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Water is the most important Natures gift to the mankind. Without this there is no life. Now the man understands its importance especially there where is not available easily. It is now being managed by the proper manner in city areas where the use of it is more than its availability. Water Level Controller as clear from it is the top level of the overhead tanks in houses or in industrial areas. his is a basic circuit used in all water level indicators. !ere is a simple but effective pro"ect which can control the storage level of water in a tank to provide water throughout the day. he circuit re#uires a few components and can be constructed in a couple of hours. It is wired around two readily available npn transistor which drive relay $L%& when the water level falls below a predetermined level.

It is wired around two readily available npn transistor which drive relay $L%& when the water level falls below a predetermined level. 'ssume that the tank is filled with water up to level '. the base of transistor & is held at a positive potential through suspended metallic rod which is connected to (&)*. he voltage developed across resistor $) is sufficient to hold transistor & in saturation. he base of & is held at a positive potential via level + also through N,C contact of the relay. $L& is employed to switch the power supply to the pumping motor on or off. 's long as & conducts the voltage at its collector with respect to ground is practically -ero and hence transistor ) does not conduct. When water falls below level '. & continues to conduct via level +. +ut when it falls below level +. base "unction of & is reverse biased and voltage at the collector of & is around (&)* with respect to ground. hus. transistor ) conducts in the saturation region and activates the relay. Now the motor gets connected to its power supply via the N,/ contacts 0which are now closed1 of the relay. 't the same time. another pair of relay contacts disconnects level + and resistor $&. 2o. when water reaches level +. transistor & still does not conduct. and the water level & is forward continues to rise till level '. when water touches level '.

biased. the relay is de%energised and the power supply of the motor is cut off. 't the same time another pair of relay contacts connects level + and resistor $&. via its N,C state. Capacitor C& provides a momentary time%delay start. L34 indicates that the tank is being filled with three level.

POWER SUPPLY NEED OF POWER SUPPLY:5erhaps all of you are aware that a power supply is a primary re#uirement for the test bench of a home e6perimenters mini lab. ' battery eliminator can eliminate or replace the batteries of solid%state electronic e#uipment and ))7* '.C. mains instead of the batteries or dry cells thus can operate the e#uipment. Nowadays. the sued of commercial battery eliminator or power supply unit have become increasingly popular as power source for household appliances like transceiver. record player. clock etc.

Summary of pow r !upp"y #$r#u$% f a%ur !:&r$ f ' !#r$p%$o( of op ra%$o(: C$r#u$% pro% #%$o(:

gives out well regulated

(8* output. output current capability of 977m'.

+uilt :in overheating protection shuts

down output when regulator IC gets too hot.

C$r#u$% #omp" )$%y: simple and easy to build. C$r#u$% p rforma(# :

/peration. 2table (8* output voltage. reliable

A*a$"a+$"$%y of #ompo( (%!:

common basic components.

3asy to get. uses only

D !$,( % !%$(,: App"$#a%$o(!:

power supply.

+ased on datasheet e6ample circuit. I have

used this circuit successfully as part of other electronics pro"ects.

part of electronics devices. small laboratory


his circuit is a small ( 8 volts power supply. Which is useful when e6perimenting with digital electronics. 2mall ine6pensive battery with variable output voltage are available. but usually their voltage regulation is very poor. which makes them not very usable for digital circuit e6perimenter unless a better regulation can be achieved in some way. circuit is the answer to the problem. his circuit can give (8* output at about 977m' current. he circuit has overload and terminal protection. he following



0=1 L34

&. ) ;;.. N5N

0<1 4&.4) ;;. IN=77> 04iode1



$&.$) ;; &7? /hm.

0&1 C& ;;;&77 @A4 0)1 C) ;;. &777 @A4

-ISCELLANEOUS: $3L'B ;;;;; C* ransformer ;;;;. &)%7%&)


' resistor is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. $esistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor. 'll other factors being e#ual. in a direct%current 04C1 circuit. the current through a resistor is inversely proportional to its resistance. and directly proportional to the voltage across it. his is the well%known /hmDs Law. In alternating%current 0'C1 circuits. this rule also applies as long as the resistor does not contain inductance or capacitance. $esistors can be fabricated in a variety of ways. he most common type in electronic devices and systems is the carbon-composition resistor. Aine granulated carbon 0graphite1 is mi6ed with clay and hardened. he resistance depends on the proportion of carbon to clayE the higher this ratio. the lower the resistance. 'nother type of resistor is made from winding Nichrome or similar wire on an insulating form. his component. called a wirewound resistor. is able to handle higher currents than a carbon%composition resistor of the same physical si-e. !owever. because the wire is wound into a coil. the component acts as an inductors as well as e6hibiting resistance. his does not affect performance in 4C circuits. but can have an adverse effect in 'C circuits because inductance renders the device sensitive to changes in output.


