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Introduction to the course: objectives and organization
Studying phrasal syntax, which is the objective of this course, means that we shall be concerned with the internal structure of various types of phrases as the smallest syntactic units. The course falls into four main parts. The first part introduces basic concepts and terms used in syntactic analyses. The second part is concerned with the structure of the verb phrase, i.e. with its main elements and their combinations. Part three concentrates in detail on the structure of the noun phrase, including the adjective phrase as one of noun phrase modifiers as well as determinatives. Finally, a brief discussion of the semantics and grammar of the adverb phrase as adverbial concludes the course. Some areas and particularly the last part! will involve a great deal of self-study. The assessment will be based on a written examination paper "#$! and an interview %#$-&#$!. The written part of the exam will include a tas' dealing with the tenseaspect-mood system of the (nglish verb including modality!. The reading list includes the following chapters and)or sections from* +uir', ,andolph, Sidney -reenbaum, -eoffrey .eech, /an Svartvi' 0123!. 4 5omprehensive -rammar of the (nglish .anguage. .ondon and 6ew 7or'* .ongman. % 4 survey of (nglish grammar %.%3-&& Phrases %.&8-83 9ord classes & :erbs and auxiliaries &.3%-3; The structure of verb phrases 0; The noun phrase 3 6ouns and determiners 3.0#-%3 <eterminatives 2 The semantics and grammar of adverbials 2.0-%& =utline of semantic roles 2.%8 -rammatical functions 2.%3-%" 4djuncts 2.&1-80 4djuncts of space 2.30-38 4djuncts of time 2.;2 Process adjuncts 2.22 Subjuncts 2.0%0-0%% <isjuncts 2.0&8 5onjuncts or e>uivalent chapters from* +uir', ,andolph, Sidney -reenbaum, -eoffrey .eech, /an Svartvi' 01;%!. 4 -rammar of 5ontemporary (nglish. .ondon and 6ew 7or'* .ongman.
Shorter in some cases radically abridged! overviews of these topics are available in* +uir', ,., S. -reenbaum 01;&!. 4 ?niversity -rammar of (nglish. .ondon* .ongman. -reenbaum, S., ,. +uir' 011#!. 4 Student$s -rammar of the (nglish .anguage. .ondon* .ongman.
1. On syntax
-rammar is a term very rich in meanings. =n one interpretation, grammar includes two areas* syntax and morphology. Syntax is a traditional term used to refer to the study of the rules determining the way in which words may be combined to ultimately form sentences in a language. @t is concerned with the structure of se>uences of words, units larger than words. The term comes from -ree' and literally means $putting together$. @nformally, syntax is about the togetherness of words and morphemes!. Syntax is usually opposed to mor-phology, which deals with the structure of words, i.e. with inflection and derivation of words. These units may be phrases or clauses and sentences. 5onse>uently, syntax may be viewed as having two branches* phrasal syntax and clausal syntax.
1.1. Phrasal syntax
1.1.1. Phrase as a descriptive device: Words vs phrases vs clauses
9hat evidence is there that phrase as a concept is really necessary for the ade>uate description of syntactic phenomena, i.e. that clauses and sentences are indeed made up of phrases and not simply of wordsA Bow many sentences can be made out of the following set of wordsA 0! cat, funny, a, collect, purple, boo', the, disturbed 9hy are sentences in %! well-formed but those in &! are notA %! a. 4 purple boo' disturbed the funny cat. b. The funny boo' disturbed the cat. c. 4 funny boo' disturbed the purple cat. d. The funny cat collected the purple boo'. e. 4 purple cat collected a funny boo'. f. The purple boo' collected a funny cat. g. The funny cat disturbed a purple boo'. &! a. C5at funny a collect purple. b. CDoo' purple the disturb funny.
c. C5at purple the collect funny. @s a syntactic rule that appears to ade>uately describe %! and rule out &! and has the following format* 8! 4 well-formed (nglish sentence)clause may have the form* 4rt - 4dj - 6 - : - 4rt - 4dj - 6 in fact sufficientA @n other words, could it be hypothesiEed that categorial information associated with words may sufficeA =n this approach clauses)sentences have no internal structure apart from being left-to-right ordered strings of otherwise atomic elements, i.e. lexical items. This type of analysis can easily be proved to be severely inade>uate. First, the number of rules such rules specifying all the permitted linerar strings would be extremely large. Secondly, there is morphological and semantic evidence that phrase is a neces-sary concept. @s it possible to account for the grammar of the genitive clitic $s unless we postulate phrasesA 5f.* 3! a. This crown is the 'ing$s. b. This crown is the 'ing of (ngland$s. c. CThis crown is the 'ing$s of (ngland. d. CThis crown is very handsome$s. Semantic evidence for the postulation of phrases comes from the fact that we would not be able to account for the ambiguity of sentences li'e* "! Be hit the man with a stic'. unless we allow for some internal structural level between the word level and the clause)sentence level. (xplain the ambiguity. Further syntactic evidence may also be adduced concerning the distribution of various se>uences of words. For example, a phenomenon called preposing would be a real mystery unless we have the concept of phrase. ?nder appropriate stylistic conditions certain parts of the sentence may be preposed for emphasis. 6ow, how many and which words can be preposedA 9hy are resulting constructions in 2! grammatical and those in 1! ungramamticalA ;! a. @ can$t stand Fyour elder sisterG. b. @ simply will not tolerate Fthat 'ind of behaviourG. 2! a. F7our elder sisterG, @ can$t stand. b. FThat 'ind of behaviourG, @ simply will not tolerate. 1! a. C7our elder, @ can$t stand sister. b. C(lder sister, @ can$t stand your. c. CSister, @ can$t stand your elder. 0#! a. CDehaviour, @ will simply not tolerate that 'ind of. b. CThat 'ind of, @ will simply not tolerate behaviour.
00! a. /ohn rang up his mother. b.C?p his mother /ohn rang. Pronominalisation is another of the whole series of syntactic pieces of evidence in support of phrasal structures. Thus pro-forms such as it function as pro-6P constituents and replace the whole 6P but not individual nouns. 6ow that we have seen that phrases are indeed necessary in syntactic analysis, we might as well try to define the notion. 9hat we have discovered by now is that words are inade>uate as units of syntactic analysis and that phrases are typically combinations of at least two words although in some models they may be simple and consist of a single word!. =n the other hand they are by definition smaller than clauses. 9e may thus assume that they are the smallest syntacic units. This means that phrase may be negatively defined as a grammatical unit occupying an intermediate position between the level of word and the level of clause. Dut still we have not in this way determined its actual siEe, or its defining features. Phrases are sometimes characteriEed as elements of syntactic structure, i.e. as groups of words, that lac' the subject-predicate structure typical of clauses. 9hy is this not enoughA 0%! Hy first boo' on synchronic linguistics Phrases are by definition internally structured units. 9ithin the structure of phrases we may distinguish between the central element or the head element on the one hand and dependent elements on the other. Hodifiers, complements, determinatives, etc. are particular types of dependents. <etermination is the term for the function of words or sometimes phrases! which in general, determine the 'ind of reference of a noun phrase* definite, indefinite, partitive or universal. Semantically, all 6Ps are determined in some way or other* they are either definite or indefinite in meaning. Bowever, some heads, notably proper nouns, are by their very nature inherently definite and need no overt determiner)deter-minative. Hodification is a largely optional function. Premodifiers precede the head, postmodifiers follow it. @n 6Ps, premodifiers follow determinatives. @n semantic terms, modifiers add specific information to the head, often restricting the reference of the head. Thus an 6P with a head modified has a more specific meaning than an 6P with an unmodified head. 5omplementation is the label employed to refer to a part of a phrase or clause which follows a word, and completes the specification of a meaning relationship which that word implies. 5omplementation may be obligatory or optional* 0&! a. Be deceived his father. b. CBe deceived 08! a. Be allowed me a respite. b. CBe allowed me!. 03! a. 4ll sales are subject to tax. b. C4ll sales are subject.
heads li'e fact. say. =ne type of phrase contains only one obligatory element which may be accompanied followed or preceded! by other 3 . Be had recently become >uite happy. verb phrases. Thirdly. which are functionally e>uivalent to a noun. b. Tom used the wrong method. Secondly. ATom used the method. their head. which are functionally e>uivalent to verbs. by in or at.e. they are thus classsified according to the part of speech of the 'ind of word to which is e>uivalent.! a. i. only dependents can be realiEed by members of different word classes. Fourthly. except in the special case of ellipsis. idea. i. it is a sufficient one. so called appositive modifiers or content clauses as dependent. Be had recently gone >uite mad. we admit the posssiblity of a phrase being realised by a single word. omissibility is not a necessary condition for the dependent status. b. Similarly. Be was obsessed with the idea that he was going to die. b. b. any restrictions concerning their mutual compatibility or incompatibility affects only the heads of phrases. specifically by for.The distinction between heads and dependents is motivated by the following facts* First. 0"! a. =n the other hand. there is a systematic correlation between the type of phrase and its head in that the head of an 6P is always a noun or a pronoun. 4nother possible classification of phrases is in terms of optional and obligatory elements. the head often imposes restrictions on what 'inds of forms can occur as dependent* 02! very eager for success Bere the head eager determines)re>uires that its complement be introduced by the preposition. ypes o! phrases Since phrases are often functionally e>uivalent to a single word. whereas the great majority of nouns cannot* 01! a. when two or three phrases are combined in a larger unit.1. etc. 9e thus have noun phrases. while dependents are often and prototypically! omissible. 5rac's had appeared in the wall.e. knowledge can ta'e that clauses. CBe had recently gone >uite happy. heads are normally obligatory. belief. Since dependents are not obligatory. 1. and not. CBe was obsessed with the boo' that he was going to die. it has nothing to do with any of their dependents* %#! a. Bowever.2. c. Several new crac's had appeared in the wall. with reference to their head. 6ote that some dependents may not be omitted* 0. of it being a simple phrase that can potentially be expanded.
either through creation or adoption from other linguistics systems. Prepositional phrases. Dy functional words we mean all those words belonging to closed classes. modal verbs and primary auxiliary verbs. but not necessarily an auxiliary. These items tend to be mutually exclusive and their meaning is closely related to the larger construction in which they appear. full or lexical verbs. b. structure words. 4n interesting observation is that whenever a phrase in-volves a functional word as an obligatory element there are complications and uncertainties concerning the headedness of the phrase. on the other hand. but the classes are open in the sense that they are indefinitely extendable* new items are constantly being added to the stoc'. 1. 4ll this means that phrases cannot be described by a single structural formula. adjectives. contain two obligatory elements* %0! a. @ went to . 5losed classes are prepositions. The distinction between open and closed classes concerns the division of parts of speech into two main groups. This is reflected in the traditional labels such as function words. conjunctions. or is preceded by up to four verbs in an auxiliary function* auxiliary)auxiliaries was been main verb san' sin'ing sun' " The ship has . The remaining two major types of phrases. 4djective phrases and adverb phrases are examples of this type. and that various specific subclassifications accounting for deviations must be allowed. do not fit entirely into the either category. pronouns. The lexical verb appears to be more central in terms of meaning. For noun phrases.optional elements.2. and adverbs. @tems belonging to open classes share some grammatical and structural properties with other members. 5losed classes are sets of items closed in the sense that they are only exceptionally extended by the adoption or creation of additional members. but it cannot always stand alone if non-finite. grammatical words. determiners. There are of course numerals and interjections but these have a marginal role from a grammatical point of view. 6Ps can be headed by pronouns. 4lthough the preposition determines the primary meaning of the phrase and is more head-li'e. a determinative element appears to be obligatory. =pen classes are nouns. Such headed phrases are called endocentric phrase. if they happen to be personal pronouns they cannot be followed by optional elements. C@ went to.ondon. c.ondon. noun phrases and verb phrases. this type of phrase is considered nonheaded or exocentric. Such phrases contain their head that is indeed functionally e>uivalent to the whole phrase. C@ went . "u##ary o! phrase structures :erb phrases consist of a main verb which either stands alone as the entire :P. :erb phrases are headed in the sense that every fullblown :P exhibits a lexical or main verb.
The wind blew off the roof. this test wor's with non-human nouns only* %#! a. 9hat blew off the roof was the wind.e. C9hat 'illed the fly was /ac'. determinative premodification head him Peter wedding girl fine warm days postmodification complementation 4lice$s that @ remember all those with the red hair in the country last year than that that @ ever had that @ once had a the a better best good story trip trip There are several tests that can be invo'ed to chec' whether a given string is an 6P or not. ?nfortunately. is a word which determines the number agreement with the verb if the 6P appears in the subject position. optionally preceded and followed by modifying elements.may must have have been been sin'ing being sun' 4ll 6Ps have head-words as their central elements. modifiers. or on which they depend. d. The head-word is also the word to which other elements of the 6P. i. 6Ps are endocentric phrases in that they invariably exhibit one head-word optionally accompanied by modifiers on both sides of it. b. C9hat the wind blew was off the roof. refer. 9hat the wind blew off was the roof. 5left-sentence test consists roughly in the placement of what at the front of a sentence and an appropriate form of be at the end of it* 01! a. 4nother test for 6P-hood is the passivisation test. 4djective phrase consist of an adjective as head. a noun or a pronoun. c. The head-word. Sometimes an obligatory or optional complement is present* premodification The weather too head pleasant hot postmodification complementation to be enjoyable . .
miserable and slightly frightened almost homely unsure of what to do e>ually unappealing following it never far below immediately above 2 was exhausted could not see was aching might have been were beginning to complain leg muscles that @ never 'new existed me casting long shadows no sign of the path the source of the . Then. @ sat for ten minutes without moving. 4ll options seemed e>ually unappealing. and the @ndus was only a glinting tric'le far below.was incredibly cold pleasant enough 4dverb phrases are similar to adjective phrases with respect to their structural ma'e-up except that they are headed by an adverb* premodification >uite @ spo'e to him very as head yesterday often severely clearly indeed as @ could postmodification complementation Prepositional phrases consist of a preposition obligatorily followed by a complement. which is normally a noun phrase* preposition prepositional complement for at on by lunch the corner of the street Saturday morning a strange coincidence @ met her $ead the passage and then choose the odd !or# out in each set listed belo%. @ sat down on a stone. The sun was casting long shadows and the silence worried me. and soon found a trac'. @ heard gunshots. almost homely. and no other trail loo'ed at all convincing. immediately above me. @ was exhausted. @ could not see a single house. There was no sign of the path. unsure of what to do. miserable and slightly frightened. =n other occasions the noise might have been sinister. @ clambered upwards. 6ow they seemed welcoming. Following it around a bluff of roc' @ saw the source of the shots* a village of half-timbered huts clinging to the sheer hillside. @ felt tired. Hy an'le was aching and leg muscles that @ never 'new existed were beginning to complain. there was no familiar landmar's. 0 verb phrases % noun phrases shots & adjective phrases 8 adverb phrases tired.
finite. two other obstacles would 'eep the city$s growing ethnic diversity a new and even cleverer director many who applauded as he sang the rich did not need the latest polls home to rare fauna by her superiors &o% #uch do you 'no% about %ord classes (parts o! speech)* +hoose the best options. personal. relative describe different 'inds of JJJJJJJJJJJJ.ichard . " The terms $mar'ed$ and $unmar'ed$ relate to 4! inflection only D! meaning only 5! both inflection and meaning. where or why something happened. 8 The open classes 4! are constantly gaining new words D! include mainly $grammatical$ words 5! include all verbs. when. nouns. +o#plete the sentences %ith these %ords: adjectives. adverbs. They connect two 1 . 0 9e divide words into 4! two D! three 5! four broad categories. 3 The terms $generic$ and $specific$ are applied to the meaning of 4! adverbial phrases D! noun phrases 5! prepositional phrases. superlative relate to JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. . proper are used in describing JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. .I Identi!y the heads o! the !ollo%ing phrases. count. full. % 5losed word classes 4! have important grammatical functions D! often get new words added 5! consist largely of $lexical$ words. & 4ttributive. depending on whether these classes are relatively fixed or constantly changing. predicative. interrogative.os 4ngeles flew its flags at half-mast this wee' in honour of <orothy IDuffyI 5handler. " Hany JJJJJJJJJJJ have meanings connected with place or time. & The closed classes include 4! full verbs and modal verbs D! primary and full verbs 5! primary and modal verbs.os 4ngeles for many centuries to come. 3 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ often tell us how. pronouns. % 5ollective. The city$s mayor. . =perator means 4! a finite verb phrase D! the auxiliaries in a verb phrase 5! the first or only auxiliary. prepositions. @n a rare act of civic piety.iordan. 8 <emonstrative. who died on /uly "th. comparative. verbs 0 <ynamic. Word classes. determiners. transitive all describe JJJJJJJJJJ. conjunctions. interrupted his holiday to say that Iher imprint will be part of . genitive.now 3 prepositional phrases upwards for ten minutes on a stone for ten minutes without moving on other occasions almost homely Identi!y all the phrases in the !ollo%ing text.
