You are on page 1of 60

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13

http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 1 of 60

Vedanta Madhuryam

Salutations to all.

Each and every day we spend life in this world we only experience sorrow as a result of the
ever-changing nature of the world. That which is subject to changes is subject to birth and
death. Thus though it might appear to exist for a short period of time, it will eventually
cease to exist and therefore will lead to sorrow alone. Therefore wise people never take
resort to pleasures of the world as they know that it is temporary and sorrowful.

But dont we experience happiness from the world?
The happiness that we get from the world is temporary or short-lived and therefore it is
seed of sorrow alone. Any wise person will not depend on that which will last just for a few
minutes similarly that which is temporary or will remain only for a short period of time will
not be sought out by wise people. Wise people instead will strive to find out that which is
eternal and therefore will lead to eternal bliss (rather than just temporary happiness).

In todays world we are all running towards Mars and many other things of the external
world. In the thirst to know about the external world we forget to know the inner world, that
is our mind. Therefore when science and technology have achieved peaks there are also
many who are depressed in their mind. When technology has evolved a lot, people also
have evolved both in good and bad ways. Technology is used to spread Vedanta and it is
also used for terrorism. Thus we find that advancements in any fields that focus on the
external world will not lead to eternal bliss in the long run.

Anything and everything that focuses on the external world will eventually lead to sorrow
alone because the world itself is temporary and sorrowful. Therefore wise people will
renounce any kind of dependency or attachment or expectation from the world (as they
know that it will eventually lead to sorrow alone). Instead such wise people will strive to find
out that which is eternal.

It cannot be argued that todays world has progressed very much with respect to the
external world and its knowledge because all that todays world can find out has already
been explained in the ancient scriptures by rishis. These seers of the past have thoroughly
analyzed the world and negated it totally (as it will only lead to sorrow). Of what use is the
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 2 of 60

knowledge about the external world if it doesnt lead to happiness for us? Life itself is
seeking happiness alone. Each and every person in the world is constantly seeking the
ultimate goal of life of ever rejoicing in bliss (and complete cessation of sorrow). If this goal
is not achieved then wherever we are or whatever we are doing, it doesnt matter. We may
be the prime minister or president of a country still it serves no purpose to us as long as we
are not happy. Only fools will run behind that which doesnt lead to happiness for us a
wise person will seek not temporary happiness but eternal bliss alone.

Just because wise people will not seek the world doesnt mean that they will not be in the
world or performing actions in the world. Great masters of the past have been the greatest
of reformers for the world. Whatever they have achieved for the world is incomparable and
can never be achieved by anybody else in the world ever. This is because these masters
have gone beyond the world and are ever rejoicing in bliss. Therefore irrespective of
whatever happens in the world they are ever blissful thus all their actions are without any
motives. Whenever we perform an action with a motive, our vision will be tainted by it.
Therefore we will not be able to decide as to how to perform the action, whether to do it or
not etc. The action itself will become imperfect and therefore will lead to sorrow alone. But
when we are just a witness to the action (means we have no say whatsoever in the action)
then we will be able to perform it in the best possible way. Therefore such actions will not
only benefit us but it will benefit the entire world itself.

When somebody faces an issue we will easily be able to advise them as to what to do. But
when we ourselves face an issue then all advises will not work (nothing will come in our
mind itself). This is because the issue is related to us and therefore we cannot think
properly or as a witness. But when issues are faced by somebody else, then we are a
witness to the persons state and therefore we will be able to give proper advise. Such
advise alone will lead to solution of the issue for the person.

But as much as we might try we will never be able to become a witness to our own actions
unless we tread the path of Vedanta. It is only through Vedanta that we will learn about
ourselves to be an eternal witness to everything that is happening in the world (and our
body, mind as well). And through Vedanta alone we will be able to implement being a
witness at all times irrespective of whatever happens in the external world.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 3 of 60

But majority of people are so focused on the external world that they dont have any time at
all for Vedanta. Even if they are provided free training in Vedanta, they will not accept it.
The reason given by many is that worldly life does matter and if learn Vedanta, worldly life
will go for a toss. This is a wrong notion. When we tread the spiritual path as propounded by
Vedanta then we will find that our worldly life also is much better than before. Instead of
constantly suffering in the world we will be able to remain content with whatever we get
from the world. And the Lord will take care of all our needs a Vedantin will not lack
anything at all in the world. He will get whatever is required for us irrespective of whether
he gets or not he will be able to ever rejoice in bliss at all times.

Another reason people give for not learning Vedanta is that the world is so fast paced today
and therefore we cannot afford even a second. In one day, things change quite a lot.
Therefore to survive in the world we have to catch up quite fast and for this we need time.
Thus there is no time at all for learning Vedanta. But this is also a wrong notion. We have
quite a lot of time in the world and just few hours a day is enough to learn Vedanta. And
remembering that Vedanta will make our lives more blissful internally as well as externally
we should strive to learn it. But even few hours in a day is not available for people in such
a case, there is no hope or way out for them at all. Such people who fail to spend even a
few hours a day for Vedanta will find themselves eventually suffering alone in the world.
When they grow old they will find that they arent able to control their mind and its
passions. Though they have achieved quite a lot in the world still they are of no use as the
mind is not calmed therefore whatever happens externally still there is only tension in the
world. With such tensions, passions and desires, they will have to take birth again and again
in the world (as long as desires are there in the mind, we will be born again in order to fulfill
those desires). And there is no guarantee that we will get a human birth the next time
because it all depends on the nature of actions we have performed. If we have performed
good actions then we will get a higher birth and if we have performed bad actions then we
will get a lower birth. Since the flow of karma itself is very tough to understand therefore
we will never be able to figure out as to where we will go in the next birth.

If we are not born as a human being, then we will lose out on a lot of things including
mpksha or eternal bliss. Therefore understanding the importance or greatness of this
human birth, we all should strive to learn Vedanta from now itself. If we start now then at
least by the end of this birth or in a few births we will be able to attain the goal of moksha
(and ever rejoicing in bliss we will be able to put an end to the cycle of birth and death).
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 4 of 60

Now again people say that Vedanta is very tough to learn, understand and implement. But
this is also another wrong notion. Since we are all focused on worldly sciences therefore it is
very tough to accept or apprehend something which isnt the same or in the same pattern.
In ancient times children used to grow up learning the various scriptures and therefore they
have broad mind they were able to learn anything and everything under the Sun first with
an open-mind and later alone criticisms used to be made. But today majority of people who
criticize Vedanta are those who havent learnt Vedanta or dont know the abc of Vedanta.
Therefore all sorts of wrong notions are prevalent today. If only a person has some open-
mind to analyze Vedanta then he will be able to find that the system of Vedanta is the most
systematic and complete that we can ever find.

Anything that is systematic or proper will be learnt easily by people. Therefore learning of
Vedanta is very easy indeed. Though there are many scriptural texts to learn, still we will
easily be able to learn Vedanta through introductory texts. And anybody who learns the
Bhagavad Gita will find that it is very easy to learn as the concepts are very clearly set in
the Gita the language is simple as well to understand; any person who has some
knowledge of Sanskrit will be able to learn Gita very easily.

And with regards to understanding of Vedanta, if one is able to learn well then
understanding also will come very easily. It is because people fail to learn Vedanta for a
considerable period of time and under the guidance of a proper Guru that they arent able to
understand it properly. As Prof. Balakrishnan Nair says even as child can easily understand
Vedanta because it is not only simple but direct as well. In todays very logical world it is
very easy to understand Vedanta.

The Lord says in Gita that implementation of Vedanta is very simple. Really speaking,
implementation of Vedanta is as simple as remembering at all times that one non-dual
reality of Brahman alone exists as the very substratum of the entire world and as our very
nature of Consciousness that pulsates inside as I-exist, I-exist at all times. Just
remembering this doesnt change anything at all in the external world the world and
worldly actions remain exactly the same (there is absolutely no change for the world).

But people often say and find it tough to implement Vedanta. The fault isnt in the system of
Vedanta but improper understanding and implementation of the pre-requisites of Vedanta.
In order to learn anything we need focus on that and all other distractions (that will take us
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 5 of 60

away from that and make us go behind other things) should be renounced. For example a
person who wants to become a great cricketer should stop playing around with his friends,
eat a lot, party etc. and most of the times should practice cricket alone. Similarly for
Vedanta, we need to have focus on Vedanta than anything else in the world.

But our learning of Vedanta is such that we will be able to follow it only for a short period of
time in a day. During other times we will be focused on the external world of objects and
people. Many people dont even get time daily for Vedanta. Instead they only spend an hour
a week for Vedanta. Swami Gautamananda of Ramakrishna Mission Chennai used to
beautifully say that we spend 18 hours in the world daily and just one hour for spirituality
per week while we should be spending 18 hours daily for spirituality and just one hour for
the world (as the world corrupts us and will make us deluded more and more).

But all of a sudden giving up passion for the world is not possible and hence first one should
start with weekly one hour for Vedanta. And eventually we should ensure that at least one
or two hours a day we spend for Vedanta. The more and more we learn Vedanta we will find
ourselves getting attracted to it more and more. Sureshwaracharya therefore says that if
the passion of the world is so strong that we get addicted to it then what should be the
passion of Brahman as Brahman is real and the world is just an illusion. Therefore any
sadhaka who starts in the spiritual path through learning of Vedanta will find himself getting
more and more attracted to Vedanta. This is also due to the fact that Vedanta leads to
eternal bliss for the sadhaka. Anything that gives us happiness will attract us towards it. It
is our nature to be attracted to anything that gives us happiness, even if it is temporary
happiness. Our ultimate goal of life whether know it or not is ever rejoicing in bliss (and
complete cessation of sorrow). Since this we get through learning of Vedanta therefore all
those who learn Vedanta will be attracted to it whether they grasp it fully or not.

As Nochur Venkatraman says we dont have to worry about whether we are understanding
Vedanta or not we just have to pursue learning of Vedanta consistently (without break).
Then eventually Vedanta will sink into our heart and we will find that we are understanding
concepts of Vedanta very easily.

Prahlada is one of the greatest bhakta-jnaani that we can find in the puranas. When he was
in the womb of his mother, she was taught by Narada. Narada taught her the system of
Vedanta but she didnt understand anything. It was Prahlada inside the womb of his mother
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 6 of 60

who grasped all the knowledge. Therefore when he came out of his mothers womb itself he
was a jnaani and he taught his co-students also about Brahman or Atman.

We find even in the case of Abhimanyu that knowledge automatically was gained by him as
a result of his father teaching his mother when he was in the womb of his mother.

All these examples from the puranas show that even if we dont understand Vedanta we
should still learn Vedanta with faith. Then eventually we will be able to understand it. It is
my personal conviction that any person who learns the system of Vedanta with an open-
mind will be able to easily understand it. And through understanding Vedanta easily, he will
also be able to implement it in his day-to-day life.

But many people often ask as to why Vedanta? Why cant we just live blissfully in the world?
The worlds bliss is temporary as we have seen previously. And until we learn Vedanta there
is no other way to eternal bliss. Vedanta is the one and only system that talks about our
very nature of the non-dual reality of Brahman. There is no other way that we will be able
to attain the ultimate goal of life of ever rejoicing in bliss. Though there are many other
sciences in the world they all focus on the external world and not on the non-dual reality of
Brahman.

Even in ancient systems there are many systems of philosophy but only Vedanta focuses on
the non-dual reality of Brahman and therefore Vedanta alone will lead to eternal bliss. Until
the system of Vedanta is learned, we will find ourselves continuously suffering in the world.
And this suffering doesnt just end with this birth but it will continue from one birth to
another. Since the ultimate goal of life is to remove sorrow completely and ever rejoice in
bliss, therefore we all should strive to learn Vedanta.

Moreover we generally call a person who doesnt know himself to be a mad person. Really
speaking we all are mad people in the world as we dont know our very nature of Brahman.
We think we are the individual and therefore are struggling in the world. But at all times we
are the non-dual reality of Brahman (it is our very nature of Brahman that is experienced in
the deep sleep state where we are ever blissful). Therefore unless we realize our very
nature of Brahman we are all mad people alone.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 7 of 60

And since knowledge of Brahman is only possible through Vedanta therefore we should
strive to learn Vedanta.

It should also be ensured that we dont postpone Vedanta to the future. When we grow old
then we will not be capable of even listening or reading properly let alone understanding a
system like Vedanta. And if we look at all the old people of today we will find that rarely few
are able to learn the system of Vedanta. Therefore the argument that Vedanta should be
learned when we grow old is wrong.

It is also wrong to say that we should learn Vedanta after taking up sanyaasa because
Vedanta doesnt differentiate between sanyaasis and normal people. Vedanta is that which
will make us realize our very nature of blissful Brahman. And for realization we dont have
to be either a sanyaasi or a grihastha both are eligible to know their very Self. Therefore
Vedanta has no restrictions and isnt something just to learned in ashrams.

Vedanta is the only system we can find in the entire world which only puts some pre-
requisites rather than any restrictions for people to learn (eligibility). The only eligibility
criterion for learning Vedanta is the desire for moksha. Without the desire for moksha we
will not be able to get any fruit out of Vedanta like a kid who tries out different hobbies
but leaves them after a while as a result of not having passion, similarly if we dont have
passion for Vedanta (desire for moksha) then we will find that Vedanta doesnt give us the
fruit of eternal bliss and eventually the passion for Vedanta also will vanish.

