You are on page 1of 0

www.progreso.com.

sg
www.ipv6competition.com
1
www.progreso.com.sg 2
IPv6 Pre-Competition Training
Time Description
1400 1415 hrs Registration of competition participants
1415 1430 hrs Introduction
1430 1500 hrs Topic 1: IPv6 Benefits and Features
1500 1600 hrs Topic 2: Components of an IPv6 Network
1600 1630 hrs Topic 3: IPv6 Case Study
1630 1700 hrs Q & A session
1700 hrs End of training
www.progreso.com.sg 3
Competition written proposal submission:
o Submission deadline on 12
th
Nov 2012, Monday before 5pm;
o Submit in pdf format to email: contact@ipv6competition.com;
o Shortlisting of competition finalists by 19
th
Nov 2012;
o Shortlisted teams will be informed via email after 19
th
Nov 2012;
o 12 shortlisted teams to start preparation for presentation on
actual day of competition on 15
th
Mar 2013, Fri.
Information to be included in the proposal:
o Name of school and team;
o Selection of competition category;
o Name of project, team members, student ID number & email;
o IPv6 Intermediate certification number of all team members;
o Details of competition proposal.
Competition Rules
www.progreso.com.sg 4
Competition Judging Criteria
Innovation and Originality: 20%
Ease of Adoption and Integration: 20%
Commercial Viability: 20%
Contribution to Promote IPv6: 20%
Presentation: 20%
TOTAL: 100%
www.progreso.com.sg 5
Competition Prizes
Note:
a. Winners of IPv6 competition may have a chance of showcasing their projects with
industry delegates in iDAs future IPv6 event/conference;
b. iDA will also leverage their IPv6 microsite (www.ida.gov.sg/ipv6) to promote this
entire event.
www.progreso.com.sg
www.ipv6competition.com
6
Topic 1:
IPv6 Benefits and Features
www.progreso.com.sg 7
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will:
Refresh your understanding of IPv6 merits;
Understand the high-level potentials of IPv6.
www.progreso.com.sg 8
Agenda
IPv6 Improvements and Features
www.progreso.com.sg 9
Why IPv6?
Availability of huge number of globally routable address
space;
Improved network management by address auto-
configuration with efficient address renumbering
solution;
Multiple IPv6 prefixes on single interface and
multihoming capability;
Fixed, simpler header allows greater efficient processing
in hardware;
www.progreso.com.sg 10
Why IPv6? (2)
Security &seamless mobility are now standardized at
Layer 3;
Restores the original end-to-end connectivity at the
network layer;
Leverage next-generation application protocols;
Rich transition mechanisms;
Any way, anytime, anywhere interconnectivity.
www.progreso.com.sg 11
Benefits Comparison
Features of IPv6 IPv6 IPv4
Availability 340 trillion trillion trillion addresses 4.2 billion addresses, global
population 6.97 billion
Improved network
management
With additional auto-configuration
capabilities, networks are more
simple and manageable
Networks can only be configured
either manually or via DHCP. Thus,
increases the maintenance efforts
End-to-End connectivity With abundance of IPv6 addresses,
NAT devices can effectively be
excluded in deployments. Thus,
restoring end-to-end connectivity
Excessive use of NAT devices
means that thousands and
thousands of private addresses are
mapped to a single public address.
Application protocols With the elimination of NAT devices
and scalability & flexibility of IPv6,
theres no restriction on the use of
protocol for potential innovations
IPv4 was only designed as a
transport mechanism. Thus,
constraints are inevitable.
Built-in Security IPSEC is built into the IPv6 protocol IPv4 was designed without
security. Thus, it can only be
dependent on applications
www.progreso.com.sg 12
Potentials of IPv6
(Examples from IPv6 now)
IPv6 can lift production efficiency via real-time
information:
o Computers and networks substantially boosted
productivity in the mid 1990s partly because business
managers could obtain access to sales information in
real time (commonly known as CRM now);
o IPv6 can provide even greater inventory control, with
real-time information that allows production
planning to meet customer demand more accurately,
and reduces the need to continue paying for
redundant production capacity.
www.progreso.com.sg 13
IPv6 can shift time-based maintenance regimes to
performance-based:
o Currently industry uses time-based maintenance
regimes, for example, after a certain period, do a
certain type of maintenance;
o IPv6 can support extensive sensor networks which
can provide information on the actual
usage/performance of an item so that maintenance
can be scheduled when it is genuinely needed.
Potentials of IPv6
(Examples from IPv6 now)
www.progreso.com.sg 14
Business Value of IPv6
Smart Things:
o The huge address space of IPv6 will enable support of
innovative smart appliances, mobile devices and more;
o Enhance customer experience;
o Could potentially result in one of the largest
transformations of human civilization;


.. and more
www.progreso.com.sg 15
Enabling Technologies
LTE (Long term Evolution also known as 4G);
Advances in Artificial Intelligence;
GPS (Global Positioning System);
Integrated logistic and advanced supply chain
systems that involve automated techniques;
Sensor networks that consist of autonomous
sensors that collaborate to monitor specific
physical and environmental conditions.

