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MILLS COLLEGE OAKLAND, CA

Economic Impact
Of Oakland First Fridays
Victoria Swift, MPP 1/10/2014

This report measures the economic activity created by the monthly event known as Oakland First Fridays. It measures what economic impact the event has on the city of Oakland, CA. Analysis consists of three surveys conducted on three different stakeholder groups during a five month time span.

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Special Thanks To: Shari Godinez, KONO CBD Dr. Sharyl Rabinovici, Mills College Kacey Bills, Mills College KONO Board (Specifically: Phil Porter and Sonja Brooks) Oakland First Fridays Community Group: (Specifically: Isioma Copes, James Copes, Richard Felix, and Edward Yoo) Dr. Mark Henderson, Mills College Business Owners and Merchants in the Area

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Executive Summary The purpose of this report is to investigate how the monthly regional event Oakland First Fridays influences economic decisions in the community and its impact on the local economy. Between March and August 2013 surveys were distributed to observe Oakland First Fridays effect on the spending and business habits of the following populations:

Population 1. Brick and mortar business owners near the event location 2. Event vendors 3. Event attendees

Contacted 115 230 200

Returned Response 36 30 61

Across all three groups, indicators reveal Oakland First Fridays is providing a positive economic impact for the city of Oakland:  Businesses are consistently generating higher revenue on event nights, hiring more staff, and investing in property improvements. Business owners report increases in revenue on event nights by as much as 100 to 250 percent.  The event has created a business incubator space, providing unique opportunities that allow new entrepreneurs to enter the vending market at minimal cost. Thirty-eight percent of vendors report Oakland First Friday as their first event, of those first time vendors, all continue vending at other events throughout the city.   The event generates a consistent income vendors rely on; if the event no longer continued, 48 percent of venders would need supplemental income. Attendees are coming from all across the Bay Area to spend their non-local dollars in Oakland creating a retail surplus. The average attendee spends eighty dollars per visit on restaurants, shopping, and transportation.  BART officials report ridership increases by 5,000 individuals at the 19th Street station on nights of the event. Additionally, Oakland First Fridays is generating positive buzz in Oakland during a time of city-wide violence when the need for community connectivity is great:  Oakland First Fridays webpage has ten-thousand hits per month with 40 percent of traffic occurring on the first Friday of each month.

Economic Impact of Oakland First Fridays  

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Real-estate companies are adding Oakland First Fridays as an amenity to their neighborhood property listings. Major national news organizations have profiled the event as a positive attribute helping revitalize downtown Oakland.

Combined this evidence suggests that Oakland is benefiting from Oakland First Fridays in a variety of ways worthwhile to support.

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Table of Contents
Importance of Community Events ................................................................................................................ 5 Economic Impact Analysis............................................................................................................................. 6 Methods ........................................................................................................................................................ 6 Brick and Mortar Business Survey ............................................................................................................ 6 Vendor Survey ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Event Attendee Survey ............................................................................................................................. 9 Primary Findings............................................................................................................................................ 9 Brick and Mortar Business Survey ............................................................................................................ 9 Economic Outcomes. .......................................................................................................................... 10 General Operations. ............................................................................................................................ 12 Event Preferences. .............................................................................................................................. 14 Discussion............................................................................................................................................ 16 Vendor Survey Results ............................................................................................................................ 17 Economic Outcomes. .......................................................................................................................... 17 General Operations. ............................................................................................................................ 18 Discussion............................................................................................................................................ 19 Attendee Survey...................................................................................................................................... 20 Economic Outcomes. .......................................................................................................................... 20 Discussion............................................................................................................................................ 23 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 23 Appendix 1 Brick and Mortar Survey Questions ......................................................................................... 25 Appendix 1.1 Actual Revenue in Dollar Amounts (by Sector)..................................................................... 32 Appendix 2 Vender Survey Questions ........................................................................................................ 33 Appendix 3 Attendee Survey Questions ..................................................................................................... 38 Appendix 4 History of Oakland First Fridays ............................................................................................... 39 Works Cited ................................................................................................................................................. 42

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Importance of Community Events
Around the globe, municipal governments are turning to community art and special events as an important community development strategy (Madyaningrum, 2010; Wood, 2005). Research indicates that special events typically require only a small amount of capital investment but can generate substantial revenue to communities (Gursoy, 2003). In Australia, community art is viewed as a cultural practice and instrument for social change (Madyaningrum, 2010). In the United Kingdom, local authorities are using events to achieve diverse ranges of economic and social objectives (Wood, 2005). Special events and festivals can build cohesion and trust in the community by reinforcing ties through providing a time and place for members to come together and demonstrate commitment to each other as well as communication (Gursoy, 2003). Such events also allow individuals to connect crossgenerationally and beyond racial boundaries, “it is where stories of those who are marginalized are made visible” (Madyaningrum, 2010). Additionally, special events and festivals provide opportunities and incentives for businesses. In a 2005 study by the UK Centre for Event Management, 92 percent of attendees of a local event indicated they would not have visited the community under normal circumstances (Wood, 2005). It was determined that each attendee created £13.27 (roughly $20 U.S. dollars) of additional revenue for the local economy (Wood, 2005). Currently in Oakland, California a monthly event known as Oakland First Fridays offers a similar benefit. Oakland First Fridays began in 2005 when a group of gallery owners coordinated programming efforts for a once a month open house free to the public. According to Danielle Fox, one art gallery owner, the aim of the project was to bring more visitors to see gallery exhibitions (Fox, 2013). The popularity of the event ballooned through word of mouth and began attracting thousands of attendees each month. Rogue venders began appearing on streets surrounding the art galleries which in turn attracted additional artists, musicians, and other performers. After nine years the event extended through ten blocks of city streets attracting between 10,000 -20,000 attendees each month (Oakland Police Department, 2013).1 The opportunity to provide a space to continue the traditions of connecting to one another in the community has become important as barriers such as a stalled economy and increased city-wide violence has dampened participation over the past few years. As one anonymous community member
1

See Appendix 4 for the entire history of Oakland First Fridays

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explained, “Oakland First Fridays has given people in this community a place to go during some of the darkest times of this recession”. Because of the high cost and investment of producing the monthly event stakeholders have been asking if there is any measurable economic impact to the community. The objective of this analysis will be to analyze the economic activity generated by Oakland Frist Fridays.