' capacitor is a tool consisting of two conductive plates. each of which hosts an opposite charge. hese plates are separated by a dielectric or other form of insulator. which helps them maintain an electric charge. here are several types of insulators used in capacitors. 36amples include ceramic. polyester. tantalum air. and polystyrene. /ther common capacitor insulators include air. paper. and plastic. 3ach effectively prevents the plates from touching each other. ' capacitor is often used to store analogue signals and digital data. 'nother type of capacitor is used in the telecommunications e#uipment industry. his type of capacitor is able to ad"ust the fre#uency and tuning of telecommunications e#uipment and is often referred to a variable capacitor. ' capacitor is also ideal for storing an electron. ' capacitor cannot. however. make electrons.



' capacitor measures in voltage. which differs on each of the two interior plates. +oth plates of the capacitor are charged. but the current flows in opposite directions. ' capacitor contains &.9 volts. which is the same voltage found in a common '' battery. 's voltage is used in a capacitor. one of the two plates becomes filled with a steady flow of current. 't the same time. the current flows away from the other plate. o understand the flow of voltage in a capacitor. it is helpful to look at naturally occurring e6amples. Lightning. for e6ample. is similar to a capacitor. he cloud represents one of the plates and the ground represents the other. he lightning is the charging factor moving between the ground and the cloud.


' Tra(!$!%or is an ! m$#o('u#%or which is a fundamental component in almost all electronic devices. ransistors are often said to be the most significant invention of the )7th Century. ransistors have many uses including switching. voltage,current regulation. and amplification % all of which are useful in r ( wa+" ( r,y applications. ' transistor controls a large electrical output signal with changes to a small input signal. his is analogous to the small amount of effort re#uired to open a tap 0faucet1 to release a large flow of water. 2ince a large amount of current can be controlled by a small amount of current. a transistor acts as an amp"$f$ r. ' transistor acts as a !w$%#. which can open and close many times per second.

&$po"ar /u(#%$o( Tra(!$!%or!

he most common type of transistor is a +$po"ar 0u(#%$o( %ra(!$!%or. his is made up of three layers of a semi%conductor material in a sandwich. In one configuration the outer two layers have e6tra electrons. and the middle layer has electrons missing 0holes1. In the other configuration the two outer layers have the holes and the middle layer has the e6tra electrons.

SY-&OL OF NPN 1 PNP TRANSISTOR Layers with e6tra electrons are called N-Typ . those with electrons missing called P-Typ . herefore the bipolar "unction transistors are more commonly known as PNP %ra(!$!%or! and NPN %ra(!$!%or! respectively. +ipolar "unction transistors are typically made of !$"$#o( and so they are very cheap to produce and purchase.

2ow 'o Tra(!$!%or! Wor3

' bipolar "unction transistor has three terminals % &a! . Co"" #%or. and Em$%% r

corresponding to the three semi%conductor layers of the transistor. he weak input current is applied to the inner 0base1 layer. When there is a small change in the current or voltage at the inner semiconductor layer 0base1. a rapid and far larger change in current takes place throughout the whole transistor.

5ictured above is a schematic diagram of the more common NPN %ra(!$!%or. +elow is an illustration of the same transistor using water rather than electricity to illustrate the way it functionsF

he illustration shows pipe work with three openings & 4&a! 56 C 4Co"" #%or56 a(' E 4Em$%% r57 he reservoir of water at C is the supply voltage which is prevented from getting though to 3 by a plunger. If water is poured into +. it pushes up the plunger letting lots of water flow from C to 3. If even more water is poured into +. the plunger moves higher. and the flow of water from C to 3 increases. herefore. a small input current of electricity to the +ase leads to a large flow of electricity from the Collector to the 3mitter.

