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Tuesday, January 14, 2014

ISP/IXP Networking Workshop

Barry's CIDR/VLSM Quick Reference Guide


Ver 1.2
By Barry Raveendran Greene <bgreene@cisco.com>
The following information will help Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and network engineers remember
the annotations used in todays CIDRized Internet community.

CLASSFULL WORLD - THE OLD WAY


The IP subnetting scheme that most people are familiar with is the class system. In this system, IP
numbers are broken into three classes: class A, class B, class C, class D, and class E. Each class
allocated an certain number of IP host assignments.
Class
A

D
E

Address or Range
0.0.0.0
1.0.0.0 through 126.0.0.0
127.0.0.0
128.0.0.0
128.1.0.0 through 191.254.0.0
191.255.0.0
192.0.0.0
192.0.1.0 through 223.255.254
223.255.255.0
224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255
240.0.0.0 through 255.255.255.254
255.255.255.255

# of Hosts

254

Status
Reserved
1
Available
Reserved
Reserved
Available
Reserved
Reserved
Available
Reserved
Multicast
Reserved
Broadcast

CIDR - CLASSLESS INTER-DOMAIN ROUTING


In the Internet community, you will see networks expressed in CIDRized shorthand. For example, a
block of 32 networks would be expressed as:
203.127.224.0/19
When you configure this CIDR block in BGP, you use express the route as:
network 203.127.224.0 mask 255.255.224.0
Again, if this route needed to be configured in OSPF, you will need to wild-card mask:
network 203.127.224.0 0.0.31.255 area 0

Available IP addresses area delegated by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to regional registries. Please check with
WHOIS databases at the InterNIC, RIPE, and APNIC to the current status each IP address.
Cisco Systems, Inc.
1
170 West Tasman Drive.
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
Phone: +1 408 526-4000
Fax: +1 408 536-4100

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

ISP/IXP Networking Workshop

Each syntax is correct. All NOC staff members must be familiar with the different expressions
networks in a CIDRized Internet.

Subnet Mask
255.0.0.0
255.128.0.0
255.192.0.0
255.224.0.0
255.240.0.0
255.248.0.0
255.252.0.0
255.254.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.128.0
255.255.192.0
255.255.224.0
255.255.240.0
255.255.248.0
255.255.252.0
255.255.254.0
255.255.255.0

Subnet Mask
Wild-Card Mask
Prefix

Wild-Card Mask
0.255.255.255
0.127.255.255
0.63.255.255
0.31.255.255
0.15.255.255
0.7.255.255
0.3.255.255
0.1.255.255
0.0.255.255
0.0.127.255
0.0.63.255
0.0.31.255
0.0.15.255
0.0.7.255
0.0.3.255
0.0.1.255
0.0.0.255

Prefix
/8
/9
/10
/11
/12
/13
/14
/15
/16
/17
/18
/19
/20
/21
/22
/23
/24

The subnet mask of the CIDR block.


Wild-Card Mask used in OSPF and packet filters
Short hand syntax of the CIDR block.

VLSM - VARIABLE LENGTH SUBNET MASK


VLSM and CIDR are mostly one in the same. Both use subnet mask with the evenly divided octets in
the old class based world. VLSMs usually refer to CIDR addressing with prefixes /24 and above.

# of
subnets
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128

Subnet
Bits
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Cisco Systems, Inc.


170 West Tasman Drive.
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
Phone: +1 408 526-4000
Fax: +1 408 536-4100

Host Bits
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Host on
Subnet
254
126
62
30
14
6
2
0

Prefix
/24
/25
/26
/27
/28
/29
/30
/31

Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.128
255.255.255.192
255.255.255.224
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.248
255.255.255.252
255.255.255.254

OSPF wildcard-mask
0.0.0.255
0.0.0.127
0.0.0.63
0.0.0.31
0.0.0.15
0.0.0.7
0.0.0.3
0.0.0.1