and more

www.progreso.com.sg 16
Sectors that may benefit from IPv6
Government Agencies
Defence
Telecommunications
Entertainment, Leisure & Gaming
Transportation
Logistics, Inventory Control & Supply Chain Management
Electric Utilities
Health Care
Education
Real Estate
www.progreso.com.sg 17
Break
Time for us to
www.progreso.com.sg
www.ipv6competition.com
18
Topic 2:
Components of an IPv6 Network
www.progreso.com.sg 19
Objectives
Upon completing this module, you will:
Know the basic network components
Understand how to build a simple IPv6 network
www.progreso.com.sg 20
Agenda
Introduction to Network Components
Building an IPv6 Network
Advanced Network Components
www.progreso.com.sg 21
Router:
o Handles IP packet forwarding;
o Provides connectivity to inter-networks (external / internal);
o Static or Dynamic Routing.
Introduction to Network Components
ISP Gateway to Internet
A B
Default Route
Network B
Network B
www.progreso.com.sg 22
Firewall:
o Police network communications;
o Packet-filtering;
o Stateful packet inspection;
o Application-layer filtering.

Introduction to Network Components
Untrusted
Trusted
Access External Server, HTTP traffic Access External Server, HTTP traffic
Reply from External Server, HTTP traffic Reply from External Server, HTTP traffic
Access Internal Host, RDP traffic
Access External Server, P2P traffic
www.progreso.com.sg 23
Switch:
o Performs frame-switching;
o Connects network segments or multiple hosts on same network;
o Aggregates access device connections.
Introduction to Network Components
Router
Switch
Laptop
Server
Desktop
Wireless AP
Printer
www.progreso.com.sg 24
Network Interface Card:
o Provides physical access to network;
o Installed in end devices;
o Common media Copper Ethernet, Fiber.
Introduction to Network Components
www.progreso.com.sg 25
Agenda
Introduction to Network Components
Building an IPv6 Network
Advanced Network Components
www.progreso.com.sg 26
Setup Example (Server end)
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
www.progreso.com.sg 27
Setup Example (User end)
Building an IPv6 Network
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
Internet
IPv6
www.progreso.com.sg 28
IPv6 Communication Flow Example
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
www.progreso.com.sg 29
IPv6 Communication Flow Example
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
http://www.example.com
1
www.progreso.com.sg 30
IPv6 Communication Flow Example
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
2
DNS Query: What is the IP address of www.example.com?
2001:db8::/32
2001:db8::1000
2222:3333::aaaa
2222:3333::/32
www.progreso.com.sg 31
IPv6 Communication Flow Example
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
3
DNS Query: 2001:db8::1000 is the IP address of www.example.com
Recursive DNS Query to Authoritative DNS Server of sub domain example.com
2001:db8::/32
2001:db8::1000
2222:3333::aaaa
2222:3333::/32
www.progreso.com.sg 32
IPv6 Communication Flow Example
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
4
HTTP GET request for www.example.com
via IPv6 Routing to 2001:db8::1000
2001:db8::/32
2001:db8::1000
2222:3333::aaaa
2222:3333::/32
www.progreso.com.sg 33
IPv6 Communication Flow Example
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
5
HTTP reply for www.example.com
2001:db8::/32
2001:db8::1000
2222:3333::aaaa
2222:3333::/32
via IPv6 Routing to 2222:3333::aaaa
www.progreso.com.sg 34
IPv6 Communication Flow Example
Building an IPv6 Network
Internet Border DMZ Switching Access
Router
Switch
Servers
IPv6
Firewall
Border / Switching
Router
Access
Laptop
2001:db8::/32
2001:db8::1000
2222:3333::aaaa
2222:3333::/32
http://www.example.com
6
www.progreso.com.sg 35
Agenda
Introduction to Network Components
Building an IPv6 Network
Advanced Network Components
www.progreso.com.sg 36
Domain Name System version 6 (DNSv6):
o Resolves name queries into IP addresses;
o IPv6 DNS Records = AAAA Records.
Advanced Network Components
Laptop
IPv6 Client
Local DNS Server
example.com
DNS Server
.com DNS Server root DNS Server
www.example.com
www.example.com
Referral
www.example.com
Referral
www.example.com
AAAA record
2001:db8::1000
AAAA record
2001:db8::1000
Recursive Query
www.progreso.com.sg 37
Alternative for DNS:
o OS hosts file to achieve name resolution;
o Text file containing manual IP address-to-domain name mappings;
o E.g. ::1 www.example.com;
o Location of hosts file.
Advanced Network Components
Operating System File Location
Windows c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts
Unix /etc/hosts
Apple System Folder: Preferences
www.progreso.com.sg 38
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv6):
o Stateful allocation of IPv6 addresses to hosts;
o Provide supplementary configurations e.g. DNSv6 Server IP
Addresses for name resolutions.
Advanced Network Components
www.progreso.com.sg 39
Alternatives for DHCP:
o Manual IPv6 Address Assignment;
o StateLess Address Auto-Configuration (SLAAC):
Router sends out Router Advertisement (RA) message with /64 prefix, client
machines generate last 64 bits of address.
Advanced Network Components
Router
Laptop
RA: IPv6 Prefix = 2222:3333:4444:5555::/64
MAC Address: 00-1f-16-26-43-3f
EUI-64
IPv6 Address = 2222:3333:4444:5555: 021f:16ff:fe26:433f
www.progreso.com.sg 40
Load Balancers
Network Access Control
Traffic Shapers
Web Cache Servers
And many others


