you mention an Author's name outside the parentheses, you don't need to include it again. Follow the format of the following sentence: Johnson (2004) also stated, "Schools are becomingly increasingly strict in response to the cut-and-paste generation of students." (p.166) 8. Cite your source when paraphrasing someone else's ideas. You don't need to include page numbers. Ex: Students unsure of what constitutes plagiarism find it safer to include sources thorough citations. (Johnson, 2004) 9. Write the reference list. You'll need to include detailed information on every source you cited in your paper. Center the word "References" on the top of the page and then begin your list.

Tips & Warnings

Double-space your entire report, including your reference list. Use a standard 12-point serif font. Times New Roman, Arial, and Courier are the most-widely

For in-text citations without page numbers (such as websites), help the reader pinpoint the

quote by listing the section name or paragraph number instead.

To reference books follow the following format: Last Name, First Name (Year of

publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher. To reference web sites: Last Name, First Name. (Date posted.) Title of Website. Retrieved month, date and year, from

To reference periodicals: Last Name, First Name (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical,

volume number (issue number), pages.

Most professors in the social sciences require you to write reports in APA-Style and will mark

you down for poor formatting if you do not comply.

How The APA Style Of Formatting Is Helpful January 13, 2012, 4:34 pm Academic writing involves writing thesis and research papers. These papers not only help in assessing the students research capabilities and the knowledge he has of the subject, it also helps the students in understanding the different styles of writing which is required to write a dissertation.

How to Write an APA Style Bibliography November 25, 2011, 4:57 pm Writing a bibliography that conforms to American Psychological Associations guidelines is not difficult. The following basics will get you started. The bibliography starts on a new page with the word References centered on the page.Your first citation is placed two lines below. Alphabetize the citations by authors last name. Citations are then entered in alphabetical order and use a hanging indent, that is, the first line of the citation is left-justified and subsequent lines are tabbed to the right. A minor note, APA style guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, so you should capitalize only the first word of a title and subtitle. See examples below. The following are three examples of the most common APA style citations. Note that the placement of periods is an integral part of the formatting. Do not forget them. Also, included in the formatting are instructions for italicizing. Books Authors last name, first initial. (Publication date). Italicized book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company. Magazines Authors last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Italicized periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.

Websites Authors name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Italicized Title of Periodical, volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL Research Paper Writing Made Easy November 21, 2011, 4:56 pm As more adults are returning to colleges and university to begin or further their education, the practice of writing a research paper may have change dramatically since their last attempt. Thanks to the unlimited access that the internet has brought, researching topics and writing about them in length is both easier and more difficult. To keep from plagiarizing the work of someone else, research papers should be written in the appropriate APA template or MLA format. The APA template is typically reserved for writings for sciences including biology, chemistry, and social and psychological sciences. MLA formatted papers are more appropriate for most other forms of the research paper. While the access to research online is practically unlimited, the use of quotations, statistics or other information from researched sources must be presented in the appropriate format. The information to appropriate credit those responsible for information is also easily accessed. Many colleges and universities refer to the Purdue O.W.L. program for information on appropriate citation for writing a research paper. This program, along with countless others, will guide the writer in citing work used in in-text citations for either the APA template or the MLA format. With a wealth of knowledge available in appropriate formats to cite information in a research paper, no student should have an excuse for plagiarism. APA Style Usefulness November 14, 2011, 5:00 pm If you are looking to write your next term paper, research paper or essay paper then you need to know the basics of APA format and what it can do for you. APA format offers you the knowledge you need to format sentences properly, as well as learn how to cite references properly. When writing a paper for school you need to make sure that you are citing any references used properly so as to avoid being accused of plagiarism. When formatting you paper using APA style it helps you to familiarize yourself with line spacing, margins, headers and footers. There are various APA software programs out there to help guide you through how to make your term paper the best that it can be and free of errors. APA software also allows you tools to help make sure that you are educated on how to properly format your paper and prevent any penalties from your instructor. APA formatting is a wonderful tool and offers a variety of templates available to help give you the education and knowledge you need to excel in all of your writing adventures.

Write APA Research Papers in a Snap November 14, 2011, 4:23 pm Digging into a research paper can be a daunting task that leads to more frustration than education. Taking the stress out of research writing is as simple as having a plan and following a few simple outlined tips. The first thing you need to do is decide on a template for your research paper. In many cases the course professor will dictate what type of template you need to use, be it APA or MLA. In some cases of upper level coursework and graduate studies you will be free to choose your own template style. This means you should do a bit of research into the two styles and choose the one that best lends itself to your writing style. Namely, research the citation style differences between the two styles. The one that makes most sense to you will help you feel at ease with your research paper. Next Step in writing a research paper Next youll want to build a shell of a paper. Decide what angle you want to endorse or refute of your thesis and develop your argument. Your research paper shell will range from a few paragraphs to a few pages. It should serve as a guide to the types of evidence and research youll need to find to support your thesis. Once you know what youre looking for you can dig into the research. Use note cards to make reference of these quotes and locations. You can arrange the note cards later to make sure each piece of supporting evidence makes it into your research paper. 3 Tips For Writing A Paper In APA Style November 12, 2011, 4:50 pm Students in the social sciences are often required to write research papers and other academic documents in APA format. This format is easy to use so long as you plan ahead and follow a few simple tips. APA style is widely-accepted in academic publications and in the professional world, so becoming familiar with it now will be of great advantage to you in the future. Three Ways To Master Paper Writing In APA Style 1. Format your document before you begin work. Like any writing style, the APA guide advises you to adhere to certain margins, headings and page number formats. You can save yourself time and worry by making sure that your word processing program is set up correctly before you being writing. Formatting a paper after you have written can cause you many problems, especially if you have broken your work into sections. 2. Update your citations and reference list as you write. You may be tempted to complete your in-text citations while you write and compile your reference list after you have finished your work. You can avoid a boring task by making a new entry in your reference list every time you make a citation.