Economic Impact Analysis
To determine the full economic value associated with Oakland First Fridays this report will use a tool known as the economic impact analysis model. This analysis illustrates that a positive impact can occur whether or not event producers generate money from the event itself. An economic impact analysis measures the economic opportunities created in a community by virtue of an event occurring (Burgan 2000). These opportunities include activities such as an increase in restaurant and bar patrons near the event, ridership on public transit to attend the event, and increases in store revenue for shop owners located close to the event space. Each of these activities requires an increase in additional staffing, which in turn creates new income opportunities for the region, thus creating a positive economic impact. The economic impact analysis model will be the basis through which the rest of this report will be analyzed.

Methods
To gain a better understanding of the full economic impact of this event, three surveys were generated and distributed to three specific stakeholder groups based on their role within the context of the event and community: (1) brick and mortar business owners near or around the event location, (2) event vendors, and (3) event attendees.

Brick and Mortar Business Survey
This survey intended to capture the experiences of brick and mortar business owners within or near the event. Whom to include was based on geographic location of the business to the event itself. Zones were created beginning with the event footprint and radiating outwards. 2 Areas of emphasis included blocks with a large concentration of small businesses. The zones are shown in Figure 1:

2

Footprint: a geographical area where event festivities occur

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Figure 1

Zone Names 1A 1B 2 3 4

Description Businesses inside the footprint of the Oakland First Fridays event (light red indicates the extended footprint of Oakland First Fridays prior to the city shrinking its permit) Businesses in the KONO district just above the Oakalnd First Friday event Businesses in the Uptown/Lake Merritt District just below the Oakland First Friday event Businesses in the Uptown/Lake Merritt District just outside of the Oakland First Friday event Businesses inbetween KONO, Uptown/Lake Merritt District close enough to Oakland First Fridays to be impacted (a number of art gallaries that were the orginal currators of the event are located in this area)

*Blocks excluded from this map are due to lack of businesses in the area. Any commerce south of Frank Ogawa Plaza can be attributed to activities generated from Jack London Square, thus excluded from this survey.

Each business was given a thirty-eight question survey that could be taken either online or in hard copy format created by Mills graduate student Victoria Swift under the supervision of Professor

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Sharyl Rabinovici and with a full Human Subjects Protocol Approval from Mills College.3 Responses were collected from March 4 –July 15, 2013. Business information was kept anonymous, but business particpation was tracked to prevent duplicate results. Additionally, the questionnaire was translated by the City of Oakland’s Equal Access Language Assistance office into four languages: Amharic, Arabic, Korean , and Vitanmese. There were four areas of interest the survey focused: 1) Revenue outcomes for the night of the event 2) General operations 3) Event preferences 4) Demographics of business owners

Identified Risks to Brick and Mortar Business Survey Participants. Oakland First
Fridays is highly politicized in the Oakland community. In this context, participants invited to respond may have felt uncomfortable being involved in the survey process as the topic seems to generate polarizing viewpoints. To prevent political persuasion from biasing results, respondents for the brick and mortar survey were told the purpose was to capture general experiences as a business owner concerning changes and activities occurring in and around the downtown area of Oakland. Additionally, the organization that commissioned the study, Koreatown Northgate Community Benefit District (KONO), had the potential to make some participants feel obligated to respond. KONO, CBD is a property based assessment district that provides a range of services to property owners in its district and acts as a liaison between owners and the city. Because of its perceived influence among property owners – anonymity in brick and mortar business results were established to protect respondents. Business owner data was not released to KONO board or staff or to any Oakland First Fridays volunteer organizers. Anonymity was also important to establish trust with business owners so they felt comfortable revealing financial information without compromising their business. Another risk involved a community anarchist group targeting KONO and business affiliates to oppose gentrification. This could have deterred some businesses from participating.

Responses. For the brick and mortar business survey, 36 out of 115 contacted business
owners participated, for an effective response rate of 31 percent. Because the sample size is relatively small inferential statistics will not apply.

Vendor Survey
A forty-five question online survey was created by Mills graduate student Kacey Bills and distributed electronically to the Oakland First Fridays food vendor contact list and to vendors that were

3

See Appendix 1 for Brick and Mortar Business survey questions.

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present during the June 2013 First Friday event.4 Responses were collected from May 31- July 8, 2013. The survey was divided into four major sections: 1) Revenue outcomes the night of the event 2) General Operations 3) Event preferences 4) Demographics of survey respondents.

Identified Risks to Vender Survey Participants. Event volunteers determine which
vendor participates in each event. If event volunteer organizers identified respondents based off of their answers, unintentional bias could have been created. For this reason all information was reported in aggregate terms with identifying information removed.

Responses. The vendor survey had a completion rate of 13 percent with 30 out of 230
responding. Because the sample size is relatively small inferential statistics does not apply.

Event Attendee Survey
A five question paper survey was distributed during the August 2, 2013 Oakland First Fridays event.5 Additionally business cards with QR codes that linked to an online version of the survey were also distributed.6 The survey focused on three areas: 1) Economic Outcomes 2) How often the attendee came to the event 3) the zip code of where the attendee lived.

Identified Risks to Attendee Survey Participants. None. Responses. The event attendee survey had 200 solicitations with 61 responses from a crowd
of ten-thousand attendees (Oakland 2013). Because the sample size is relatively small inferential statistics does not apply.

Primary Findings
Brick and Mortar Business Survey
The brick and mortar business survey focused on businesses owners located near the event footprint. It is important to track business outcomes because it illustrates how much event attendees are willing to spend. More localized spending slows retail leakage, which is where community members spend money outside of the community. It also increases demand for the production of local goods and services and creates more labor hours – all things which ultimately grow an economy.

