MA American Studies 2nd year Course: American Presidency Course Instructor: Associate Professor Octavian Roske December 13, 2013

Week 12: Presidential Scandals: The Monica Lewinsky Affair Statement by Senator John McCain, February 12, 1999

Presenters: Laura Picioruș - Part 1 (Biography) Andreea Tătăruș - Part 2 (Context) Irina Angelescu – Part 3 (Textual Analysis)
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Both McCain's father and paternal grandfather were four-star admirals.  McCain's introduction to politics came in 1976. His reputation as a "maverick politician" with firm beliefs and a quick temper only increased.S.S.  With Bush limited to two terms. in Panama. McCain earned a reputation as a conservative politician who was not afraid to question the ruling Republican orthodoxy. followed in their steps and rose to command all U. McCain's plane was shot down during a bombing run over the North Vietnamese capital of Hanoi.  McCain won re-election to the Senate three times. He broke both arms and one leg during the ensuing crash. 1936. Governor George W. Senate in 1986. McCain was moved to Hoa Loa prison. He was elected to the U. naval forces in the Pacific. McCain eventually spent five and a half years in various prison camps. McCain formally endorsed Bush. he began establishing connections in politics. 1967. House of Representatives .S. New Hampshire. McCain was first elected to political office on November 2.Part 1 – Laura Picioruş Information about John McCain and the extent of his involvement in the impeachment trial of Bill Clinton  John Sidney McCain III . He is now is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. during his 23rd air mission. three and a half of those in solitary confinement. McCain officially entered the 2008 presidential race on April 25. While working in public relations for his father-in-law's beer distribution business.He was re-elected in 1984.  McCain graduated from the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1958. In 1986 McCain won election to the U. during an announcement in Portsmouth. Both in the House and the Senate. 2 . He also graduated from flight school in 1960. and many were impressed by his willingness to be extremely open with the public and the press. John S." on December 9. Senate. 2000. 1969. 1973. 2007. most recently in 2010. Bush of Texas. when he was assigned as the Navy's liaison to the U. for the Republican presidential nomination in 2000. Though McCain won most of the New England states. Senate. 1982. He was released on March 14. On May 9.  On October 26. McCain Jr. winning re-election easily four times.S. When the Vietnam War started.  He emerged as a solid challenger to the frontrunner. after holding out for two months. nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton.  McCain was a loyal supporter of the Reagan administration and found his place among other conservative politicians.S. McCain volunteered for combat duty and began flying carrier-based attack planes on low-altitude bombing runs against the North Vietnamese. easily winning a seat in the U. each time with a solid majority. McCain was defeated by Democrat Barack Obama in the 2008 election. However.born August 29. his large electoral deficit forced him to "suspend" his campaign indefinitely.

 Clinton was accused to have had sexual relations with a White House intern named Monica Lewinsky. In the course of the investigation.com/topics/vietnam-war 3 . was in the minority in both chambers of Congress.umkc. the Democratic Party. Within the report were 11 counts of possible impeachable offenses allegedly committed by the President.wikipedia.washingtonpost.  Clinton's political party.wikipedia. Linda Tripp.mydd.org/wiki/United_States_Office_of_the_Independent_Counsel http://en.biography.html http://www.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/clinton/clintontrialaccount. obstruction of justice and abuse of power. provided Starr with taped phone conversations in which Monica Lewinsky.mydd.org/wiki/Impeachment_in_the_United_States http://www.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/02/12/senate. a former White House Intern. In the February 1999 Senate trial following the impeachment of then-president Bill Clinton. saying Clinton had violated his sworn oath of office.000 for giving false testimony. arose from an investigation by Independent Counsel Ken Starr. and most in the opposition Republican Party.org/wiki/Presidency_of_Bill_Clinton http://en. a Pentagon employee and friend of Lewinsky. discussed the extent of her relationship with Clinton. McCain voted to convict the president on both the perjury and obstruction of justice counts.com/users/ahiddensaint/posts/john-mccain-record-on-bill-clinton http://en. His license to practice law was suspended in Arkansas for five years and later by the United States Supreme Court.org/wiki/Linda_Tripp http://www. two months after the Senate failed to convict him.org/wiki/Kenneth_Starr http://en.  Although acquitted of those charges in February 1999.wikipedia.htm http://en.wikipedia. believed that Clinton's giving false testimony and allegedly influencing Lewinsky's testimony were crimes of obstruction of justice and perjury and thus impeachable offenses. Kenneth Starr's Office of Independent Counsel delivered its report on the Lewinsky investigation to the House of Representatives for consideration. Some Democratic members of Congress.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/timeline.wikipedia.vote.  On September 9.com/users/ahiddensaint/posts/john-mccain-record-on-bill-clinton http://law2.history.com/people/john-mccain-9542249 http://www. He was also fined $90. 1998. Sources:              http://edition.cnn.  The charges for perjury and obstruction of justice of which Clinton was accused.cnn.reax/ http://www.vote/ http://edition.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/02/12/post. Among those counts were charges of perjury. President Clinton was held in civil contempt of court.