sense: <egressably.units of a sentence together and show a relationship. . Some are coordinating and some are subordinating. the slem that +uisian had arvingly craduced thrammed a ranglin through both ma'les of wismy cluff so hort that umbody flapsed. the %ord that does not belong to that particular %ord class. the like of which had not been 'nown before and has not been seen since. Thereupon. 0 @s it right to say that the right wrongs no manA % =ne cannot right all the wrongs in the world. -educe as #uch as possible about the %ords and structure o! the !ollo%ing non. he structure o! the verb phrase 0# . there had been a plague. 2 JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ join words. +hoose the odd %ord out in each set . phrases and clauses together. the dramp nording the wendorous plorin stambored its tilfored cormel aside hypaxically till al the bohams could prentiously desorm. could are me after and college angry cause an afterwards may can every at because class hungry insist how badly should did ours during or grammar lonely must my friendly will has someone into too learn obviously persuade no now want was they upwards when teacher silly suggest whose soon +lassi!y the highlighted %ords as parts o! speech. 3 Before the Fire. 2. & 5ure that cold with a drin' of hot lemon before you go to bed. 8 <rin' this >uic'K <on$t let it get cold. The articles a)an and the are special 'inds of JJJJJJJJJJ.
must examine b. will come Type D Perfective! consists of the primary auxilary have and the -ed participle of the main verb* 3! a. /ohn should have wor'ed harder. is ta'en These four basic constructions enter into combinatins with each other. 5 and <. 45<. is examined b. /ohn has wor'ed hard. %! a. (ach construction can be used only once* 2! 4D* 45* 4<* may have examined may be examining may be examined 00 . D<!. is examining b. 4<. has ta'en Type 5 Progressive! consists of the primary auxiliary be L the -ing participle of the main verb* "! a. 9or' harderK c. is ta'ing Type < Passive! consists of the primary auxiliary be L the .P The structure of the verb phrase may be represented in a number of ways.! a. @t is important that he wor' harder. So far. 4 verb phrase may be simple or complex* 0! a. has examined b. D. but the order in which they can combine is indicated by the alphabetical symbols.ed participle of the main verb* . 6ot all the constructions need be present so that there may be gaps 45. 4. b. which label them. b.1. The complex :P may be described in terms of the following four basic construction types* &! 4 D 5 < Hodal! Perfective! Progressive! Passive! Type 4 Hodal! consists of a modal auxiliary and the base form of the main verb* 8! a.2. Be wor's hard. "i#ple vs co#plex . it has been chiefly characteriEed in terms of auxiliary and lexical or main verbs.
b.D5* has been examining D<* has been examined 5<* is being examined 4D5* may have been examining 4D<* may have been examined 45<* may be being examined D5<* has been being examined 4D5<* may have been being examined 6otice that in these combinations constructions are telescoped or fused into each other* 1! 4* auxiliary infinitive may L have M D* auxiliary L . been examined 2. has been swimming c. is swimming b. will be swimming d. swimming 00! a. to have been swimming Finite :Ps can be distinguished from nonfinite :Ps as follows* a. to be swimming e. have been M L . the rest of the verb phrase if any! consisting of nonfinite verbs. 1! a. 4 finite verb phrase is a phrase in which the first or the only word is a finite verb. i.ed partic. to swim c.e. to have jumped d.P 4nother way in which the structure of the verb phrase may be described is in terms of finite and nonfinite verbs. Finite :Ps are tensed. to be swimming b. they have tense contrast between present and past* 0% .ed <* auxiliary part. 4 nonfinite verb phrase contains nonfinite verb forms only. /inite vs non!inite . having been dismissed Doth a finite verb phrase and a nonfinite verb phrase may be either simple or complex* 0#! a. swims b. having jumped c. Finite :Ps can occur as the :P of independent clauses.2.
Be)She)/im reads. 7ou are here. Do-support is used in forming negative. There is person concord and number concord between the subject of a clause and the finite verb phrase. there are imperative and subjunctive. the less fre>uent it is in actual usage* 0. c. =n the whole. @n contrast to the indicative. a scale of finiteness ranging from the most finite :P. and the -ed participle are the nonfinite forms of the verb. will have been being examined 2. +o#plex non!inite . 5oncord is most conspicuous with the present tense of be* 08! a. a finite verb form which may be either an operator or a simple present or past form. The infinitive. +o#plex !inite verb phrase The order in which the constructions can be combined has been illustrated in 2! above. b. the -ing participle. Be wor'ed as a travel agent last summer. Finite :Ps contain. interrogative and emphatic constructions with simple :Ps. having done c. which is the indicative mood. 0&! a. non-factual or counterfactual status of the predication. Bence any phrase in which one of the listed forms is the first or the only word discounting of course the infinitive particle to! will be called a nonfinite :P. in fact.0%! a. to the infinitive. as their first or only word. The first step is to select the present or the past of the finite verb. There is. Be)she)it is here. the more complex the :P pattern is. d. 03! a. @ am here. doing b. has been being examined b. then comes the selection of the rest. d.0.0.Ps 0& .! a. b. 9e)They are here. @)9e)7ou)They read. the least finite :P* 0"! a b c d e JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ indicative L L L L L subjunctive L A -A L imperative L --A L ----------------------------infinitive -----JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ 2. Be is a journalist b. Finite :Ps have mood indicating the factual. e.
9e had hoped N to have finished by then. 4 cannot occur in nonfinite :Ps. @ was hoping N to have finished by then. 9ith semi-auxiliaries it is possible to use the same construction twice* %%! a.Since (nglish central modal auxiliaries are by definition finite and lac' any nonfinite counterparts. 5 L 5 There is nothing against two constructions occurring outside their normal ordering. b.1.Ps @f a a nonfinite :P follows a finite one. such as 4D5 L D5<. are extremely rare* %0! AThey must have been expecting N to have been being paid well. The walls were supposed to be repaired. 2radience bet%een one and t%o . This limits the number of available possible constructions* 02! D* to have examined having examined 5* to be examining FbeingG examining <* to be examined FbeingG examined D5* to have been examining having been examining D<* to have been examined having been examined 5<* to be being examined FbeingG being examined D5<* to have been being examined having been being examined 9herever a nonfinite participle :P should theoretically begin with the auxiliary be-ing. as in certain types of verb complementation. 2. Sarah and @ are going to be leaving tonight. 08 . it is possible for the same construction to be repeated in each phrase* 01! a. this participle being is omitted. /ac' was believed N to have been 'illed. < L D< :ery complex possibilities. 5 L D b. @ am hoping N to be seeing her tomorrow. provided they belong to two different :Ps* %#! a. D L D b.
abour shattered. Tom* Putting down 'nife and for' after finishing all that was on his plate! 4h. most (uropeans. modal. 8 For nearly . their trust in . would be aghast at the idea of applying it outside of (urope. apart from Dritain and France. /ac'* @ am! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ glad you enjoy! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ your meal. passsive 8 infinitive. passive & participle. that be! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ goodK @ not have! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ such a decent meal since @ dine! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ with the Polytopian ambassador ten years ago. passive " progressive. progressive 2 modal.@ has held on to power by hoo' or by croo'. however. % There is no reason. modal.# years. modal % progressive. why 64T=$s (uropean members should not help 4merica out more in the world$s tight spots. " The state pension and health systems have recently been rejigged but not been given the real sha'e-up they badly need. the joint project would be cheaper for 4merica. passive 0# perfective. @ often come! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ to this restaurant and @ always find! JJJJJJJJJJJJ the food very good. & 4nd yet this is also precisely the reason why Hs Howlam should have trodden more warily. 03 . @ thin'! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. progressive. passive. . passive JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ 3se the #ost appropriate !or# o! the verbs in brac'ets.-escribe the structure o! the verb phrases in the !ollo%ing sentences. 0 (ven if the (? had a common defence policy. perfective. ary verb: 0 present. Be always interest! JJJJJJJJJJJ in good food. @ tell! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ about the place a long time ago by my friend Barry Simpson. among other things. /or# a co#plex verb phrase using sting as the #ain verb and may as the auxili. 3 64S4 used this to convince 5ongress not to axe the @SS. perfective. Hoderate nationalists. passive. passive 3 infinitive. progressive 1 participle. on the ground that. Be found! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ the -ourmet$s 5lub in 01"#. the P. and expended less of her political capital on this single dispute. perfective . @ 'now! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ him since @ be! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ a boy. are losing faith that multiparty tal's will ever produce a settlement they can accept. Doth the food and the wine be! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ excellent.
we see that at various times in the past it ta'e! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ words and grammar from other languages.2.1. FThe tall girls standing in the cornerG are my sisters. 9e cannot say that a language suddenly begin! JJJJJJJ on some particular day in the past. 0" .1. he co#plexity o! the noun phrase . 9hen we study! JJJJJJJJJJJJ our own language a little.ules or operations are said to be recursive if they may be repeatedly applied. Post#odi!ication Bow can the head of the noun phrase be definedA 9hat is the syntactic relation that the head contracts with elements outside the phrase that are illustrated belowA &! a.1. 4oun Phrase 0. for we not inherit! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ records of primitive speech. spea'! JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ a given language one fine morningK The speech of primitive men probably begin! JJJJJJJJJJ with uncouth grunts and groans.4nybody who ever thin'! JJJJJJJJJJJ about his language will have realiEed that it develop! JJJJJJJJJJ over a very long time. may be described in terms of the following four constituent parts* %! -eter#iner(s) . The very tall girl standing in the far corner who became extremely angry because you knocked over her expensive glasses after you wave to her when you entered is Hary Smith. Pre#odi!ication . 0. e. b. Introduction 0. The tall girl is Hary Smith. c. Bow can this recursiveness be invo'ed to account for the indefinite complexity of noun phrasesA Study the following data* 0! a. 0. f. The girl became angry because you 'noc'ed over her glass. but we cannot be certain of this. The girl was standing in the corner. d. FThe tall girl standing in the cornerG is my sister. 8! a. and in fact of any noun phrase. which come! JJJJJJJJJJJJJ into being long before men learn! JJJJJJJJJJJ how to write. People all at once not start. b. FThe tall girl in the corner who)Cwhich has a blue sweaterG is my sister. The tall girl standing in the corner who became angry because you knocked over her glasses after you waved to her when you entered is Hary Smith. 7ou waved to the girl when you entered. &ead . he structure o! the noun phrase The structure of a complex noun phrase.1.
.! a. a bigger car than that 4oun phrases: identi!ying the head. @t claims that the Het =ffice$s near monopoly on meteorology 3! casts a cloud "! over consumer interests. some very expensive furniture c. 2! The association$s Which? magaEine report 1! stresses that forecasting 0#! 0. some new office furniture b. some expensive furniture b. 0! was a spectacular example of how modern meteorology fails %! says the 5onsumer$s 4ssociation &! in a report 8! today.! and argues for an =ffice of Fair Trading investigation into the weather forecasting industry. all the furniture b. <o all noun phrases have headsA <eterminers may be overt or Eero. . both those musicians . 9hat are the subtypes of determiners that may be defined in syntactic terms. the car outside the station b. all those fine musicians 2! a. i. DD5 weatherman Hichael Fish$s failure to give a warning of the great storm of =ctober 012. the many new offices b.e.b. @ saw the tall girl in Fthe corner which)Cwho was full of peopleG. in terms of their relative orderA Study the following data* "! a. the few survivors Bow can modifiers be defined with respect to their relative positionA 9hat 'ind of items may function as a premodifier and what 'ind of items as a postmodiferA 5onsider the following cases* 1! a. Identi!y the head nouns in the noun phrases pic'ed out in the !ollo%ing passage. the car standing outside the station c. some very expensive office furniture 0#! a. the car that stood outside the station d.
is clearly improving overall.! favours a new style of forecasting based on probability. The number of visitors increased from & million at the beginning of the present century to more than 2 million during the 01"#s. @n 028# the seafront consisted of a single row of housesO but with the coming of the railway in 028".". with the shift to bul'-carriers and containerisation. 7et li'e many other Dritish holiday resorts. .iverpool began to grow into one of the biggest and most prosperous ports in the world.# per cent chance of rain in the South$ %0! rather than the more usual $there may be scattered showers$. the total is about 0" million a year. Dlac'pool began as a small and undistinguished fishing village. Identi!y all the noun phrases in the !ollo%ing passages and describe their structure5 by speci!ying their heads5 deter#iners5 pre. Identi!y all the noun phrases in the !ollo%ing passage5 as illustrated %ith the !irst three 4Ps in the !irst sentence. 4ote that a noun phrase #ay be 6uite co#plex5 e. 0"! Which? 0. 08! @t says the language of isobars and anticyclones 03! is less important than $whether Suffol' should put out its washing$ and calls for better translation of what forecasts actually mean. Today it is estimated that around " million different people visit Dlac'pool each yearO but because many people return time and again. 02! 5loser to the science of placing a bet on a horse 01! than a traditional forecast. Dy 022# lines of doc's stretched for .iverpool ships. Drash and cheerful. but from the early 02th century.iverpool was Fa small fishing villageG. because another noun phrase #ay be e#bedded it (recursiveness). Dlac'pool stretches in a long. +o##ent brie!ly on your procedure. . the town$s future was established. Today much of this vast industrial system has fallen into disuse. when the silting up of the <ee cut off 5hester$s trading lifeline. and 8# per cent of the world$s trade was carried in . and for the first time it is possible to ta'e a closer loo' at this part of Dritain$s maritime history. punctuated by three piers and dominated by the steel finger of the Tower. and post#odi!iers. 9hen F5hesterG was Fa thriving portG. but it ta'es the Het =ffice 00! to tas' 0%! for failing to explain the weather 0&! in a user-friendly way.g. miles along the ban's of the Hersey. 02 . the opening of 5entral Station and the 6orth Pier in 02"& and the 9inter -ardens in 02. multi-coloured ribbon by the sea. %#! this would include phrases such as $there is a .
9hen is it possible for proper nouns to have restrictive modificationA Study the following examples* 08! a. @ won$t see any person)anyone who has not made an appointment. The students. who had returned from their vacation. 5omment on the type of modification found with heads with nonspecific determiners li'e any. who is in the corner. the /ohnson who wrote the dictionary 9hich heads cannot be modified restrictivelyA 5hec' the following set of data* 03! a. b. Someone. Be li'es dogs. as well as bars and restaurants. Hary Smith. C(very boo'. c. an a>uarium and an (ducational Beritage (xhibition. c. 5ome and meet my younger daughter. b. a ballroom. 5ome and see my beautiful wife. 9hat ma'es the highlighted modifiers below non-restrictiveA 0%! a. the car outside the station c. b. wanted to try again. a landmar' which can be seen from 5umbria in the north to the hills of 6orth 9ales to the southwest.1. the tall girl standing in the corner b. wanted to ta'e the exam. CThe students who had all of them! returned from their vacation failed the test. 0. all and every* 0"! a. should be banned. who sounded like your mother. which is written to deceive the reader. who failed the test. failed the test. C4ll the students. called to say she wanted to see you. 9hat is the most typical position for the most restrictive types of modificationA 01 . 0.Present-day Dlac'pool is probably best 'nown for its Tower. 5an heads be simultaneously modified restrictively and non-restrictivelyA 5f. 4ll the students. is Hary Smith. the following* 0&! The tall girl. and the Tower also houses a circus. the 302 ft ascent gives a breathta'ing view of Dlac'pool and the surrounding coast.0. Duilt in 0218.! a. b. which surprises me. $estrictive and nonrestrictive #odi!ication 9hy are the modifiers in the following examples said to be restrictiveA 00! a. wants to meet you. who is a dentist. the Springfield that is in Illionis b. who had all of them! returned from their vacation. it was for many years the highest building in Dritain.
"ood old Benry. whose names had already been taken by the police. a corteous man b.4P7 son. 9hat is generally the tendency for premodification in this respectA %#! a. 0. c. "ay %hich o! the highlighted noun #odi!iers are (a) restrictive5 (b) non. which is a perfect paradise in $une. its Inca buildings merged into the buildings of the #paniard. to which we were taken every week.02! 4ny person who wishes to see me must ma'e an appointment. 02 The demonstrators. 0# 4 >ueue of long-haired.1. light cotton slac's and open-toed sandals. The students whose names are below the line on this list must sit the examination again. =h. my beautiful 9@F( 4oun #odi!iers. 0% /eremy Taylor. 03 4ll these articles.1.restrictive: 0 Hy poor old mother suffers from arthritis. left this message for you. who called here last night. & 9here did you get that beautiful carpet in the hallA 8 -eorge was wearing a sports shirt. 2 4n old proverb says* Ill news travel apace. was a great delight to us. 01 . 1 5uEco is still a thriving city. 00 The man who called here last night must have been /eremy Taylor. strangely dressed youths formed up outside our stately theatre.1. Susan is my (. 0" 4ll the articles you see here have been sold. 0& The theatre to which we were taken was the oldest one in Paris. Ca ready man 0. you sensible man.7. are to be sold to raise money for the club. % Ber devoted elder daughter ta'es care of her. daughter.<(. b. which have been given to us by well-wishers. he explicitness o! post#odi!ication %# . 0. 9hich of the two types of modification tends to be given more prosodic emphasis than the headA 01! a. %# Hany things grow in my garden which I never planted in it. e#porary and per#anent #odi!ication The modification in noun phrases may be seen as permanent or temporary. 3 @ often see men who went to school with me. 08 The theatre. /ohn is my . " The great fire of !!! started in the house of a ba'er.oses do very well in my garden. a timid man c. . refused to move.