Though it is very tough indeed to explain Vedanta to such an extent that it attracts all
sadhakas and makes them learn it, still it is the purpose of this magazine to try to attract
sadhakas. And the magazine also tries to bring out the concepts of Vedanta in simple terms
so that sadhakas are able to understand and implement it in their day-to-day lives.

Vedanta by being that system which will take us to eternal bliss is beautiful in itself. But
often it is considered complex, terse, dry etc. and therefore people fail to apprehend the
natural beauty in Vedanta. It is the purpose of this magazine to bring out the beauty or
sweetness of Vedanta. Whatever is beautiful will be sought out by everybody thus through
bringing out the beauty of Vedanta, sadhakas will be able to learn and implement it better
in their lives.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 8 of 60

But how do we bring out the beauty in something?
Through going deeper into it. Thus in this magazine emphasis is on the various concepts of
Vedanta. The concepts arent simple concepts but deep concepts so that it will bring out the
nuances of Vedanta and make it beautiful to any sadhaka who lays his hands upon it.
Though some concepts require focus or attention, eventually sadhakas will be able to
understand these concepts and therefore implement Vedanta in their day-to-day life.

Ultimately through finding Vedanta beautiful and learning it well, sadhakas will be able to
implement it at all times this is through remembering that the non-dual reality of
Brahman alone exists here. Thereby they will be able to ever rejoice in bliss here and now
itself.

May we all strive to live in the world while internally remembering in the mind at all times
that the non-dual reality of Brahman alone exists here so that all sorrows will end and we
will be able to ever rejoice in bliss here and now itself.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA
Dec 31
st


AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 9 of 60



Anukramaanika

Vedanta Madhuryam .................................................................................................................................... 1
Jnaana Siddhi .............................................................................................................................................. 10
Upanishad Vicharah .................................................................................................................................... 34
Panchasutram ............................................................................................................................................. 49
Vedanta Mata Sankshepah ......................................................................................................................... 52
Jnaana Nirupanam ...................................................................................................................................... 56
Anukramaanika Nirdesham ........................................................................................................................ 60


AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 10 of 60

Jnaana Siddhi

The ultimate goal of life
We all are living today in a ultra fast and modern world where everything is moving at a
superfast speed. In just a day a lot of things change. Amidst all the advancements in the
fields of science and technology we often fail to step back a little and introspect into our
lives. All problems in life are as a result of lack of such introspection. AMMA says that we
should live our life like a street-vendor who calculates the earnings that he had in a day by
the end of each day. Similarly we should introspect into our very lives as to what we have
achieved and then try to improve upon the same.

But any introspection requires a standard or a benchmark based on which we can judge
ourselves (as to what we have achieved). But it is very tough indeed to find any such
benchmark as today there are so many fields in the world. A simple look at the world will
tell or show us as to how vast various fields are today. Even the simple field of music is vast
because there are many fields in it like vocals, instruments etc. and even in each of these
there are further divisions. For example a vocal person can get into either Hindustani or
carnatic or film or pop music and in each of these he can choose a particular genre. Then in
each of that genre he can decide to let himself be controlled or guided by another person or
he can himself release audios or videos (in the form of albums). When this is the case with
respect to just one field in the world, what about the various other fields?

With a world as diverse as it is today, it is therefore a herculean task to find a benchmark
and judge things based on the benchmark. Along with the diversities of the world we also
have different notions running around in the world. Ancient scriptures have no meaning
whatsoever as of now and what really matters is only survival in such a fast-paced world.

In todays terminology, there is no single goal for two people in the world. Though goals
might be similar yet they are unique for each and every individual. Each individual also has
two goals of short-term and long-term. Short-term goal exists for a short period of time or
it is only in the short future whereas long-term goal exists for a long period of time or it is
the goal of life for the individual.

But this way of categorization doesnt find its approval in the scriptures. The scriptures tell
that each and every person in the world is seeking just one goal alone in life. This one goal
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 11 of 60

if achieved will put an end to all desires (it will result in us leading our lives blissfully
irrespective of where we are or what we are doing). This one goal is termed as the ultimate
goal of life or moksha in the scriptures.

But does such a goal exist?
Yes, it does exist. If we analyze as to what people of the world want we will find that
ultimately everyone wants to be happy or blissful (happiness that is untainted by sorrow
or happiness that is associated with complete cessation of sorrow). For example a person
wants to become the prime minister of India. Why? Because then he will have power and
can control the entire nation. But why does he want to have power and control the entire
nation? Because then he will feel happy or content. Thus through becoming prime minister
of India, what he really wants is happiness or contentment. This happiness is termed as
moksha in scriptures (that happiness which is ever-lasting and untainted by sorrow). Taking
another example, a person wants to marry. Why? Because then he will have a partner
whose shoulder he can depend on at all times. Why does he want to depend on somebody?
Because then he feels safe. Why does he want to feel safe? Because then he is ever blissful
or peaceful. Therefore it is clear that he wants to marry in order to ever rejoice in bliss.

Therefore the scriptures say that all activities and love that we show in the world is for the
sake of ones own happiness or love. The moment something ceases to give us happiness
we will renounce it immediately irrespective of what that something is. For example people
even get rid of relationships when they realize that it will not give them happiness (and it
starts giving them sorrow). Friends become enemies, parents become enemies and relatives
become enemies when they lead to sorrow. And such enemies are renounced without even
thinking twice.

Therefore it is clear that the ultimate goal of life is moksha characterized by complete
cessation of sorrow and ever rejoicing in bliss. Irrespective of all distinctions we all are
seeking this ultimate goal alone. Whether we know or not we are seeking this goal alone at
all times. Therefore knowingly we should all start seeking this ultimate goal of life because
we are supposed to be wise people. And wise people always seek that which they want in
life.



AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 12 of 60

What if we dont seek this goal?
One we are fools if we dont seek this ultimate goal of life because we are seeking that only
at all times and if we dont knowingly seek, then we are fools alone. We are equivalent with
mad people if we dont seek the ultimate goal of life knowingly.

And two, as long as we dont seek and attain this ultimate goal of life we will constantly be
suffering in the world alone. Suffering in the world doesnt end with just one birth but it
goes on from one birth to another. The cycle of birth and death depends on actions. And we
perform actions in order to fulfill our desires. All desires are in order to attain the ultimate
goal of life. Unknowingly our desires are totally different from the ultimate goal of life. Until
desires are not exhausted (or the ultimate goal of life isnt attained) we will be filled with all
sorts of desires. Desires require to be fulfilled through actions. And actions require the
external body which is the equipment for actions. But after around 100 years the body
becomes old to perform actions. There are desires that still linger in our mind but we cannot
fulfill them through actions because our body cannot perform actions. Therefore in order to
perform further actions we will have to take birth again. Then with the new body we will be
able to perform actions and fulfill our desires. But desires will never end and they will
trigger more desires. Thus Manu says that it is impossible to put an end to desires through
gratifying them even as it is impossible to extinguish fire by pouring ghee unto it; instead of
getting extinguished fire will burn more vigorously, similarly the more desires are gratified
or enjoyed, more desires will spring in their place. Therefore desires will never end at all
instead it will lead from one birth to another. The cycle of birth and death will never end
until desires are fulfilled. Since desires are fulfilled only through the ultimate goal of life,
therefore until the goal is achieved a person will be going from one birth to another fulfilling
desires one after the other.

And lastly the cycle of birth and death constantly leads to sorrow alone in the world. And
therefore a wise sadhaka should strive to attain the ultimate goal of life as soon as possible
so that sorrows end. It cannot be argued that the world leads to happiness because the
happiness that is attained from the world is temporary. Such temporary happiness is seed
of sorrow as eventually it will vanish (and when the happiness vanishes, it will lead a person
to sorrow alone).

It also cannot be argued that one will go to another loka or world and experience happiness
there because the state of all worlds is the same only. All worlds are temporary and
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 13 of 60

therefore they will eventually lead to sorrow alone. Therefore a sadhaka should strive to
attain the ultimate goal of life soon so that all sorrows end.

World ever sorrowful
As we have seen, the world that we currently experience is sorrowful at all times. Though
we get happiness from the world it is so short-lived that it is seed of sorrow. As Patanjali
beautifully puts it, before getting pleasures we have to work hard towards getting the
pleasure; therefore there is pain in getting the pleasure. While enjoying the pleasure the
thought will linger in the mind that it is temporary and will vanish in the future. Therefore
there is sorrow while experiencing the pleasure. And once the pleasure is lost in the future
then there is recollection of the time when the pleasure was enjoyed this recollection or
memory also leads to sorrow. Thus any pleasure from the world is sorrowful before, during
and after enjoyment of the pleasure. Thus wise people always say that the entire world is
sorrowful in nature.

Anything that is temporary will be ever changing and eventually will cease to exist.
Therefore there is no happiness at all possible from the temporary world. Only fools
therefore will depend on the world for happiness whereas wise people will realize that there
is no pleasure in the world and realizing this they will strive to attain eternal bliss (not from
the world).

Majority of people ni the world are fools alone they again and again depend on the world
alone for pleasures. Little do they realize that again and again they are and will experience
only sorrow from the world. Since the world consists of infinite possibilities therefore people
think that somewhere or the other there will be eternal bliss though our experience proves
the opposite still the hope in vain goes on without any end.

It is really interesting that any hope in spirituality or the spiritual path is considered as
foolishness whereas people constantly depend upon the worldly path for pleasures with
hope.

As the Lord aptly says, that which is day for worldly people is night or realized masters and
that which is night for worldly people is day for realized masters. For them, they seek and
find only the blissful non-dual reality of Brahman whereas worldly people constantly seek
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 14 of 60

pleasures from the world alone (not learning from the consistent or repeated blows they get
from the external world and its pleasures).

Ignorance cause of bondage and sorrows
In order to attain the ultimate goal of life of moksha one has to first find out as to what is
the cause of bondage and sorrows in the world. The cause is termed in Vedanta as
ignorance or ajnaana. Ajnaana can be said to be lack of knowledge or knowledge not being
present. This knowledge itself can be split into two one is about the temporary-sorrowful
world and the other is about the blissful non-dual reality of Brahman.

When we are ignorant of these two knowledge then we will have contrary knowledge we
will have the wrong notion that the world is real and that there is no entity called Brahman.
Therefore seeking happiness from the external world we will seek it more and more. This
seeking of the world again and again will lead to experience of sorrow over and over again.
And due to performance of same or similar type of actions over and over again we will get
bonded to them. This bondage in turn again makes us do the action this is called as
vasana or latent tendency that is carried over from one birth to another. Even as a person
addicted to smoking will not be able to let go of smoking similarly one who is addicted to
actions (as a result of vasanas) will not be able to let go of actions. Therefore through
performing actions again and again he will constantly be bound in the cycle of birth and
death. In this cycle he will experience nothing but sorrow and sorrow alone.

Therefore wise sadhakas should realize that ignorance is the cause of bondage and sorrows.
Thereafter they will be able to find the way out of ignorance.

Ignorance removed by knowledge only
With respect to the spiritual goal of moksha many wrongly think that there are different
ways to moksha. This is wrong. There arent many ways to moksha but just the one way of
jnaana or knowledge alone. Knowledge and knowledge alone is the way to moksha. Though
other means or sadhanas will help in gaining and strengthening knowledge but knowledge
alone will bestow us with the goal of moksha.

Why is this so that knowledge alone gets rid of ignorance?
Ignorance is like darkness and knowledge is like light. Even as light alone gets rid of
darkness similarly knowledge alone can get rid of ignorance.
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 15 of 60

It is ignorance that is the cause of bondage and therefore this bondage (and sorrows) are
removed through knowledge and knowledge alone. Liberation or moksha thus is through
knowledge alone.

Now what is the nature of this knowledge?
This knowledge is that of the non-dual blissful reality of Brahman. The entire world that we
currently perceive is ever changing (as we have seen before). Such a changing world
therefore is just an illusion in its changeless substratum. Any change is just an illusion in its
changeless substratum for example, a variable which is ever changing is just an illusion in
a constant (at any point of time the variable is just a constant alone). Knowledge that gets
rid of ignorance is knowledge of the substratum of the world.

What is the nature of this substratum of the world?
This substratum is changeless and therefore eternal in nature. This also means that it exists
at all times (before creation of the world, during the existence of the world and after the
destruction of the world). But any existence is illumined by the light of Consciousness. The
light of Consciousness is the light of all lights. For the substratum to exist at all times, the
light of Consciousness has to fall upon it at all times. This is only possible when the
substratum is of the nature of Consciousness. Thus the substratum of the world is of the
nature of Existence and Consciousness.

Due to being eternal this substratum is unlimited by time, space and causation. Therefore
as well it is blissful in nature. That which is limited gives temporary happiness and therefore
is sorrowful in nature. But that which is unlimited is blissful in nature (and any person
seeking it will get eternal bliss). Therefore the substratum of the world is of the nature of
Existence, Consciousness and Bliss.

This substratum is termed in the scriptures as Brahman and variously called as Ishwara,
Paramatman, Atman, Bhagavan etc.