3. Use simple visuals and charts in-text to enhance your work. Do not include too many charts or visuals in an appendix. This will be difficult for your reader and is not in keeping with the preferred APA format. Remember to refresh your memory about the requirements of APA style as you work. Keep an up-to-date copy of the APA guide handy. If you need clarification, you should visit the APA website or ask the professor who leads the course for which you are writing. Great Research Paper Writing Tips November 11, 2011, 6:04 pm The prospect of writing a research paper is intimidating to many students. Generations of students have mastered the art of writing the research paper, however, and with a little practice, you will too. The main difference between a research paper and any other college paper is which references you use and the way you cite them. For a research paper, you will need to locate and refer to references that support your thesis. If you are writing a college-level research paper, the only acceptable resources are peer-reviewed journal articles. Magazine articles, encyclopedia entries and most books are not peer-reviewed references. As a general rule, peer-reviewed articles are articles that have been published in academic journals. Academic journals are expensive, and you usually have to be a subscriber in order to read them. Fortunately, most universities subscribe to most academic journals. Your librarian can show you how to access your schools journal database and how to search for articles that fit your topic. You can usually access the database online from anywhere through the librarys website. Properly citing journal articles can be tricky. Your professor may specify either APA or MLA style for your references and citations. You can save yourself a lot of time and trouble by using an APA or MLA template for citations. Many professors lower grades for improperly formatted references, as well, so an APA or MLA template can save your grade. An MLA template works for most subjects. Some majors, such as psychology, require APA formatting. Difference between APA Style format and MLA Style Format November 9, 2011, 4:49 pm If you have just started a composition course, you will be introduced to both MLA format and APA style format for citations. The two formats have a number of differences, including how they format in text citations and the works cited page.

MLA format was created by the Modern Language Association. The usual in-text citation format places the authors name and the page number at the end of the sentence, such as: (Smith 42). The references in the works cited are alphabetized by the authors last name or the title of the work if there is no author. Generally, the name of the publication follows, then the date and the applicable page numbers. In contrast, APA style format was designed by the American Psychology Association. The typical citation format includes the author and the date of publication, followed by the page number if the sentence being cited is a specific fact or quotation. For example, an APA in-text citation might look like this: (Smith, 2009, p.42). References in the works cited are alphabetized by the authors last name, followed by the date. After the date, list the title of the work and the page numbers you referred to. The citation style isnt the only difference between MLA format and APA style format. To fully learn APA style format and MLA format, borrow the reference guides from the library. These guides contain information for formatting pages, citing sources, labeling charts and tables, and a number of other formatting considerations. APA Style Mistakes October 21, 2011, 8:57 pm APA Styleis a type of template to assist you with the proper layout of term papers and essays. There are some common mistakes that many people make and these are easily corrected. For starters, do not abbreviate the names of States on the title page. Also, to keep the entire APA style of writing consistent, use a 12 point serif type font (such Times New Roman or Courier). More tips for Avoiding APA Style Mistakes On the title page, do not hyphenate any words at the end of the sentence. List your sites alphabetically, not in the order of importance (although it is tempting to put what you consider important at the top of the list). Follow the format layout exactly or it will not be considered APA style and the entire paper could possibly be disregarded. APA templates are a big help in following a guide for writing your paper. I hate to even mention it, but I must proofread your work! When writing an APA format research paper the number one rule of thumb is to always check for mistakes. Formatting APA Citations October 12, 2011, 3:16 am Trying to format APA citations is often a difficult and tedious process. First time APA research paper writers will especially find the formatting style difficult to follow. While following the