" The new house was built with money from wealthy land-owners. %0 . % . relative clauses and appositive clauses* 0! The news that appeared in the papers this morning was well received. 0. 2 There is more to 4mbridge than the mas' of the biEarre behind which our old-world village tries to hide. the taxi waiting outside 8xplicitness in #odi!iers.oo' at that silver cup which my daughter won for dancing on the mantelpiece. premodification is to be interpreted an most fre>uently.2. hen rephrase each sen. & The President will only sha'e hands with the people in the front row. can only be interpreted! in terms of postmodification. ypes o! post#odi!ying !inite clauses Two major types of postmodifying clauses can be distinguished. 3 7ou can buy a copy of this boo' on breast-feeding at your local boo'store. 8xplain the absurdity o! the sentences belo% in ter#s o! noun phrase #odi!iers and adverbial adjuncts.1. 8 5hildren at school will have first priority. 0 @ have discussed the >uestion of stoc'ing the new pig farm with my staff.@n general.ast wee' an eighteenth century chair was bought by a dealer with beautifully carved legs for only forty pounds. Bow can the following premodified phrase be paraphrased by means of postmodification ma'ing the relations between the head and the modifier explicit and non-ambiguousA %0! an oil man (xplicitness in postmodification varies considerably. =rder the following 6Ps in terms of the degree of explicitness of postmodifiers. !erent relative clauses: 0 <o you 'now the man with the overcoatA % @ don$t recogniEe the man in the garden. %%! a. 9a'e the post#odi!ier in each o! these sentences #ore explicit by replacing it (a) by t%o di!!erent participle clauses5 then (b) by t%o di!. 3 This boo' by Bertford will give you all the facts. 4 radish has been grown by one of our members the siEe of a turnip. the taxi outside b. " There are so many different washing machines on the mar'et that you would be well advised to consult an expert on the ma'e. 8 . & @ have to give a lecture on the disposal of industrial waste to students of engineering.2. tence. the taxi which is waiting outside c. 3na#biguous use o! #odi!iers. Post#odi!ication by !inite clauses 0. .
h. 3 4ny progress @ made was a signal for her anger.. ... 0# 7ou will refrain from hubris. in whose image @ see the god Poseidon.. Doth the girls were late.. & The car uses very little petrol.. 2 Hichelle always did very well at school. They function as clausal subjects or objects. c... which is no reason for foolish youths to as' whether @ remember him.. The news which appeared in the papers this morning was well received. and that surprises me.. . . 9hat are the differences between the first and the second typeA ?se the following examples* 3! a. . 4s for me. .. d. whose farms were being burned. b.... which surprises me.. a. which meant we had to cancel the match next day. .. b.. 9atch the !irst clause %ith the sentential nonrestrictive relative clauses.. where my father 'ept his two horses. and it appeared in the papers this morning.. which meant he was almost late for wor' g.. which meant we had to eat out in the evenings.. " Hy grandfather.. 0 @ had to travel first class. % @t snowed heavily last night. which the gods hate. 3 The food in the hotel was not very good " Be 'ept complaining about everything. & Hy father decided to name after him the child that was being born... who had their own reasons to hate her. CThe news which the team had won calls for a celebration. . CThe news was well received. Bow can the the two types be distinguishedA &! a.. 0 The country people... They are fond of sna'es and liEards. .. was growing infirm. In these 6uotations !ro# he :ast o! the Wine by 9ary $enault5 underline the relative pronouns and their antecedents5 and state the type o! each relative clause. 6ominal clauses contain their antecedent. which meant we had to leave without them.. or sentential 8!* 8! They are fond of sna'es and liEards. which certainly pleased her mother.. f. % 9hen @ was born he was still alive.%! The news that the team had won calls for a celebration.. 2 @ used to hear things said by the slaves... which really annoyed everyone. poured into the city.elative clauses can be adnominal 0!.. 8 Be didn$t get up until after 2 o$cloc'.. 1 Dut those are nearly the worst days that @ remember. b . 8 4t the bac' were the stables. e. @ was one of those who grow late.. which means it is >uite cheap to run. which was very expensive %% ..
.. the fairy who. @t may be capable of* a. 9hich principle is at wor' with coordinated antecedents of mixed genderA 2! a. That is the place where he was born. c.. the human body which. The things and people who amuse her most. h. That is the period when he lived here... The woman whose daughter you met is Hrs Drown. b. %& . .elative pronoun as adverbial The relative pronoun can be replaced by special adjunct forms for place.. the boy)people who. The committee who were)which was responsible for this decision. &.. &. The girl who spo'e is /ulia. frightened the children.! a.. The girl to whom he spo'e is /ulia.. b. -ender concord 9hich relative pronouns are capable of showing gender concordA 9hat is the basic contrast that may be expressedA "! a. c.2.%. /oan. the unicorn which. time and cause* 0#! a.. 9hy do we occasionally find deviations from the above general rulesA . b. f.%.. c.over.. This is the baby which needs inoculation.. +haracteristics o! relative clauses Part of the explicitness of relative clauses lies in the specifying power of the relative pronoun.. who. d. who was bar'ing. The people and things which amuse her most.. the fox)animal which e. which.. indicating its syntactic function by means of case. showing concord with its antecedent.%. .2.. b..%. b.%&. . the human being who. &. g.%. b..ondon.0.%.0. 5ase in the relative pronoun 9hat is the relation that relative pronouns can indicate with personal antecedents by means of different case formsA 1! a.
The Dible. or as a part of a clause element i.0. or adverbial including its role as prepositional complement!. the relation of the relative clause to its antecedent* restrictive or nonrestrictive* 00! a.0. 3 PeterA @s he the one JJJJJJJ car you borrowedA " 5an you give me any reason JJJJJJJJ @ should help youA . remains a bestseller. 0 This is definitely the place JJJJJJJJJ @ left it.2. it has no objective formO c.&. the function of the relative pronoun as subject. it has no genitive. 5hoice of relative pronoun The choice of relative pronoun is jointly determined by the following three factors* a. 9hich relative pronouns occur in nonrestrictive relative clauses. the person who @ was visiting b. +o#plete these sentences by adding when5 where5 whose5 or why. as a determiner)possessive!.e.%. object. % <o you remember the time JJJJJJJJJ we got lostA & There must be a good reason JJJJJJJJJJ he$s late. which has been retranslated. the boo' which @ was reading c. 9hich nouns are possible as antecedents of such relativesA Such relative clauses introduced by these adjunct forms are also called adverbial relatives. complement. That differs from wh-series in that* a. The woman who is approaching us seems to be somebody @ 'now. That is the reason why he spo'e. 5arl is the one JJJJJJJ des' is next to mine. %8 . b. 8 They are building a hospital in the street JJJJJJJJJ we live. it has no gender mar'ing and thus is independent of the personal or non-personal character of the antecedentO b. $estrictive relative clauses &. and which ones in restrictive clausesA b. 0. the gender type of the antecedent* personal or non-personal* 0%! a.c.
who m! that the burglar fired the gun at. She arrived the day %3 . Cthat which Cthat my own is.(H(6T She is the perfect accountant This is not the type of modern house which Cwho her predecessor was not. Be is the policeman at whom the burglar fired the gun. 5=HP. # They are delighted with the which boo' that she has just written. that # @ was ill on!. C# b.The choices with respect to the syntactic functions and gender type of antecedent are summariEed as follows* 0&! a.D@4. d. # c. S?D/(5T who person that C# They are delighted with the which boo' that has just appeared. C# has been appointed. # on which @ was ill. =D/(5T who m! person that he has appointed. 4<:(.
b.. b. that is available..&. %#! There was little that interested him at the motor show.%. objects of transitive verbsA 9hat preferences may be observedA 08! a.. 01! %uch that has been said tonight will soon be forgotten... 0"! A4nybody # does that ought to be loc'ed up. b. subjects.. that! you find odd.elative pronoun as subject and object 9hich relative pronouns are possible as* a. CThe table # stands in the corner has a bro'en leg. b. People that live in new houses. 0. %%! They eat the finest food that)# money can buy. # &.. 02! 4ll 4nything (verything that stri'es you as odd. particularly if the antecedent is nonpersonalA Study the following examples* find %8! @ have FFinterests outside my immediate wor' and its problemsG which @ interesting.%. .&. %0! She must be one of the most remar'able women that ever lived. 9hat may influence the choice of a pronoun that is object or prepositional complement.. People that)# @ visit)spea' to. There$s a table # stands in the corner. People who&m' @ visit)spea' to. 03! a. &.elative pronoun as object and prepositional complement 9hat tendencies can be observed with personal antecedents of pronouns functioning as objects and prepositional complementsA %&! a. CThe man # stands over there @ 'now. b.. People who live in new houses.%. ... @t$s Simon # did it. %" ..! a.G %3! @$ll ta'e you to Fthe building Fthat all elderly university teachers preferGG.@ ma'e ca'es the way in which that my mother made them.&.
here is the o!!icer I spo'e to. 1 The party that was responsible for this extraordinary piece of legislation is now out of office. 0# The party that were responsible are now trying to repair the damage. b.46<(<. " 5hildren that disobey their parents should be punished. 2 Hurray was the only person that survived the disaster.! The lady %2! the table which that # who m! that # towards whom the dog ran the dog ran towards under which the boy crawled the boy crawled under 9hat happens with prepositions as particles of prepositional verbsA 9hat about prepositions dealing with temporal and abstract relationsA %1! That$s the boo' # he$s been loo'ing for. 8 <on$t believe everything that you read in the newspapers. $eplace the relative pronoun that by who. . 9hat about that or EeroA %. $elative clauses. some choice exists in placing the wh-pronouns. has just died. here is the o!!icer that I spo'e to. he sentence here is the o!!icer to %ho# I spo'e can have !our variations5 viz: a. 3 Dabies that were born prematurely had little chance of survival. i.%"! 9ho$s drun' Fthe mil' F# @ boughtGGA &. d. Hurray was the sole survivor from a famous ship that san' on her first voyage. & <anny. whom.&. 2ive as #any variations o! that 'ind as possible !or the !ollo%ing: %. . here is the o!!icer %ho I spo'e to. % Be loo's li'e a dog that has lost its tail. our dog that followed us all the way from Scotland.8.e. .%. The preposition may be P@(< P@P(< together with the relative pronoun or ST. &#! AThat was the meeting that! @ 'ept falling asleep during.elative pronoun as adverbial 9hen the relative pronoun is the complement of a preposition the whole functioning as an adverbial!. left with the verb. here is the o!!icer %ho# I spo'e to. which or zero: 0 This is the house that /ac' built. c.
0 Bere is the article about which @ was spea'ing. % Bere is a boo' which will tell you all about it. & @s this the boo' from which that >uotation was ta'enA 8 @s Thompson the man to whom you were referringA 3 Be is a man for whom @ have the greatest respect. " @s this really the house in which Sha'espeare was bornA ; That was the very day on which @ first saw Hary. 2 @ shall always remember the way in which you received us that evening. 1 @t was a century during which the country suffered continually from wars. 0# This is a matter concerning which you would be well advised to consult a lawyer. ;oin up the in!or#ation given5 so that in each case you have one sentence containing relative clauses. 8xa#ple: "o#e people underta'e long journeys. hey %ill re#e#ber these journeys all their lives. "o#e people underta'e long journeys 0<that<%hich they %ill re#e#ber all their lives. 0 Travellers on the Trans-Siberian railway ta'e 2 days 8 hours %3 minutes on the journey. The Trans-Siberian railway stretches from Hoscow to the Pacific =cean. <uring this journey there are 1; stops. % The $@ndian-Pacific$ railway crosses 4ustralia from Perth on the @ndian =cean to Sydney on the Pacific. @ts reputation is perhaps less fearsome than the TransSiberian. & @t covers a distance of %,%;# miles 8,&3% 'm!. =f these, %1; miles 8;2 'm! across the 6ullarbor Plain are dead straight. This is the longest straight stretch of railway in the world. 8 The journeys appeal to a certain type of traveller. 4 certain type of traveller is not in a hurry. To this type of traveller the journey, not the arrival, matters. 3 -ary Sowerby 5anada! and Tim 5ahill ?S4! drove a four-wheel drive pic'-up truc' from ?shuaia 4rgentina! to Prudhoe Day 4las'a, ?S4! in 012; in just under %8 days. Tim 5ahill was -ary Sowerby$s co-driver and navigator. From ?shuaia to Prudhoe Day is a distance of 08,;&1 miles %&,;%# 'm!. /ust under %8 days is a record time for the journey. " They were however surface freighted over the <arien -ap. <arien -ap is between 5olombia and Panama. Bere the Trans-4merican highway does not exist.
0.2.1. 4onrestrictive relative clauses 9hich relative pronouns are used in nonrestrictive clausesA 5onsider the following* &0! a. S?D/(5T who @ spo'e to <r Spols'y, details. Cthat was unwilling to give further
C# which ACthat has only just been reviewed, was published a year ago. C#
This excellent boo',
b. =D/(5T whom Awho @ spo'e to <r Spols'y, C# This excellent boo', which ACthat C# Freda has only just received for review, was published a year ago. Cthat @ met after the in>uest.
c. 5=HP.(H(6T 4nn is a vegetarian, which Cwho Cthat C# no one else is in our family.
which She wants low-calorie food, Cthat C# d. 4<:(,D@4. This is a new type of word processor,
this vegetable curry certainly is.
about which there has been so much publicity. which Cthat there has been so much publicity about. C# 6onsubject who is considered far worse than in restrictive clauses. Bow can we distinguish nonrestrictive relative clauses from restrictive clausesA &%! a. Then he met Hary, who invited him to a party. b. That$s the girl that! he met at the party. &&! Then he met Hary, who invited him to a party. and she invited him to a party. she invited him to a party.
which was snow-bound. &8! Be got lost on Snowdon,it was snow-bound. when it was snow-bound.
4on,restrictive and sentential relative clauses. Identi!y the antecedent o! the !ollo%ing relative clauses: 0 9e were ta'en every wee' to the theatre, at which new plays were constantly being produced. % 9e were ta'en every wee' to the theatre, which was a great delight to us. & 9e went to the theatre every wee', which was our one relaxation. 8 The singer gave five encores, for which he received enthusiastic applause. 3 Be gave five encores, all of which were >uite new to the audience. " Be gave five encores, which was a very generous ac'nowledgement of the welcome he had received. ; They spent two nights on the mountainside, which was swept by biting winds. 2 They spent two nights on the mountainside, which was an ordeal for the hardiest of them. 1 9e test every bottle of DuEE in our laboratories, which is why it is so reliable. 0# 9e apply a laboratory test to every bottle of DuEE, which is then hygienically cor'ed. ;oin the sentences belo% using %ho5 %hose5 or %hich. 9a'e sure that the relative clause goes next to the %ord it gives extra in!or#ation about. 0 @ met /ane$s father. Be wor's at the university. % Peter is studying French and -erman. Be has never been abroad. & 7ou$ve all met Hichael 9ood. Be is visiting us for a couple of days. 8 Hichael 9ood is one of my oldest friends. Be has just gone to live in 5anada. 3 9e are moving to Hanchester. Hanchester is in the north-east. " Hanchester is in the north-east. @t is one of (ngland$s fastest growing towns. ; @$ll be staying with 4drian. Bis brother is one of my closest friends. 2 This is 4drian. 9e stayed in 4drian$s house for our holidays. 0.2.7. =ppositive clauses The appositive clause differs from the relative clause in that* a. the particle that is not an element in the clause structure, but a conjunctionO b. the nonrestrictive appositive clause has the same introductory item as the restrictive, ie* that, it cannot be Eero and it cannot be replaced by whichO &3! She rejected their excuses, even this last one, that investigations had ta'en several wee's. c. the head of the noun phrase must be a general abstract noun such as fact, Q idea(proposition( reply( remark( answer, etc. &3! b. The fact that he wrote a letter to her suggests that he 'new her. c. The belief that no one is infallible is well-founded. d. @ agree with the old saying that absence ma'es the heart grow fonder. The head and the appositive clause may be lin'ed with the copula be*
&"! a. The fact is that he wrote a letter to her. b. The belief is that no one is infallible. Beads are often nominaliEations. <eterminers are often definite articles, heads themselves are normally in the singular. The nominaliEation determiner L head! may be separated from the appositive clause* &;! a. The suggestion that the new rule &should' be adopted came from the chairman. b. The suggestion came from the chairman that the new rule &should' be adopted. 6onrestrictive appositive clause differ mar'edly from relatives in that they are introduced by that, in spite of their nonrestrictiveness* &2! This last fact, namely! that that is obligatory, should be easy to remember. (xpressions such as namely vi)! or that is to say can be optionally introduced as indicators of nonrestrictiveness. $e%rite the in!or#ation so that in each case you have a single sentence con, taining a noun > an appositive clause. 0 People sometimes suggest that we are not e>ual. This ma'es some people very angry. 4ny... % Some people explain that accidents are often nobody$s fault. Dut many people do not accept this. Hany people... & @ was told that there are more scientists alive today than have ever lived before. @s that a factA @s it a... 8 Scientists say that there are a lot of blac' holes in the universe. @ don$t understand this theory. @ don$t understand the... 3 The universe started with a big bang. There is also that idea. There is also the.. " =f course we hope to rid the world of poverty. Dut can weA @s there any... ; 6eil 4rmstrong remar'ed when he stepped on the moon, $That$s one small step for a man, one giant leap for man'ind.$ (veryone remembers this. (veryone remembers 6eil 4rmstrong$s... 2 Sha'espeare observed that $all the word$s a stage$. @$m not sure whether @ agree. @$m not sure whether @ agree with... $ephrase each o! the sentences belo%5 using a !active abstract noun > appositive clause. "ay %hether the clause so !or#ed is (a) restrictive or (b) non,restrictive: 0 @t is still believed in some countries that the earth is flat.