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

ISP/IXP Networking Workshop

COMMON VARIABLE SUBNET BREAKOUTS


8 Subnets
30 (23) Host per Subnet

Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.224


Wildcard Mask = 0.0.0.31

8 Host numbers reserved for routers, hubs, and maintenance (sniffers)


Subnet

Gateway
Router

128.244.1.0
128.244.1.32
128.244.1.64
128.244.1.96
128.244.1.128
128.244.1.160
128.244.1.192
128.244.1.224

128.244.1.1
128.244.1.33
128.244.1.65
128.244.1.97
128.244.1.129
128.244.1.161
128.244.1.193
128.244.1.225

Host reserved for


hub and alternate
path....
128.244.1.2 - 4
128.244.1.34 - 36
128.244.1.66 - 68
128.244.1.98 - 100
128.244.1.130 - 132
128.244.1.162 - 164
128.244.1.194 - 196
128.244.1.226 - 228

4 Subnets
62 (55) Host per Subnet

Host available for


assignment
(23 hosts)
128.244.1.5 - 26
128.244.1.37 - 58
128.244.1.69 - 90
128.244.1.101 - 122
128.244.1.133 - 154
128.244.1.165 - 186
128.244.1.197 - 218
128.244.1.229 - 250

Host reserved for


maintenance
(sniffer)
128.244.1.27 - 30
128.244.1.59 - 62
128.244.1.91 - 94
128.244.1.123 - 126
128.244.1.155 - 158
128.244.1.187 - 190
128.244.1.219 - 222
128.244.1.251 - 254

Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.192


Wildcard Mask = 0.0.0.63

8 Host numbers reserved for routers, hubs, and maintenance (sniffers)


Subnet

Gateway
Router

128.244.1.0
128.244.1.64
128.244.1.128
128.244.1.192

128.244.1.1
128.244.1.65
128.244.1.129
128.244.1.193

Host reserved for


hub and alternate
path....
128.244.1.2 - 4
128.244.1.66 - 68
128.244.1.130 - 132
128.244.1.194 - 196

2 Subnets
126 (119) Host per Subnet

Host available for


assignment
(55 hosts)
128.244.1.5 - 58
128.244.1.69 - 122
128.244.1.133 - 186
128.244.1.197 - 250

Host reserved for


maintenance
(sniffer)
128.244.1.59 - 62
128.244.1.123 - 126
128.244.1.187 - 190
128.244.1.251 - 254

Subnet Mask = 255.255.255.128


Wildcard Mask = 0.0.0.127

8 Host numbers reserved for routers, hubs, and maintenance (sniffers)


Subnet

Gateway
Router

128.244.1.0
128.244.1.128

128.244.1.1
128.244.1.129

Cisco Systems, Inc.


170 West Tasman Drive.
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
Phone: +1 408 526-4000
Fax: +1 408 536-4100

Host reserved for


hub and alternate
path....
128.244.1.2 - 4
128.244.1.130 - 132

Host available for


assignment
(119 hosts)
128.244.1.5 - 122
128.244.1.133 - 250

Host reserved for


maintenance
(sniffer)
128.244.1.123 - 126
128.244.1.251 - 254

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

ISP/IXP Networking Workshop

COMPLEX CIDR/VLSM NETWORKS


Many sites would like have a mix of several different subnets in their network. This allows for more
efficient use of the IP address space in their organization. Yet, working through the math in insuring
you are not crossing binary or octal bit boundaries can lead to problems. Attached is a reference table
created by Raja Masmar Bte Raja Rom (masmar@staff.singnet.com.sg). It is a useful tool to insure
your network planning.

255 128 64 32 16
8
4
2
1
Host
0/24 0/25 0/26 0/27 0/28 0/29 0/30 0/31
Network 0/16 0/17 0/18 0/19 0/20 0/21 0/22 0/23 0/24
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
2
3
4
4
4
5
6
6
7
8
8
8
8
9
10 10
11
12 12 12
13
14 14
15
16 16 16 16 16
17
18 18
19
20 20 20
21
22 22
23
24 24 24 24
25
26 26
27
28 28 28
29
30 30
31
32 32 32 32 32 32
33
34 34
35
36 36 36
37
38 38
39
40 40 40 40
41
42 42
43
44 44 44
45
46 46
47
48 48 48 48 48
49
50 50
51
52 52 52
53
54 54
55
56 56 56 56
57
58 58
59
60 60 60
61
62 62
63

Cisco Systems, Inc.