general outline of the APA style is difficult enough, abiding by the rules of properly citing your references is a whole new challenge. We wanted to help those working on research papers with some tips and advice on formatting APA citations. The first thing to ingrain into your brain (yes, that rhymed in a nerdy way) is that there are no absolute shortcuts around formatting APA style citations. APA style American Psychological Association (APA) Style is a set of rules that authors use when submitting papers for publications in APA journals.[1] The APA states that they were developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and to "move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision."[2] The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contains guidelines for every aspect of writing, especially in the social sciences, from determining authorship to constructing a table to avoiding plagiarism and constructing accurate reference citations. Early editions The Publication Manual was established in 1929 as a seven-page document with a set of procedures to increase the ease of reading comprehension (APA, 2009a, p. xiii).[3] Created under the sponsorship of the United States National Research Council, its originators included psychologists, anthropologists, and publishing professionals. In 1952, the booklet was expanded and published as a 55-page supplement in Psychological Bulletin with revisions made in 1957 and 1967 (APA, 1952, 1957, 1967).[4][5][6] The first edition covered word choice, grammar, punctuation, formatting, journal publication policies, and "wrapping and shipping" (APA, Council of Editors, 1952, p. 442). In response to the growing complexities of scientific reporting, subsequent editions were released in 1974, 1983, 1994, and 2001. Primarily known for the simplicity of its reference citation style, the Publication Manual also established standards for language use that had farreaching effects. Particularly influential were the "Guidelines for Nonsexist Language in APA Journals," first published as a modification to the 1974 edition, which provided practical alternatives to sexist language then in common usage.[7][8] The guidelines for reducing bias in language have been updated over the years and presently provide practical guidance for writing about race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, and disability status (APA, 2009, pp. 70 77; see also APA, 2009b).[9] Sixth Edition of the Publication Manual

The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in July 2009 after 4 years of development. The Publication Manual Revision Task Force of the American Psychological Association established parameters for the revision based on published criticism, user comments, commissioned reviews, and input from psychologists, nurses, librarians, business leaders, publishing professionals, and APA governance groups (APA, 2007a, 2007b).[10][11] To accomplish these revisions, the Task Force appointed working groups of four to nine members in seven areas: Bias-Free Language, Ethics, Graphics, Journal Article Reporting Standards, References, Statistics, and Writing Style (APA, 2009, pp. xvii-xviii). Thoroughly reorganized and updated, the sixth edition was significantly revised to incorporate the technological advances that had affected virtually all areas of scientific communication since the previous edition was published (APA, 2001). Specific revisions in the sixth edition include

expanded ethics guidance on determining authorship, sharing data, plagiarism, and selfplagiarism; a new section on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS), stressing the need for precision and consistency in reporting methodology and providing practical guidelines for achieving this consistency; new, simplified heading style for easier comprehension of online articles; expanded guidelines on reducing bias in language, including a new section on presenting historical language that is inappropriate by present standards; new guidelines for reporting inferential statistics as well as thoroughly revised and expanded tables of statistical abbreviations and measures; new procedures and examples for the electronic presentation of data; new formats for electronic references, with a focus on the digital object identifier, or DOI, as the most reliable way to locate online information; expanded information about the publishing process, including a new discussion of the peer review process; all new examples and illustrative material to demonstrate revised standards of style.

Errors in the First Printing of the Sixth Edition Despite multiple reviews of the manuscript at the copyediting and proofreading stages by senior editors, staff realized shortly after the manual had gone to press that the sample papers contained errors. They took prompt action to correct the errors and to post the fully corrected papers on the APA Style website where they were made available for viewing and downloading. Staff concurrently examined the rest of the manuscript and found the following additional errors:

In 188 style guidelines, two errors were made, and one of these was a punctuation error. In almost 1,000 examples provided to illustrate those rules, 36 errors were made (roughly half of these occurred in the sample papers, which were subsequently corrected and posted online). Another 10 occurred in the 374 examples that were provided in the reference chapter. Five clarifications to text were made. These were not errors but rather clarified and expanded text, for example, adding a second example for both a blog post and a blog comment.

Three pages of nonsignificant typographical errors were corrected. These included such things as changing an em dash to an en dash, changing a minus sign to a hyphen, and correcting for added space that was automatically added when a sample form was reproduced.

In the interest of transparency (and following the same procedure that was followed for the fifth edition), staff posted all of the corrections online in a single document on October 1, 2009, and shortly thereafter alerted users to the existence of the corrections in a blog entry. On the same day the corrections were posted, an individual posting to the Educational and Behavioral Sciences Section listserv (EBBSS-L) of the American Library Association alerted readers to what she described as the "many" errors in the first printing and speculated that "some but not all" would be corrected in a second printing. On October 5, 2009, APA staff responded to the note clarifying that errors were found in the sample papers, that the papers had been corrected and posted online, that the substantive guidance in the manual was correct and accurate as printed, and that a full list of corrections could be found at the APA Style website. On October 13, 2009, the article "Correcting a Style Guide" was published in the online newspaper Inside Higher Education that included interviews with several individuals who defined the errors as "egregious" (Epstein, 2009).[12] The article, along with rumors spread on various listervs, resulted in exaggerated accounts of both the magnitude and the extent of the errors, with some reports on claiming more than 80 pages of errors had occurred. APA responded to the increasing confusion by issuing an apology and implementing a return/replacement program for purchasers who wished to exchange their first printing copies for second printing copies of the Publication Manual. The first edition copies returned to APA were destroyed. The second and all subsequent printings of the Publication Manual have been fully corrected.