Due to being blissful there is no sorrow at all in Brahman. Therefore the ultimate goal of
moksha which is characterized by complete cessation of sorrow and ever rejoicing in bliss is
attained only through knowledge of Brahman. Hence as well we can conclude that
knowledge of Brahman is the one and only way to the ultimate goal of life of moksha. This
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 16 of 60

can be termed as bhakti or devotion provided in it there is no duality at all (non-dual
devotion or advaitic bhakti).

Is there duality or difference possible in Brahman?
Brahman due to being of the nature of Existence is without any limitations and therefore is
one without a second. There are no internal differences possible in Brahman because then
Brahman would have parts and would become non-eternal. There is nothing similar to
Brahman because then there would be relationship with Brahman and that which is similar
to Brahman this relationship will lead to limitation for Brahman. There is nothing dissimilar
to Brahman as well due to the same reason and because Brahman is the light of
Consciousness which illumines itself and everything else. Since everything else is illumined
by Brahman therefore everything else, though might exist or appear to exist, is just an
illusion in Brahman (due to being dependent on independent Brahman).

The scriptures say that Brahman is ekamevaadvitiyam or one without a second this means
that there are no differences whatsoever in Brahman and the entire world of duality that we
see now is just an illusion of names and forms in Brahman.

If Brahman alone exists then what about the world? What is its nature?

World an illusion in Brahman
As we have seen previously the world is ever changing and an illusion in the non-dual reality
of Brahman. The world is just names and forms in Brahman even as various ornaments of
gold are names and forms in gold. Though there are different ornaments like gold ring, gold
chain, necklace etc. all are just names and forms in gold. Essentially at all times all
ornaments are gold alone. Though a normal person differentiates between ornaments and
therefore gets into likes and dislikes (happiness and sorrow as a result of likes and dislikes)
the goldsmith who knows that all ornaments are gold and gold alone never gets into likes
and dislikes. Therefore irrespective of whatever happens to the ornaments, the goldsmith is
ever blissful. Similar is the case with the world which is just names and forms in the non-
dual reality of Brahman. Everything that we see as the world is just different names and
forms of Brahman. A normal person thinks the names and forms to be real and therefore is
deluded whereas a jnaani or a realized person knows that everything is just names and
forms in Brahman. Therefore he never gets affected by the various names and forms.
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 17 of 60

Instead he ever rejoices in bliss alone with the knowledge that the world is filled in and out
with Brahman which is the essence of all names and forms.

Vedanta also uses the analogy of dream to illustrate as to how the external world is just an
illusion in Brahman. A person goes to bed and starts dreaming. In dream he experiences an
entire different world. In that world he goes through a lot of experiences and even multiple
births sometimes. But after experiencing everything he suddenly wakes up and realizes that
it was just a dream and nothing really existed. The entire dream world was just the dreamer
alone appearing as different objects and people. Though the dream world appeared real in
dream it is known to be an illusion in the dreamer after waking up. Similarly this entire
world that we currently perceive is just an illusion in the dreamer of Brahman. Since we are
experiencing the world now therefore we think it to be true. But once we wake up from this
long dream then we will realize that everything is just the non-dual reality of Brahman
alone. Though everything appears very real now it is just an illusion in Brahman even as the
dream world is just an illusion in the dreamer.

This knowledge of the world being illusory will make us not seek the world or get affected
by the world and its activities. Our bondage and sorrows are as a result of considering the
world to be real. Therefore when something happens to the world we become happy and
sad depending on our likes and dislikes (preferences). Since the world is an illusion
therefore it will constantly undergo change. These changes in turn whirl us between
happiness and sorrow. That happiness which is temporary or short-lived is sorrowful alone
(and only fools will think it to be happiness). Until we gain knowledge about the world being
illusory and unreal we will depend on it for happiness and in turn will experience sorrow
alone.

But through knowledge of the world being an illusion we will not depend on the world for
happiness; we will also not get affected by the world even as the dreamer doesnt get
affected by the dream world after waking up from the dream.

World ultimately Brahman alone
Any illusion ultimately or essentially is its substratum alone. The water seen in desert is just
an illusion in desert but essentially the water is also desert alone at all times (when it
appears as existing). The dream world though doesnt exist is the dreamer alone when it is
perceived. Though ultimately any illusion doesnt exist at all but it is the substratum alone
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 18 of 60

at all times. Similarly the entire world which is an illusion in the substratum of Brahman is
Brahman alone at all times.

With respect to the world there are two perspectives that a person can have one is that of
ignorance and other is that of knowledge. With the perspective of ignorance the world is
seen as different objects and people. This in turn will lead to sorrow alone from one birth to
another (it is something that will never end a vicious circle that is filled in and out with
sorrow alone). With the perspective of knowledge a person will see the entire world as filled
in and out with the non-dual reality of Brahman (he knows that the entire world is just an
illusion of names and forms in Brahman). Through this perspective or vision, he will not
experience any sorrow but will ever rejoice in bliss.

Realized masters are those who always maintain the perspective of knowledge. Therefore
they dont perceive any duality in their mind and are blissful at all times. For them there is
no sorrow or suffering. Thus when Gandhijis followers went to Ramana Maharshi and asked
as to why he isnt helping the suffering people of the world, Maharshi replied that he doesnt
see any suffering in the world (for he only saw the non-dual reality of Brahman at all times).

But then how do we see jnaanis as performing actions in the world?
Though internally jnaanis know that the entire world is just an illusion in Brahman still
externally they perform actions like any worldly person. But unlike a worldly person whose
actions are for his own selfish purpose, a jnaanis actions are for the welfare of the world.
He has no desires of his own and therefore does actions based on situations and
surroundings. Though he will internally remember that the world doesnt exist and Brahman
alone exists, externally he will perform actions for the welfare of the world.

Such a jnaani who sees everything as Brahman alone will be able to do service to the world
as others have vision of ignorance and therefore will lead themselves and others to sorrow
alone. This is why we see many worldly people trying to do service to the entire world but
causing sorrow to themselves and others in the process if the service isnt successful then
they become sad and they are also sad that more such successful actions are not being
performed by them. Unlike them, a jnaani does actions in the best possible way but without
getting affected by the action or the result of the action. Due to this witnesshood of the
jnaani the actions have the best possible result all while the jnaani is ever unaffected and
blissful.
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 19 of 60

The very presence of such a blissful jnaani imparts bliss to the entire world. Therefore the
Lord says that surrounding a jnaani bliss will be dancing. Any person with an open mind will
be able to experience directly the bliss that surrounds a jnaani. It is for this reason that
people flock around jnaanis though they may not even believe the jnaani to be a jnaani or
realized. Out of many people only few will recognize jnaanis and therefore will strive to
surrender unto them so that they gain knowledge and attain the blissful state of the jnaani.

Brahman my very nature
Knowledge will not lead to eternal bliss unless it is eternal or permanent. Such eternal or
permanent knowledge shouldnt be newly attained as anything newly attained will be lost as
well. This is the rule of the world that whatever is attained will also be lost. And that which
is attained and lost undergoes birth and death therefore it is non-eternal or remains just
for a period of time.

Knowledge of Brahman as the substratum of the entire world isnt eternal unless it is not
newly attained. This knowledge as the scriptures say is not something newly attained as
Brahman is our very nature of Consciousness. That Consciousness which pulsates inside as
I-exist, I-exist is Brahman alone.

Advaita Makaranda says that I always exist, am ever shining and never hated; therefore I
am Brahman of the nature of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. I am of the nature of
Existence, Consciousness and Bliss and Brahman is also of the same nature. As we have
seen before, there cannot be two Brahman as Brahman is one alone without a second.
Therefore it is clear that I am Brahman of the nature of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss.

At all times I am Brahman alone whether I know it or not. Therefore through knowledge
nothing new is attained. Instead knowledge only makes us realize our very nature of
Brahman. Only from empirical perspective it appears as if knowledge is newly attained along
with moksha but ultimately there is neither knowledge nor moksha newly attained a
person just realizes his very nature of Brahman through knowledge. This knowledge of
Brahman as found in the scriptures just removes ignorance. Even as a face that is veiled by
darkness is revealed through light similarly knowledge removes ignorance and makes us
realize our very nature of Brahman. Therefore there is no fault of knowledge being non-
eternal or leading us to a non-eternal state.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 20 of 60

If I am Brahman at all times then why do I not experience myself as Brahman?
Brahman is my very nature at all times but as a result of ignorance we dont realize it.
There is no objective experience of Brahman as Brahman is the subject that experiences all
objects of the world. Even as a person who has forgotten his very nature, we also have
forgotten our very nature of Brahman and we remember it through knowledge of the
scriptures this remembrance is called realization.

So why ignorance is there, from where it came, what is its nature etc.?
All such questions about ignorance cannot be answered because it isnt something real. It is
also just an illusion in the non-dual reality of Brahman. Brahman which is of the nature of
Consciousness (or light) can never be veiled by anything at all still Brahman appears to be
veiled by ignorance. Such an ignorance which veils Brahman cannot be explained.
Ignorance doesnt stand any logic whatsoever. But this doesnt mean that it has no
existence it exists for an ignorant person who experiences it directly. But when he tries to
analyze it, he will find that it doesnt exist and whatever exists is the non-dual reality of
Brahman alone. This is like darkness darkness is experienced directly by a person in
darkness but when he tries to find proof for darkness he will not be able to find any proof as
it cannot stand light. The moment light is brought in, darkness just vanishes.

Ignorance is experienced by an ignorant person who also experiences sorrow as a result of
ignorance. But when knowledge is gained by the person he realizes that there never is any
ignorance, there never was any ignorance and there never can be any ignorance at all. He
then realizes that ignorance also was just an illusion in Brahman. But this knowledge dawns
only through learning of the scriptures; because until then he is in ignorance and therefore
thinks that ignorance is real and Brahman is unreal (or doesnt exist).

Since ignorance just appears for an ignorant person but vanishes once knowledge dawns
therefore it is clear that ignorance is just an illusion in Brahman. It appears to be there
somehow and then we have to get rid of it through knowledge. Knowledge doesnt really
remove ignorance but makes us realize that there is no ignorance at all. Even as a person in
darkness will try to remove it and will not try to analyze as to from where darkness came
etc. similarly an ignorant person who experiences sorrow should try to get rid of ignorance
through knowledge rather than analyzing about it.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 21 of 60

It is through trying to analyze and logically determine ignorance that many opponent
systems try to attack Advaita. All such attacks are futile because ignorant isnt ultimately
real. It just exists for an ignorant person and therefore will not stand any logic whatsoever
as it is just an illusion in Brahman.

But if ignorance isnt there, then what about the entire world that is currently perceived?
The world is just an illusion in Brahman that appears to be different from Brahman at all
times. Even after ignorance is removed, the world can or will appear as existing and there is
no harm at all in it because it is just an illusion in Brahman. After knowledge the world is
seen as Brahman and therefore it doesnt cause any harm whatsoever. Put in Ramana
Maharshis words, the mind of moon will exist even after the Self or knowledge of sun rises
but it cannot cause any harm similarly empirically the world will exist along with its cause
of ignorance but it is known to be just an illusion alone. Therefore it doesnt cause any harm
at all to the jnaani.

Even as water in desert might still appear after knowing that there is no water at all in
desert, similarly the world might appear even after realization but it doesnt cause any harm
at all. Instead a jnaani remembers and sees the world in its essential nature as Brahman.
Seeing everything as Brahman he therefore doesnt experience any sorrow he ever
rejoices in bliss while living and performing actions in the word like any other person.

It cannot be argued that the cause of ignorance vanishing means the effect of world should
also vanish as both are just illusions. An illusion never has any existence for it to vanish.
While the substratum is remembered, the illusion might still appear but it doesnt cause any
harm whatsoever. When scriptures say that ignorance vanishes after realization or the world
vanishes after realization it just means that ignorance or world is known as an illusion
(ultimately unreal) and therefore doesnt cause any harm. What does if one person dies or
many die in a movie because it is just a movie? Similarly it doesnt matter whether we
experience water in desert or not after knowing that there is no water at all in desert. After
the knowledge that the entire world is just a illusion in Brahman and the non-dual reality of
Brahman alone exists, there is no harm even if the world appears as existing. For the jnaani
the world doesnt exist as it is seen as the non-dual reality of Brahman.

Therefore the jnaani doesnt get affected and ever rejoices in bliss alone. Even though
sorrows and sufferings of the world might be still there the jnaani doesnt get affected as he
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 22 of 60

knows them to be just illusions in the blissful reality of Brahman (which is his very nature of
Consciousness).

Jnaani not apprehendable
Though we might try explaining a lot about jnaana and jnaanis it is impossible to apprehend
as to how a jnaani will be behave in the world. The state of a jnaani can only be known
through becoming a jnaani. Until then we might assume a lot of things about the jnaani but
many of those will be negated or contradicted often.

It is this nature of the jnaani not being apprehended that people fall into the traps of false-
gurus. Jnaanis and ajnaanis will be behaving or living in the world in the same way and
therefore it is impossible to judge or figure out a person by his actions in the world.