Post#odi!ication by . 4 tile falling from a roof shattered into fragements at his feet.! A4ny person having witnessed the attac' is under suspicion. 0. &% . b. Post#odi!ication by non!inite clauses 0. & 5olumbus assumed that the land he had discovered was the eastern extremity of 4sia. but @ cannot accept that. 2 7ou went to sleep during the lecture. and this lured many explorers to the search of (l <orado. 0# @ 'now that @ can always call upon you for support. 4re there any restrictions on the type of verbs that can occur in this type of modificationA 8! This is a li>uid with a taste resembling that of soapy water. and that has been evident to every astronaut. %! The person writing reports is my colleague. b. " 9hen scientists argued that cigarette smo'ing may increase one$s chances of developing cancer of the lung. 1 7ou excuse yourself by saying people 'eep as'ing you out. The man who has won the race is my brother.0. but this was soon proved wrong. 8 5olumbus reported that there was a 'ing in the south who owned great >uantities of gold. the antecedent head corresponds to the implicit subject of the nonfinite clause. The dog barking next door sounded li'e a terrier. @n all instances. this was not well received. .% @t is true that the earth is round. 3 People suspect that smo'ing has something to do with cancer* this rests on several 'inds of evidence. the man who wor's)who is wor'ing behind the des'. and that is a great comfort to me. the man wor'ing)Cbeing wor'ing behind the des' "! a.1. ACThe man having won the race is my brother. 5an aspect be overtly expressed with this type of postmodificationA 3! a. . b. and this fact suggests that you should go to bed earlier. &! a. 7ou may have gone to sleep during my lecture but that does not exempt you from writing this essay.0.ing participial clauses 9hat is the syntactic function of the relative pronoun in relative clauses cor-responding to postmodifying -ing clausesA 0! The person who will write will be writing writes is writing wrote was writing reports is my colleague.
. 08! 4 man *ust gone to India+*ust come from the meeting told me about it.. b. The thing for you! to be these days is a system analyst. b. 9hat differences may be observed between the two concerning the voiceA 0%! a. was being! repaired Postmodifying -ing and -ed clauses are usually restrictive. The food eaten+being eaten was meant for tomorrow. S $who could help you$! b. Post#odi!ication by . <id you 'now the man tal'ing to my sisterA $who was tal'ing. ACThe food having been eaten was meant for tomorrow. 0. ACThe train arrived at platform is from 7or'.! a. The food which was)has been eaten was meant for tomorrow. b...0. The man for you! to see is Hr /ohnson.ed participial clauses 4gain. c. 9hat syntactic functions of relative are found in corresponding relative clausesA 0. <o you 'now the man tal'ing to my sisterA $who is tal'ing. 5 $the thing that people will try to be these days is a system analyst$! && . Post#odi!ication by in!initive clauses This type of postmodifying clauses also allow correspondence with relative clause..$ b.0.$ 1! the man sitting next to her)next to her on that occasion 0. The food which has been eaten was meant for tomorrow.. 0"! a. the correspondence between -ed clauses and relative clauses is limited to those relative clauses in which the relative pronoun functions as subject* 0#! The car being! repaired by that mechanic. The train which has arrived at platform is from 7or'.Bow can the tense be recoveredA 2! a. 9hat ma'es postmodifers in 0&-08! more acceptableA 0&! The train recently arrived at platform is from 7or'. The man to help you is Hr /ohnson. 9hich aspectual oppositions can be expressed in -ed clausesA 03! a.2. The food which is being eaten was meant for tomorrow. = $who m! you should see$! c.0. 00! The car that will be repaired is being! repaired by that mechanic.
for one! to rely on. at which to stay. 4 $at which you should go$! @f the relative pronoun in a correspondent finite clause functions as adjunct. $which was swaying. the man to see. 9hy is the following sentence ambiguousA 01! Be is the best man to choose. the place b. was a reminder of old times. a more formal possibility is to introduce the relative pronoun and than have the infinitive clause. 0. for you! to stay at!.$! &8 .1.. to have met b.0.. The apple tree.! e. i. the man you should)must)ought see. 4onrestrictive post#odi!ication by non!inite clauses Postmodification by means of nonfinite clauses may also be nonrestrictive* %%! a.. one can rely on. Cstaying. swaying gently in the bree)e. She is not a person Crelying..e. Be is the best man to choose)to be chosen. the way in which to do it Cwhich to do it in to do it Cto do it in Bow is the subject of infinitive postmodification recoveredA @nfinitive postmodifiers differ from other clausal postmodifers in allowing the ellipsis of an entire adjunct phrase* 02! a. 9hat possibilities are found concerning the variety of moods and aspectsA %#! a.. The time for you! to go is /uly. The preposition cannot be stranded if the clause is finite* 0. b. on whom to rely. complement of a preposition. The man to meet to be meeting is 9ilson.d. you should stay. %0! a..
$! c. c. has revolutioniEed medicine $which was discovered.! Be lost the ability to use his hands... =ppositive #odi!ication by in!initive and . 4 common feature of infinitive appositive clauses is that they have implicit subjects to be inferred from the context. 4re there any observable tendencies in the choice between to-infinitive clause and preposition usually of! L -ing clauseA %2! 4nn has the will to win)Cof winning. Discovered almost by accident. 9hat is the typical function of appositive -ing clausesA %"! a. @$m loo'ing for a job driving cars. @t is >uite common with infinitive clauses* %8! The appeal to give blood received strong support. discovered almost by accident. The man. The woman.7. was never delivered. The substance. unless they are introduced prepositionally* %8! b.$! <o initially placed nonrestrictive nonfinite postmodifiers differ in their implicit semantic range from those that follow the headA %%! e. b.. to come and visit him.uents. The woman wearing such dark glasses.. 0.. the substance has revolutioniEed medicine.. This scholar. b. %&! a. %1! agreement disinclination proposal resolution decision inclination readiness un!willingness determination invitation refusal will &3 . This type of postmodification may also be nonrestrictive* %3! This last appeal. The appeal to us)for us to give blood. because he was wearing. obviously could not see clearly. of using his hands. Cthat he could use his hands.. $who can be seen... ing clauses 4ppositive postmodification is not found with -ed clauses. to be seen daily in the British %useum.b. 9e can offer you a career counselling delin. <o appositive postmodifications by means of an infinitive clause always have corresponding finite clause as appositionA %. who was wearing.0.. has devoted his life to the history of science.
&#! Their chance to go)of going abroad was lost. +onvert the in!initive clause in each exa#ple into a relative clause. 3 4ny driver not having a licence ought to be sent to jail right away. !ier. 8 9e did not wish to waste lives in another frontal attac'. 1 Presents costing less than ten pounds in all may be imported duty free. 7ou$ll find the best time to get there is just after twelve. &" . 0% The last problem. probability. " The cheapest place to eat at is the cafeteria. we were met by a man carrying a copy of The Times.ost Property =ffice. 2 The way to get to the head of the >ueue is to slip in through the 'itchen. 0 The next train to arrive is from (dinburgh. hearing the noise. 0# 4nyone not hearing that noise must have been stone deaf. to be considered at our next meeting. % =ur appeal for volunteers for another attempt was greeted with enthusiasm. 4ny article left in this bus was ta'en at once to the . $e%rite these sentences5 using a noun phrase %ith in!initive clause as post#odi. & 4 car. jumped up in alarm. 3 The man for /ohn to spea' to first is the <irector of the Huseum. burnt down in the sixteenth century. & 9as 5ortes the first (uropean ever to see the Pacific =ceanA 8 The best man to see for your eye trouble is the Professor of =phtamology. . & 9e thought the idea that we should create a diversion upstream was a good one. 8 9e collided with a car driven by a young man without a licence. % The first man to fly non-stop across the 4tlantic was /ohn 4lcoc'. prospect. 00 (verybody. was never rebuilt. coming unexpectedly out of a side street. 0 4t the station. 3 =ur allies promised to send reinforcements but did not do so. is how to invest the money. 2 4ny dutiable articles not declared to the 5ustoms will be liable to confiscation. &8! hope. % Be was accompanied by a porter weighing at least 03# 'ilos. crashed into us. " The train standing at platform six is for Drussels and =stend. . 0 9e planned to cross the river at night but failed. 1 9ill you buy me a magaEine to read on the journeyA 0# Bere is something for you to do while you$re waitingA 00 The only thing left to consider now is how to get away without being seen. &0! chance obligation power aim necessity freedom opportunity impossibility possibility need plan intention responsibility &%! &&! She found the ris' Cto lose)of losing money too great. ris' +onvert the participle clause into a relative clause in each o! these sentences. 0% The castle.
8 Hillions of insomniacs could benefit from a new techni>ue which may cure sleeplessness. which is repeated under the breath three or four times a second. " This anti-insomnia techni>ue which is being tested by researchers from 5ambridge offers pill-free hope for millions who suffer from sleeplessness. which has been called $the central executive$. 0 The man who wrote the obituaries is my friend.1. 08 There is still wor' that needs to be done. 2 This only made us more determined to succeed on our own. 1 Heanwhile. 3se . the car which was standing outside the station c. @t is based on a theory that the brain has a 'ind of $memory traffic control$. which is based on $thought-jamming$. 0# 6or were we deceived when they proposed that we should call a truce. . 0% Tests that have been specially designed to try out the theory were carried out under controlled conditions. can bloc' stimulating thoughts and induce sleep. .1. 00 ." 9e felt they were cowardly to hesitate to come to our aid. . @t was disgraceful that they should refuse to fulfil their promise. & The next train that arrived was from 7or'.in!initives as suitable.ing !or#s5 .1. The car was standing outside the station. 0. Post#odi!ication by prepositional phrases 0. $e%rite the sentences by changing the !inite relative clauses into non!inite !or#s. and that this controls information that enters the brain. the car outside the station 9hat is the structure of prepositional phrasesA &. 2 The 5ambridge team believes that with insomniacs $the central executive$ insists on finding tas's when nothing that is particularly interesting is happening. b. 3 The idea is that a simple word li'e the. 0# The age old techni>ue of counting sheep as a method that may induce sleep re>uires concentration and stimulates thoughts about the imaginary sheep. 1 The team decided to loo' for ways in which they could provide a steady flow of information into the brain. we were not disturbed when the enemy threatened to attac' us. $elation to #ore explicit #odi!iers Prepositional phrases as postmodifiers may be considered a further degree of reduction of finite relative clauses* 0! a. the car standing outside the station d.epeating a boring little word li'e the is so dull that the only thing that most people can do is to go to sleep. Dut other people stayed awa'e. which would prevent it from loo'ing for other tas's that it could do. They were able to mouth simple words while still thin'ing other thoughts. 0& 4 third of those who were tested had >uic' success.ed !or#s5 or to. % 4ny coins that are found on this site must be handed to the police.
the girl with a funny hat a.uiry <oes a general paraphrase by means of be-predication li'e the ones in 0! e. c.e. d. a. The woman accompanied by a child. The man for the *ob is /ohn. the girl who has a funny hat "! Post#odi!ication by prepositional phrases. $eplace each prepositional phrase by a relative clause that %ill #a'e the #eaning o! the post#odi!ication #ore explicit: 0 4 house by the church % 4 picture by a famous artist & The plane for Hoscow 00 4 man of my ac>uaintance 0% The flint wall of our cellar 0& 4 man of strong will &2 . the car outside the station e. d.The university is acting)regarded as a political forum b. the university as a political forum b.$ The boo' is on grammar. The woman with child is /oan.%! a. The woman is with child. b. i. and 8! b.$ exhaust the range of possible meaning relations between the head and the postmodifierA 0! 8! 3! d. f. the man who has a read beard g. The woman with the child is /oan. The man is right)best for the job)CThe man is for the job. action in case of fire f. pregnant. a labyrinth of roads e. e. f. The car is outside the station. this boo' on grammar c. the information about the easy payment plan d. a delay pending further in. e. The present is for /ohn. c. the man with a red beard g. the road to -incoln b. P PP 6P outside across &! the face of the man in the car outside the station the station the street 4re there any restrictions concerning the range of prepositions introducing postmodifying phrasesA 5hec' the following* 8! a. The present for $ohn costs a great deal.
there had been a mar'ed drop JJJJJJJJ diary entries recording friendly relations JJJJJJJJ their spouses. @nstructions in case of fire 02 The pleasure of your company 01 The rule of majority %# 4 /ac' of all trades Post#odi!ication by prepositional phrases. . @f you have a row JJJJJJJJJJ your family today.if you don$t want a cold. " @ 'now you have a cold. The researchers believe that all this shows a definite lin' JJJJJJJJJ mood and infection. 6ow a similar effect has been found JJJJJJ the common cold. &1 . /ill in the gaps %ith suitable prepositions5 and underline the noun phrase that the prepositional phrases are part o!. The man with your wife 2 The man with a gun 1 4 man of property 0# The people of 4sia 08 The man without a hat 03 4 student from Portugal 0" 4 >uotation from Sha'espeare 0. . and an increase JJJJJJJJ the number JJJJJJJ social annoyances. but that$s no JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ not doing your homewor'. you could end up with a cold by the end JJJJJJJJJ the wee'. don$t get annoyedK +o#plete the sentences belo% %ith one o! the !ollo%ing nouns plus a preposition: basis objection grudge fall control trouble cruelty campaign opposite 'nowledge freedom genius excuse choice strain news 0 @f you had a JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ marrying for love or marrying for money. So . 4fter ten wee's. and that four days JJJJJJJJJJJ a row your system can become too wea' to stop cold viruses from attac'ing. a JJJJJJJJJJJJJ foreign of languages is very useful. which would you doA % 9hat is the JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ $timid$A @s it $bold$ or $brave$A & The 4frican elephant will be extinct within twenty years if an international JJJJJJJ the ivory trade is not started immediately. The theory is the latest study JJJJJJJJ the effects JJJJJJ mental well-being JJJJJJJ physical well-being. Typically those who have problems expressing emotions JJJJJJJ anger or who have suffered traumatic experiences after the death JJJJJJJJ a spouse appear to be most at ris'.8 9arm clothes for Hoscow 3 4 land for all seasons " The man for the job .esearch JJJJJJJJ psychologists suggests that joyless days full of irritation JJJJJJJJJJ a social 'ind can lead to a wea'ening JJJJJJJJJ the disease-fighting immune system. Such effects has already been found for a number JJJJJJJJ serious diseases. @f you have to deal with overseas clients. 8 <o you have any JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ my par'ing my car in front of your houseA 3 The JJJJJJJJJJJJJ chewing gum is that it loses its flavour too >uic'ly. seventeen volunteers had colds. 4 hundred clerical staff JJJJJJJJ a tax office JJJJJJJJJ the north JJJJJJJJ (ngland were as'ed to 'eep a diary JJJJJJJJJJ their health. their moods and what sort JJJJJJJJJJJ day they had. @t then emerged that four days JJJJJJJ contracting the cold.
