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Locsin v.

PLDT Facts: On November 1, 1990, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) and the Security and Safety Corporation of the Philippines (SSCP) entered into a Security Services Agreement (Agreement) whereby SSCP would provide armed security guards to PLDT to be assigned to its various offices o petitioners Raul Locsin and Eddie Tomaquin, among other security guards, were posted at a PLDT office ! respondent issued a Letter dated August 30, 2001 terminating the Agreement effective October 1, 2001 ! Despite the termination of the Agreement, however, petitioners continued to secure the premises of their assigned office. They were allegedly directed to remain at their post by representatives of respondent. petitioners provided the Labor Arbiter with copies of petitioner Locsins pay slips for the period of January to September 2002. On September 30, 2002, petitioners services were terminated. ! petitioners filed a complaint before the Labor Arbiter for illegal dismissal and recovery of money claims such as overtime pay, holiday pay, premium pay for holiday and rest day, service incentive leave pay, Emergency Cost of Living Allowance, and moral and exemplary damages against PLDT.

LABOR ARBITER NLRC CA granted PLDTs petition applied the four-fold test in order to determine the existence of an employer-employee relationship between the parties but did not find such relationship determined that SSCP was not a labor-only contractor and was an independent contractor having substantial capital to operate and conduct its own business. cited the agreement whereby it was stipulated that there shall be no employer-employee relationship between the security guards and PLDT. SSCP warranted that it carry on an independent business and has substantial capital or investment in the form of equipment, work premises, and other materials which are necessary in the conduct of its business. Pay slips were issued by SSCP not PLDT, which proves that petitioners continued to be employees of SSCP. affirmed the Arbiters decision in toto PLDT liable for illegal dismissal. petitioners were found to be employees of PLDT and not of SSCP because petitioners continued to serve as guards of PLDTs offices.

ISSUE: whether petitioners became employees of respondent after the Agreement between SSCP and respondent was terminated. HELD: YES There was no employer-employee relationship between the parties from the time of petitioners first

assignment to respondent by SSCP in 1988 until the alleged termination of the Agreement between respondent and SSCP. In fact, this was the conclusion that was reached by this Court in Abella v. Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company where we ruled that petitioners therein, including herein petitioners, cannot be considered as employees of PLDT. It bears pointing out that petitioners were among those declared to be employees of their respective security agencies and not of PLDT. However, after termination, they were already considered employees of PLDT. Notably, respondent does not deny the fact that petitioners remained in the premises of their offices even after the Agreement was terminated. They were told to remain at their post by respondents Security Department and that they were informed by SSCP Operations Officer Eduardo Juliano that their salaries would be coursed through SSCP as per arrangement with PLDT, it does not state why they were not made to vacate their posts. Respondent said that it did not know why petitioners remained at their posts. o In the ordinary course of things, responsible business owners or managers would not allow security guards of an agency with whom the owners or managers have severed ties with to continue to stay within the business premises. This is because upon the termination of the owners or managers agreement with the security agency, the agencys undertaking of liability for any damage that the security guard would cause has already been terminated. o At the very least, responsible business owners or managers would inquire or learn why such security guards were remaining at their posts, and would have a clear understanding of the circumstances of the guards stay. It is but logical that responsible business owners or managers would be aware of the situation in their premises. o Also it is seriously doubtful that a security agency that was established for profit would allow its security guards to secure respondents premises when the Agreement was already terminated. reason dictates that we conclude that petitioners remained at their post under the instructions of respondent. Further, that respondent dictated upon petitioners that the latter perform their regular duties to secure the premises during operating hours. This is sufficient to establish the existence of an employer-employee relationship. It is but reasonable to conclude that, with the behest and, presumably, directive of respondent, petitioners continued with their services. Evidently, such are indicia of control that respondent exercised over petitioners. o Such power of control has been explained as the right to control not only the end to be achieved but also the means to be used in reaching such end. With the conclusion that respondent directed petitioners to remain at their posts and continue with their duties, it is clear that respondent exercised the power of control over them; thus, the existence of an employer-employee relationship. LABOR-ONLY There is labor-only contracting where the person supplying workers to an employer does not have substantial capital or investment in the form of tools, equipment, machineries, work premises, among others, and the workers recruited and placed by such person are performing activities which are directly related to the principal business of such employer. In such cases, the person or intermediary shall be considered merely as an agent of the employer who shall be responsible to the workers in the same manner and extent as if the latter were directly employed by him Thus, the Secretary of Labor issued Department Order No. 18-2002, Series of 2002, implementing Art. 106 as follows: Section 5. Prohibition against labor-only contracting.Labor-only contracting is hereby declared prohibited. For this purpose, labor-only contracting shall refer to an arrangement where the contractor or subcontractor merely recruits, supplies or places workers to perform a job, work or service for a principal, and any of the following elements are present: (i) The contractor or subcontractor does not have substantial capital or investment which relates to the job, work or service to be performed

and the employees recruited, supplied or placed by such contractor or subcontractor are performing activities which are directly related to the main business of the principal; or (ii) the contractor does not exercise the right to control over the performance of the work of the contractual employee. Substantial capital or investment refers to capital stocks and subscribed capitalization in the case of corporations, tools, equipment, implements, machineries and work premises, actually and directly used by the contractor or subcontractor in the performance or completion of the job, work or service contracted out. The right to control shall refer to the right reserved to the person for whom the services of the contractual workers are performed, to determine not only the end to be achieved, but also the manner and means to be used in reaching that end. On the other hand, Sec. 7 of the department order contains the consequence of such labor-only contracting: Section 7. Existence of an employer-employee relationship.The contractor or subcontractor shall be considered the employer of the contractual employee for purposes of enforcing the provisions of the Labor Code and other social legislation. The principal, however, shall be solidarily liable with the contractor in the event of any violation of any provision of the Labor Code, including the failure to pay wages. The principal shall be deemed the employer of the contractual employee in any of the following cases as declared by a competent authority: (a) where there is labor-only contracting; or (b) where the contracting arrangement falls within the prohibitions provided in Section 6 (Prohibitions) hereof. Evidently, respondent having the power of control over petitioners must be considered as petitioners employerfrom the termination of the Agreement onwardsas this was the only time that any evidence of control was exhibited by respondent over. Thus, as aptly declared by the NLRC, petitioners were entitled to the rights and benefits of employees of respondent, including due process requirements in the termination of their services.

Both the Labor Arbiter and NLRC found that respondent did not observe such due process requirements. Having failed to do so, respondent is guilty of illegal dismissal.