(*May not be necessary)
Advanced Network Components
www.progreso.com.sg 41
Tips
Review the scope of your proposal deliverables
Design a network setup sufficient to demonstrate your
product / application merits
Perform local host testing before moving to network
setup
Make use of resources available in your institution
(equipment, lecturers, peers)
Research online wealth of information available!

www.progreso.com.sg 42
Questions?
www.progreso.com.sg
www.ipv6competition.com
43
Topic 3:
IPv6 Case Study
www.progreso.com.sg 44
NETFLIX - Introduction



An US company that provides service to their members
to watch unlimited movies and TV shows streaming
over the Internet to PCs, Macs and TVs;
More than 27 million streaming members in the
United States, Canada, Latin America, United Kingdom
and Ireland;
One of the world's leading Internet subscription
service for enjoying movies and TV shows.
www.progreso.com.sg 45
NETFLIX - Objective
Allow subscribers to stream/view the video via IPv6;
Ensure streaming performance and quality are
sustained via IPv6.
www.progreso.com.sg 46
NETFLIX - Challenge
System and Platform Issues
Compatibility Issues
Upstream IPv6 Support
Pilot Test
www.progreso.com.sg 47
NETFLIX Challenge: System & Platform Issues
Relatively smaller impact:
o Most of the latest OS supports IPv6;
o Hardware can be easily IPv6 supported via firmware upgrade.
NETFLIX selected PC/Mac as the platform because of:
o IPv6 robustness requirements;
o Ability to drive a large number of streaming hours;
o Commonly being used among most users.

www.progreso.com.sg 48
NETFLIX Challenge: Compatibility Issues
Leak of IPv6 code wasnt apparent until the system
processed 2
32
packets:
o Free active memory;
o Not easy to notice as the system needs to process large amount to
trigger the threshold.
IP Address versus Hostname:
o Use of IP address as URL to open the streams:
Pros: overcome overhead of querying DNS;
Cons: less flexibility when using IPv4 address.
o Enable DNS for IPv6 clients/server as a short term solution to
overcome this problem.
www.progreso.com.sg 49
NETFLIX Challenge: Upstream IPv6 Support
Streaming services are deployed to Amazons EC2
Infrastructure;
Edge service leverage on AWS Elastic Load Balancer;
NETFLIX has to ensure:
o Allocated with IPv6 Address Block:
2406:da00:ff00::/32
o Availability of IPv6 enabled DNS Services:
CNAME records with both A and AAAA records to enable dual stack
capability;
AAAA records created to store IPv6 Address.

www.progreso.com.sg 50
NETFLIX Challenge: Pilot Test & Rollout (1)
Test on subset of customer before rolling out:
o DNS Provider helps to resolve hostname based on the geo-location;
o Enabled from California state:
Unaccounted on new IPv6 traffic or dips in IPv4 traffic;
Unable to discover request from IPv6 that fails in similar or different ways than
those of IPv4.
o No error have been reported and limited geo-location failed to
provide IPv6 traffic:
Watch on the traffic is unsuccessful;
Enabling the service across the state.


www.progreso.com.sg 51
NETFLIX Challenge: Pilot Test & Rollout (2)
No perfect rollout:
o DNS servers are not geo-aware by specification thus the testing
plan is invalid;
o Non-authoritative DNS server fails to differentiate which user
should receive IPv4 or IPv6 traffic;
o Authoritative DNS servers are doing geo-location based on the IP
address of the non-authoritative DNS server:
Expecting IPv4 or IPv6 request from customer are not under control.
Despite these limitations, NETFLIX has accomplished:
o The goal of targeting a subset of customers;
o Ability to "dial up" support for IPv6 without making complete
rollout.
www.progreso.com.sg 52
NETFLIX Outcome (1)
According to Sandvine report covered by TechCrunch:
IPv6 traffic in the U.S. hit record highs yesterday, but the biggest
recent gains actually came about two weeks ago when Netflix
turned on IPv6 functionality for its network.
NETFLIX has successfully provide streaming service via
IPv6 to their subscribers;
With the large pool of IPv6 addresses, subscribers are
able to view the streaming anywhere in US which is
better than using IPv4 with limited address allocation.
www.progreso.com.sg 53
NETFLIX Outcome (2)
www.progreso.com.sg 54
Lunch
90 mins