Be bears a terrible JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ the people who attac'ed him. 0# 9ill the ?. % 4lthough a period JJJJ sustained low prices may test farmers$ and politicians$! enthusiasm JJJJ freedom to farm.achmaninoff 5< is more listenable than his live recitals. may choose to testify before Hr Thompson$s committee in exchange JJJJ limited immunity JJJJ prosecution. noisy. 00 =verweight people should not jog. 8# . 1 This re>uires a JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ public spending. we can do as we li'e* our teacher has no JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ us at all. 2 =n that point @$m in JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJ Hr Hc5abe. comforted by an arsenal JJJJ 088 cannons aboard. JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ whaling accomplish anythingA /ill in the #issing prepositions. fear and persecution. 3 The government placed an immediate JJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJ all imports from that country. claiming that it veered sharply from the facts JJJJ 4ndersen$s life. all hopeful of safe passage JJJJJ hostile seas. often in bowdleriEed translations that bear but sad resemblance his masterful originals.6. 0% Since the salmonella scare there has been a considerable JJJJJJ consumption of eggs. a central figure JJJJ the <emocrat$s foreign money machine. 3 @ point out to them that <enmar' considered ma'ing an official protest JJJJ the 4merican movie. and while his . 0 Bis car was involved in a terrible JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJ another vehicle.%## passengers and crew. " The man had made ade>uate JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJJ his family in his will. $e%rite the !ollo%ing !inite post#odi!ying clauses as (a) non. % She made a generous JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ the collection. & The big news JJJJ the hearing$s first day was that /ohn Buang.a literary giant relegated to the nursery. it$s still muddy. because it puts a great JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ their hearts. +hoose an appropriate noun and add a suitable preposition to !ill in the gaps in the !ollo%ing sentences. raggedly . 8 4nd yet he suffers a curious sort JJJJ neglect . 1 @n our class. in the long run the change JJJJ policy should ma'e 4merica$s productive farmers even more so. 0# The . 8 Be expressed absolute JJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJ the inade>uate teaching he had received. " @n addition the ships carried more than 0. 0 5ritics JJJJ 4ustralia and 6ew Pealand panned the first performances JJJJ his tour.!inite clauses and<or (b) prepositional phrases. .2 Perhaps the three most important human rights are JJJJJJJJ hunger.and boring. & The child has a great JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ JJJJJJJJ mathematics.SP54 is concerned with prevention of JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ animals.
1 4 cruel letter followed which he intended to break my heart.1. 0. lexical factors b. communicative factors a. The ship has a red funnel. the lady$s car ACthe car of the lady c. 9hat is the difference between the two in structural and functional termsA 2! the our the city$s population The choice between the genitive construction and the of-con-struction is determined by a series of factors including* 1! a. The ship. 3 9e prefer vegetables that have been organically grown. 8 The man who stands on the street corner usually 'nows where places are.! a. there is a regular correspondence between an of-phrase and the inflected genitive* . Be foolishly carried a gun which he could scare people with. the family$s car the car of the family e. 4nn$s car Cthe car of 4nn b. " Bis hope.2. The funnel of the ship is red. that he would be rescued. d. % @n some countries.construction and the genitive construction :ery fre>uently. The ship has a funnel. The roof of this house Cthis house$s roof 9hich non-personal nouns allow both constructionsA 80 . . began to fade. relational factors c. objective vs subjective relation d. thieves who are caught in the act lose their hands. 2 9e had reached the point from which there was no turning back. b. he choice bet%een the of. the dog$s collar Athe collar of the dog d.0 People who live in glass houses shouldn$t throw stones.s funnel is red. & She made clothes which were designed to make you feel good. 0# The few hours which remained at our disposal were precious. syntactic factors e. :exical !actors 9hich gender classes favour the inflected genitiveA 0#! a. but he never goes. c. @t is red.
e.e. Cthe power$s love a. as in 02-01! we spea' of subjective relation. Someone! imprisoned the murderer. its subject. Cthe courage$s woman a. as in 0"-0. 0"! 0. men of science 8% %0! .! 02! 01! a. @f the predication involves an element to the left of the verb. also influence the choice between the constructions* 0&! She stood at the water$s edge)the edge of the water. b. a. i.!. 5hina$s economy the map of 5hina the climate of 5hina the roads of 5hina the economy of 5hina Specific lexical noun heads. a woman of courage b. surface. The ship has a funnel Ca water$s glass Cthis research$s 'ind -enerally. with the objective relation. b. a. the imprisonment of the murderer b. $elational !actors 9hich meaning relations between two nouns that can never be expressed by means of genitive constructionA 08! a glass of water 03! this 'ind of research c. the funnel of the ship b.00! a.! %#! c. A!5hina$s roads d. the of-construction is preferred if the verbpredicate relation is not overt* 0. end. The train arrived a. A5hina$s climate c. etc. The woman has courage. the love of power b. Objective vs subjective relation @f the element to the right of the verb is involved in the paraphrase. li'e edge. length. the world$s economy the economy of the world 9hat motivates the following acceptability distributionA 0%! a. C5hina$s map b. 5hina$s population the population of 5hina b. its object. Someone loves power. we spea' of objective relation. i. the arrival of the train)the train$s arrival b.
the examination of the experts The genitive construction that can be interpreted subjectively. the fireman$s examination b. the examination of the firemen %2! a. %3! 9hy is the following of-phrase ambiguousA %"! The reminiscences of the Prime Hinister were very amusing. The girl is an angel. but in general it seems that where an of-phrase can be interpreted objectively. The students are active. the activity of students b. Cthe)a girl$s angel c.b. the man$s examination of the student b. the tenants$ scrutiny 9hy is the objective interpretation preferred belowA &#! the student$s examination 9hat ma'es the following examples une>uivocalA &0! a.uiem. the scrutiny of the tenants 9hat enforces a subjective interpretation belowA %2! b.uiem c. the murderer$s imprisonment <oes the factor of overt vs covert subject-predicate relation influence the choice of con-structions with subjective relationA %%! a.uiem of)by Dritten b. an angel of a girl b. a. the joy of his return b. a. Cscience$s men 9hat ma'es the inflected genitive possible in the example belowA 0"! c. Chis return$s joy c. will be so interpreted unless there is a counterindication* %1! a. Dritten$s War /e. Dritten composed the War /e. %&! Bow can the following data be accounted forA %8! a. c.! a. the students$ activity c. Bis return give joy. Hen study science. the man$s examination by the student c. The ambiguity is usually resolved in the context. it will be so interpreted unless there is a counter-indication* %. the man$s examination by the doctor 8& . the War /e.
among the global problems that face us now. may result in using one or the other construction* &"! a. the Ring of Spain$s armada b. group genitive is possible.d.! an opera of :erdi$s &2! an opera of my friend$s &. and this influences the choice of the appropriate construction. +o##unicative !actors The choice between the two constructions my be influenced by the linear organiEation of the utterance in discourse.estrictively postmodified noun must occupy the second position. that in order to succeed we must first tac'le the economy of the industrialiEed nations.0. Feconomy in focusG b. Be went on to say. For example. 0?the lady @ met in the shop$s hat e. the chief one is the world$s economy. the decision to give some elements more prominence of focus. which is the basis for the sound economy of the world. Can opera of a composer$s Ca funnel of the ship$s 88 . the man in the corner$s hat c. he ?post.genitive? State the conditions on this double genitive construction* &. where the geni-tive mar'er is affixed to the last item of the postmodification. however. which had been expected for several wee's 9hy is the of-construction the natural choice belowA &8! the arrival of a friend who had been studying at a -erman university @n some cases. "yntactic !actors =ther modifiers in the noun phrase may influence the choice between the genitive and the of-construction* . The spea'er said that. Fworld in focusG 0.! &1! b. 9hat rules out the of-construction in the following exampleA &%! a friend$s arrival which had been expected for several wee's 9hat is the natural interpretation of the followingA &&! the arrival of a friend.1. 9hat ma'es group genitive$s less acceptableA &3! a.
that dog of Peter$s 6ote the different meanings* 8&! 88! a. the bac')my car! .tences about %here to !ind so#e !a#ous :ondon land#ar's. The 4dventures of Philip 2 The <iary of a 6obody 1 4 Tale of Two 5ities 0# 4 Sleep of Prisoners :ondon land#ar's. a. 3se a genitive structure or the of. 3se the underlined %ords to %rite sen. Which could be acceptably re. the end)the film! % Bave you seen JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJA the new film)Steven Spielberg! & 9e met Sue and Fran' at JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ.phrase. a student of /espersen$s +o#plete the sentences using the %ords in brac'ets %ith the possessive #ar'er or %ith the of. a student of /espersen b. 4ny daughter of Hrs Drown$s is welcome. c. construction5 as appropriate: 83 . the manager)the Dlac' 5at 5lub! he !ollo%ing titles all use the of. the end)this road! 1 The police want to interview JJJJJJJJJJJ. Hrs Drown$s Hary b. 4 daughter of Hrs Drown$s has arrived. a painting of my sister a. b. d. the party)Sarah! 8 Bave you repaired JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJA the wheel)the bicycle! 3 Hy flat is on JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. CHary of Hrs Drown c. phrased using the genitive* 0 The <ay of the /ac'al % The 5all of the 9ild & <eath of a Salesman 8 The Song of Solomon 3 The Hayor of 5asterbridge " The Prisoner of Penda . a painting of my sister$s b. 4 friend of the doctor$s has arrived.8#! a.construction. 0 9e had to leave the cinema early so we didn$t see JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. 9e heard the news from JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. CHary of Hrs Drown$s 80! Specify the circumstances under which one of these conditions may get relaxed* 8%! a. this hand of mine b. CThe daughter of Hrs Drown$s has arrived. a friend)the woman who wor's in the post office! 2 There$s a hospital at JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ. the top floor) the house! " The bus crashed into JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ.
epublic of 5roatia 8"! The news of the team$s victory 83! b. the news that the team had won e. the fool of a policeman b. the news of the team$s having won There is a special type of prepositional appositives* 8. near 5haring 5ross! . This island is a jewel. the foolish policeman 8" .! a.ondon. this jewel of an island 82! <et L 6Sg L of L indefinite article L 6 82! a. The policeman is a fool. c.phrase Some of-phrases are not ordinary postmodifiers* 83! the . The news is the team$s victory. Ber brute of a brother $Ber brother is a brute$ 3#! The se>uence B(4< L of L a corresponds to an adjective* 30! a. 5roatia is a republic. begun in the eleventh century at Tower Bill! 00 4 column commemorating 4dmiral 6elson in Trafalgar S>uare! 0% 4 gate through which traitors used to be ta'en to prison and often execution! at Tower Bill! 0.not in fact connected with 5leopatra on the (mban'ment. Such of-phrases are considered prepositional appositions. the fool of a)Cthe policeman 9hich of the two nouns functions as the notional headA 81! a.oyal 4cademy. an angel of a girl c. This republic that @ mean! is 5roatia 8"! b. c. a)that)this)that)his fool of a policeman b. The team$s victory is a news.1. The girl is an angel. b. the . CAthose fools of policemen c. c. 6ote that there is often an obvious parallel with clausal appositive postmodifiers* 8"! d.1. a society devoted to fine arts in Piccadilly! 2 the waxwor's museum founded by Hadame Tussaud near Da'er Street! 1 the museum about childhood in Dethnal -reen! 0# The most famous tower in . =pposition %ith of.0 a corner reserved for the tombs and monuments of poets in 9estminster 4bbey! % a cathedral dedicated to St Paul in the 5ity! & the $Bouses$ where Parliament conducts its business at 9estminster! 8 the famous club for travellers in Pall Hall! 3 a par' in honour of postmen near the -eneral Post =ffice! " an obelis' called a needle! .
Fappositional.ondon was dense. c.. 0.uestion( of student grants. The way out was hard to find. The course( on 1nglish grammar. his homeward journey b. nonrestrictiveG c. 9inor types o! post#odi!ication 0... Fappositional. restrictiveG d. restrictiveG b. b. The . Fnonappositional.uestion of student grants was discussed yesterday.1. b. The road which leads bac' to . .1.b. the postmodification or complementation of the adjective* 3! a play popular in the 234s 8.7. The road back is dense with traffic. his journey homeward 0. the angelic girl c. depending on what re>uires the postposition* a. Postposed adjectives Postposed adjectives come in three main types. This jewel-li'e island 0. $estrictive and nonrestrictive prepositional post#odi!ication Prepositional phrases may be restrictive or nonrestrictive in both appositional and nonap-positional functions* 3%! a. %! Some such adverb phrases may be used either as pre. The way which leads out of the auditorium. The course on 1nglish grammar starts tomorrow.. Fnonappositional. b.2.7. The people behind were tal'ing all the time. nonrestrictiveG There are certain limitations* nonrestrictive PPs are rare and rather aw'ward.or as postmodifiers* &! a. a.7.7. Post#odi!ication by an adverb phrase 4dverb phrases as postmodifiers of nouns refer to time or place* 0! a. the head of the 6P 8! @ want to try something different. was discussed yesterday. The . starts tomorrow.
something nice d. C5 man very timid is unfit for this tas'. They may also be considered compound nouns. a person busy cutting trees Postposition is here obligatory except with hyphenated compounds!* 1! 0#! a.! a. a both typical and common mista'e b.adjective co#binations re6uiring postposition This type consists of a number of fixed phrases based on French or . 82 .ondon c. the particular noun-adjective combination* "! a. somewhere else f. (ven a single restrictively modifying adjective may be postponed if it is itself modified by an adjunct but not by the intensifier very!* 0&! a. timid and hesitant. he post#odi!ication or co#ple#entation o! the adjective as the cause o! post #odi!ication @n what respect are the following adjective phrases heavyA 2! a. 4nybody younger would have done better. b. a 'night errant a. b. a typical-of-beginners mista'e 9ith coordinated adjectives. the student born in . c. either pre. a mista'e typical of beginners b. Ca typical of beginners mista'e a. anywhere exciting b.c.or postposition is allowed* 00! a. the heir apparent b. anything sweet c. Particular noun. nobody else e.atin models. approached the official. a mista'e both typical and common 9hen a head is non-restrictively modified by a coordinate string of adjectives. it is common to have them postponed* 0%! 4 man. 5 man always timid is unfit for this tas'. Postposed adjectives #odi!ying inde!inite heads 9hich indefinite items can be postmodified in this wayA .
lion rampant d. president elect b. In the !ollo%ing 6uotations5 identi!y the positions o! the adjective and co##ent on the#. 0 Buman beings are the only animals of which @ am thoroughly and cravenly afraid. came. =ne of our difficulties is we do not always have the up-to-date addresses of all our members. stac'ed li'e a social wor'er$s handboo'. Cthe president newly elect b. 4ouns as postposed ?#ode? 6uali!iers 6ouns may function in another model of postposition in (ng-lish. and informed by love. latch-'ey children.ewis 5arroll! 8 . the president newly elected c. .D. which is ridiculous. so-called mode >uali-fier. Cthe battle very royal $e%rite the !ollo%ing5 using the adjectives !ro# the list to replace the %ords in italics.. -. /oseph 5onrad! 3 The towers of high-rise council flats. the newly elected president d. Halcolm Dradbury! 0. 8 but some people that I. 9a'e any other changes necessary. " They say the only correct thing to do now is hold another election. 2 The secretary is aware of the problem. have telephoned to say that they should have had postal votes. & Host of the people who were there at the meeting are delighted. the wariest person will often mista'e shininess for expensiveness. with eyes ablaEe. had always paid on time.m not going to name!. battle royal c... who had died recently. conscious. open eyed. is the only one of our feelings for which it is impossible to become a sham. @ou %ill need so#e o! the %ords #ore than once.0. Shaw! % The first rule in buying 5hristmas presents is to select something shiny. Cthe heir still apparent e.. 1 9e once wrote to a member saying that his subscription was overdue 0# and we had a letter from a very distressed lady saying her husband. postmaster general e.esignation. 3 people who were not at the meeting. superficially similar. attorney general 9hat ma'es them syntactically different from other adjectives in postpositionA 03! a. unmarried mothers. P. 9odehouse! & The /abberwoc'.-. .08! a. with separated wives. confined to cuisine* 81 .7. absent involved certain late concerned present conscious proper elect 0 =ur newly elected chairman ta'es over immediately % because our former chairman resigned suddenly last September for health reasons.
9ore than one #odi!ication applicable to a single head 0.obster 6ewburg b. "i#ultaneous application o! #ore than one #odi!ication to #ore than one head This type of construction is a combination of multiple post-modification in a. and b. may be brought together by multiple-head rules permitting the determiner to apply to both heads* %#! a. coordinated structure FFthe manG FFin the cornerG and! Ftal'ing to /ohnGGG the man in the corner and! tal'ing to /ohn b. a hierarchical relation FFFthe manG Fin the cornerGG tal'ing to /ohnG the man in the corner 01! tal'ing to /ohn 02! c.! a.A. the man in the corner tal'ing to /ohn d.* %0! a. the man in the corner and the woman in the corner b. 9odi!ication applicable to #ore than one head 4 modification may apply to more than head. . a. the man and woman in the corner tal'ing to /ohn 3# .0"! a. Fthe Fman and womanG Fin the cornerGG c. veal papri'a 0. 9ultiple post#odi!ication Hultiple postmodification arises through* a. the man in the corner A! and tal'ing to /ohn c. a modification applicable to more than one headO c. the man tal'ing to /ohn c. more than one modification applicable to a single headO b. 5oordinated complex 6Ps sharing the same postmodifier string as in %#! a. by simultaneous application of more than one modification to more than one head. the man in the corner b.