4 5

See Appendix 2 for vendor survey questions See Appendix 3 for attendee survey questions 6 A type of barcode, when scanned it will link to a URL

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Economic Outcomes. Participating businesses in the area report an increase in overall revenue on event Friday nights versus non-event Friday nights. Figure 2 shows the cumulative average and median revenue of five dates between January and March 2013 (Oakland First Fridays dates include: January 4, February 1, and March 1; Non-event dates include: January 18 and February 15). The average revenue shows higher revenue estimates on First Friday dates and lower ones on non-First Friday dates. This illustrates that the event is having a direct impact on sales for business owners within the immediate footprint. The lack of increase in the median and the overall difference between the medians and averages for all dates suggests that not all surveyed businesses experience the same positive bump—some are benefitting more than others.
Figure 2

Cumulative Average and Median Revenue of Brick and Mortar Business in 2013
$7,000.00 $6,000.00 $5,000.00 $4,000.00 $3,000.00 $2,000.00 $1,000.00 $0.00

January 4 January 18 February 1 February 15 March 1
Average Median

A summary of revenue totals by business sector is show in Figure 3. It appears that bars and restaurants overall do better on event dates. This data matches evidence received by KONO staff anecdotally. One restaurateur confided that he makes 70 percent of his monthly profit on the night of the event.
Figure 3

Food market or convenience store Service provider Restaurant Bar/lounge Beauty/Hair supply or service Restaurant WITH bar Retail/Boutique Art Gallery* Other

January 4, 2013 January 18, 2013 February 1, 2013 February 15, 2013 $49,763.00 Declined to Answer Declined to Answer Declined to Answer $18,251.00 $3,000.50 $750.50 $17,500.50 $17,500.50 $7,500.50 $17,500.50 $7,500.50 $12,550.50 $8,694.50 $30,298.00 $4,226.50 $3,000.50 $7,500.50 $7,500.50 $17,500.50 $3,000.50 $3,000.50 $3,000.50 $3,000.50 $2,576.50 $1,196.50 $2,335.00 $1,482.00 $400.50 $150.00 $380.00 $0.00 $350.50 $300.50 $300.50 $300.50

March 1, 2013 $51,267.00 $300.50 $17,500.50 $9,297.50 $7,500.50 $3,000.50 $3,395.00 $200.00 $300.50

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It is important to note that Art Galleries reported extremely low revenue for event dates. The majority of transactions created from patrons that visit during Oakland First Fridays occur after event dates according to Art Murmur executive director David Abernathy (Abernathy 2013). Service sector businesses, such as insurance and doctor offices, appear to overall do better on non-event nights than event nights. This is predictable as service businesses tend to operate in a traditional model. Event traffic, noise, and chaos may deter potential clients. However, most service sector businesses generally are closed within the first hour of the event and noted it did not have too much of an impact on their operations. Data indicates business owners who find creative ways to market products or services to event attendees often generate more revenue on event nights than those business owners who maintain traditional service models. Creative approaches include things like setting up display tables in the event footprint enticing attendees to stop by their business location, setting up large sampling spaces in front of buildings, and selling alternative menu items.

Overall participating businesses report an increase in revenue between 100 and 250 percent when comparing non-event dates with event dates. Again, results vary based on business sector. Figures 4 and 5 illustrate this percentage change in revenue from a typical Friday to an event Friday. Bars and restaurants experience the highest increases in profitability on event nights, while service providers loose revenue. A summary of actual reported revenue in dollars is shown in Appendix 1.1.

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Figure 4

JANUARY 18 < -> FEBRUARY 1
300% 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0%

Bar/lounge

Other

Beauty/Hair supply or service

Restaurant WITH bar

-50% -100%

Figure 5

FEBRUARY 15 < -> MARCH 1
250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0%

Food market or convenience store

Bar/lounge

Beauty/Hair supply or service

Restaurant WITH bar

Other

Food market or convenience store

-50% -100% -150%

General Operations. Seventy-three percent of responding business owners report staying open during Oakland First Fridays, and 15 percent report normal business hours do not coincide with event times. No owner choses to close their business during the time of the event. This demonstrates a willingness among owners to participate in this new market opportunity.

Service provider

Retail/Boutique

Art Gallery

Restaurant

Service provider

Restaurant

Retail/Boutique

Art Gallery

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Figure 6

PERCENT OF BUSINESSES OPEN DURING EVENT HOURS
73.08%

15.38% 3.85% Yes No, my normal hours Yes but only for a of operation do not portion of the time fall between this time 0.00% No, I choose to close my business on the First Friday of Each Month

Sixty-one percent of brick and mortar business owners report that Oakland First Fridays affects their staffing decisions. Most respondents note they hire additional staff to meet demand during peak event times. This is important because additional labor hours expand economic opportunity.
Figure 7

Does First Friday Affect Your Staffing Decisions?

No 39%

Yes 61%

Additionally 35 percent of business owners report making property improvements to their business in the past year. The most cited reason is to change aesthetic or visual appeal followed by accommodating an increase in capacity. In an area notoriously fighting blight for decades, a surge of property owner investment and improvement is an indicator of security and pride in the community.

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Figure 8

REASONS FOR PROPERTY IMPROVEMENTS
72.73% Change aesthetic or visual appeal 54.55% Increase capacity Repair Damages 27.27% 18.18% 9.09% Other Negate unwanted traffic

Event Preferences. At the height of its popularity the footprint of Oakland First Fridays begin at 19th Street and stretched to 27th Street along the Telegraph Avenue corridor. In February 2013, however, a tragic shooting occurred in the middle of the footprint resulting in the death of an eight-teen year old attendee. Alarmed and pressured by the public city officials begin evaluating safety and crowd control management of the event. After a series of stakeholder and community meetings the City of Oakland determined to reduce the footprint by almost half its size and recognized an official start and end time. The new footprint began at W. Grand Avenue and ran along Telegraph Avenue to 27th Street. The new official event time was set from 5pm-9pm. Business owners were asked their opinion on the new street closure and event curfew. Sixty-four percent of brick and mortar business owners agree with closing Telegraph Avenue to auto traffic during the event. Most noted pedestrian safety is the main concern.