Tra(!$!%or Ga$(
Looking at the water analogy again. if it takes & litre of water per minute poured into + to control &77 litres of water per minute flowing from C to 3. then the Ga$( 0or amp"$f$#a%$o( fa#%or1 is &77. ' real transistor with a gain of &77 can control

&77m' of current from C to 3 with an input current of "ust &m' to the base 0+1. If the output power 0current 6 voltage1 are more than & Watt a Pow r Tra(!$!%or must be used. hese let much more power flow through. and re#uire a larger controlling input current.

' '$o' is the simplest sort of semiconductor device. +roadly speaking. a semiconductor is a material with a varying ability to conduct electrical current. @ost semiconductors are made of a poor conductor that has had $mpur$%$ ! 0atoms of another material1 added to it. he process of adding impurities is called 'op$(,.


Circuit 2ymbol

I-AGE OF DIODES In the case of L34s. the conductor material is typically a"um$(um-,a""$umar! ($' 0'lGa's1. In pure aluminum%gallium%arsenide. all of the atoms bond perfectly to their neighbors. leaving no free " #%ro(! 0negatively%charged particles1 to conduct electric current. In doped material. additional atoms change the balance. either adding free electrons or creating .o" ! where electrons can go. 3ither of these additions make the material more conductive. ' semiconductor with e6tra electrons is called N-%yp ma% r$a". since it has e6tra (egatively%charged particles. In N%type material. free electrons move from a negatively%charged area to a positively charged area. ' semiconductor with e6tra holes is called P-%yp ma% r$a". since it effectively has e6tra positively%charged particles. 3lectrons can "ump from hole to hole. moving from a negatively%charged area to a positively%charged area. 's a result. the holes themselves appear to move from a positively%charged area to a negatively%charged area. ' diode comprises a section of N%type material bonded to a section of 5%type material. with electrodes on each end. his arrangement conducts electricity in only one direction. When no voltage is applied to the diode. electrons from the N% type material fill holes from the 5%type material along the 0u(#%$o( between the layers. forming a ' p" %$o( 8o( . In a depletion -one. the semiconductor material is returned to its original $(!u"a%$(, !%a% %% all of the holes are filled. so there are no free electrons or empty spaces for electrons. and charge canDt flow.

A% %. 0u(#%$o(6 fr " #%ro(! from %. N-%yp ma% r$a" f$"" .o" ! from %. P-%yp ma% r$a"7 T.$! #r a% ! a( $(!u"a%$(, "ay r $( %. m$''" of %. '$o' #a"" ' %. ' p" %$o( 8o( 7

o get rid of the depletion -one. you have to get electrons moving from the N%type area to the 5%type area and holes moving in the reverse direction. o do this. you connect the N%type side of the diode to the negative end of a circuit and the 5%type side to the positive end. he free electrons in the N%type material are repelled by the negative electrode and drawn to the positive electrode. he holes in the 5%type material move the other way. When the voltage difference between the electrodes is high enough. the electrons in the depletion -one are boosted out of their holes and begin moving freely again. he depletion -one disappears. and charge moves across the diode.

W. ( %. ( ,a%$* (' of %. #$r#u$% $! .oo3 ' up %o %. N-%yp "ay r a(' %. po!$%$* (' $! .oo3 ' up %o P-%yp "ay r6 " #%ro(! a(' .o" ! !%ar% mo*$(, a(' %. ' p" %$o( 8o( '$!app ar!7

If you try to run current the other way. with the 5%type side connected to the negative end of the circuit and the N%type side connected to the positive end. current will not flow. he negative electrons in the N%type material are attracted to the positive electrode. he positive holes in the 5%type material are attracted to the negative electrode. No current flows across the "unction because the holes and the electrons are each moving in the wrong direction. he depletion -one increases. 02ee !ow 2emiconductors Work for more information on the entire process.1

W. ( %. po!$%$*

(' of %. #$r#u$% $! .oo3 ' up %o %. N-%yp "ay r

a(' %. ( ,a%$* (' $! .oo3 ' up %o %. P-%yp "ay r6 fr " #%ro(! #o"" #% o( o( (' of %. '$o' a(' .o" ! #o"" #% o( %. o%. r7 T. ' p" %$o( 8o( , %! +$,, r7


' light%emitting diode 0L341 is a semiconductor device that emits visible light when an electric current passes through it. he light is not particularly bright. but in most L34s it is monochromatic. occurring at a single wavelength. he output from an L34 can range from red 0at a wavelength of appro6imately >77 nanometers1 to blue%violet 0about =77 nanometers1. 2ome L34s emit infrared 0I$1 energy 08<7 nanometers or longer1E such a device is known as an infrared-emitting diode 0I$341. 'n L34 or I$34 consists of two elements of processed material called P-type semiconductors and N-type semiconductors. hese two elements are placed in direct contact. forming a region called the P-N junction. In this respect. the L34 or I$34 resembles most other diode types. but there are important differences. he L34 or I$34 has a transparent package. allowing visible or I$ energy to pass through. 'lso. the L34 or I$34 has a large 5N%"unction area whose shape is tailored to the application.