3 9e passed the -reyhound Botel. In the !ollo%ing 6uotations !ro# The Country Girl by 8dna O?Brien5 identi!y the !or#s o! post#odi!ication. & The passed the hotel with window frames rotting and doors scratched from the claws of young and nervous dogs.inguistic units are considered to be appositive. li'e something.Hrs Dur'e from the cottages. 1 4djectives followed by a complement can follow nouns.The 6Ps in the postmodifer may themselves be modified.$ said /ac'. rue or !alse* 0 Postmodifiers are single words. 0# 4djectival postmodifiers resemble reduced relative clauses. the man in the corner nearest the door b. i. often ta'e a postmodifier. 2 The shouting. came up through the ceiling. 0. % Fields of corn at the side of the house and bamboo trees thic' and luxuriant along the water$s edge. . =pposition 0. was here last night. 0 There were wheel ruts on either side of it from carts that went up and down each day. . %! 6aul $ones( the distinguished art critic. " Hany adjectives ending in -able)-ible can only stand after their nouns.and any-compounds.e. The phrases the appointed time and the time appointed mean the same. 1 Be went inside to drin' elegant glasses of sherry. there is someone to loo' after you . loo'ing glorious on her new puce bicycle. the man in the corner b. 8 $There$s trouble brewing. 8 #ome. died in his sleep last night. % The commonest postmodifier is the relative clause. where Hrs =$Shea was polishing the 'noc'er.C. & 9e use non-finite clauses. 30 .C. phrases and clauses standing after the head of a noun phrase. he nature o! apposition . adverbials and adjectives as postmodifiers. " @t was Daba. 0# =h. the man and woman in the corner nearest the door tal'ing to /ohn %0! Post#odi!iers. to be in apposition. with two bow windows downstairs and circular glower-beds in the front. the corner nearest the door c.1. 3 Hany a-series adjectives stand after their nouns. if they have identical reference* 0! 5nna( my best friend. high and fierce. Be spo'e as if it were the end of the world. 2 The phrases the written message and the message written mean the same. which results in >uite complex 6Ps* %%! a. Their house was li'e a doll$s house.
2. a book on ethics. The reason he gave is unsatisfactory. 4 neighbour is on the telephone. Bere is a letter from /ohn. C9as given to him for his birthday. c.t notice the car till too late is unsatisfactory. is unsatisfactory. (ach of the appositives can be separately omitted without affecting the acceptability of the sentenceO ii. 5n unusual present was given to him for his birthday. 6orman /ones wrote several best-sellers. 0. is on the telephone. The reason he gave( that he didn. who wants a *ob in -ondon. 4pposition is thus analogous to a copular relationship* %! b. 4t one time a law student wrote several best-sellers. a. c. b. CBere is a letter from /ohn. (ach item fulfils the same syntactic function in the resultant sentencesO iii. Paul /ones was the distinguished art critic.* "! a. 3% 2! . b.t notice the car till too late . 8orman $ones( at one time a law student. b. d. c. 4nna. 5 book on ethics was given to him for his birthday.ondon. &The fact' that he didn. 4pposition is similar to nonrestrictive postmodification. Fred Dric' is on the telephone. /ull and partial apposition @n its narrowest sense the term apposition is applied to structures if the following three conditions are met* 3! i. 9hich conditions are not met in the following examplesA . &! c. a job in . Structures that fail to satisfy any of the above conditions are termed partial apposition. d. particularly to nonrestrictive rel-ative clauses* 0! b. was here last night. That he didn. 5n unusual present was given to him for his birthday. who is my best friend.t notice the car till too late is unsatisfactory. @t can be assumed that there is no difference between the original sentence and either of the resultant sentences in extralinguistic reference. Fred Dric' is a neighbour. b. &! b.C.! 2! a. wrote several best-sellers. d. a book on ethics. 9hy cannot apposition always be considered a reduced version of nonrestrictive modification by relative clausesA 8! a.4nother possibility is for the reference of one 6P to be included in the reference of the other* &! 5 neighbour( 7red Brick. 5f.
a lawyer. has brought him many friends.1. strict. the second ap-positive having the defining role. has brought him many friends. with the first appositive usually acting as the defined expression. the President of the company. @n nonrestrictive apposition. 6P L 6P* 1! 7ootball( his only interest in life. Hr 5ampbell the lawyer was here last night. "trict and %ea' apposition The appositives may belong to the same general syntactic class. The President of the company.ouise Parsons.ouise Parsons.g. 6P L .C.g. Hrs . but these may on occasion be difficult to distinguish. e. nonrestrictive 6aul $ones( the distinguished art critic.0.ing clause. gave a press conference after the board meeting. e. was here last night.0. 0.C. The appositives in nonrestrictive apposition are in separate information units. gave a press conference after the board meeting. +o#binations o! apposition types The three types of distinction discussed above apply in combination* 0&! full apposition partial apposition strict apposition wea' apposition nonrestrictive apposition restrictive apposition i. Hr 5ampbell. Such apposition is called strict apposition. b. 0%! a. Hrs . @f appositives belong to different syntactic classes. b. 4onrestrictive and restrictive apposition 4pposition may be restrictive or nonrestrictive. the two items contribute relatively independent pieces of in-formation.7. died in his sleep last night. Feither omissibleG Fonly one omissibleG Fsame syntactic classG Fdifferent syntactic functionG Fdifferent information unitG Fsame information unitG 08! full.C. Bow is this fact indicated in speech and in writingA 00! a. The defining item is mar'ed as parenthetic by punctuation or intonation. 0. 3& . they are said to be in wea' apposition* 0#! 9is only interest in life( playing football .
nonrestrictive 5n unusual present was given to him for his birthday. vi. nonrestrictive 9is explanation( that he couldn. a book on ethics. partial. full. nonrestrictive 6laying football( his only interest in life . or better and as follows for example. 0. partial. financial expert Tom Timber will begin writing a wee'ly column on the national economy. wea'. including. iv. i. iii. restrictive The . restrictive 9is claim that he couldn. vii. strict. chiefly. such as especially. namely the international economic crisisA Some common indicators are* 0"! that is to say. particularly. for instance. strict. mainly. restrictive 6ext Saturday. viii. restrictive %y friend 5nna was here last night. wea'. partial. is unsatisfactory. viE to wit in other words or.t see the car. full. partial.ii. strict. wea'. 8xplicit indicators o! apposition 4 number of expressions can be inserted between appositives to indicate explicitly nonrestrictive apposition* 03! Bow can a solution be found to the current disease of contemporary society. in particular.uestion whether to confess or not troubled the girl. v. or rather.A. wea'. included.C. full. that is. mostly of 38 . notably. say. has brought him many friends.t see the car was unsatisfactory. namely.e.
The major types of premodifying items* 0! a.D. the willingness of academics to pay tribute to the leaders of bloodthirsty regimes e. adjective 9e also met her delightful family. ypes o! pre#odi!ying ite# . Bave you reported the stolen carA c.1. The feting of the dictator$s wife by the polytechnic is a classic example of a peculiar phenomena. @n addition there are some minor. Hillie 0 Three diplomatic cars were among the first 8" victims of the wheel clamp when it came into operation in . " 4ustralia$s new plastic ban'note still cannot cope with earlier forms of technology. Pre#odi!ication 0. 3 Be greatly disli'es the Dritish . them or us g. & The Dushes$ spaniel is the latest in a long line of 9hite Bouse pets. genitive @ visited his fisherman's cottage.+o#plete these authentic 6uotations by adding the !ollo%ing appositive phrases in the right places. Premodification can be restrictive and nonrestrictive. the police device for immobiliEing illegally par'ed cars d. noun @ hate city traffic . adverb and other phrases 33 . e.D. those richer than himself f. b. 9e had to 'ill them or they would have 'illed us.ondon in 012&. types of premodification by* d. % Hurauchi has a low opinion of the scramble by the new rich for (uropean art. participle They never found the missing report. the latest word in anti-fraud 'now-how c. . a. a fast-rising blot on the (uston road b. 0. People leaving the S 0# note in trouser poc'ets have found that it shrin's when ironed.ibrary building. less fre>uent.exical items of a wide range and indefinite complexity and interrelationship may precede a noun head to form a noun phrase whose modification is generally less explicit than that of postmodification. 8 @t was gang warfare.
sentence She has as'ed I don't know how many people to the party. a number of generaliEation may be made. normally nonsensical.D. d. 9hat is the stylistic value of so in premodification corresponding to "! a. 9hen used as modifiers.2. 9hen there is no postmodification. most adjectives and nouns describe permanent characteristics while most participles de-scribe temporary characteristics.?( bag. 9hat can be predicted in light of the fact that the prehead modifying position is strongly associated with relatively permanent characteristicsA 0. the item in >uestion must be restrictive* &! @ want the D. 4dverb and prepositional phrases and sentences as premodifiers tend to be restrictive and to be given more prosodic prominence than the head of the 6P. my ?-ly nose <o proper names normally need restrictive premodificationA @s the premodification below restrictive or nonrestrictiveA 5omment.A "! a. Pre#odi!ication by adjectives 4 premodifying adjective or rather adjective phrase! can itself be premodified. 0. nouns and adjectives are stative. Bis cottage which is so beautiful 3" . $estrictive and nonrestrictive pre#odi!ication 4lthough there are few formal indicators as to whether a premodification is restrictive or nonrestrictive.D. and what 'ind of context is needed for it to ma'e senseA %! b. and verbs dynamic. the head. 8! <o you mean the :enT. my ugly 6=S( @f prominence is given to a premodifier. 9hy is a phrase li'e %! b. is given the prosodic prominence* %! a.9e have round-the-clock service.<:y /ichmond or the =ir"I8ia /ichmond+oneA Typically. as a rule.uite unbelievably delightful cottage Some intensifiers tend to be avoided with premodifying adjectives. particularly if it is the first item after the determiner* 3! 9is really .0.
and are central adjectives if they are inherent and denote a high or extreme degree* 00! 0%! a. or else so L adjective would be placed before the determiner* "! c. 4mplifiers scale upwards from an assumed norm.b. plain nonsense b.S. some restricted to attributive or premodifier position only!. a great destruction b. a clear failure c. Bis behaviour was not very courteous)not unpleasant. so is replaced by such. a real hero d. @f they are noninherent. a lowering effect. amplifiers are attributive only* 0&! a. a pure fabrication b. a complete fool 3. an outright lie h. a certain winner e. conversely. The first group comprises so called @6T(6S@F7@6.adjectives or @6T(6S@F@(. a true scholar b. his not unpleasant behaviour 4onpredicative adjectives There are several classes of peripheral non-central! adjectives that cannot be used in pre-modification. . CFabrication is pure.! a. so beautiful a cottage Bow is clause negation transferred to premodifying structureA 9itness the following* . a definite loss f.e. CThe scholar is true. a. They have a heightening effect on the noun they modify. the simple truth g. or conversely. (mphasiEers have a general heightening effect* 2! 1! a. sheer arrogance D. The victory was complete. Some further examples are* 0#! a. his not very courteous behaviour c. including Eero. a complete victory b. some that cannot be used predicatively i. The destruction was great. a. b. such a beautiful cottage d. Bis so beautiful cottage 9ith indefinite determiners. 4t least two semantic subclasses may be distinguished that are subject to constraints on predicative use* 4. and.
Secondly. a complete stranger e. They restrict the reference of the noun exclusively. a. The destruction was total. particularly. the absolute limit c. total nonsense b. b. @t was clearly a failure.! a.b. or chiefly* %&! a. an extreme enemy d. That is pure fabrication. Be is truly a scholar. <omplete here refers to the completeness of the folly. a. the principal objection d.@5T@:( or . a firm friend b. Some intensifying adjectives have homonyms that are central adjectives. the sole argument 32 . 4mplifiers are attributive only also when they are used as emphasiEers* 03! 0"! a. 08! a.@H@T(. Further examples of amplifier adjectives used attributively only* 0. @ dran' some pure water. the exact answer e. the same student f. Be is a true a scholar. @t was a clear failure. his chief reason c. total irresponsibility Hany of these intensifying adjectives can be related to intensifying adverbs* 02! 01! %#! a. his entire salary g. utter folly b. The water is pure. a strong opponent j. a great supporter h. there are . a certain person b. CThe nonsense was total. intensifier! b. @t is utterly foolish to do so. central adjective! b. )CThe friend is firm. @t is utter folly to do so. adjectives. a close friend f. b. occurring in both positions* %0! %%! a. CThe fool is complete. b.(ST. and firm to the firmness of the friendship. total destruction b. a perfect stranger i. a. CThe fabrication is pure. a.
someone who eats a lot a. 4</(5T@:(S. -ic.g. -an.! %2! %1! &#! a. earthen pottery d.4T(< T= 4<:(. Ber pronunciation is nasal. polar bear b. a hard wor'er b. possibly a friend a. students in the past a. yearly income Hany such adjectives are nongradable. my former friend b.(. showers occasionally a. criminal lawyer c. the nasal cavity 4gain there may be homonyms* &8! &3! a. -al. someone who wor's hard Finally. his poetic input d. $e%rite the !ollo%ing sentences using a cognate adverb !or each o! the highlighted adjectives.e. there are <(6=H@64. some adjectives used attributively only that are derived from nouns by means of the following suffixes* &0! -ar. tidal wave e. i. a big eater b. Some further examples* &&! a. a friend of old a. the criminal court b. occasional showers b. 31 . formerly my friend a. This image is very poetic. a. -en. an old friend b. past students b. urban population c. a possible friend b. the only occasion h.DS* %8! %3! %"! %. her nasal pronunciation b. -ly &%! a. this poetic image b. atomic scientist f. the specific point The third group of adjectives used attributively only comprises 4</(5T@:(S .
iverpool. a. $beginners in general$! b.ing participles The possibility of premodification by an . 3 She is a smart dresser. ABe was a reassuring person. acceptable with the definite articleA 0#! 00! a. or even obligatory. a smiling face 9hy is only postmodification allowed belowA 3! a. The beginning student should be given every encouragment. & The security system re>uires weekly chec's. a smiling person b. .! Be was frightened by an approaching train.ing participle depends chiefly on the potentiality of the participle to denote a permanent or characteristic feature* 0! a. Be greeted me with a very reassuring expression)smile)loo'. the offending proposal a. Ber mind interests me very much. b. %!. 2! AThe barking dog is my neighbour$s. % The heaviest rains fall in 6ovember and February. Ca very roaring bull a.0 Peter and @ have a close wor'ing relationship. a proposal offending many members b. and b. a roaring bull b. 9hat ma'es 0#! b. b. particularly in Dr(* "! AThe approaching train is from . 0. and 00! a. Bead nouns may also play an important role in acceptability of certain . as in 0!. cf. the developing countries "# .D. C9ho is the wandering manA b. intensification is generally possible.ing premodifiers* &! 8! c. Be was a very reassuring person. Pre#odi!ication by participles Pre#odi!ication by . 1! @ was awa'ened by a barking dog. She has a very interesting mind. as in &!* %! &! a. 9ho is the man wandering down the streetA 9hat explains the following acceptability judgements. 8 Tracy was a clever liar.1. 4lthough there are some -ing premodifiers that do not allow intensifiers such as very.
) The machinery was complicated by someone. ) Someone complicated the machinery. The wanted man was last seen in 5ambridge. 9hat differences are illustrated in the following examplesA 8! a. reduced)fallen)increased prices d. The machinery is complicated. &! Host -ed participles have passive meaning. risen costs 9hen is actively interpreted -ed premodification more acceptableA 5hec' the following data. the immigrant who has arrived b. the newly-arrived immigrant b. it is important to distinguish between the passive referring to a process from the so-called statal passive or pseudo-passive!. c. our recently-departed friend c. the vanished treasure c.A 3! Similarly* "! a. Ca sold car b. the former is rare* 0! a. a well-read woman F$a woman who has read a lot$G d. Ca mentioned article "0 .! a. and only a few will readily admit the perma-nent reference prere>uisite for premodifying use* 3! a. a damaged car c. d. Ca built house c. This type of premodification may be interpreted actively or passively but. a retired teacher)manager b. Fthe purse was found at a particular moment$G 9hy is premodification by lost possible in 3! c. as with postmodification.ed participles The same re>uirement concerning the potentiality of the participle to denote a permanent or characteristic feature can be observed with -ed participial modifiers. F$he man goes on being wanted by the police$G b. CThe found purse was returned to its owner. a broken vase c. a lost purse F$a purse that has been lost$G Some exceptions* .Pre#odi!ication by . Cthe arrived immigrant There are some exceptions* %! a. the defeated army b. some complicated machinery b. a. a soft-spoken person F$a person who spea's softly$G 9hen the interpretation is passive.
wanted persons Participles of prepositional verbs usually follow the head* "% . the defeated army b. Bow can the following data be explainedA 0#! a. a carefully described man Hodifiers in -ed may be directly denominal. a concerned expression a. a bearded man b. a leggy spider c. the earliest inventions known c. a well-built house c. a powerful engine c. Ca described man 9hen are there exceptions acceptable in premodificationA 2! a. the above-mentioned article d. Ca legged spider b. a diesel-powered engine a. a long-legged spider 00! @f the -ed participle has a by-agent phrase or other prepositional construction. Cthe by the enemy defeated army e. (xplain the differences in the following* 08! 03! 0"! a. the vaulted roof c. a recently-sold car b. the army defeated for the lack of ammunition f. i.e. postmodi-fication is the only possibility* 0%! a. Cthe for the lack of ammunition defeated army Some unmodified -ed participles in fixed expressions are found in postposition* 0&! a. the people concerned b. the amount demanded)asked b. the students involved b. the services rendered Some participles have different meanings in different positions. a wooded hillside There are constraints on the productivity of such premodifiers. the involved >uestion a. Ca powered engine b. in which case they do not re>uire any adverbial modification* 1! a. Cthe defeated for the lack of ammunition army g. the army defeated by the enemy c. adjectives derived from nouns and not participles with verbal force. jobs wanted b. Cthe defeated by the enemy army d.d.