Then how can we find out a jnaani?
If we have openness of mind then we will find ourselves experiencing bliss of the Self in the
presence of a jnaani, provided our mind is calmed. Those who approach masters like AMMA
but without an open mind will not be able to experience any bliss and therefore they will
negate AMMA to be a jnaani. There are many others who though have an open mind will not
be able to accept the realized state of masters (as their ego will not permit the same).
Therefore when they go to masters like AMMA, they will say that there is some power that
cannot really be explained it cannot be said as to what power is there, how it is etc. but
definitely there is some power (this will be the words of such people).

Finally the only way to find out whether jnaana is taking us to the goal of moksha is to try
out implementation of jnaana. Though hundreds of people may give very good opinion
about a hospital we cannot be sure of anything unless we try the hospital. Even a normal
visit of the hospital cannot tell us for sure as to whether the hospital is good or not.
Therefore the only way is to try out the hospital if it is good then we can continue in the
hospital; if it isnt good then we can get away from the hospital and join another hospital.
Similarly with respect to the spiritual path we just have to try out the path. Then as we
progress in the path we will find ourselves experiencing more and more bliss (if we are
following the right way). If we are not following the right path then we will find ourselves in
not at all a better state than we were before following the path.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 23 of 60

Beyond doubt the path of jnaana will take us towards the goal of moksha there is no
doubt at all in this and great masters of the past have traversed the path and attained the
goal of moksha.

What is required in the spiritual path is faith and following the path of jnaana in the right
way. Any medicine can be harmful as well as helpful it is in the way we use the medicine.
The snakes venom is poisonous and can kill a person; but the same venom can be used in
such a way that it can cure a person who has been bit by the snake. Similarly we should
strive to learn properly about jnaana and then we will find it slowly taking us to the goal of
moksha in this very birth itself.

Pre-requites to jnaana
Are there any steps to jnaana? If so, what are they?
Jnaana is comprised of the three steps of sravana, manana and nidhidhyasana. But for
jnaana to be even effective little bit there are two pre-requisites that are to be followed or
attained. They are purity and concentration of mind.

Jnaana doesnt apply to the external world or actions of the world but in the mind alone. It
is for this reason that jnaanis and jnaana cannot be understood properly as it just changes a
persons mind and doesnt change anything at all in the external world.

The mind generally is volatile or fluctuating in nature. It roams hither and thither at all
times. Grasping objects of the present while brooding over the past and worrying over the
future, the mind always is unto thoughts of the objects of the world. Within few moments
itself the mind travels from one end of the world to the other end. Such a mind which is like
a monkey hopping from one branch to another will not be capable of focusing on anything
at all.

Like a room that is filled with many objects cannot be used for anything, the mind that is
filled with thoughts at all times cannot be used for anything at all. Therefore first the mind
has to be purified of various diverse thoughts. Purity is only possible when the mind doesnt
stick on to objects at will. Since most of the times we are performing actions in the world
therefore these actions make the mind stick on to one or the other thing of the world. In
order to get rid of these attachments, the attitude behind actions has to change.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 24 of 60

Currently we perform actions while clinging on to our desires of the mind. We are affected
by the way the action is performed as well as the result of action. This in turn binds us to
the action causing vasanas to be developed. Such a mind with vasanas will just not be able
to focus on anything at all but it will be roaming here and there based on vasanas. Even if
such a person tries to sit for meditation, no meditation will ensue and he will just be sitting
with closed eyes though the mind will be roaming all over the world.

Through nishkaama karma a person gains purity of mind. In this there is no attachment to
the way the action is performed and no tainting caused by the result of action. There is no
expectation of the fruits of action as well as not getting affected by the fruits of action. This
is possible through offering all actions unto Ishwara and considering all the fruits to be
Ishwaras blessing. As AMMA says if something good happens then we have to consider it
Ishwaras blessing and if something bad happens then we have to consider it Ishwaras will.
Since everything is blissful Ishwaras therefore the only effect of actions on us is bliss. We
will be able to remain unaffected with the action and the fruit of action. Thereby actions or
fruits dont taint us. Slowly, eventually, our mind will get purified of its likes and dislikes
(preferences). We will find that irrespective of whatever we are doing, the mind is ever
calm. Even if the mind gets affected it will soon vanish as a result of offering everything
unto Ishwara.

Though practically it is tough to implement nishkaama karma still through practice it will
become possible easily. And when we consider the result of gaining purity of mind (the mind
ever remaining calm and unaffected), it will become much more easier to implement
nishkaama bhavana or attitude in all actions.

A mind that is pure is like a room that isnt filled with objects (or filled with just few objects
alone). Such a mind will be able to concentrate or focus on anything at will.

But what use is a pure mind if it doesnt concentrate on anything? Therefore the next pre-
requisite of concentration of mind is also important. A sadhaka should practice sadhanas
like dhyaana in order to gain concentration of the mind. Here it is important to make the
mind focus on any object at will it doesnt matter what the mind is focusing on but the
focus being gained is what is important. Through repeated practice of sadhana, the mind wil
be able to concentrate on anything at will. If it wants to concentrate on studies, it will be
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 25 of 60

able to easily. If it wants to concentrate on the scriptures, it will be able to easily. Such
mind alone will be capable of concentrating on the scriptures and gain knowledge.

Knowledge or jnaana takes place in three steps of sravana, manana and nidhidhyasana. But
the pre-requisite for these is purity and concentration of the mind. Without both purity and
concentration though one might try to gain knowledge, it will not be accumulated properly
and it will not lead to the desired result or fruit of moksha.

Sravana - listening
Knowledge, as explained before, is only possible through the scriptures as the scriptures are
the only proof for Brahman or moksha. All other means of the world are only for objects of
the world whereas Brahman is beyond the world (the subject of all objects). Therefore
through learning of the scriptures alone a person will be able to attain moksha (through
gaining knowledge of Brahman).

The first step to knowledge is to listen to the scriptures repeatedly so that all concepts
about Brahman become clear. The emphasis in sravana or listening is focus on the non-dual
reality of Brahman. Anything and everything that is related to the ultimate reality of
Brahman is sravana. Any discourse with focus or emphasis on the non-dual reality of
Brahman is sravana and anything that doesnt have focus or emphasis on Brahman isnt
sravana.

In order to find out whether the focus is on the non-dual reality of Brahman one has to
apply the shad linga to find out import of a work or a discourse. These include starting-
ending, repetition, newly mentioning, mentioning fruit of moksha, emphasizing and
examples/logic. Using these one has to apply in order to find out whether sravana is being
followed or not.

The effect of sravana is clarity with respect to Brahman and Vedanta. Before sravana one
doesnt even know about Brahman and after sravana one gets an idea about Brahman and
how to realize Brahman (attain the ultimate goal of life of moksha). Therefore if we find that
even after going through a lot of listening we arent getting any clarity about Vedanta,
Brahman or moksha then it means that sravana hasnt happened at all. A sadhaka then
should analyze as to whether to continue such listening which gives no result or check
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 26 of 60

whether sravana is proper or the pre-requisites of purity and concentration of mind has
been attained or not.

Manana reflection
Once a person listens to the scriptures with focus on the non-dual reality of Brahman then
there can be doubts with respect to whatever has been listened. These doubts may arise in
the mind or may not depending upon the sadhakas state of mind. But whenever we get
doubts about something then we will find that we cannot continue with contemplation or
remembrance of the same. This is what we find in all situations of the world as well. For
example a married couple face doubts between one another. Then the marriage will not last
unless the doubts are resolved else we will find that the couple get divorced and lead
separate lives. The Lord also says in Gita that one who is filled with doubts will perish and
he will not attain any happiness or bliss at all. Forget eternal bliss but worldly happiness
also cannot be attained by a person who has doubts. Therefore sadhakas should strive to
get rid of doubts in the mind about moksha. This is done through reflection or manana.

Reflection is analysis with focus on logic in order to resolve any doubts that may arise in the
mind with respect to whatever has been listened in the mind by the sadhaka. Yukti or logic
has its limitation and therefore we shouldnt consider yukti as ultimate it is just secondary
or subservient to the scriptures. Therefore logic that is approved by the scriptures or logic
that supports the scriptures (rather than going against the scriptures) is to be followed for
manana.

The logic that is prescribed in the scriptures in order to find out the non-dual reality of
Brahman as the substratum of the changing world is anvaya-vyatireka yukti. Anvaya or co-
existence shows that when one entity is there, then another dependent entity exists.
Vyatireka or co-absence shows that when one entity isnt there, then another dependent
entity also doesnt exist. This shows us as to what is the independent entity behind a
dependent entity. The independent entity alone is ultimately real and the dependent entity s
just an illusion in the independent entity. Taking the example of variables and constants, a
variable is just an illusion in the constant this is because when the constant exists, the
variable exists and when the constant doesnt exist, the variable doesnt exist.

Similarly applying this to the world and Brahman, the world is just an illusion in the non-
dual reality of Brahman. If Brahman, of the nature of Consciousness, exists then the world
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 27 of 60

exists and if Brahman doesnt exist the world doesnt exist. Therefore it is very clear that
the dependent entity of world is just an illusion in the independent entity of Brahman.

There are other logics also that can be applied with respect to concepts of Vedanta but
always care should be taken to not go too much into logic so that it becomes primary and
takes us against the scriptures itself. Hair-splitting or high-end logic shouldnt be used
because they will take us nowhere. We should use logic just to substantiate or prove the
scriptures or to remove doubts that may arise in our mind with respect to the scriptures
or statements of the scriptures.

Logic is a product of the intellect. Since the intellect itself is just an illusion in Brahman
therefore logic which is a product of the intellect is also an illusion and it cannot lead us to
Brahman directly. Moreover logic cannot apply directly to Brahman because Brahman is the
subject of all objects such an entity of Brahman can only be known through the scriptures
and logic that supports the scriptures will help us remove any doubts that may arise with
respect to Brahman (therefore clearing the scriptural statements and making us accept
them easily in our mind).

Nidhidhyasana - contemplation
Mere listening and reflection of the scriptures isnt enough because realization happens
when we contemplate on the truth at all times. Such contemplation is only possible on that
which has been listened and reflected previously. That which we havent listened we cannot
contemplate. And that which is doubtful also cannot be contemplated upon as we dont have
full faith in it (as a result of doubts). Therefore first sravana and manana has to be
performed in order to contemplate on the non-dual reality of Brahman.

Brahman when contemplated upon as the substratum of the entire world and as the
Consciousness that pulsates inside as I-exist, I-exist at all times will make us realize our
very nature of Brahman. Through naturally abiding in Brahman we will therefore be able to
ever rejoice in bliss.

Contemplation can be done through the mahavakyas. Mahavakyas are great statements of
the scriptures that point out the essence of the scriptures in simple statements. Instead of
remembering or bringing to mind all the scriptural statements it is enough to just remember
this one statement in our mind.
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 28 of 60

There are four mahavakyas, one from each Veda. The below are the mahavakyas with their
meaning:

Rig Veda Aitareya Upanishad Prajnaanam Brahma Consciousness is Brahman
Sama Veda Chandogya Upanishad Tat Tvam Asi That Thou Art (that Brahman you are)
Yajur Veda Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Aham Brahmaasmi I am Brahman
Atharva Veda Mandukya Upanishad Ayam Atma Brahma this Self is Brahman

As seen above these mahavakyas point out the ultimate truth that Brahman as the cause-
substratum of the entire world is our very nature of Consciousness that pulsates inside as I-
exist, I-exist at all times. It isnt something very far or something that we dont know as it
is our very nature. But due to ignorance we have forgotten it and knowledge makes us
realize our very nature of Brahman.

Constant contemplation on the truth that I am Brahman has to be undertaken by a sadhaka
who wants to realize his very nature of Brahman. This will eventually get rid of ignorance
and the sadhaka will naturally abide in his very nature of Brahman. Though it might appear
very easy to contemplate on Brahman at all times, it isnt that easy because one has to also
remember Brahman to be Consciousness in nature and not associated with the body-mind-
intellect-objects-people of the world. Unless Brahman is remembered as Consciousness,
contemplation will not lead to eternal bliss but it will just lead to sorrow alone. Eventually
through contemplation which doesnt lead to any bliss the person will become an atheist and
claim that Vedanta doesnt lead to the goal of moksha (instead it is futile alone). Therefore
care should be undertaken by a sadhaka to remember Brahman as the substratum of the
world and as Consciousness in nature.

Whatever has been listened and reflected in the mind also has to be remembered while
contemplating on the non-dual reality of Brahman. Such contemplation alone will be fruitful
and will lead to the goal of moksha.

If a sadhaka is doing contemplation in the right way then he will find himself becoming
more and more blissful as time passes by. Though the problems of the world still persists,
still he will find himself rejoicing at all times irrespective of whatever happens in the
external world. Though he will be performing all actions in the world and living like any
normal worldly person still he will be rejoicing internally at all times.
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 29 of 60

Vedanta or jnaana doesnt change anything at all from the worldly perspective but it just
changes our mental perspective of the world. Instead of seeing the world as objects that are
different from one another we will see everything as essentially one non-dual reality of
Brahman. This vision of knowledge will eventually make us get rid of all preferences and
thereby sorrows will vanish from our mind. And we will be able to ever rejoice in bliss.