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Figure 9

Do you Agree or Disagree with the street closures on Telegraph Ave
Neither Agree nor Disagree 14% Disagree 4%
Agree

Strongly Disagree 18% Strongly Agree 21%

Agree 43%

Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree

The majority of business owners prefer to keep the current event footprint that extends from 27th Street and Telegraph Avenue to West Grand and Telegraph Avenue.
Figure 10

Preference of Footprint
More streets Closed 12%
27th to W. Grand

Do Not Close 20% 27th PAST W. Grand 20%

27th to W. Grand 48%

27th PAST W. Grand Do Not Close More Streets Closed

Forty-one percent of business owners approve of the 9pm closing time for the event. This opinion contrasts with results received from event vendors, who preferred a closing time of 11pm.

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Figure 11

Preference for Ending Time

Other 22%

9pm 41%

11pm 19% 10pm 18%

It should be noted there is minor frustration toward the event among business owners located just beyond the footprint. Most of their complaints involve litter left by attendees (a problem that could be easily resolved with coordination among other business improvement districts in the area). Additionally those same business owners report an increase in public intoxication incidences in and around their business after the event ends. However, for the November and December 2013 events, there were no reported arrests of public intoxication stemming from event activities (Oakland Police, 2013). This may be indicative of police efforts focusing on public safety limiting public drinking of alcoholic beverages within the event footprint.

Discussion. According to KONO the previous commercial vacancy rate prior to the popularity of Oakland First Fridays in 2010 was 47 percent; as of December 2013 the vacancy rate was 12 percent (Godinez, 2013). KONO attributes this improvement partially to the success and notoriety of Oakland First Fridays. Additionally, new business owners report to KONO they are moving to the area specifically to be within the event footprint. The willingness of business owners to relocate and participate in the event marketplace illustrates the creation of new economic opportunities generated by Oakland First Fridays.

Increase in revenue on event nights, building improvement investments, hiring additional staff and keeping businesses open during the event are signs that local brick and mortar businesses are

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incorporating Oakland First Fridays into their business plans. Combined, all of this data illustrates that many business owners near the event footprint are benefiting from Oakland First Fridays. This is good news for an area that is historically underdeveloped.

Vendor Survey Results
The vendor survey was distributed to vendors, artists, and performers present at the Oakland First Fridays event and to venders that were in the event organizers email list. It is important to understand how much venders rely on Oakland First Fridays for income to better determine the event’s effect in launching and sustaining new micro-businesses in the community. New small business growth is a strong indicator of regional economic success. If new business owners are relying on Oakland First Fridays as a mechanism for marketplace entry it would be in the best interest of city officials to develop business licensing and permitting processes to foster that environment and encourage economic growth.

Economic Outcomes. Forty percent of event vendors report generating revenue between
$200-$500 per event, and 15 percent of vendors report generating $500-$1000 per event. This revenue is collected from a four hour period between 5pm and 9pm (which equates to earning roughly $125$250 per hour).7

Figure 12

Vendor Single Day Revenue
45.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% $0-$25 $25-$50 $50-$100 $100-$200 $200-$500 $500-$1000

7

Based on upper bounds calculations.

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Seventy-four percent of vendors report revenue generated from the event cover their cost of participating in Oakland First Fridays.

General Operations. Sixty-four percent of respondents reported vending/performing/displaying art as their main source of income. Over 30 percent of vendors report vending at eleven to twelve Oakland First Fridays each year.8 Forty-eight percent report if they were unable to vend/perform/display art at Oakland First Fridays they would need to find another source of income. Thirty-eight percent of vendors report that Oakland First Fridays was the first event they had ever vended. All of those first time vendors report going on to vend at other events throughout Oakland. This demonstrates that Oakland First Fridays is become a venue for individuals to launch a new business.

Figure 13

Number of Oakland First Friday Events Vended Annualy
Percent of Respondants
35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12

First Friday Event Per Year

8

Oakland First Fridays occurs once a month; the most any one can attend is twelve events per year.

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Figure 14

Additional Events Vended per Month
25.00%

Percentage of Respondents

20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 1-2 2-4 4-6 6-8 8-10 10-12 12+

Events

Additionally, seventy-two percent of vendors report having an Oakland business license and 79 percent report having a California Seller’s Permit. Oakland First Fridays organizers estimate 130 venders attend each event. Forty percent of survey respondents claim to generate $1,000-$5,000 a year from participating in Oakland Firsts Fridays. Conservatively, this means the event generates $52,000 in vendor revenue per month.9 This results in total annual revenue transactions of $624,000 each year that streams into the economy just from vendor activity. Keep in mind this is for vendor revenue only and excludes any sales tax the City of Oakland or that Alameda County might gain from transactions occurring from brick and mortar businesses.

Discussion. Vendors are benefiting from Oakland First Fridays. The event is generating a business incubator space that creates a unique opportunity allowing new entrepreneurs to enter the market at minimal cost. This is something exclusive to Oakland First Fridays because of its nominal vending fees in comparison to other local events that sometimes charge $200 or more for space (Art and Soul, 2013). This opportunity also benefits low-income vendors as barriers of entry are removed. These new vendors continue working other events throughout the region multiplying their impact in the local economy. This is good news for the City of Oakland especially as city officials are concentrating efforts on campaigns to improve new business generation and growth.

9

130 vendors(40%) = 52 vendors ($1,000) =$52,000

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Attendee Survey
The Attendee survey was distributed to individuals present during an Oakland First Fridays event. It is important to track typical attendee spending to determine how much additional economic revenue attendees contribute locally. The revenue generated by attendees is assumed to otherwise not exist if the event did not occur. Economic Outcomes. Event attendees on average spend $80 each time they come to Oakland First Fridays. Figure 15 shows attendee purchases based on consumer category.
Figure 15

Average Amount Attendee Spends at Oakland First Fridays
$25.00 $20.00 $15.00 $10.00 $5.00 $0.00

The three largest categories are food, vendor shopping, and transportation, accounting for nearly 65 percent of all spending. The large spending in transportation reflects the data reported from BART officials as well. Figure 16 is what BART has dubbed the “Uptown EKG”. It tracks ridership at the 19th Street BART station over the course of a year. The peak points in Figure 16 correlate with the dates of Oakland First Fridays (representing what looks like a heartbeat, “the heartbeat of Oakland”). On average during those event dates BART receives around 15,000 riders when normally it only averages 10,000.