Thus. did President Clinton admit his inappropriate relationship with the former White House intern. Monica Lewinsky.  Monica Lewinsky confided the details of her relationship with the President to Linda Tripp. These allegations are false. The lawyers tried to convince her to testify. In addition to this.  The story concerning Clinton and Lewinsky broke in the mainstream press on January 21. Linda Tripp decided to deliver the conversations between Monica and the President to Kenneth Starr (the Independent Counsel investigating Clinton for other matters). not a single time.  At this point. where she answered phones and ran errands. he further stated that: 4 .  At that time. In his Grand Jury Testimony. who started to secretly record their telephone conversations. The President came to Mr. Panetta's office frequently because of the shutdown.‖ The President hoped that a confession would have brought to an end the investigations into his affairs. Monica had the chance of spending quality time with the President.Part 2 – Andreea Tătăruş Context of the Monica Lewinsky Affair  The relationship between President Clinton and the White House intern Monica Lewinsky started during President Clinton’s first term (from 1995 to 1997). He stated that: ―Indeed I did have a relationship with Ms. it was wrong. A few days later. and he sometimes talked with Ms. His wife stood by his side throughout the scandal. in September 1998. Paula Jones’s lawyers and spokesperson made use of the press to attack Clinton and tried to prove a pattern of behavior coming from the President. Miss Lewinsky. the Paula Jones case which started in 1994 was in the spotlight – a state employee decided to sue President Clinton for sexual harassment during his time as Governor of Arkansas. 1998 in the Washington Post. a Senior Adviser to the Chief of Staff. In fact. Lewinsky. her co-worker in the Defense Department. there was an out-of-court settlement because Jones failed to prove the damages. Clinton actually mentioned Monica Lewinsky and denied having a sexual relationship with her (based on a definition of ―sexual relationship‖ that excluded oral sex). claiming that she had no sexual relation with Clinton. I never told anybody to lie. never. but she signed an affidavit. Other women were suspected of having had affairs with President Clinton and Monica Lewinsky was among them.‖. President Clinton spoke at the White House.  Only after a few months. Lewinsky worked in Chief of Staff Panetta's West Wing office. offering a denial of those accusations: ―I did not have sexual relation with that woman. During the depositions in the Jones lawsuit. Lewinsky that was not appropriate. Lewinsky. She characterized these encounters as continued flirtation. namely that he allegedly became sexually involved with government employees. Linda seems to have advised Monica to keep all the gifts she received from Clinton. remarked to her that she was getting a great deal of face time with the President. A later report describing these events states that: During the shutdown. Ms. According to Ms. Barry Toiv. There was a government shut-down in November 1995 and unpaid interns were taking on extra responsibility while non-essential staff was being sent home.

cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/stories/1999/01/25/poll. This political sex scandal led to the impeachment of President Bill Clinton (December 19. belonging to Senator John McCain who announced that he concluded the president "deliberately subverted the rule of law" and that he would vote guilty on both articles. with 60% opposing impeachment. a 21-day trial in the Senate followed the seating of the 106th Congress and 67 votes were required to convict and remove Clinton from office.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/17/newsid_4537000/4537597. intimate contact.umkc. 1998 deposition.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/clinton/clintontrialaccount. I regret that what began as a friendship came to include this conduct.bbc. in December 1998. in February 1999. I also had occasional telephone conversations with Ms. Senators met behind closed doors to consider their votes. Polls taken that week suggested that the American public sided with Clinton.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/timeline.html http://www. and once in early 1997.  During the trial.other/ http://law2.com/2013/08/01/monica-lewinsky-sex-tape-nationalenquirer_n_3691061. Therefore. while in the case of the obstruction of justice charge the votes were 50 for and 50 against.usnews.html 5 . 45 of the votes were for conviction for perjury and 55 were against. as I understood that term to be defined at my January 17th. A second charge of perjury and a charge of abuse of power failed in the House based on a party-line vote (Clinton had the support of the Democrats).ibtimes.com/government-shutdown-caused-the-monica-lewinskyscandal-2013-9 http://www.cnn. But they did involve inappropriate.  The following text will illustrate one of those statements delivered on February 12.businessinsider.1414211 http://edition.com/news/blogs/press-past/2013/01/25/bill-clinton-15-years-ago-i-didnot-have-sexual-relations-with-that-woman http://edition.When I was alone with Ms. Sources:           http://news. Lewinsky that included inappropriate sexual banter. 1999. These inappropriate encounters ended at my insistence in early 1997.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/resources/lewinsky/timeline/ http://www.com/monica-lewinsky-bill-clinton-scandal-7-things-we-learned-pbsdocumentary-clinton-411708 http://www. Lewinsky on certain occasions in early 1996. 1998). They did not constitute sexual relations.  As a next stept in the impeachment action. However.huffingtonpost.  Based on the investigation conducted by Kenneth Starr.htm http://www.nydailynews.washingtonpost. Nevertheless. Each senator was alloted fifteen minutes to make a statement.com/news/national/monica-lewinsky-tape-bill-clinton-newly-dugarticle-1. And I take full responsibility for my actions. I engaged in conduct that was wrong.stm http://www. These encounters did not consist of sexual intercourse. the House of Representatives voted to issue Articles of impeachment against President Clinton for having given false testimony and allegedly having influenced Lewinsky’s testimony – thus obstruction of justice and perjury. Clinton was acquitted of these impeachment charges.co.

→ not influenced by the public opinion. he believes that even if the ―President’s offenses were committed to cover up private not public misconduct‖.  Another issue that McCain brings into discussion is the following: again.  As it was the case. it is a clear choice.  ↓ therefore. however. the chief justice of that time.  Therefore. senator McCain clearly states the fact that although he does not feels resentment for the President.  McCain also underlines the fact that his goal is not that of judging the President’s private misconduct. whose statement was published in the Congressional Record for Friday. should I let public opinion restrain me from voting to convict if I determine the President is guilty‖. the President has to be judged on the basis of forswearing before the law: ―I 6 . February 12. And I am genuinely concerned that the institution of the Presidency not be harmed. since he believes that the President is indeed guilty of perjury and obstruction of justice: ―If a clear majority of the American people were to demand the conviction of the President. either by the President's conduct. despite his guilt or innocence. 1999.  ↓ McCain’s opinion = different. McCain is absolutely convinced that President Clinton has broken the law and infringed the oath of his office. William Rehnquist. Neither. and that by so doing he has forfeited his office‖. he is determined to vote for his conviction on both articles of impeachment. because he is concerned that the institution of the Presidency might otherwise be harmed: ― I bear no animosity for the President. The Senate faces an awful choice.  He then claims the fact that irrespective of the public opinion.Part 3 – Irina Angelescu Textual Analysis  On January 7. then. to be sure.  Among those who voted as ―guilty‖ was senator John McCain.  This was the second time the Congress had attempted to remove a president from office → the first attempt → the 1868 impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson. according to which. But. ―we should not excuse or fail to punish in the constitutionally prescribed manner evidence that the President has deliberately thwarted the course of justice‖. he will not change his point of view with respect to the President’s conviction. I don't lightly dismiss the public's clear opposition to conviction. presided the impeachment trial. began in the Senate. ―neither of the articles charge him with high crimes and misdemeanors‖. should I vote for his conviction even if I believed the President to be innocent of the offenses he is charged with? Of course not. to my mind. I am persuaded that the President has violated his oath of office by committing perjury and by obstructing justice. formally charged with lying under oath and obstructing justice. the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. or by Congress' reaction to his conduct. the President should not be removed from office. all 100 senators were sworn in as jurors. I take no partisan satisfaction from this matter. the public opinion (including the President’s counsel) believe that. as this is a personal matter which Clinton should solve within his family. 1999. he still thwarted justice → his crimes are intended to subvert the American democracy.  From the very beginning.