In the fourth chapter of Gita the Lord praises or extols knowledge. The greatness of
knowledge is that a person who implements it will find himself eventually attaining the
blissful of moksha without any other help at all. Though a Guru is required for majority of
people to learn and interpret the scriptures, a sadhaka who has the strong desire for
moksha will find the Guru coming to him automatically. The only requirement for jnaana is
the strong desire for moksha if the desire for moksha is strong then automatically
everything will be set in place and therefore the sadhaka will find himself attaining the goal
of moksha eventually (in due course of time).

Each and every moment a sadhaka is implementing knowledge he or she will find himself
ever rejoicing in bliss. This bliss itself will propagate the sadhaka and take him to the goal of
moksha (through more and more implementation of knowledge). Thus the lamp of
knowledge has to be just lit once for it to shine throughout our life and take us to the goal
of moksha. Since the ultimate goal of life of moksha is attained through knowledge and
knowledge alone therefore we all should strive to gain knowledge and implement it in order
to ever rejoice in bliss here and now itself.

May we all strive to gain and implement knowledge so that through constant contemplation
of the non-dual reality of Brahman we will be able to get rid of all sorrows and will be able
to ever rejoice in bliss here and now itself.



AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 30 of 60

Anumaanas used
9P4l Pl 94, 6FPl( 4 B4 TlP |+4 |6- F4l6 {
paramalakyo moka eva, tasmdeva sarvakma nirvti syt|1|

1. The ultimate goal of life is liberation or moksha alone, because due to that only all desires
end. Putting an end to all desires is liberation for then only there will not be craving for
anything or running here and there for fulfillment of one or the other desire.

Pl Pll l+P 4, Hl+=-44-|+4lTx4l6 , 6 =|F6|P46 -
mokamrgo jnameva, ajnajanyabandhanivrakattvt, tejastimiravat|2|

2. The way to moksha is knowledge alone as it removes the bondage created by ignorance even
as darkness is removed by light. Since darkness can be removed by light, similarly knowledge
alone can remove ignorance. Ignorance is cause of bondage and therefore liberation is through
knowledge which gets rid of ignorance (which alone can get rid of ignorance).

l+ T46 Bl+6 74l( 4, 6F4 4|B&t4l6 , + 7446 (
jna phalavat sdhanacatuaydeva, tasyaivasiddhatvt, netradyavat|3|

3. Knowledge is fruitful only as a result of the four-fold qualification because due to that alone
knowledge is fruitful, like eyes and objects. Even as objects of the world are perceived as a
result of eyes alone, similarly knowledge is fruitful only as a result of the four-fold
qualifications. Even though objects of the world may be there, still they will not be perceived
unless a person has eyes which are functional similarly for knowledge to become effective or
fruitful (means to lead to the ultimate goal of moksha) the four-fold qualifications are required.

l+ + l |TT , OTl |4944|= 6x4l6 , HltP46 v
jna na laukika, brahmao viayavarjitattvt, tmavat|4|

4. Knowledge isnt worldly knowledge, as Brahman is devoid of any objectification, like the
Self. Knowledge that gives us the result of moksha isnt worldly knowledge, because Brahman
is not an object. Brahman can never be objectified and the entire world that we currently
perceive is filled with objects alone. Therefore knowledge that leads to moksha isnt worldly
knowledge like the Self which is the subject of all objects and therefore not objectified,
similarly Brahman also isnt objectified (not known through worldly knowledge or science).


AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 31 of 60

l+ HlN T 4, 6|FP 4 O9l8 -, l Tl+46 -
jna streaiva, tasminneva brahmaprpte, lokajnavat|5|

5. Knowledge is through the scriptures alone (and not through any other means), because only
in that Brahman is found, like worldly knowledge. Though knowledge of the world is attained
through all sciences still in order to learn chemistry we have to use science of chemistry.
Similarly since Brahman is found only in the scriptures therefore Brahman can be known only
through the scriptures and not through any other means whatsoever.

l+9 4 |H |& Tl6l , l+ T4FPl( 4, 9lTl46 \
jnaprva cittauddhirekgrat ca, jna phalavattasmdeva, pcaknnavat|6|

6. Before knowledge, purity and concentration of mind is required as due to that alone
knowledge becomes fruitful like cooking and food. For cooking to become fruitful, food or rice
is required. In the same way in order to make knowledge effective, the pre-requisites of purity
and concentration of mind is required. Without these, knowledge will not be effective and will
just be theoretical knowledge that doesnt lead to any happiness or bliss at all.

l+ ~4TP++|+|\4lB+l|+, Hql-l-9x4l6 , 9lTl46
jna ravaamanananidhidhysanni, aggrpattvt, pcaknnavat|7|

7. Knowledge is sravana or listening, manana or reflection and nidhidhyasana or contemplation
due to being of the nature of part and whole, like food and cooking. Since knowledge is
composed of the three parts or steps or sravana, manana and nidhidhyasana therefore knowdge
means these three alone (implementation of knowledge means implementation of these three).

~4Tl6 HlNF4l+ 6 , B H4F4 |+4 ||9 B 4|6<
ravat strasyajna labhate, saayasya nivttirapi sambhavati|8|

8. Through listening one gains knowledge of the scriptures, removal of sorrow also happens.
The first step of listening leads to gaining of knowledge of the scriptures. We can only learn the
Gurus). Along with gaining knowledge of the scriptures a person also gets rid of doubts in the
mind with respect to knowledge (Vedanta or the non-dual reality of Brahman).

P++l(B l4+l(l|+-
manandasambhvanhni|9|

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 32 of 60

9. Manana or reflection is analyzing the scriptural truth that has been listened previously and
using logic to assert whatever has been reflected. After learning the scriptures a person might
get doubt about the possibility of the truth of the scriptures this is in the form of there is
nothing called Brahman as Brahman is impossible as the substratum of the entire world (which
itself is an illusion). Such impossibilities are removed as a result of manana or reflection. There
are works that handle manana or reflection and learning them would be as good as doing
reflection.

4 |F6 + l Tl, HlNF4l||U6x4l6 {
yuktistu na gau, strasydhihitattvt|10|

10. Yukti or logic is never primary as it always depends upon the scriptures. Scriptures are
always the primary and logic is just secondary to the scriptures. Whatever has been said in the
scriptures can be verified using logic (that is also accepted in the scriptures). Logic can never go
against scriptures. Thus when there is conflict between logic and scriptures we should take the
view of the scriptures alone and logic should be negated.

|+|(\4lB+l( |494 4(l|+- HltPBlltTl{{
nididhysand viparyayahni tmasktkraca|11|

11. Through contemplation, contrary notion vanishes and a person realizes the Self.
Contemplation or the last step of knowledge involves constantly remembering the truth that
one Brahman alone exists here as the very substratum of the entire world. Even after learning
the scriptures and applying logic one finds that duality or the world still exists. Therefore the
contrary notion that world is real and Brahman is unreal ensues this vanishes through
constantly contemplating on Brahman which in turn makes us realize Brahman as the very
substratum of the entire illusory world. In brief, contemplation directly leads to moksha or
realization.

Summarizing Slokas
l+-6 ~4Tl|( 6( 4 P |( B(l
l+( 4 6 T 4-4 +l-4l Pll 5|F6 B4 (l+{+
jnantu ravadica tadeva muktida sad|
jnadeva tu kaivalya nnyo mrgo'sti sarvad||1||

1. Knowledge is sravana, manana and nidhidhyasana (listening, reflecting and contemplating)
and that alone gives moksha always. Kaivalya or moksha is possible only trough knowledge
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 33 of 60

and there is no other way to moksha at all times. Moksha is always possible through knowledge
and knowledge alone (there exists no other way to moksha).

B H4l|( 6 l4l+l +lH- F4l6 l+4F4
l+ -\4l 66l |+Ul4- B+ 46 6 t4 |(+-+
saaydi tu bhvn na syt jnayuktasya|
jna labhdhv tato nihyukta san vartate tva hi||2||

2. Destruction of notions like doubt etc. (doubt, impossibility and contrary notion) happen for a
person established in knowledge. After attaining knowledge therefore one should be
established in it; being established you ever abide in knowledge at all times (as that alone will
eventually lead to the goal of moksha).





AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 34 of 60

Upanishad Vicharah

Recap
Previously we saw the nature of Brahman as ananda or bliss. The author earlier proved that
Brahman is of the nature of Existence, Consciousness and bliss.

Brahman exists at all times and therefore is of the nature of Existence. But in order for
something to exist, the light of Consciousness has to fall upon it. Since Brahman exists at all
times therefore the light of Consciousness should be the very nature of Brahman. Thus
Brahman is of the nature of Existence and Consciousness.

That which exists at all times is unlimited and infinite. Anything that is part of the world or
is created is limited by time, space and causation. Limitation by time means that the entity
exists only for a short period of time. Limitation by space means that the entity occupies
just some space. Limitation by causation means that the entity is created and therefore will
be destroyed. That which is created and destroyed isnt permanent or eternal but just
appears to exist for a short period of time (it isnt eternal but temporarily existing). The
entire world that we currently perceive is created out of the non-dual reality of Brahman.
Therefore everything in the world is limited by time, space and causation. The world as a
whole is also limited. It exists for a period of time (which though may be huge compared to
the life-span of an individual is definitely not unlimited). It exists in a particular space (it
isnt all-pervasive or beyond space). It is created and therefore is limited by causation.

It cannot be argued that we dont perceive the world to be created and therefore it isnt
created; because we do perceive the world to be constantly changing. That which changes
is subject to birth and death (that which has birth and death alone changes like any object
of the world). Thus the world is definitely created and limited by causation.

The entire world therefore is limited by time, space and causation. But what about the
cause of the world? The cause of the world is eternal because if not so then we will have to
assume another cause for the non-eternal cause of the world; this would go on without any
end (infinite regression). And due to simplicity it is apt to accept the cause of the world
itself to be eternal.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 35 of 60

The eternal cause of the world is termed in the scriptures as Brahman. Since it is eternal
therefore it isnt limited by time. Since it is the cause of the world therefore it pervades the
entire world and isnt limited by space. Any cause pervades its effect the cause of mud
causes the effect of pot and the pot is pervaded by mud. The cause of mud is all-pervasive
with respect to the effect of pot or in other words, the cause of mud is not limited by
space with respect to the pot. Since our knowledge spectrum is the world and since
Brahman is the cause of the world therefore Brahman pervades the entire world and
Brahman is unlimited with respect to space. That Brahman which isnt caused but is the
supreme or uncaused cause of the world isnt limited by causation as well.

That which is limited leads to temporary happiness alone. Such temporary happiness is seed
of sorrow because eventually it will lead to sorrow alone. But that which is unlimited will
lead to happiness that is eternal such eternal happiness is termed as ananda or bliss.
Brahman that is unlimited or infinite is therefore blissful in nature.

Anything other than Brahman, the entire world, is not blissful because it is limited. Though
we may get happiness from the external world the happiness is short-lived. Such short-lived
happiness is seed of sorrow and will eventually lead to sorrow alone. For example a car that
we buy will lead to happiness in the short-run but this happiness will not last for long. This
is because the car itself will not last for long. Maybe 10 years or 20 years the car will be
working properly and give us happiness; but after this, the car will cease to give any
happiness. Therefore it will lead to sorrow (through causing issues with respect to driving
etc.). And once the car isnt there at all, then we will become sad thinking about the time
when the car was there and functioning properly. Thus the car will eventually lead to sorrw
alone.

This is the case with the entire world whether it be objects or people of the world. As long
as we think that eternal bliss is possible from the world we will be lead to sorrow alone. But
if we understand the temporary-sorrowful nature of the world then we will no longer
experience sorrow temporariness that is anticipated will not lead to sorrow.

But then the ultimate goal of life is eternal bliss. And this eternal bliss is possible from the
non-dual reality of Brahman which is the unlimited blissful cause of the temporary-sorrowful
world. The moment a person starts seeking Brahman he will get eternal bliss which is the
very nature of Brahman. The more and more one starts learning and contemplating on
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 36 of 60

Brahman the more and more blissful one will become. This bliss is unconditional and not like
the happiness we get from the world (which is conditional or as a result of some external
influence and will vanish when the influence vanishes). Through eventually ever abiding in
Brahman we will be able to ever rejoice in bliss (the state of moksha).

But when we look at the world and the people of the world it is surprising that there are
different types of people each very different from the other. Not only that there are
different people in the world, there are different sadhakas as well in the world. It wouldnt
be wrong to say that even objects are different in the world.

Moreover we find that though one may be traversing the spiritual path towards moksha, still
there may be times when we will find ourselves getting deluded away from the path as a
result of the tendencies of our mind and our actions as a result of these tendencies. These
are so strong and powerful that it takes a lot of effort in order to overcome them. Majority
of people will always succumb to the tendencies of the mind (vasanas created as a result of
actions of many births). As a result they may even fall down from the spiritual path into the
worldly path of sorrow. This doesnt mean that no sadhaka will ever be able to progress in
the spiritual path and reach the goal of moksha but it just means that the path isnt that
easy. Our past habits will haunt us in the spiritual path. As masters like AMMA say, it is in
the spiritual path that we will find all our vasanas that we have cultivated over many births
getting manifested. This is in order for us to overcome it quickly rather than keeping it in
store for the many births to come in the future.