00 This writer ma'es his point with terrifying emphasis.. .. 00 @ don$t usually buy a programme because @ won$t pay the prices they demand.. & (dward Fox$s performance amaEed us.. +o#plete the !ollo%ing5 using pre#odi!ying participles > nouns . 3 The roses grew in great perfumed masses all over the garden.. The .. There was .. =ne ... 08 The play ended with $twist$ that was not unrelated. 2 The outstanding discovery of sunspot activity was made by a -erman chemist. 08 The 5hief felt thoroughly lost in the crowded streets of . 9e always have . " @ too' a couple of furnished rooms in :incent S>uare. the pages referred to c. =ne man was really shoc'ed and left... 0% Sheila is the adopted daughter of a well-'nown ban'er. @t was ... "& .. @ . but only %here possible: 0 Some plays today disgust me. The . The . @ admire (dward Fox$s ..0. 0% 9e always reserve our seats.. " The language of some plays rather surprises me... % @ read (dgar 4llan Poe$s tales with a sort of shackled fascination.. 1 Be concluded that sunspots vary in a fairly well-defined cycle of about eleven years.ondon. 3 @ don$t li'e people who arrive late. 0# 9e got ice-creams in the interval and ate them. 2 The children behind us were tal'ing. 1 The scene that opened the play was brilliant. That was certainly .. an event unheard of Paraphrase the ite#s highlighted in the sentences belo%: 0 The 5ommander was pacing the >uarter-dec' with the navigating officer. % The play was very entertaining..... 8 The paid servants had their specified position in the household. 0& The plot was rather complicated. Be gave . 03 9e certainly were not expecting that ending. Some plays contain . 03 4 surprising factor has been the political energy of the Swiss. are too high... The play had . 0# Bong Rong is a mainly <antonese-speaking city. There are .. the sum agreed upon b. & @ learned to climb the tree with a 'ind of absent-minded dexterity. 8 @ admire him for the way he timed his acting beautifully. . 0& 7ou have a standing invitation to come with us at any time.. The French tutor was a charming young lady. which was a nuisance. The .! a...
he sentence This book interests people very much can be rephrased as This is a very interesting book.phrased %ith the participle as pre#odi!ier5 and add i! the participle can be #odi. 8 That story is most astonishing. 7our stories are embarrassing. a. b. b. 3 Those children behave themselves. . The man painting that picture is a real artist. 0& 9e have a supply of fuel but it is limited. That story is interesting. +hange the !or# o! the phrase belo% so that the post#odi!iers beco#e pre#odi!iers: 0 a house that has been built well % the article which has been mentioned above & an improvement that is needed badly 8 a secret that has been 'ept closely 3 wealth that has never been told " cruelty such as we have never heard of before . 1 That candle is burning. The spea'er is certainly interesting his audience. Hary and /ohn were married >uietly last year. 08 Those seats are reserved. 02 These circumstances worry me. They were married when @ first met them. b. a. 0# That man is always drin'ing. 7ou are embarrassing the ladies. % -eorge is a man who amuses me. 0" That man seems surprised. a. The sna'e-charmer is charming a cobra. " Those children behave themselves well. Those students seem very bored. /ohn is promising you too much. 03 Those clients were very satisfied. b. 2 There are many faces in the room that loo' bored. 00 This report encourages us. a. 6evertheless. This result is totally unexpected. central heating fired by oil 2 girls with blue eyes 1 a man with red nose 0# a censor with a heavy hand 00 a tiger with teeth li'e sabres 0% a boat with a flat bottom "8 . he is a promising young man. & These people are very amused. 0% This is an agreement that will last. Hary is charming. a. b.!ied by very: 0 This news has alarmed me very much. 8xplain the di!!erence in !unction bet%een the t%o %ords highlighted in each o! the !ollo%ing pairs o! sentences: 0 % & 8 3 " a. Be is painting it extremely well. b. 0. Indicate by Yes %hether each o! the sentences belo% can be re.
life im$prisonment c. the story of his life a. CThat$s not an oak tree but an elm one. regardless of whether these are premodifying nouns or compound constituents* 8! 3! "! . a $dish cloth c. the house beyond the church b. this grammar boo' a. ) two war years "3 . this boo' on grammar b.#ussex $village a. ) the church house a. Aship passengers a. an iron rod b. a cloth for dishes a. Aan electricity company man a. a #ussex village b. Afire action a. a $#ussex man a. a rod of iron a. a dish cloth b. a . a village in #ussex 9hy are some premodifying structures corresponding to post-modification by PPs are of doubtful acceptability or even unacceptableA 2! 1! 0#! 00! 0%! 0&! 08! a. b. 9hat tests may be invo'ed to distinguish themA 0! a. the -incoln road a. an . a man from the electricity company b. Pre#odi!ication by nouns 6ouns found in the premodifying slot are often so closely associated with the head that the whole is often considered as a compound. action in case of fire b. the road to -incoln b. She wants an oak table but @$d prefer a teak one. %! &! @n most cases.7. there is a correspondence between pre-head nouns and postmodification by prepositional phrases. his $life story b. his life story b. . passengers on board the ship b. two years before the war b.! a.iron $rod b.D.0.
5( . a glass of wine b. consumer goods b.! 02! a. The table in the corner was laid for the dinner. i. The corner table was laid for the dinner.! . a morning train b. b. a. (xplainK %#! %0! a. a tree by the stream b. a clay soil b. a box of matches b.T a. soil with clay P. ) goods for)of the consumer @n some cases both constructions are acceptable but have different meanings. The man in the corner spo'e to me. a fence round the garden T@H( a. a dish cloth b.( a. so what did the electricity company man sayA 9hich important factor for the availability of premodification is illustrated belowA 0. D* =h. a garden fence b. a cloth for dishes 9B=. 6ot all noun premodifiers have prepositional phrases as analogues* 01! a.T . a metal sheet b. b.e. a matchbox 9hat are the main types of prepositional paraphrase of noun L noun combinations. a drawer at the top a. CThe corner man spo'e to me.T "" %%! %&! %8! %3! %"! %. a wine glass a.P4. a train in the morning P?.( . a sheet of metal P4.45( a.(S?. a top drawer b.9B=. applicable to both syntactic phrases and compoundsA S=?.03! a.P=S( a. after the ex-plicit relationship has been fully clarified* 0"! 4* Today a man from the electricity company called.. Ca stream tree Phrases li'e 0#-0%! b. are slightly more li'ely to be used anaphorically.
. to ex-clude the number ambiguity. a branch supervisor b. an armchair a. a sharpener for scissors b. a branches supervisor ". an appointments officer The motivation for 'eeping the plural may be to preserve semantic differences. 9hat differences can you detect in the material belowA %1! &#! &0! &%! &&! &8! &3! &"! a. tooth decay a.e. officials in the 6entagon b. the use of the plural attributive construction is on the increase. a bill worth ten dollars b. a press for trousers b. a ten days absence d. a careers girl a. a ten-dollar bill a. life in a village b. village life a. a member of the board 4part from the change in the degree of the explicitness. two-digit inflation a. careers guidance b. a ten-years-old girl a. a grants committee c. a career girl b. a ten day absence b. a scissor sharpener a. a board member b. a new systems analyst d. a girl who is! ten years old b. inflation amounting to two digits b. 6entagon officials a. a ten-day absence c. decay of teeth b.s absence The use of singular is found even with some pluralia tantum nouns* &. i.! &2! a. the constructions with pre modifying nouns may differ from postmodifiers formally. a trouser press Bowever. a ten day.%2! a. a chair with arms b. particularly in Dr(* &1! a. These are so-called $exclusive plurals$* 8#! 8#! a.
A. The idea of levels has been a major issue for a long time. an old man$s bicycle 5omment on the difference in structure when further premodification is added* "2 . 0! a. the levels idea 4 special instance of temporary institutionaliEation is the use of plurals in headlines to re-fer to topical issues* 8"! a. a fisherman$s cottage b. Scotland 7ard$s =bscene 6ublications S>uad d. There is a tendency for more generic terms to be plural and more specific terms to be singular* 8&! 88! a. car manufacturer a. when things are mentioned for the second time* 83! a. landing-gear components 02 the impact strength 01 the volume change %# accident preventing legislation 0. Pre#odi!ication by genitive 9hy are noun phrases li'e 0! are ambiguousA (xplain. there are premodifying plurals denoting variety. a radio signal 2 a power station 1 pea' power 0# price rise rate 00 graphite bloc's 0% ground-water possibilities 0& surface hydrology 08 storage capacity 03 the dam foundation 0" a diversion canal 0. the heavy chemicals industry c. ) a good train Secondly. theatre guide There are cases of $temporary institutionaliEations$. parks department b. the Dritish Huseum 6rints and Drawings -allery 9hy some pluralia tantum 'eep their plural mar'ers in pre-modificationA 8%! a. soft drin's manufacturer F$soft drin's as a 'ind of drin's$G b.D.highly institutionaliEed plurals are retained* 80! a. b. The 9hite Bouse tapes mystery +onvert each o! the phrases belo% by using the pattern head > post#odi!ying phrase: 0 water supply % a motor-bus service & a repair personnel 8 the life sciences 3 fish protein production " a space probe . entertainments guide F$'inds of entertainment$G b. a goods train b. The 9atergate tapes affair b.
an up-to-date timetable 4part from a few institutionaliEed examples such premodifiers tend to be restricted to col-lo>uial language* &! an away match 0.%! a.D.D. this nasty excentric women$s clothing 0. there arises the >uestion of their relative ordering* 0! %! &! a. Pre#odi!ication by sentences 5ases of premodification by sentences are often >uite collo>uial* 0! @ visited his what-you-call-it cottage. Pre#odi!ication by adverb and other phrases Beads of noun phrases may be premodified by adverb phrases and other types of phrases* 0! %! She travelled to many far-away places.C. this nasty women$s clothing (xplain the grammaticality of multiple modification below* &! 8! his old friend$s delightful but crumbling cottage a.4. Cthis nasty women$s excentric clothing c. @ P. Cmy cigarette gas lighter a beautiful little old blue ornament Pones between the determiner and the head* 8! a. my gas cigarette lighter b. round-the-clock service b. these nasty women$s clothing b. "1 .E. =nly a handful of such premodifiers have become institutionaliEed* %! a do-it-yourself job 0. these nasty women$s excentric clothing b.(5(6T. $elative se6uences o! #odi!iers 9hen there are several premodifiers with a single head.D. a thin dark face b. a dark thin face a.D. a.
CThe examinations are more medical than.. a carved -othic doorway b. simple adjectives normally precede those derived from verbs. other denominal adjectives with a relation to nouns. 4frican tourist attractions Postcentral Eone @@@! accomodates participles and colour and age adjectives* 0#! a.4. local economic interests b.4. some interloc'ing 5hinese designs c. and style* 5merican( "othic b. tourist attractions b. . P.! a. the annual linguistic meeting Premodifiers in the prehead Eone normally cannot be coordinated* 2! a. an old blue dress f.. college student! 4djectives in the prehead Eone are generally non-central* "! a. Cthe local and waterboard authorities 9hich of the items in 3! comes closest to the headA 1! a.# . 9hat happens if items from the same group co-occurA . >orkshire women!. nouns* tourist attraction!. provenance. Call those very medical students c. $involving$. adjectives with a proper noun basis denoting nationality.ondon tourist attractions c.@@ @@@ @: b. P=ST5(6T. all those medical students b. the local waterboard authorities b. which in turn precede those derived from nouns* . 9ithin the class of central adjectives. a blac' dividing line d. often with the meaning $consisting of$. gradable adjectives.(B(4< @@ important @@@ long @: French B(4< novel Prehead modifiers include the least adjectival and most nominal premodifiers* 3! a. <(T this first @ 5(6T. a green carved idol e. a really very young physics student Pone @@ includes all the central. or $relating to$* annual( economic( medical( social( political c.
a tall attractive woman b. a vegetable pressure coo'er .0 . evaluative or subjective adjectives in this central Eone precede other central ad-jectives* 0&! a. a pressure coo'er b. Ca bread city delivery 9here an adverbial L verb se>uence has prior institutionaliEed status. the order is largely arbitrary but adjectives denoting siEe. this unit may be pre-modified by an object* 01! a. <ifferent hypotactic relations of premodifiers may upset the normal order based on morphology and semantics* 0"! a. a small round table b. nonderived central adjectives. a city bread delivery b. a long sleepy loo' 9ithin the class of simple. emphasiEers* certain( definite( plain b.! 02! a.00! a. downtoners* feeble( slight The general pragmatic principle responsible for the order of premodifiers seems to be the subjective)objective polarity. one which corresponds to the head as object to verb will fol-low one relating to an adverbial relation* 0. long straight hair (motive. we find* 03! a. beautiful long hair 08! Det the a general small grey age colour participle provenance noun green carved crumbling -othic jade church denominal head idol tower @n the precentral Eone. amplifiers* absolute( entire( extreme( perfect c. my gas cigarette lighter b. beautiful warm weather b. dirty Dritish boo's b. Cmy cigarette gas lighter a. length. and height normally precede other items* 0%! a. Dritish dirty boo's 9hen two nouns premodify.
2 The communities met the Flemish-spea'ing community. /ro# each o! the !ollo%ing sets o! data5 !or# one phrase co#posed entirely o! (deter#iners >) pre#odi!iers > head %ord: 0 two chairsO made of oa'O beautifully-carved % your blue. unused. the new table b. stolen recently .% %! &! . c. his last boo' c.D. @t is capricious. white " stamps for insurance. 1 6o one wants a 01"#s computer. " @t was a thought-provo'ing play. 8 Perhaps @$m a very vain woman. some excellent boo's and some long papers i. his brilliant boo' b. e. @t had spots on it. small. d. teaching medicine. 3 4 hand'erchief lay on the ground. @t was dirty. The herd consisted of Frisian cattle. b. which were red and white. 7ou are very silly. used for coo'ing 8 the murder that too' place in the villa by the side of the river 3 their mas's to 'eep out the smogO neat. Perhaps @$m old. 0 7ou are an old man. walnut shells.10. They were blac' and white. very pictures>ue though crumbling slightlyO roof of thatch 0. Be writes long papers. 9ultiple pre#odi!ication The three types of multiple modification observed with postmodifiers also apply to premodifiers. Be writes excellent boo's and long papers. Be writes boo's and long papers. in Scotland 1 the cultivator that sells best in the country 0# a cottage in the country. Fexcellent Fboo's and long papersGG h. They were light brown. several thousand. bro'en 2 a famous school. The rec'lessness was unnatural. Fexcellent boo'sG and Flong papersG g.round. his last brilliant boo' d. made of iron. @t is a slow way. @t was >uite entertaining. old scarfO the sil' one that you bought in /apan & this pot . shrivelled. the new chairs c. % Poisoning is a painful way to die. @t is slow and clumsy. Be writes boo's. f. also the French-spea'ing community!. and long papers . @t was rec'less. @t was a PersianO it was blueO it was long-haired. all these shells. . the new table and chairs a. Be writes long papers and boo's. excellent boo's. 0# Be adopted an attitude.. Perhaps @$m very arrogant. @t was hysterical. @t is completely out-dated. & @t was a large cat. his brilliant last boo' a. 0! a.oin the !ollo%ing sentences5 #a'ing a single noun phrase as subject5 object or co#ple#ent o! the !irst verb. 4lso /ersey cattle. @t was a man$s.