Circuit 2ymbol

& ( f$%! of LED!

Low pow r r 9u$r m (%F @ost types can be operated with battery power supplies. 2$,. ff$#$ (#y: @ost of the power supplied to an L34 or I$34 is converted into radiation in the desired form. with minimal heat production. Lo(, "$f : When properly installed. an L34 or I$34 can function for decades.

Typ$#a" App"$#a%$o(!

I('$#a%or "$,.%!: hese can be two%state 0i.e.. on,off1. bar%graph. or alphabetic%numeric readouts. LCD pa( " +a#3"$,.%$(,: 2peciali-ed white L34s are used in flat%panel computer displays. F$+ r op%$# 'a%a %ra(!m$!!$o(: 3ase of modulation allows wide communications bandwidth with minimal noise. resulting in high speed and accuracy. R mo% #o(%ro": @ost home%entertainment HremotesH use I$34s to transmit data to the main unit. op%o$!o"a%or: 2tages in an electronic system can be connected together without unwanted interaction.


Tra(!form r
W.a% $! a Tra(!form r;
' transformer transfers electrical energy between two circuits. It usually consists of two wire coils wrapped around a core. hese coils are called primary and secondary windings. 3nergy is transferred by mutual induction caused by a changing electromagnetic field. If the coils have different number of turns around the core. the voltage induced in the secondary coil will be different to the first. ransformers convert 'C electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. ransformers work only with 'C and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is 'C. 2tep%up transformers increase voltage. step%down transformers reduce voltage. @ost power supplies use a step%down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage 0)<7* in I?1 to a safer low voltage. he input coil is called the pr$mary and the output coil is called the ! #o('ary. here is no electrical connection between the two coils. instead they are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft%iron core of the transformer. he two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core.

ransformers waste very little power so the power out is 0almost1 e#ual to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down current is stepped up. he ratio of the number of turns on each coil. called the %ur(! ra%$o. determines the ratio of the voltages. ' step%down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary 0input1 coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply. and a small number of turns on its secondary 0output1 coil to give a low output voltage.

2ymbol of transformer

Tra(!form r

2ow 'o ! a Tra(!form r Wor3

'lternating current in the primary winding creates an electromagnetic field that induces a current in the secondary winding when the field changes. 2mall transformers use enameled wire for their windings. while large transformers use insulated copper strips. ransformers can be single winding. center%tap. or multi% tap. Center%taps have a terminal at the middle point of the secondary winding. which has half the voltage of the end terminal. @ulti%taps have many terminals along the winding. whose voltages depend on their locations. he purpose of the core is to direct the electromagnetic field through the secondary winding. 2ilicon

steel cores are used for their high magnetic permeability. he insulated laminations work better than solid cores. by confining eddy currents. which reduces their losses.

U! ! of Tra(!form r!
ransformers are mainly used to convert one voltage to another. he process of increasing the voltage is called Jstepping upK. while decreasing the voltage is called Jstepping downK. @ost electronic e#uipments need a transformer to lower the mains voltage to a usable level. ransformers are also found in power adapters and battery chargers. Inverters are transformers which step%up a low voltage to a higher voltage. allowing a mains powered e#uipment to run on a battery. 'dditional circuitry is re#uired to change the batteryDs direct current into alternating current. ransformers are used for electricity distribution to minimi-e energy loss over long distances. !igher voltages allow for lower currents. which reduces the losses caused by resistance.

' relay is an " #%r$#a""y op ra% ' !w$%#.. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. he coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are 'ou+" %.row 0#.a(, o* r1 switches. $elays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. Aor e6ample a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a )<7* 'C mains circuit. here is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits. the link is magnetic and mechanical. he coil of a relay passes a relatively large current. typically <7m' for a &)* relay. but it can be as much as &77m' for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. @ost ICs 0chips1 cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value re#uired for the relay coil. he ma6imum output current for the popular 999 timer IC is )77m' so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification.