But the big question is as to how or why are we controlled by our tendencies? What is that
determines these tendencies of individuals or objects of the world? And is there any way to
overcome it?

Though anything and everything in the world is under the control of the tendencies of the
mind, the non-dual reality of Brahman is beyond anything and everything. The tendencies
of the mind or qualities are called gunas and Brahman is beyond all gunas or nirguna. This
is what the author explains in slokas from 24 till 26 which we will see below.

In brief, the word of Nirguna which goes for Brahman is being explained in the next slokas
(this word is explained in Gita as well as Upanishads also).

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 37 of 60

TlF6 Pl44l |4|& Bx4=F6P |6 6
|+4l|6 B(l l T =l4F4 4-+ 66-+-v+
gustu myay viddhi sattvarajastamaceti te|
nibadhnti sad loke jvasya bandhana tata||24||
24. That entity which is devoid of time, space and causation (means not limited by these)
alone is always blissful in nature; since it is unlimited therefore there is no sorrow at all,
even the least, in such an entity.

Three gunas
The entire world that we perceive now is controlled by the three gunas of sattva, rajas and
tamas. These three gunas have been explained in depth by the Lord in the 14
th
chapter
which is titled gunatrayavibhaaga yoga. Anything and everything in the world is
predominant in one guna and therefore will show qualities pertaining to that guna alone.

Tamas is dark in color and denotes ignorance. Therefore those who are predominant in
tamas will find themselves getting immersed in ignorance, dullness, sleep, laziness etc.
They will mostly be in inaction or not performing any action at all. Such people dont do any
good to themselves or to people around them. Therefore one should ensure that he doesnt
fall into tamas (then he will not progress and he will not lead to any progress of the entire
world as well).

Rajas denotes activities. Activities arent propagated by selflessness but out of selfishness
and desire to achieve one or the other thing in the world. Majority of people fall under this
category. Though sometimes they may get into tamas, majority of the time they will be in
rajas. People who are predominant in rajas cannot remain idle even for a single moment
and therefore they can be found as doing one or the other activity at all times. They will not
even find time to rest as they will feel that resting isnt right and during that time they can
perform some activity (that will lead to fulfillment of their own selfish goals in life).

Sattva denotes knowledge and purity. Sattva will make a person gain knowledge and
therefore will make him happy (happiness is achieved only through sattva). People
predominant in sattva will always be doing good deeds that helps them and people around
them. They are found to be spiritual in nature and wanting to seek knowledge that will
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 38 of 60

eventually lead them to the ultimate goal of life of moksha. With respect to actions, sattva
people appear as if not performing actions as they dont have any desires with respect to
actions (or desires that will lead to performing of actions in order to fulfill them).

Since tamas and sattva appear similar to a person viewing them therefore many people mix
both. Such a mistake leads people to think that great masters like Ramana Maharshi are
tamas oriented and other ignorant people are sattva oriented. The only way to find out if
one is tamas or sattva oriented is through the state of the mind of the person. Tamas will
lead to delusion and therefore sorrow whereas sattva will lead to happiness. Therefore those
who are happy most of the times are definitely sattva oriented and those who are sad most
of the times are tamas oriented. Rajas oriented people also eventually are lead to sorrow as
they have desires (and all desires can never be fulfilled) but unlike tamas people they arent
deluded. Therefore they will quickly move out of sorrow and again perform more actions.
Thus they get whirled between actions and sorrow at all times (without any progress
towards happiness).

Creation or objects-people of the world are predominant in one of the three gunas at any
point of time though with effort they can change or go from one guna to another. But at all
times anything that is part of the world is controlled by the three gunas and one as
predominant.

At any point of time and in any entity all the three gunas are there but one is predominant.
This is like the parliament which at any point of times contains representatives from all
parties but still it is one party that is ruling the parliament. Similarly though a person is
filled with all the three gunas at any point of time, still it is one guna that is predominant.
Other gunas are secondary to this one predominant guna.

But before creation, the three gunas were in equilibrium this means that the gunas itself
were not there before creation. It is creation that puts these gunas out of equilibrium and
therefore we find the entire world of objects and things being predominant in one or the
other gunas at any point of time.

Now all the three gunas binds people and therefore the goal of spirituality is come out of the
clutches of the three gunas. In other words when a person goes beyond the three gunas
then he realizes the non-dual reality of Brahman or he ever rejoices in bliss. Such a person
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 39 of 60

is termed in the Gita as a gunaateeta or one who is beyond the gunas. Until realization, the
three gunas constantly bind a person in one or the other way. This is what the author says
that gunas bind people.

Gunas - binding
The three gunas or qualities or tendencies that people are predominant on bind them at all
times. Irrespective of whether the binding is of a good nature or a bad nature it is binding
alone. Put in Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsas beautiful words, irrespective of whether we
are tied with iron chains or golden chains we are bound alone. Such binding eventually will
only lead to sorrow. In other words, such binding will not make us ever rejoice in bliss.
Since the ultimate goal of life is complete cessation of sorrow and ever rejoicing in bliss
therefore all sadhakas should put effort to not get bound by these gunas and to go beyond
the binding of the gunas.

How do the gunas bind us?
Tamas binds a person to darkness of ignorance and delusion. Such people will constantly be
deluded in one or the other way. The greatness (or bad-nature) of ignorance and delusion is
that it will not only delude oneself but others as well. Thus tamas oriented people will not
just themselves be deluded but they will delude others as well. We can find such people
always discouraging others who are progressing in the right direction towards eternal bliss.
Even if people approach them to share their worldly success and happiness, they will
discourage them and therefore cause sorrow to them as well.

Many tamas oriented people can be found in ashrams as well where they will just be not
doing anything effective. Instead they will constantly be not doing anything in the name of
tapas and often doing things that will not serve any purpose at all. On top of this they will
also be deluding others. They will spread bad words about the spiritual path and discourage
anybody who is progressing in the spiritual path. Like Indian crabs they themselves will not
progress and they will not let others as well progress in the spiritual path.

Such people can be identified using the sorrow that veils their very presence and through
the negativity that is present in them, their words and actions. Wise sadhakas when they
find such people should avoid them at all costs lest we will also get deluded into tamas. And
once a person gets into tamas, he will not be doing anything and therefore cannot rise
higher to rajas or actions.
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 40 of 60

Rajas binds people to actions as it constantly makes people do actions as a result of desire
to achieve something or the other in the world. Desires have no end at all; Manu therefore
says that trying to put an end to desires by enjoying them is like trying to extinguish fire by
pouring ghee into it; the fire will not be extinguished but it will burn more vigorously. Since
desires never end therefore rajas-oriented people will always be indulging in actions. And
since desires can never lead to happiness unless it is the desire of moksha therefore such
people will always experience only sorrow (temporary or sorrowful world can only lead to
sorrow at all times). In brief, rajas binds people to not just actions but sorrow as well. Such
people even if they come to a spiritual retreat will be found as doing one or the other action
there. When they are in a meditation hall, instead of meditating they can be found as
controlling others who are meditating (or management of the meditation hall and the people
in the hall in academics such people are part of the discipline committee). Ask such people
to indulge in spiritual activities which doesnt involve actions and they will not be able to do
it. We can find such people also in ashrams they have no knowledge but they arent in
delusion or ignorance like tamas people but they are constantly doing one or the other
action.

Lastly sattva binds people to knowledge and happiness. Eternal bliss is only possible
through knowledge of Brahman and ever abiding in this knowledge. This knowledge is of the
scriptures and in essence is the ultimate truth that one non-dual reality of Brahman alone
exist here pervading the enter world of names and forms. It is this Brahman that pulsates
constantly inside as I-exist, I-exist at all times. This knowledge and its implementation will
instantly lead to eternal bliss. Implementation of this knowledge is as simple as
remembering at all times and abiding in that knowledge (means never getting affected by
whatever happens in the external world). But many people often dont take the last step of
implementing knowledge instead they are just focused on sadhanas of knowledge or
sadhanas that are pre-requisites to knowledge. These sadhanas will not lead to eternal bliss
but will give them happiness. Therefore they constantly indulge in such sadhanas alone
without progressing further to realization or moksha.

These sadhanas like dhyaana, japa, bhajans, listening to scriptures etc. give happiness but
it is short-lived alone. As long as the sadhanas are performed, they will be happy and the
moment sadhanas are ended then they will become sad. And if they are not performing
sadhanas then they will become sad and sometimes angry on others as well. This is like a
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 41 of 60

person going to a satsanga on the Upanishads and after returning back getting angry on his
wife that she didnt give him hot coffee (as the coffee she gave was cold).

Sattva also therefore binds a person to the happiness one gets out of knowledge or partial
implementation of knowledge. This happiness like any other happiness from the world is
temporary and will vanish after a period of time. But the only difference between this
happiness and happiness from the world is that happiness from the world will take us away
from moksha whereas this happiness will (or can) make us go closer towards moksha (as
we get a glimpse of the happiness of the state of moksha).

To summarize, tamas binds to ignorance, rajas binds to actions and sattva binds to
happiness. All the three gunas constantly bind a jeeva in the world. The goal of the jeeva or
individual is to attain the ultimate goal of life of moksha. But this goal isnt achieved as long
as there is binding of the three gunas. Therefore the jeevas bondage is caused by the three
gunas in other words, the jeeva in order to attain the ultimate goal of life of moksha has
to strive to go beyond the three gunas. As long as he is in the clasp of the three gunas, he
will be bound and therefore will never attain moksha.

Gunas through Maya
From where has Gunas come?
Gunas have come from Maya. Though this is a literal way of telling as to from where the
gunas has come, in essence Maya itself is filled with these gunas. It is Maya that is the
material cause of the world. Therefore Maya is considered as filled with the three gunas of
sattva, rajas and tamas. Since Maya cannot remain as such for a long period of time and
instead gets converted into the world that we currently perceive therefore it is the three
gunas coming out of equilibrium that triggers creation. And when the gunas go back into
equilibrium (this means that no one guna is predominant over the other two) then creation
ends. And again creation starts as it is a cyclic process creation leads to destruction which
in turn leads to creation. Thus the never ending cycle goes on and on.

Maya itself is that which doesnt really exist. It is just an illusory power of Ishwara explained
in order to explain the creation that we currently perceive. Creation itself is an illusion like
the dream world and therefore the cause of creation of Maya is also an illusion alone. If
Maya isnt real but an illusion then the gunas also are not real but just illusions. Therefore a
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 42 of 60

wise sadhaka will be able to go beyond gunas through the knowledge that they are just
illusions.

But in order to go beyond gunas, one has to slowly move from tamas to rajas to sattva.
Tamas is the worst of the gunas as it leads to no purpose at all and make a person remain
idle in the world. Nobody can remain idle in the world not even for a second therefore the
age-old saying that an idle mind is devils workshop. This means that those who are idle will
lead to more harm to the entire world. Therefore one should strive to first come out of
tamas. Since at any point of time one guna is predominant therefore we cannot get rid of all
the gunas completely. Thus one should strive to move from tamas to rajas. Tamas is
removed through performing more and more actions in the world. But rajas or more and
more actions that are propagated by desires also have to be eventually removed (as they
will lead to sorrow alone) therefore one has to further move from rajas to sattva. This is
through performing more and more spiritual actions (or following the spiritual path).
Spiritual actions include japa, dhyana, bhajans, jnaana etc. but all with focus on the
ultimate goal of life of moksha. But finally one should even get rid of these spiritual actions
as well. This doesnt mean that one should stop doing spiritual actions but just that one
shouldnt be so much attached to them. If they are done, good. If they arent done, still
good only this is the attitude that should be maintained. Through this attitude or true
knowledge a person will be able to go beyond even sattva. Then he truly has gone beyond
gunas or Maya itself.

Such a person who has gone beyond the three gunas will not be attached to any particular
guna or averted to it. Put in the Lords words he will not crave to get into any particular
guna and he will not become angry when he is lead to any particular guna. This means that
truly he isnt affected irrespective of whatever is the guna that is predominant in him. He
knows that gunas are performing actions whereas he is just a witness to the activities.
Therefore he maintains equanimity at all times irrespective of whether in tamas or rajas or
sattva. As a result, at all times he is ever blissful bliss never vanishes from his mind.
Instead any person with an open mind will be able to feel bliss dancing around such a
realized master. This is the reason that great learned pundits also are attracted towards
masters like Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, Ramana Maharshi and AMMA (though they are
well learned and well situated from the worldly perspective than these great masters who
are nobody compared to the entire world).

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 43 of 60

Now what is the state beyond the three gunas? That this is the state of Brahman is being
mentioned by the author in the next sloka.

Pl4l|Ul+O 4 |+ T- B4 (l 6l
|P4l T 9 4l|6 F4U4( O =l46-+--+
mydhihnabrahmaiva nirgua sarvad tath|
mithygueu badhnti svapnavad brahma jvata||25||
25. Brahman alone
Brahman Nirguna
As we have seen before, Brahman is the substratum of the entire world that is created from
it, exists in it and merges unto it at the time of its destruction. We also saw that the gunas
come out of Maya which is the material cause of the world. Maya is illusory power of
Brahman or in other words, Brahman is the substratum of the illusion of Maya which is
composed of the three gunas. This means that Brahman is the substratum of the three
gunas.