4lan /.B. %y 7air -ady % The trouble with senior management @ notice as an outsider. half. % 4djectives. except our natural s'ins. " Premodifying adjectives themselves cannot be premodified. 8 9ith two or more premodifying adjectives we normally place and before the last. 7antasia of the . if there are any. This determinative function is typically realiEed by a set of closed-class items. 9e often use nouns. central determiners e. i.g. #aint $oan 8 <eath is the only pure.erner. all.awrence.8xpand the !ollo%ing phrase so as to #a'e it clear %hat %ords are being #odi!ied by %hat: 0 a short. beautiful conclusion of a great passion.g. nouns and compounds are used as premodifiers. 3 This does not apply if the adjectives describe different 'inds of >ualities.D.e. This reference that a praticular 6P has is indicated by its determinative element. or determiners. $s genitive as complex determinative!. Predeterminers e. Three classes of determiners could be distinguished* 0!. 1 @ntensifiers li'e rather can be premodifiers. . reasonably-priced leather jac'ets Pre#odi!iers. 0# Premodifying adjectives cannot stand in random order. -eter#inatives and deter#iners 6Ps used in discourse have reference to the linguistic or situational context. Identi!y the pre#odi!iers in the noun phrases o! these 6uotations. is it not.& . -. rue or !alse* 0 Premodifiers are words that stand before the head in a noun phrase. including the genitive. sparsely-furnished office 8 a totally committed. articles! . 0 4n (nglishman$s way of spea'ing absolutely classifies him. to premodify a head noun. red-haired man % a short-haired fox terrier & a small. double! b. -eter#iners 1. & 9e do not use adverbs as premodifiers. but it may also be realiEed by a phrase e. Sir Thomas Deecham 1.B <u'e of (dinburgh & 4ll dress is fancy dress.g. attractive two-bedroomed apartments 2 elegant period town houses 1 school careers adviser 0# new. B. a.1. . 2 -enitives are premodifiers only when they have specific meaning. is that there are too many one-ulcer men holding down two-ulcer men$s jobs. self-effacing man 3 pretty good entertainment expenses " two attractive flat-roofed villas .nconscious 3 (lgar$s 4 Flat symphony is the musical e>uivalent of St Pancras Station. These determinatives occur before the head. before its premodifiers. . participles. <. Shaw.
a L b. Ca some boy Thus. the music a. b. b.2. 9hile articles have no other function independent of the noun they precede. # music "! . few. Ca music a. postdeterminers e. plural count. b L c. There are certain cooccurrence restrictions between articles and common nouns* 3! a. or Ca L c L b. 4re central determiners mutually exclusive with each otherA 5onsider the following data* %! a.g. +entral deter#iners 9hat factors determine the use of articles with common nounsA 9hat is the phonetic realiEation of the definite and indefinite articleA 4rticles are not the only possibility for determining nouns* there are items li'e some. Ca pens c. b. and a L c.8 . 1.! These three classes have been established on the basis of their mutual combinalbility* only the order s! a L b L c. central determiners are in a choice relation paradig-matic! and not in a chain relation syntagmatic one!. the pens c. and c. C# pen b. 9hat$s that thingA pronoun function b. this. cardinal and ordinal numerals. the pen b. # pens c. but not Cc L b L a. etc. a pen b. singular count. Bere$s some for you. that.c. most other de-terminers have the additional function of pronouns* determiner function &! 8! a. That$s our computer. any. noncount nouns* type 2! 4 D 5 sg count L L L pl count L L noncount L L .! The central determiners can be divided into 3 types with respect to their cooccurrence with the noun classes a. etc. Ca the boy b. etc. @ want some ice. many.
the possessive pronouns as determiners* my. b. the assertive determiner some and the nonassertive determiner any* 0"! a. plural count and noncount nouns i. her. . Whose ideas are theseA vi. whose* 0&! a. b. b. your. which. our.< ( - L L - Type 4* <eterminers of singular count. Bave we got any rolls)bread for brea'fast tomorrowA #ome is here unstressed. 9e have no problem)problems with violence here. its. by which time the meeting should be over. The sign said $8o parking$. @ want some rolls)bread. Strongly stressed some can occur also with certain singular count nouns. their* 0#! Bave you seen my suitcase)my suitcases)my luggageA iii. Which informationA c. b. please. The lady whose car you hit was furious. <o you want to play chessA ii. especially temporal nouns* 0. the relative determiners whose and which* 00! a. the negative determiner no* 08! a. What colourA b. Eero article* 03! a. There were people everywhere.3 . 5all again at 00. @ don$t li'e it. :ote for whichever proposal you thin' most favourable. the interrogative determiners what. iv. don$t be late again. v. the wh-determiners in -ever* 0%! a.day he will get his scholarship. the definite article the* 1! 9here do you wnat me to put the chair)the chairs)the furnitureA ii. Type D* <eterminers of plural count nouns and noncount nouns i. For whatever reason.! I#ome . c. b. Whosever idea this may be.
the indefinite article a)an* %%! Bave you got a penA ii. %3! Ca)the every action iii.uipment)tools to do the job. it can also cooccur with other singular count nouns* 02! $#ome odd person as'ed for you on the phone. all. The demonstrative determiners this and that* %#! Bave you read this)that bookA Type <* <eterminers of plural count nouns. and half These predeterminers can occur before the articles. the negative determiner neither* %. the nonassertive determiner either* %"! 7ou can par' on either side. de-monstrative determiners and possessive determiners* . both. include* i. the >uantitative determiner enough* 01! @ haven$t got enough e. 1very is exceptional among central determiners in that it occasionally allows a genitive or possessive determiner to precede it* %8! Bis every action shows that he is a very determined young man. 1. Type 5* <eterminers of singular count nouns and singular noncount nouns. iv. the universal determiner every and each* %&! @ want to interview every)each student individually. Predeter#iners Predeterminers.9hen stressed some has the meaning $a certain$.! 8either party accepted the arbitration proposal. The demonstrative determiners these and those* %0! Bave you seen these)those playsA Type (* <eterminers of singular count nouns* i. iii." . which can occur before certain central determiners.0.
each. be floated!* %1! a.e.%2! a. once. twice. etc. to form distributive expressions of fre>uency with a temporal noun as a head* &#! once twice three each four five iii. 9hat a fine dayK a third of the time a every times day wee' month year decade Predeterminers are mutually exclusive except in the combination all such!* &8! a. 5ll and both but not half! can occur after the head. Such a surpriseK b. 4ll the students were accepted. d. c. times can cooccur with the determiners every. and less commonly per. both those cars d.. four. half an hour c. they cannot cooccur with other $>uantitative$ determiners li'e every. etc. twice my salary ?nce. 4ll students were accepted. all the! girls b. both and half also function as pronouns. ii. @n addition to functioning as predeterminers. b. twice. such. e. and three. The students were all accepted. some. each. 4ll of the students were accepted. and may ta'e partitive of-phrases. both girls . AThey all were accepted. all my time Since they are themselves >uantifiers. all. etc.* %1! a. double the sum b. one-fifth!* &0! one-third of! the time The indefinite article can replace the one* &%! iv. all girls b. either immediately or in medial adverb position i. what* &&! a. . the fractions one-third. n!either. the multipliers li'e double. three times.
Ca one boo' b. open-class >uantifiers =. one .first b. an!other. and the other cardinal numerals cooccur with plural count nouns. 1. it cannot be assumed that all such placements will be successful. two . =rdinals cooccur with count nouns and usually precede any cardinal numbers in the 6P* &1! a.! 5.second c. a! few. +losed.class 6uanti!iers Two groups of closed-class >uantifiers can be distinguished* i. The indefinite article cannot cooccur with one. cardinal numerals D.! a. past. additional and further. the one boo' c. Postdeter#iners Postdeterminers follow predeterminers or central determiners if such determiners are present!. but the definite article can* &. Call both girls &3! 4lthough every attempt is made to find suitable foster-homes for the children.) There is a one-for-one relation between ordinals and cardinals* &2! a. but they precede any adjectives and other premodifying items.1. etc. another three wee's +. Postdeterminers include* 4. closed-class >uantifiers <.third The general ordinals include next.c. three . the first two days b. ordinal numerals and $general ordinals$ li'e last. last. and several cooccur only with plural count nouns* . +ardinal nu#erals ?ne cooccurs with singular count nouns. one may be regarded as a stressed counterpart of the indefinite article* &"! @ would li'e a)one photocopy of this article. many. @n many contexts. the two boo's B.2 . Ordinal nu#erals and ?general ordinals? (li'e last5 etc.
but most of which consist of a noun of >uantity lot. or plural count nouns* great good deal large! >uantity small! amount great! large! good! 83! The chest contained a of money 8"! The hall contained a number of students. In the !ollo%ing 6uotations5 underline the noun phrases5 identi!ying the class o! the head (count5 singular5 non. b. 4lthough the >uantity nouns loo' li'e the head of a noun phrase. etc. rather than the first in examples li'e* 8&! a. @t is usual for them to be modified by a >uantifying adjective obligatorily with deal!. =thers are restricted to >uantifying only noncount nouns. She hasn$t got much money.ots of food was on the table.) and identi!ying the group o! any . amount. F$some. ii.1 .class 6uanti!iers This is a large class of phrasal >uantifiers which function semantically li'e the closedclass >uantifiers. F$not many$G -.count5 etc. She has only got a! little money. @n the case of a! few and a! little. There was lots of food on the table. Some of these expressions e. Be wrote a few boo's. there is positive)negative contrast according to whether the indefinite article is used or not* 8%! a. 5onsider the fact that te verb regularly has number concord with the second noun. b. .g. plenty of! can cooccur with both noncount and plural count nouns* 88! The room contained plenty of a lot of lots of students)furniture.! fol-lowed by of and often preceded by the indefinite article. there are grounds for treating the whole expression as a complex determiner. Open.8#! There were too many only a few very few several mista'es in your essay. Be wrote few boo's. several$G b. much and a! little cooccur only with noncount nouns* 80! a.
The Importance of Being 1arnest! . 9e$ll do it some day. Stendahl. usually about ten minutes after JJJ rest of JJJ school had begun JJJ lessons. isn$t itA . % <eterminers usually follow adjectives..oin the sentences into one %hich includes a noun phrase containing all the stated or i#plied deter#iners. slow person with JJJ very loud voice. " @ have alot of firends.D. =nce we managed to go out of JJJ room >uietly. unless you stic' to a diet. =irginibus 6ueris. and he was also JJJ most extraordinary person in JJJ school. 3 #ome people do overeat. Stevenson. There$s not much chance of 'eeping slim. 8 @t is all right to have some butter. . who seemed to spend most of JJJ lesson tal'ing to himself. 0 7ou have three sisters. 1 6ow he has this latest problem. =scar 9ilde. 0 9ardly any women nowadays want to spend hours coo'ing. and a small number actually mean it. % Some people say they$re not interested in food. and even fewer want to spend all day in the 'itchen. and left him asleep at JJJ des' auntil JJJ next class arrived. @ li'e them all. 9hich one do you wantA $e%rite the !ollo%ing using !e%5 a !e%5 little or a little in place o! the highlighted %ords5 #a'ing any other changes necessary. -. The final amount was double.). 6lays 6leasant( 6reface! % 4lmost all our misfortunes in life come from the wrong notions we have.. Ta'e them three times. Be was always JJJ last to arrive in JJJ room.. JJJ best part of JJJ lesson was when he fell asleep. which usually happened aboutonce JJJ wee'.deter#iners (article5 de#onstrative nu#eral5 possessive5 6uanti!ier5 wh. They were the last. " 5 small amount of salt is all right. 2 Two letters were illegible. 3 Ta'e the tablets each day. 0 There is only one religion though there are a hundred versions of it. Be always wore JJJ dirty sports jac'et with JJJ very large hand'er-chief in JJJ top poc'et. . & 5raEy starvation diets offer hardly any prospect of success. =nly a few of them are 9elsh. Hr Durton was JJJ first French teacher @ had. 2 Hany people enjoy foreign restaurants. Balf of it is committed already. & 7ou sold me some wine. Be was JJJJ fat. 0# There are two.. Hy next salary is due.ue! 8 9hat an artist dies in me.S. % 7ou made a first offer. Insert appropriate articles. (mperor 6ero. $ournal! & The cruellest lies are often told in silence.. Bave you got any moreA 8 9e won$t do it today. but try to cut down the amount. but not many people 'now anything about Tibetan food. dying words! 3 @t is a terrible thing for a man to find out that all his life he has been spea'ing nothing but the truth. but not as many as you might thin'. 2# .%ord5 etc. 9e$ve heard too much of it. rue or !alse* 0 <eterminers form part of the premodification system in the noun phrase.
i'e them. Who m! did Bilda helpA c. ?nly Bilda helped Tony.1. -race became a teacher and so did Bamish. complement. adjuncts come within the scope of predication ellipsis or pro-forms. c. 7. adverb phrases can function as modifiers or as ad-verbials. 20 . b. The same applies to elicitation by >uestion forms* 8! a. 4s adverbials they. b. " There are three main groups of determiners. 4djunct b. 2ra##atical !unctions o! adverb phrases as adverbials @n terms of their grammatical function. @n 0120.. . Subjunct c. c. Why did Bilda help TonyA @rrespective of their position in a clause.2.& Some determiners are never used with others. %! a. -race became a teacer in 0120 and Bamish became a teacher in 0120. adjuncts have grammatical properties resembling the sentence elements subject. Bilda helped only Tony. 5onjunct 7. 3 The count)noncount distinction affects our choice of determiners. b.. Therefore the following pairs are virtually synonymous* 3! a.. . 0# wh-determiners are part of the central group. 8 <eterminers can stand in random order. adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentences* 0! FBildaGS helped FTonyG= Fbecause of his injuryG4. =dverb phrase 7. =djuncts Hore than other adverbials.. and object. and other items functioning as adverbials. Bilda helped Tony only because of his injury. @t was because of his in*ury that Bilda helped Tony. @t was 9ilda that helped Tony because of his injury. Who helped TonyA b. 1 Possessive pronouns are another sub-class. exactly li'e other post-operator elements. fall into 8 main categories* a. Post-determiners stand after their nouns. 2 4rticles and demonstratives are two sub-classes of determiners. <isjunct d. @t was Tony that Bilda helped because of his injury. The parallel extends to the potentiality for being the focus of subjuncts* &! a.
adjuncts are integrated into the clause structure. item subjuncts. Subjuncts do not respond to any of the above four tests for adjunct status. place adjuncts.e. 0%! 7our son is not. intensifiers and focusing subjuncts. "ubjuncts The label subjunct is applied to adverbials which have. 2% . b. courtsey subjuncts. separated from the rest of the clause* 1! 7rom a personal point of view. etc.. in all frankness. i.. Subjuncts are parenthetical elements. 2! Be fairly SP.1. it should be paraphrased by $as a visual experience$.. a sub-ordinate role in comparison with other clause elements* .46.at her with his >uestion. emphasiEer subjuncts.0. -isjuncts . Fred carefully cleaned his teeth but /onathan didn$t. 7. They seem to express comments on the sentence that hosts them. The former convey the spea'er$s comment on the style and form of what is being said and defining in some way the conditions under which $authority$ is being as-sumed for the statement* 08! a. i. a different meaning obtainsG b.i'e subjuncts. 6ote that both items may also function as adjuncts in different sentences 9e was treated fairly!. disjuncts are grammatically distinct from adjuncts in terms of the four tests above* 00! #adly.! This play presents visually a sharp challenge to a discerning audience.e. adjuncts of space. 6ersonally. process adjuncts. Sentences either move away from the original subjunct meaning or they are unacceptable* 0#! a. 7. to a greater or lesser degree. and come in two types* style disjuncts and content disjuncts.e. he is li'ely to do well in this post. =isually here refers to respect. They are often. i. @t is visually that this play achieves a sharp challenge. time adjuncts.e. they seem to have a scope that extends over the sentence as a whole. they ae not as firmly integrated into the clause structure.. Fred carefully cleaned his teeth but /onathan didn$t carefully clean his teeth."! a. 4djuncts come in a large number os subtypes* manner adj-uncts. 5learly. instrument adjunct. Fa shift to adjunct reading. the storm destroyed the entire tobacco crop. they come as viewpoint subjuncts. 7airly means in 2! $it is no exaggeration to say$. succeeding in his present job. 9e again note that formally one and the same item may be either disjunct or adjunct* 0&! <r Fox sat sadly in her room. <isjuncts are syntactically more detached and in some respects $superordinate$. C@t was fairly that he sprang at her. i. Semantically. @ don$t approve of her.
ma'e an observation on the actual content of an utterance and on its truth conditions* 03! a. she did not see' nomination.7. c. 2& . 7ou should nonetheless send her the agenda. To the disgust of his neighbours. 7. The latter type of disjuncts. the adverbials called conjuncts are gramamtically distinct from clause element-li'e adjuncts in not responding to the four tests above. 0"! She may be unable to attend the meeting. 5onjuncts have the function of conjoining or lin'ing independent units rather than one of contributing another facet of information to a single integrated unit. +onjuncts .i'e subjuncts and disjuncts. To my regret. =ery frankly. 5onjuncts are more li'e disjuncts in having a relatively detached and $superordinate$ status when compared with other clause elements. content disjuncts. Hrs /ensen consulted her lawyer. #trictly speaking. c. Hr Forster neglects his children. nobody is allowed in here. @ am tired. Wisely. b.b.
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