$elays are usuallly 254 or 454 but they can have many more sets of switch contacts. for e6ample relays with = sets of changeover contacts are readily available. Aor further information about switch contacts and the terms used to describe them please see the page on switches. @ost relays are designed for 5C+ mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. he supplierDs catalogue should show you the relayDs connections. he coil will be obvious and it may be connected either way round. $elay coils produce brief high voltage DspikesD when they are switched off and this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. o prevent damage you must connect a protection diode across the relay coil. he animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch contacts. Bou can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. his lever moves the switch contacts. here is one set of contacts 0254 1 in the foreground and another behind them. making the relay 454 . he relayDs switch connections are usually labelled C/@. NC and N/F

CO- L Common. always connect to this. it is the moving part of the switch. NC L Normally Closed. C/@ is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO L Normally /pen. C/@ is connected to this when the relay coil is o(. Connect to C/@ and N/ if you want the switched circuit to be o( w. ( %. r "ay #o$" $! o(. Connect to C/@ and NC if you want the switched circuit to be o( w. ( %. r "ay #o$" $! off.

A'*a(%a, ! of r "ay!:

$elays can switch AC a(' DC. transistors can only switch 4C. $elays can switch .$,. *o"%a, !. transistors cannot. $elays are a better choice for switching "ar, #urr (%! 0M 9'1. $elays can switch ma(y #o(%a#%! at once. $elays are +u"3$ r than transistors for switching small currents. $elays #a((o% !w$%#. rap$'"y 0e6cept reed relays1. transistors can switch many times per second. $elays u! mor pow r due to the current flowing through their coil. $elays r 9u$r mor #urr (% %.a( ma(y IC! #a( pro*$' . so a low power transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relayDs coil.

D$!a'*a(%a, ! of r "ay!:

+ad solder "oints are often the cause of annoying intermittent faults. hey can often be hard to find an cause circuit failure at the most inappropriate time. Its much better to learn to make a good solder "oints from day one.

5reparing the soldering ironF N Wipe the tip clean on the wetted sponge provided. N +ring the resin cored solder to the iron and tin the tip of the iron. N Wipe the e6cess solder of the tip using the wet sponge. N $epeat until the tip is properly tinned.


N +end the component leads at right angles with both bends at the same N 3nsure that both component leads and the copper 5C+ pads are clean and free of o6idi-ation. N Insert component leads into holes and bend leads at about <7 degrees from vertical. N Ising small angle cutters. cut the leads at about 7.& % 7.) of an inch 0about ) % = mm1 above copper pad. N +ring tinned soldering iron tip into contact with both the component lead and the 5C+ pad. temperature rise. N +ring resin cored solder in contact with the lead and the copper pad. Aeed "ust enough solder to flow freely over the pad and the lead without a blobbing effect. he final solder "oint should be shiny and concave indicating good wetting of both the copper pad and the component lead. If a crack appears at the solder to metal interface then the potential for forming a dry "oint e6ists. If an unsatisfactory "oint is formed. suck all the solder off the "oint using a solder sucker or solder wick 0braid1 and start again. his ensures that both surfaces undergo the same distance apart as the 5C+ pad holes.

&. @ount the components at the approp places before soldering. Aollow the circuit discription and components details. leads identification etc. 4o not start soldering before making it confirm that all the components are mounted at the right place. ). <. =. 9. C. >. 8. 4o not use a spread solder on the board. it may cause short circuit. 4o not sit under the fan while soldering. 5osition the board so that gravity tends to keep the solder where you want it. 4o not over heat the components at the board. 36cess heat may damage the components or board. he board should not vibrate while soldering otherwise you have a dry or a cold "oint. 4o not put the kit under or over voltage source. +e sire about the voltage either is d.c. or a.c. while operating the gadget. 4o spare the bare ends of the components leads otherwise it may short circuit with the other components. O. &7. o prevent this use sleeves at the component leads or use sleeved wire for connections. 4o not use old dark colour solder. It may give dry "oint. +e sure that all the "oints are clean and well shiny. 4o make loose wire connections specially with cell holder. speaker. probes etc. 5ut knots while connections to the circuit board. otherwise it may get loose.