Any substratum in which an illusion is seen is beyond the illusion and therefore devoid of
the illusion as well. This is like the dreamer beyond the dream world at all times as the
dream world is just an illusion in the dreamer. Similarly Brahman which is the substratum of
the gunas is beyond the gunas. This means that gunas dont taint Brahman at all and gunas
arent present in Brahman. Therefore Brahman is termed as nirguna (without any gunas).
The entire world is controlled by the three gunas whereas Brahman as the substratum of
the entire world is without any gunas.

A sadhaka who goes from tamas to rajas to sattva to beyond gunas realizes Brahman (that
which is beyond the gunas and without gunas). Unlike the world which moves from one
guna to another and gets into nirguna state when it is before creation and after destruction,
Brahman is ever nirguna or without gunas. This is because Brahman is the substratum in
which the illusion of gunas exist. Any substratum is beyond the illusion at all times (like the
desert in which water is seen is beyond water at all times).

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 44 of 60

Thus truly the way to overcome gunas is to realize the non-dual reality of Brahman which
alone is beyond all the three gunas. Until realization of Brahman happens, a person will be
bound by the three gunas and therefore suffering at all times.

Brahman seemingly bonded as jeeva
The individual Self or jeeva is bonded now by the three gunas of sattva, rajas and tamas.
Based on the gunas, he performs activities and suffers. But all the while he appears to be
bonded he is one with the unbounded Brahman.

Advaita Makaranda says that I always exist, am ever shining and am never hated. Therefore
I am of the nature of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss. Since this is the very nature of
Brahman, therefore it is proven that I am Brahman. Since Brahman is nirguna therefore I
am also nirguna or unaffected by gunas at all times.

But then how come I appear to be bonded?
I appear to be bonded as a result of ignorance. Though my true nature is that of Brahman I
think myself to be the Ego which is associated with the body-mind-intellect-objects-people.
As a result, bondage appears to be my bondage and I appear constantly to be suffering.
Whether I know or not, I am ever unaffected Brahman alone. Ultimately Brahman alone
exists here and I am that Brahman but due t my ignorance of my very nature of Brahman, I
appear as suffering in the world.

Vedanta uses the analogy of dream in order to show that I appear to be bonded but am
ever unaffected Brahman. A person goes to sleep and he gets into a dream. In the dream
he is a wealthy person and therefore amasses lot of wealth. But all of a sudden thieves get
into his house and steal his money. Therefore he is sad and goes to the police in order to
get back his stolen money. After a lot of struggle also he is not able to get his money back.
Once he is walking on the road and finds one of the thief who stole from his house.
Recognizing the thief, he runs behind the thief but the thief also recognizes him and
therefore he too runs. This running leads him into a forest. This forest is well known for the
thief and therefore he is able to escape out of the forest easily but the wealth man isnt able
to escape out of the forest. He is roaming here and there inside the forest itself without any
hopes of coming out of it. He is tired, hungry and scared as well. All of a sudden he comes
face to face with a tiger. Suddenly out of fear he opens his eyes and realizes that everything
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 45 of 60

was just a dream. He is still lying in his bed alone and absolutely nothing has happened to
him. Everything was just a dream an illusion that never really happened.

Though he appeared to be suffering in the dream, he never really suffered. His suffering
also was an illusion alone. The entire dream appeared very real when he experienced it but
after waking up he realized that it was just an illusion and therefore all sorrows he faced in
dream vanished. Similar is the case of the jeeva in the waking state. Whether the jeeva
acknowledges or not he is Brahman alone going through this long dream of the waking
world. As a result of the world and everything in the world appearing to be very real,
therefore jeeva appears to be suffering in pain most of the times. Though the jeeva
experiences happiness it is short-lived and often leads to sorrow alone. But there is no real
sorrow at all experienced as everything is just an illusion in Brahman. Until he wakes up
from this dream everything appears very real.

Though jeeva appears to be bonded by the three gunas he is never bonded as his real
nature of Brahman (who is the dreamer behind this dream world of waking world).
Ignorance of his very nature of Brahman makes him appear to be suffering even as the
dreamer appeared to be suffering in the dream state when he was ignorant about his very
nature of being the dreamer in which the illusion of dream was perceived. The moment
knowledge dawns that I am unaffected Brahman, all bondages and sorrows will end. Then
the jeeva will realize his true nature of unaffected Brahman (beyond gunas).

Gunas as was explained earlier are just illusions in Brahman. Such illusions cannot cause
any problems or sorrows in its substratum of Brahman. As long as we consider ourselves as
the Ego or part of the world we will constantly be affected by the gunas. But the moment
we realize our very nature of non-dual reality of Brahman, that very moment we are beyond
the gunas. And therefore we will not be affected.

Even after gaining the knowledge that I am Brahman, though we may appear to be affected
by gunas from the worldly perspective we are not really affected as gunas are just illusions.
Even as a person who knows that it is a dream gets into dream and experiences everything
in the dream but without getting affected the least similarly a person who knows that I am
Brahman will not be affected by any activities in the waking state though he may experience
everything as part of the world itself.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 46 of 60

H( Bll|6 l+ + + 4l|6 T(l+
=l4l O 4 +l-4l |( 4& 4 B l|6 +-\+
aha skti jnena na badhnti kadcana|
jvo brahmaiva nnyo hi baddha iva sa bhti ca||26||
26.
Knowledge I am a witness
Knowledge of oneself to be Brahman is the way out of gunas or going beyond gunas so tha
we are not affected by the gunas or the plays of the gunas. This knowledge of Brahman as
the substratum is termed in the scriptures as saakshi bhaava or witness-hood. Even as the
dreamer was unaffected at all times in the dream state similarly I am just a witness to
everything that is happening in the waking state.

Though I experience the three states of waking, dream and dreamless deep sleep still I am
unaffected at all times by these three states. These states are constantly changing but I
who experiences these three state am totally unaffected. If I am affected then I should be
carrying it along with me from one state to another. But I am ever blissful in the deep sleep
state where the entire world of duality just temporarily merges. Therefore it is very clear
that my nature is blissful Brahman and though I appear to be affected by the three states, I
am ever unaffected.

It is ignorance of my nature to be just a witness of everything that makes me think I am
affected by the gunas. Therefore all my sorrows and sufferings are also illusions alone.
Through the knowledge that I am witness Brahman, I will be able to get rid of all sorrows
and sufferings here and now itself.

It cannot be argued that I am the Ego because the ego is constantly changing whereas I am
ever changeless. The ego or individuality is ever changing based on situations, surroundings
and environment. Today I as the Ego am working in a company whereas tomorrow I will be
working in another company. Today I like few things and tomorrow I will like few other
things. Today I have one friend but tomorrow he may become enemy (friends becoming
enemies are common in the world). Thus every minute the Ego undergoes changes. Also the
ego constantly undergoes sorrows and sufferings. This is as a result of unfulfilled desires or
achievement of worldly pleasures. Anything that is part of the world is temporary and
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 47 of 60

therefore will vanish after a while and will lead to sorrow alone in the long run. But at all
times I am changeless and blissful in nature. If I am able to let go of all attachments-
aversions then that very moment I will be able to realize my nature of bliss (that which is
experienced in the dreamless deep sleep state). Due to being contrary to ego, it is therefore
very clear that I am not the changing ego but the changeless witness to everything that is
happening in the world.

Even as a person who knows that there is no water in desert is a mere witness to people
running behind the water and even he himself running behind water (along with other
people of the world) similarly a person who has the knowledge that I am just a witness to
the entire world will not be affected by the world or its activities. Though he may still be
part of the world and performing activities in the world, still he will not be affected at all
times.

Jeeva Brahman alone
Even as the dreamers ego in the dream state is ultimately dreamer alone similarly jeeva or
individuality is Brahman and Brahman alone at all times. There is nothing other than
Brahman here and my very Consciousness is Brahman alone. As a result of ignorance I
appear to be different from Brahman and therefore suffering as well in the world. But even
while appearing to be suffering in the world I am Brahman and Brahman alone.

It is wrong to say that after gaining knowledge of the scriptures as well I am suffering
because all suffering is just an illusion in Brahman. Any sadhaka who is able to remember
his very nature of blissful Brahman will be able to remain unaffected and blissful here and
now itself. This isnt something that is a tenet that cannot be experienced or can be
experienced only by selected individuals. It is a truth that can be experienced by each and
every person in the world (as it is our very nature).

In order to realize the truth of Brahman as our very nature of Consciousness we just have
to remember ourselves to be just a witness to the illusion of the world and live in this
knowledge at all times. Though initially it might be tough to remain unaffected internally still
through practice we will be able to remain unaffected internally while performing actions
and getting affected externally like any normal person in the world.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 48 of 60

Even as an actor portrays his role to perfection in the world similarly we also will be able to
perform our role to perfection in the entire world with the knowledge that I am blissful
witness Brahman that is the very substratum of the world. Then gunas will not affect us
though they will do their work in the external world.

Thus through realization, going beyond the gunas we will remain blissful at all times
irrespective of whatever the gunas are doing in the world. We will also have fulfilled our
very life through achieving the ultimate goal of life of ever rejoicing in bliss.

We will continue with analysis of the lakshanas of Brahman in the next edition.

May we all strive to remember ourselves to be witness, unaffected and beyond-gunas
Brahman that appears to be bonded as jeeva as a result of ignorance so that we will go
beyond gunas (ignorance), put an end to all sorrows and will ever rejoice in bliss here and
now itself.







AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 49 of 60

Panchasutram

Panchasutram 5
We have till now seen the first four sutras of pancha sutras. The first sutra said that this
world is temporary and sorrowful. The second sutra said that the substratum of this ever-
changing world is Brahman. The third sutra said that realization of Brahman is through
knowledge (of Brahman as found in Vedanta) alone. The fourth sutra explained knowledge
by saying that it is sravana or listening to the scriptures with import on Brahman, manana
or reflecting upon what has been heard through logic and nidhidhyasana or contemplation
on Brahman at all times.

This much is generally known to almost all sadhakas though there are doubts and
confusions with respect to knowledge alone being the mean to Brahman, nature of
Brahman, nature of realization, the state of realization etc. But more than all this doubt,
what propagates a person to realize Brahman is the ultimate goal of life. This ultimate goal
of life doesn't differ from person to person. Instead this goal is the same for any being in
the world - let it be animals or birds or people or even gods. This ultimate goal of life can be
explained in two ways as getting rid of sorrow completely and ever rejoicing in bliss.

Sorrow is a direct matter of experience for people and there is natural effort in order to get
rid of it. There are also many who don't have any sorrow but still aren't blissful; therefore
blissful existence also is required. Knowingly or unknowingly this two-fold ultimate goal of
life is what we all seek in the world.

If it is thought that sorrow vanishes after this birth, this isn't the case. Birth leads to death
and death leads to another birth. Thus sorrow continues along with the chain of birth and
death. Until this chain of birth and death is ended, there will be sorrow alone and there will
not be any bliss at all.

That the ultimate goal of life is possible only through realization of Brahman as the
substratum of the world and through knowledge is said in the final, fifth, sutra.

Sutra 5 - apraapteh samsaranam, prapteh brahmaanandam aanandam
Not attaining (Brahman) a person gets into samsaara (or transmigrates), after attaining a
person experiences bliss of Brahman and rejoices in Brahman.
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 50 of 60


Though in this sutra Brahman is mentioned as attained, it is just a perspective word used in
order to denote the state of a person who hasn't realized and who has realized. As earlier
itself saakshaatkaara or realization was mentioned, therefore there is no fault in mentioning
attained here.

Samsaara is the ocean of transmigration consisting of birth and death. This goes on and on
without any end at all. Hence Sankara says that again birth, again death and again in the
womb of the mother - this ocean of samsaara is very tough to conquer. That the notion of
birth and death itself is an illusion shows clearly that this ocean will never end - as all
illusions just go on and on until knowledge dawns, similarly this ocean of samsaara can be
dried up only by the baadavaagni of knowledge. And therefore it is essential for a person
who wants to get rid of sorrow to gain knowledge and realize his own very nature of
Brahman; because until then sorrow will continue.

This last sutra through explanation of the two sides of realization gives us perspective of
what we will get if we ignore realization or choose realization. Such clear explanations are
required for today's modernized and logical people whose modernization and logic only
serves to boost the ego, not to take us beyond all limitations and to eternal bliss.

A person who doesn't attain realization will continue in this samsaara saagara. And since
this saagara goes on and on therefore only fools will take up this path of samsaranam or
transmigration or continuing from birth to death to birth to death. Wise people will
automatically ignore this sorrowful path (as the goal is to get rid of sorrow).

That realization doesn't give anything apart from non-duality is shown here through the
statement that realization gives us bliss of Brahman. This bliss is that of non-duality -
because there is no way to express or measure this as only Brahman exists at that time,
therefore often people think that this state of realization is dry (and without any happiness).
It is common experience that in deep sleep, when everything vanishes and only I remains
behind, we experience eternal bliss. Similar is the state of moksha where everything
vanishes and therefore we will rejoice in bliss.