170 West Tasman Drive.
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
Phone: +1 408 526-4000
Fax: +1 408 536-4100

255 128 64 32
0/24 0/25 0/26 0/27
0/16 0/17 0/18 0/19
64 64

16
8
4
2
1
0/28 0/29 0/30 0/31
0/20 0/21 0/22 0/23 0/24
64 64 64 64 64
65
66 66
67
68 68 68
69
70 70
71
72 72 72 72
73
74 74
75
76 76 76
77
78 78
79
80 80 80 80 80
81
82 82
83
84 84 84
85
86 86
87
88 88 88 88
89
90 90
91
92 92 92
93
94 94
95
96 96 96 96 96 96
97
98 98
99
100 100 100
101
102 102
103
104 104 104 104
105
106 106
107
108 108 108
109
110 110
111
112 112 112 112 112
113
114 114
115
116 116 116
117
118 118
119
120 120 120 120
121
122 122
123
124 124 124
125
126 126
127

255 128 64 32
0/24 0/25 0/26 0/27
0/16 0/17 0/18 0/19
128 128 128

16
8
4
2
1
0/28 0/29 0/30 0/31
0/20 0/21 0/22 0/23 0/24
128 128 128 128 128
129
130 130
131
132 132 132
133
134 134
135
136 136 136 136
137
138 138
139
140 140 140
141
142 142
143
144 144 144 144 144
145
146 146
147
148 148 148
149
150 150
151
152 152 152 152
153
154 154
155
156 156 156
157
158 158
159
160 160 160 160 160 160
161
162 162
163
164 164 164
165
166 166
167
168 168 168 168
169
170 170
171
172 172 172
173
174 174
175
176 176 176 176 176
177
178 178
179
180 180 180
181
182 182
183
184 184 184 184
185
186 186
187
188 188 188
189
190 190
191

255 128 64 32
0/24 0/25 0/26 0/27
0/16 0/17 0/18 0/19
192 192

255

16
8
4
2
1
0/28 0/29 0/30 0/31
0/20 0/21 0/22 0/23 0/24
192 192 192 192 192
193
194 194
195
196 196 196
197
198 198
199
200 200 200 200
201
202 202
203
204 204 204
205
206 206
207
208 208 208 208 208
209
210 210
211
212 212 212
213
214 214
215
216 216 216 216
217
218 218
219
220 220 220
221
222 222
223
224 224 224 224 224 224
225
226 226
227
228 228 228
229
230 230
231
232 232 232 232
233
234 234
235
236 236 236
237
238 238
239
240 240 240 240 240
241
242 242
243
244 244 244
245
246 246
247
248 248 248 248
249
250 250
251
252 252 252
253
254 254
255

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

ISP/IXP Networking Workshop

Binary Conversion Table


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63

128
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

32
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

16
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Cisco Systems, Inc.


170 West Tasman Drive.
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
Phone: +1 408 526-4000
Fax: +1 408 536-4100

4
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127

128
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

64
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

32
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

16
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191

128
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

32
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

16
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255

128
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

64
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

32
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

16
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

ISP/IXP Networking Workshop

DEFAULT ADMINISTRATIVE DISTANCE BETWEEN ROUTING


PROTOCOLS
Connected Interface
Static Route
Enhanced IGRP Summary Route
External BGP
Internal Enhanced IGRP
IGRP
OSPF
IS-IS
RIP
EGP
External Enhanced IGRP
Internal BGP
Unknown

Cisco Systems, Inc.


170 West Tasman Drive.
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
Phone: +1 408 526-4000
Fax: +1 408 536-4100

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