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Figure 16

Additionally the event continues to bring new attendees to Oakland with nearly 25 percent of attendees reporting the August 2013 event as their first time attending. Over 15 percent report they attend almost every month.
Figure 17

How many times do you attend Oakland First Fridays each year?
30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%

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Attendees were also asked where they were visiting from. The map below indicates their responses. The majority appear to come from outlying cities in the East Bay. However, attendees report traveling as far as Sacramento and Palo Alto, and two event attendees are from out of state, Colorado and Pennsylvania.
Figure 18

Additionally, Google Search Trends indicate that news headlines for “Oakland First Fridays” is on the rise as show in Figure 19. Figure 20 illustrates “Art Murmur” news headline search rates as well. This is a good indicator to sense the relevancy of the event among the public.

Figure 19 (Oakland First Fridays)

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Figure 20 (Art Murmur)

The website company that hosts the Oakland First Fridays site reports 10,000 hits a month with 40 percent of those searches occurring on the first Friday of each month (Tolioupov, 2013). This evidence combined illustrates that Oakland First Fridays is a popular trending topic among internet users in the region. Note that minimal marketing effort is managed by event organizers. Most publicity is done through media outlets seeking to speak with event leaders. Additionally, online real-estate listings are adding Oakland First Fridays to their lists of amenities indicating its proximity to the event as an additional perk for would be buyers (Berkeley, 2013). This illustrates that the event has marketing appeal in sectors beyond just traditional retail. Oakland First Fridays is become an avant-garde status symbol (of sorts) to promote local property among real estate agents.

Discussion. Oakland First Fridays maintains enough appeal to attract new attendees, and is also strong enough to sustain a returning loyal audience. Individuals are traveling across the region to spend dollars in the Oakland community during a time when mass retail leakage has been affecting the city10. Media outlets and online communities view Oakland First Fridays as a trending popular topic. Sectors not traditionally affiliated with events, such as real-estate, are receiving benefits from the notoriety and popularity of Oakland First Fridays. This is all good news for Oakland as it can use this positive public relations momentum to propel its reputation as an avant-garde city and competitive tourism destination within the region.

Conclusion
Overall Oakland First Fridays is providing real economic opportunity for growth by generating meaningful work, business growth, positive public relations momentum, and additional economic

10

Retail leakage: members of a community spend money outside of the community

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activity that otherwise would not exist but for the event. The data from the three studies summarized in this report suggest an overall positive response from the community. Municipalities across the world are spending significant amounts of resources in their efforts to establish regional events that have the appeal and outcomes similar to Oakland First Fridays. The City of Oakland has an opportunity to enhance the event using a minimal amount of its resources to help it continue successfully. Helping to sustain Oakland First Fridays and make it an ongoing attraction for the region is a strong economic development investment. The city can continue rallying its efforts to support Oakland First Fridays by:   Reallocating some of Measure C funding to event organizers to better stabilize its infrastructure Working with the Special Business Permits office and Economic Workforce Development department to find creative solutions that will protect and foster the entrepreneurial environment of Oakland First Fridays  Encouraging further cooperation among city agencies like the Oakland Police Department and Public Works to address public safety and cleanliness concerns for areas beyond the event footprint  Promoting Oakland First Fridays in official city marketing campaigns and Visit Oakland materials as a tourist destination for the region Additionally, it may be helpful for policy analysts to re-evaluate outcomes with similar surveys in twelve to sixteen months to document trends and verify any changes in effects, needs, or conditions.

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Appendix 1 Brick and Mortar Survey Questions
1. Which of the following categories would best describe your business? a. Art Gallery b. Bar/lounge c. Food market or convenience store d. Hair/Beauty supply or service e. Retail/Boutique f. Restaurant g. Restaurant WITH bar h. Service provider (e.g., business services) i. My business does not fit into any of these categories 2. How long have you been in business at this location? a. Under 6 months b. 7-11 months c. 1-2 years d. 3-5 years e. 6-10 years f. 11-15 years g. 16-24 years h. 25+ years 3. On average, how many employees are kept on staff throughout the year at this specific location? a. I am the only employee b. 1-5 employees c. 6-10 employees d. 11-25 employees e. 26-50 employees f. 51-99 employees g. I00+ employees 4. Approximately what fraction of your employees are full-time? (40+ hours a week) a. 100% b. 75%-99% c. 50%-74% d. 25%-49% e. 10%-24% f. Under 10% of my employees are full-time g. None of my employees are full-time

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5. Approximately what fraction of your employees are seasonal? a. 100% b. 75%-99% c. 50%-74% d. 25%-49% e. 10%-24% f. Under 10% of my employees are seasonal g. None of my employees are seasonal 6. Have you made property or large maintenance improvements to your business to increase or decrease business capacity in the last year? a. Yes b. No 6.1 If you answered yes, can you please explain those improvements in the text box below: 6.2 What prompted your decision for these property or maintenance improvements? (select all that apply) c. Change aesthetic or visual appeal d. Increase capacity e. Negate unwanted traffic f. Repair damages g. None of the above h. Other The next few questions will ask information regarding business revenue. If you are uncomfortable revealing this information, you do have the option to decline answering. However, keep in mind any identifying information will be removed and all the responses will be reported in aggregated (average or summed) units among all survey respondents. By completing this information to the best of your ability, it will enable a more thorough understanding of economic experiences occurring in the district. 7. Overall, which of the following best describes your business’ recent revenue history? a. 2012 was BETTER than 2011 b. 2012 was WORSE than 2011 c. 2012 was about the SAME as 2011 d. Does not apply 8. What was your annual gross revenue (before taxes) for 2012? I do not feel comfortable revealing this information