In order to differentiate worldly bliss (as people might say that I experience bliss in my
son's presence or I experience bliss reading or listening to scriptures or by being in the
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 51 of 60

Guru's presence etc.), the author says that this bliss is that of Brahman. All other bliss as
well are that of Brahman but they are limited by the environment and any limited bliss isn't
eternal bliss. Since Brahman alone is unlimited therefore Brahman's bliss alone is unlimited
or it alone is eternal bliss. And a person who realizes Brahman therefore experiences eternal
bliss. This experience is not like worldly experience but it is experience of oneself as alone
existing (similar to the bliss experienced in deep sleep). All are naturally attracted to the
bliss in deep sleep and therefore daily sleep - so what to speak about bliss of Brahman
where we will be blissful irrespective of whether world exists or not.

This blissful state is such that as Sankara says irrespective of whether one is doing yoga or
bhoga, one is attached or detached - there will be only bliss at all times. Since this bliss
untainted by sorrow (or associated with complete cessation of sorrow) is the ultimate goal
of life therefore the author says indirectly that a wise person should choose the path of
realization and realize Brahman so that the ultimate goal of life is fulfilled. Else we will all be
fools experiencing sorrow again and again. We, so-called wise people, thereby should strive
for realization of Brahman through knowledge now itself before this precious human birth
ends.

By realizing Brahman in this very birth itself, we will be able to ever rejoice in bliss each and
every moment. That is why the author mentions the word of anandam or bliss twice. The
repetition of the word twice also denotes the culmination of this short work or sutra.

We will see a summary of this sutra in the next posting and conclude this analysis of five
simple sutras summarizing Vedanta.

May we all strive to be wise people and seek realization through knowledge so that we will
be able to put an end to sorrows and will be able to ever rejoice in bliss here and now itself.



AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 52 of 60

Vedanta Mata Sankshepah

Avastha Thrayam
Scriptures, which are the Ultimate Source of Knowledge about Brahman, say that Brahman
alone exist One without a Second. After explaining about Brahman as the Ultimate Reality,
scriptures also say that Brahman is to be known and knowledge of Brahman brings
liberation, liberation is the Ultimate goal of life for every human being. The knowledge of
Brahman that was explained before is not just a knowledge of Brahman as something
different from us but the knowledge of Brahman as ones own very nature. Scriptures also
say that the jiva is essentially Brahman only and hence this knowing Brahman as ones own
nature is not something newly to be attained and therefore knowing Brahman as ones own
nature is called realization. The jiva was considering himself to be different from Brahman
due to ignorance and after knowing his own nature as Brahman, he realizes that he is not a
limited jiva but unlimited Brahman. This knowledge is the Ultimate Knowledge that liberates
from all bondages as it were.

Knowledge of Brahman can be obtained through the enquiry into one of the three
categories, Enquiry into the Self, Enquiry into world or Enquiry into Isvara. Enquiry into
Self, or world or Isvara would lead to that one truth that Brahman is the Ultimate Reality
and everything is essentially Brahman only. In this article we will see one of the method of
Self enquiry scriptures adopt which is Avasthaathrayam analysis or analysis of three states
of experience. Before starting the analysis, we will have to first know what is the Self or
Atman.

Shankaracharya defines Atman in tattavabodha as follows,
Sthoolasookshmakaaranashareeraatvyatiriktahpanchakoshaateetah san
Avasthaatrayasaakshisatchitaanandaswaroopah yah tishtathi san sahatma
Which is different from Gross, Subtle and Causal body Which is beyond the five sheaths
Which is the witness of three states of experience Which is of the nature of Existence
Consciousness Bliss Absolute that is Atma

As we can see from the above definition that Self or Atman is witness of the three states of
experience we have. The final conclusion to be obtained through the analysis of the three
states of experience is that Self is just a witness and is never really affected.
Avasthathrayam analysis is elaborately explained in Mandukyaupanisad, JyothirBrahmanam
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 53 of 60

of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. Panchikaranam of Shankaracharya also explains about the
three states of experience on which Sureshwaracharya has written a Vartikam in which
Sureshwaracharya explains it with more detail.

There are three state of experience which are Jagrat (waking state), swapna (dream state)
and sushupti (deep sleep state).

JagratAvastha:
JagratAvastha or the waking state is the state when we experience the physical world as it
were. Shankaracharya in Panchikarana explains thus,
Indriyaiharthaupalabdhihjaagaritham
The waking sate is synonymous with gaining the knowledge of the sense objects through
sense organs.

Jiva has three bodies, sthoolashareeram (gross body), sukshmashareeram (subtle body)
and kaaranashareeram (causal body) as it were. SukshmaShareeram consists of 5 organs of
knowledge, 5 organs of action, 5 vital energy, mind, intellect, memory and ego.
KaaranaShareeram consists of avidhya or ignorance which is the cause of the other two
bodies.

In the waking state, the Jiva experiences the physical world and during that time all the
three bodies are active. Gross body or physical body is the medium through which the Jiva
experiences and interacts with the physical world. It is through the senses and mind that
the jiva gets the experience.

In Mandukya Upanishad,
JaagarasthaanobahishprajnahsaptaangahekonaviMshatimuKhahsthoolabhugvaishvaanarahPr
athamahPaadah.
The first quarter is Vaisvaanara whose sphere (of action) is the waking state, whose
consciousness relates to things external, who is possessed of seven limbs and nineteen
mouths and who enjoys gross things.

During waking state, the sense organs are active and when the sense organs are active it
tends go out naturally and would grasp the external objects. There might be a question as
to whether the external world really exist for the jiva to experience through the sense
AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 54 of 60

organs. The world that is seen outside is not real. Jiva experiencing the waking world can be
interpreted like this, the physical world exist and jivawakes up to experience the physical
world which lead to the conclusion that the physical world really exist. In order to avoid this
kind of confusion Shankaracharya explains Jagrat very carefully above in Panchikarana.
Shankaracharya explains waking state as that state in which the sense organs grasps the
sense objects of the world. This means that the world exist because Jiva sees the world
existing separate from himself because of delusion. Sureshwaracharya explains this very
clearly in the Vartika.

Adhidaivatamadhyaatmaadhibhootamititridhaa
Ekam brahma vibhaagenabhramaadbhaatinatattvatah
Brahman, One without a second, appears, due to delusion as though divided into the three
domains, those of the deities, of the individual, and of the five elements.
Indriyaiharthavijnaanamdevataanugrahaanvitah
Shabdaadivishayamjnaanamtajjaagaritamuchyate
The sense organs bestowed with the blessing of the presiding deities cognize things. Those
cognitions of sound etc constitute the waking state.
Thus, in the waking state Jiva experiences the external physical world through mind and
sense organs. In the waking state the Jiva who is identified to the body-mind and sense
organs and who experiences the external world is called Viswa or Vaishwaaanarah.
Shankaracharya defines Viswa in Panchikaranam as
Tat ubhayaabhimaanyaatmaavishwah. Etattrayamakaarah
Atman, with the sense of identification towards those two (waking state and body) is called
Vishwa. The three (Vishwa, waking state and body) are the syllable a (of AUM).

How is Self witness of waking state?
Self is of the nature of Consciousness. Jiva is born only because of ignorance and ignorance
is that which obstructs Jiva from knowing that he is Self. Even though Jiva doesnt know
that he is Self, Consciousness is the substratum of everything. Because of ignorance Jiva
gets identified with body thus gets the notion that this is my body, but the underlying
Consciousness is never affected by anything that happens to the body. Even though it is
because of Consciousness every sense object is perceived, yet these sense objects dont
touch the Consciousness at all.


AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 55 of 60

Vidyaranya swami in Panchadasi says
Shabdasparshaadayovedhyaavaichitryaajaagareprthak
Tatovibhakta tat samvidaikaroopyaannabhidhyate
The objects of knowledge viz., sound, touch etc., which are perceived in the waking state,
are different from each other because of their peculiarities; but the consciousness of these,
which is different from them, does not differ because of its homogeneity.
IksheshruNomijighraamisvaadayaamisprshaamyaham
Itibhaasayatesarvamnrtyashaalaasthadeepavat
The witness, like the lamp in a dancing hall, reveals all these as I see, I hear, I smell, I
taste, I touch as pieces of knowledge.

We will analyze the other states of experience in the next article.


AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 56 of 60

Jnaana Nirupanam

V l+|+-9TP
om jnanirpaam

-GTlT F4ltP|4FP |6-
Bl 4(l 6(l +l|F6 Pl (= +{+
dukhakraa svtmavismti|
s yad tad nsti mohaja||1||

1. Cause of sorrow is forgetting ones own Self; where remembrance is there, there is no
ignorance that causes delusion.

|4FP |6F6 Bl l+TlTl6
+746l( 4l + 4Bt46l+-+
vismtistu s jnakrat|
nayatha y naivasatyat||2||

2. That which is destroyed as a result of knowledge here is ignorance and it has no
reality whatsoever.

4 (4l14= OTP
l+Pl|~6 Pl (l4TP +(+
vedavkyaja brahmalakaam|
jnamrita mokadyakam||3||

3. Knowledge is born out of the sentences of veda (Vedanta) and of the nature of
Brahman; dependency on such knowledge will provide moksha (liberation).


AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 57 of 60

64|= 6 l44|= 6P
O9l4+ F4ltP-9TP +v+
dvaitavarjita bhvavarjitam|
brahmapvana svtmarpakam||4||

4. Devoid of duality, without any notions (or imaginations or being subject to thoughts)
is pure Brahman which is of the nature of ones own Self.

|+|U6 4(l Hl TTlTP
Pl (\4 B+ TlP9 TP+-+
nihita yad okakraam|
mohadhvasana kmapraam||5||

5. When a person is established in knowledge, then the cause of sorrow and delusion
will be destroyed and all desires will be fulfilled.

4l = t9 Pl+ |B4 6P
6F4Hl|-6l4F6 + |UTP +\+
yo bhajetpumn bhaktisayutam|
tasyantibhvastu naihikam||6||

6. He who worships (implements) knowledge with devotion, he has peace always in
him.

H-46l = tPl (9 T-
-G-9Tl P t4 PlU 4l6 ++
anyato bhajetmohapreraka|
dukharpako mtyumpnuyt||7||


AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 58 of 60

7. Those who are propelled by delusion worship (the Self or knowledge) in other ways;
they attain death of the form of sorrow.

l+P 4Pll + B H4-
l+(l+Tl 4-TlTP +<+
jnamevamrgo na saaya|
jnahnako bandhakraam||8||

l+l4+ B4 -9TP
+-(+-(+l +-(+-(+-++
jnabhvana sarvarpakam|
nandanandano nandanandana||9||

9. One who has knowledge implemented in the mind, of the nature of everything, he is
ever blissful, he is ever blissful.

Knowledge is generally misunderstood by many people. Majority of people consider
knowledge as dry and think that there are other ways to moksha than knowledge. The
scriptures clearly say that knowledge is the one and only way to moksha. Knowledge is
only from the scriptures, not through any other means. Any other knowledge will not
lead to eternal bliss but only temporary happiness that itself is seed of sorrow.

People also think that knowledge is very tough to apprehend and implement.
Knowledge is the simplest to learn as it is summarized as one Brahman alone exists
pervading the entire world of names and forms; and pulsates inside us as I-exist, I-exist
at all times. Implementation of knowledge, as the Lord puts it, is very simple indeed as
it is just remembering that Brahman alone exists.

Even as a lover constantly remembers his love, similarly constant remembrance of
Brahman is possible if there is love towards Brahman. Love for Brahman is easily
developed through knowledge of Brahman alone being real (and blissful). Since the
ultimate goal of life is ever rejoicing in bliss, therefore each and every person ought to
gain and implement knowledge.

AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 59 of 60

As these short verses show, knowledge is the simplest to implement and the moment
one implements knowledge that very moment the person will be able to get rid of all
sorrows and rejoice in bliss. Constantly abiding in knowledge is moksha that is to be
achieved here and now itself.



AUM NAMAH SHIVAYA VEDANTA MADHURYAM 31 Dec 13
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam Page 60 of 60

Anukramaanika Nirdesham

1. Editorial a general message.
2. Shraddhaa Siddhi an analysis of shraddhaa.
3. Upanishad Vicharah - a multi-part series on the concepts propounded in the
Upanishads.
4. Upaadhi Dhyotanam a multi-part series with slokas explaining madhvacharyas
upaadhi khandanam and answering of the same.
5. Panchasutram a set of five sutras summarizing the entire scriptures.
6. Vedanta Mata Sankshepah briefly analysis of a concept/term (and the various ways
in which it is interpreted) in Vedanta.
7. Shraddhaa Nirupanam a short work on shraddhaa (faith). This section is dedicated
to original work written but not explained in depth in order to help sadhakas in
reflection of the concepts themselves.

1. Comments
2. Suggestions
3. Corrections (word, sloka, content etc.)
4. Would like to see specific content
5. Would like to contribute (through research from websites, dont need to write up the
content yourself)
Mail admin@vedantatattva.org.

Feel free to forward this to anyone who might be interested.
Online download of the magazine can be found at
http://vedantatattva.org/vedantagroup/VedantaMadhuryam
Subscribing and unsubscribing can be done by mailing admin@vedantatattva.org.