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9. (If participant chooses not to answer question): What range do you estimate your gross annual revenue for 2012? a. Under $10,000 b. $10,001 - $25,000 c. $25,001 - $50,000 d. $50,001 - $75,000 e. $75,001-$100,000 f. 100,001 - $250,000 g. $250,001 - $500,000 h. $500,001 - $750,000 i. $750,001 - $999,999 j. $1 Million + The following section will ask revenue questions about specific time frames. All respondents are encouraged to take a moment and refer to business records as needed for the month of January 2013 and March 2013. Remember you can save this survey and return to complete it at any time. You have the option to skip or answer in general terms if preferred. Completing this section will help clarify what city actions may or may not have an impact on your business revenue. 10. Referring specifically to January 2013, what was your gross monthly revenue (before taxes)? I do not feel comfortable revealing this information 11. (If participant chooses not to answer question): What range do you estimate your gross revenue for January 2013? a. Under $5,000 b. $5,001 - $10,000 c. $10,001 - $15,000 d. $15,001 - $20,000 e. $20,001 - $50,000 f. $50,001 - $99,999 g. Over $100,000 h. Decline to Answer 12. What was your gross revenue on Friday, January 4, 2013? I do not feel comfortable revealing this information 13. (If participant chooses not to answer question): What range do you estimate your gross revenue on January 4, 2013? a. Under $100 b. $101 - $500 c. $501-$1000 d. $1001 - $5000

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e. f. g. h. i.

$5001 - $10,000 $10,001 - $25,000 Over $25,000 Not open on that date Decline to Answer

14. What was your gross revenue on January 18, 2013? I do not feel comfortable revealing this information 15. (If participant chooses not to answer question): What range do you estimate your gross revenue on January 18, 2013? a. Under $100 b. $101 - $500 c. $501-$1000 d. $1001 - $5000 e. $5001 - $10,000 f. $10,001 - $25,000 g. Over $25,000 h. Not open on that date i. Decline to Answer 16. What was your gross revenue on February 1, 2013? I do not feel comfortable revealing this information 17. (If participant chooses not to answer question): What range do you estimate your gross revenue on February 1, 2013? a. Under $100 b. $101 - $500 c. $501-$1000 d. $1001 - $5000 e. $5001 - $10,000 f. $10,001 - $25,000 g. Over $25,000 h. Not open on that date i. Decline to Answer 18. What was your gross revenue on February 15, 2013? I do not feel comfortable revealing this information 19. (If participant chooses not to answer question): What range do you estimate your gross revenue on February 15, 2013? a. Under $100 b. $101 - $500 c. $501-$1000

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d. e. f. g. h. i.

$1001 - $5000 $5001 - $10,000 $10,001 - $25,000 Over $25,000 Not open on that date Decline to Answer

20. What was your gross revenue on Friday, March 1, 2013? I do not feel comfortable revealing this information 21. (If participant chooses not to answer question): What range do you estimate your gross revenue on March 1, 2013? a. Under $100 b. $101 - $500 c. $501-$1000 d. $1001 - $5000 e. $5001 - $10,000 f. $10,001 - $25,000 g. Over $25,000 h. Not open on that date i. Decline to Answer 22. Do you keep your business open between 5pm-9pm on the First Friday of each month? a. Yes b. Yes, but only for a portion of the time c. No, I choose to close my business on the First Friday of each month d. No, my normal hours of operation do not fall between this time 23. Please explain? 24. Does the First Friday event effect your staffing decisions? (This could include hiring security, parking attendants, or regular staff) a. Yes b. No 25. If yes, please explain: 26. Have you done any additional maintenance to your building in direct response to First Friday? (This can include but not be limited to redesigning retail space, graffiti cleanup, façade changes, etc.) a. Yes b. No 27. Please explain:

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28. Have you needed to apply for additional permits or licensing through the city in response to First Friday festivities? (This could include but not be limited to permits like parking, Cabaret license, liquor license, etc.) a. Yes b. No 29. If yes please elaborate in text box below 30. In terms of First Friday, do you agree or disagree with the decision to have street closures on Telegraph Avenue? a. Strongly Disagree b. Disagree c. Neither Disagree or Agree d. Agree e. Strongly Agree 31. Please explain? 32. When thinking about street closures for First Friday which do you prefer: a. Closing Telegraph from 27th to West Grand b. Closing Telegraph from 27th past West Grand into the Uptown district c. I do not believe Telegraph should be closed d. I would like even more streets to be closed e. Other 33. Please explain? 34. In general, which time would you prefer First Friday festivities end? a. 9pm b. 10pm c. 11pm d. Other 35. Do you have any additional thoughts or information to share about your business’ experience in regard to First Friday? Demographic Information of Business Owner (Optional) 36. What is your Ethnicity? a. African American b. American Indian

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c. Asian or Pacific Islander d. Latino e. White f. Other 37. What is your primary language? a. Amharic b. Chinese c. English d. Korean e. Spanish f. Vietnamese g. Other 38. What is your gender? a. Male b. Female

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Appendix 1.1 Actual Revenue in Dollar Amounts (by Sector)
Figure 2a Figure 2b

January 4 (First Friday)
$55,000.00 $50,000.00 $45,000.00 $40,000.00 $35,000.00 $30,000.00 $25,000.00 $20,000.00 $15,000.00 $10,000.00 $5,000.00 $0.00 $55,000.00 $50,000.00 $45,000.00 $40,000.00 $35,000.00 $30,000.00 $25,000.00 $20,000.00 $15,000.00 $10,000.00 $5,000.00 $0.00

January 18 (Non-First Friday)

Figure 2

Figure 2d

February 1 (First Friday)
$55,000.00 $50,000.00 $45,000.00 $40,000.00 $35,000.00 $30,000.00 $25,000.00 $20,000.00 $15,000.00 $10,000.00 $5,000.00 $0.00 $55,000.00 $50,000.00 $45,000.00 $40,000.00 $35,000.00 $30,000.00 $25,000.00 $20,000.00 $15,000.00 $10,000.00 $5,000.00 $0.00

February 15 (Non First Friday)

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Appendix 2 Vender Survey Questions
1. Which of the following best describes your participation with First Fridays? a. Art Vendor b. Food Vendor c. Retail Vendor d. Performer/Entertainer e. Displaying art that is not for purchase f. Other 1.1 Please briefly describe your product or merchandise 1.2 Which category best describes your food: g. Coffee h. Cuisine i. Dessert j. Other 1.3 Please describe your cuisine: (Ex. Mexican, Italian, Korean, etc.) 2. How many First Friday events do you participate in throughout the year as a vendor/artist/performer? a. 1-2 b. 3-4 c. 5-6 d. 7-8 e. 9-10 f. 11-12 3. Is First Friday the first event you have ever vended/performed/displayed art? a. Yes, First Friday was the first event I ever vended b. No, I was a vendor at other events prior to First Friday 4. Do you participate as a vendor/artist/performer at other events outside of First Friday? a. Yes b. No 5. How many times (or events) per month do you vend/perform/display art? a. 1-2 b. 2-4 c. 4-6 d. 6-8 e. 10-12 f. 12+ 6. Please list other events where you are a vendor/artists/performer 7. Do you notify your clients/audience when you are vending/performing/displaying art at First Friday? a. Yes

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8.

9.

10.

11.

b. No c. Sometimes How do you market your participation in this event? a. Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) b. Blogs (Wordpress, Tumblr, Instagram, etc.) c. Media advertising (print newspapers, radio spots, etc.) d. Email e. Fliers f. Word of Mouth g. Other h. I do not market my participation Are you aware that vendors/artists/performers should be contacting a block coordinator (listed on the First Friday website) to participate in First Friday? a. Yes b. No Do you contact a block coordinator EVERY TIME you plan on vending/displaying art/performing? a. Yes b. No How would you rate the overall effectiveness of communication and access to block coordinators? A+ A AB+ B BC+ C CD+ D DF

12.

13.

14.

15.

11. 1. Please explain your rating Do you consistently vend/perform/display art on the same block for First Friday? a. Yes b. No Would you prefer to vend/display art on the same block for every First Friday? a. Yes b. No c. Indifferent Would you be willing to pay a vending/performing/display fee to participate in First Friday? a. Yes b. No c. Indifferent What about would you be willing to pay? $30 $60 $90 $120 $150 $180 $210 $240 $270 $300

16. Any additional comments or suggestions regarding First Friday operations practices? 17. Is your business in its incubation period (i.e. beginning stages)? a. Yes b. No 18. What would you like to have available for your business incubation? (Select all that apply) a. Expertise in marketing, social media, and website development

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19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

b. Micro-loan for business permit and tax certificate c. Pop-up storefront/retail/gallery space for free or reduced rates d. Shared space with computers, conference rooms, internet and printers Does the revenue you generate at First Friday cover the costs of vending/performing/displaying art at the event? a. Yes b. No c. Break Even d. Not Applicable Is vending/performing/displaying art your main source of income? a. Yes b. No If you were unable to vend/perform/display art at First Friday how much would your livelihood be effected? a. Small effect: Lose extra disposable income b. Medium effect: Need to find a new source of income c. Large effect: Will not be able to afford monthly expenses d. No effect on livelihood How interested are you in placing your vending product in a retail store or restaurant? a. Very b. Somewhat c. Not Very d. Not at all How interested are you in Opening your own retail store or restaurant? a. Very b. Somewhat c. Not Very d. Not at all What is your average revenue from one First Friday event? a. $0-$25 b. $25-$50 c. $50-$100 d. $100-$200 e. $200-$500 f. $500-$1000 g. $1000-$1500 h. $1500-$2000 i. $2000-$2500 j. $2500+ k. Non Applicable

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25. What is your annual revenue from First Fridays? a. $0-$50 b. $50-$100 c. $100-$500 d. $500-$1000 e. $1000-$5000 f. $5000-$10,000 g. $10,000 - $20,000 h. $20,000+ i. Non Applicable 26. Do you have an Oakland business license? a. Yes b. No c. Unsure 27. Have you ever applied for an Oakland business license? a. Yes b. No c. Unsure 28. Do you have a California sellers permit? a. Yes b. No c. Unsure 29. Do you have any additional thoughts or suggestions about Oakland First Fridays operations? 30. What is your gender? a. Male b. Female 31. What is your Race/Ethnicity? a. American Indian or Alaska Native b. Asian c. Black or African American d. Hispanic or Latino e. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander f. White g. Other 32. Please select your age range? a. 0-18 b. 18-25 c. 25-35 d. 45-55 e. 55-65 f. 65+ 33. What level of education have you completed? a. Currently in middle school or high school b. Did not complete high school

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c. High school graduate or equivalent (GED) d. Some College e. Associates Degree f. Bachelor Degree g. Master Degree h. Doctorate Degree i. Other 34. Employment status, are you currently… a. Employed for wages b. Self-employed c. Out of work and looking for employment d. Out of work but not currently looking for employment e. Homemaker f. Student g. Retired h. Unable to work

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Appendix 3 Attendee Survey Questions
To assist us in measuring the economic impact of Oakland First Fridays, I would like to ask you some questions about your expenditures while visiting Oakland. Your information will remain anonymous. 1. For the number of people in your group, including children, for your trip to Oakland to attend Oakland First Fridays, how much did you spend on: a. Transportation $____________ b. Food & Non-Alcoholic Drink $______________ c. Alcohol/Tobacco/ Cannabis $__________ d. Shopping at Oakland First Friday Vendor Booths $___________ e. Shopping at other businesses while visiting Oakland during your Oakland First Friday Trip $_____________ f. Entertainment (movies, clubs, concerts) $________________ g. Overnight Accommodations $_______________ h. Other/Misc. $_________________ 2. How often do you attend Oakland First Fridays throughout the year? (please select one) This is my first time Friday 1 2 3 I come to every First 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

3. What is your zip code? ______________________ 4. Are you interested in receiving Oakland First Fridays updates and announcements? Yes____ No____ 5. Oakland First Fridays needs volunteers! Are you interested in learning about volunteer opportunities? Yes____ No______

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Appendix 4 History of Oakland First Fridays
Contributions by Shari Godinez (KONO, CBD), Danielle Fox (Art Murmur), and Rock Paper Scissors In 2005 a group of Oakland art gallery owners, known as Art Murmur, coordinated programming efforts for a once a month open house free to the public. The aim of the project was to bring more visitors to see gallery exhibitions. The event occurred on the first Friday of each month, and both the event and the group organizing it came to be known as Oakland Art Murmur. The activity was just what Oakland needed during a stalled economy, and “Art Murmur” became a popular destination of choice every first Friday. It became so successful galleries found themselves having trouble managing attendees who began overflowing into outside streets. The Rock Paper Scissors Collective, one of the participating art galleries made up of volunteers, applied for an event permit to block the street from auto-traffic to protect pedestrians and provide greater accessibility to the larger non-gallery community. The permit was filed for a monthly craft fair dubbed, ‘the 23rd Street Fair’, after the name of the street in front of the galleries. In conjunction with Oakland Art Murmur, the Rock Paper Scissors Collective managed the monthly fair while KONO, CBD provided security and sanitation. Additional vendors continued to show up each month, setting up on sidewalks beyond the craft fair boundaries. Concerns for pedestrian safety mounted as vendors took over Telegraph Avenue, a major thoroughfare that runs through downtown Oakland. Oakland Art Murmur and the Rock Paper Scissors Collective, recognizing it did not want the responsibility of managing street activities in a large area of downtown, sought assistance from the city. However, because of severe budget cuts the City of Oakland could offer little assistance. As First Fridays grew more unwieldy, drawing up to 10,000 visitors to the neighborhood each month, Art Murmur decided to officially separate itself from anything occurring outside of its member galleries’ doors and in June 2012 closed the 23rd Street Fair. After Oakland Art Murmur stepped away, there was no organization taking responsibility for street activities, no event permits, no programmatic organization, and no publication of the event. However, despite this disorganization, vendors and visitors still appeared every first Friday of the month. Pedestrians, performers, and Occupy Oakland took over festivities for two months, holding impromptu parties and demonstrations in the street blocking auto traffic. At its height, the street was so crowded a local bus became stuck in the crowd. Attendees began writing graffiti on the outside of the bus before the driver could snake its way through the pedestrian traffic. The local transit authority took it upon themselves to reroute the remaining bus schedule for the night.

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Again, concerned for pedestrian safety KONO, CBD approached the City Administrator requesting help, specifically to close down Telegraph Avenue and approaching streets. The request required additional traffic management and rerouting of major bus routes through the area, as well as increased Oakland Police Officer crowd control presence —a large and costly logistical project for the city. However, with a lot of persuasion and concern for public safety, the city agreed and word spread of the new closures. The next month exploded with even more street vendors setting up booths throughout the newly closed blocks of Telegraph Avenue and 20,000 attendees. Activities, no longer confined to a single block in front of art galleries, stretch ten blocks. The new boundaries (or ‘footprint’) began at 19th Street and ended at 27th Street. Concerned about the cities increased involvement, vendors and artists begin organizing to discuss how they would like to take charge and maintain the event to keep its character ‘organic’. The group of volunteers begin meeting every Wednesday night in September 2012 with sixty volunteers. Since no other organizations were involved the volunteers were free to structure leadership however they wanted. It was determined the volunteers would become a democratic council of majority rule with no one individual maintaining power or authority over the event. The city continued to offer its support by providing street closures and security while KONO, CBD maintained sanitation. The event under its new leadership model appeared to be successful for about six months before tragedy struck. On the night of February 1, 2013 eighteen year old Kiante Campbell was shot and killed and three other victims wounded as a result of street violence shortly after Oakland First Fridays ended. Despite a police investigation expressing the murder was not a result of event activities, members of the community used the opportunity to express their disapproval of the event. Dissonance mounted, and coupled with political pressure from prominent leaders, the city decided to scale down the event by decreasing its footprint size from ten blocks to five and shortening the ending time from 11pm to 9pm. Additionally, the city gave a deadline for phasing out safety services it could no longer provide for free and insisted that the volunteer event organizers pull a formal event permit each month just as it required of every other event in the city, or face being shut down. Volunteers approached KONO, CBD asking for a fiscal partnership while they tried to formalize. In collaboration with KONO, CBD the group focused their efforts on creating a new structure to ensure Oakland First Fridays could become self-sustaining and meet the new city requirements. Many volunteers stepped away during this time recognizing the democratic structure was slowing down decision-making activity and causing stress with its members. By the end of 2013 the partnership between KONO, CBD and Oakland First Fridays volunteers decided to hire its first staff member, an

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Event Coordinator and Fundraiser. Currently KONO, CBD and its leaders are working with the remaining Oakland First Fridays volunteers, of which there are six, to start the next phase of development, a formal Oakland First Fridays non-profit organization. This analysis is just one piece of that process.

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Works Cited
1. Art and Soul. (2013). Art and Soul Event Sign Up. Retrieved from https://register.artandsouloakland.com/event/event.php?title=Event+Signup 2. Berkeley Hills Reality. (2013). Oakland. Retrieved from
http://www.berkhills.com/communities/oakland/

3. Burgan, B. University of Technology, S., & Australian Centre for Event Management. (2000). Events beyond 2000: setting the agenda : proceedings of conference on event evaluation, research and education, Sydney, July 2000. Australian Centre for Event Management. 4. Confidence Interval Definition | Investopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved September 19, 2013, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/confidenceinterval.asp 5. Godinez, Shari. Personal Communication. 20 December 2013 6. Gursoy, Dogan, Kyungmi Kim, and Muzaffer Uysal. “Perceived Impacts of Festivals and Special Events by Organizers: An Extension and Validation.” Tourism Management 25, no. 2 (2004): 171–181. 7. Madyaningrum, Monica E., and Christopher Sonn. “Exploring the Meaning of Participation in a Community Art Project: A Case Study on the Seeming Project.” Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 21, no. 4 (2011): 358–370. 8. Oakland Police Department. Personal Communication. 6 November 2013, 17 December 2013 9. Rock Paper Scissors Collective. Personal Communication. 10 January 2014 10. Tolioupov, David. Personal Communication. 1 November 2013 11. Wood, Emma H. “Measuring the Economic and Social Impacts of Local Authority Events.” International Journal of Public Sector Management 18, no. 1 (2005): 37–53.