com  http://www. DC from January 3.  ↓ in other words. Ordinary citizens do not usually have the opportunity to be figures of historical importance. to hold them strictly accountable to the rule of law” . The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-first Census of the United States in 1990. I suspect many of us have. indeed. composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. We have a right. But we are not asked to judge the President's character flaws. in that they are vested with so much more authority and power than the rest of us.com/this-day-in-history/clinton-impeachment-trial-begins  http://www.html  www.shtml  http://www. he has kept. also → there are people ―who kept that faith at the cost of their lives‖ & ―most officers would have resigned their commission had they been discovered violating their oath‖ = the President didn’t have the dignity to do this. February 12. nevertheless.com/news/stories/0209/18734.com/usa/clinton/trial/statements/mccain. deliberately subverted--for whatever purpose--the rule of law‖. 2001. 1999: http://australianpolitics. who has to be a role model for the rest of the population. 7 .thefreedictionary.com  http://www.britannica. we have an obligation. They are extraordinary. Ordinary citizens don't have the world's mightiest armed forces at their command. and not a figure that has ostensibly infringed a legal oath. the head of the state). I have done things in my private life that I am not proud of.  Another point that he makes: no matter how many mistakes he himself [McCain] has made throughout his whole life. every oath that he has made before the law.com/dictionary/thwart Glossary: 106th Congress . We are asked to judge whether the President.org  http://www.wikipedia.merriam-webster.  His last. during the last two years of Bill Clinton's presidency.a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. as he has to be judged from the position that he holds (namely. but not least idea: ―[…] an ordinary citizen would not be treated as the President has been treated.  Moreover. Sources:  Statement by Senator John McCain. he urges the other senators to vote for the conviction of the President at once. It met in Washington. Both chambers had a Republican majority. who swore an oath to faithfully execute his office.sincerely wish circumstances had allowed the President to keep his personal life private.politico. 1999 to January 3. Presidents are not ordinary citizens. But ordinary citizens don't enforce the laws for the rest of us. the President is not to be treated like the rest of the citizens.history.

In the United States. It consists of two houses: the Senate. and funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. Malfeasance in office is often grounds for a for cause removal of an elected official by statute or recall election. social security reform. Affidavit . Congressional Record = the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. Bush.Abuse of Power . Congress = the legislature of the United States of America. regardless of its size. health care. borrow money on the credit of the United States. Counsel = A lawyer or group of lawyers giving legal advice and especially conducting a case in court. and make all laws necessary for the execution of its powers. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths. regulate commerce. which affects the performance of official duties. .in the form of "malfeasance in office" or "official misconduct. is represented by two senators. Once drafted. The Congressional Record is similar to Hansards. Bush is the second president to have been the son of a former president. Articles of Impeachment . 2001 terrorist attacks occurred. Bush was elected president in 2000 after a close and controversial election. a supermajority of the United States Senate is required to convict based on the articles.[7] He signed into law broad tax cuts.the set of charges drafted against a public official to initiate the impeachment process.is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. George W. becoming the fourth president to be elected while receiving fewer popular votes nationwide than his opponent. Among the express powers of Congress as defined in the Constitution are the power to lay and collect taxes. in which each state. The articles of impeachment do not result in the removal of the official. coin money.American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States of America from 2001 to 2009[4] and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. and amending the Constitution to disallow same-sex marriage. but instead require the enacting body to take further action. established under the Constitution of 1789 and separated structurally from the executive and judicial branches of government. the No Child Left Behind Act. the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition. done in an official capacity. which report on the parliamentary debates in the UK's Westminster system of government. Bush also promoted policies on the economy. In addition to national security issues. the first being John Quincy Adams. declare war. the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. It is published by the United States Government Printing Office. such as bringing the articles to a vote before the full body. Indexes are issued approximately every two weeks. At the end of a session of Congress. the articles of impeachment are drafted by the House of Representatives for cases involving federal officials. and the House of Representatives. education. to which members are elected on the basis of population. Bush announced the War on Terror. raise and support armies. an international military campaign which included the war in Afghanistan launched in 2001 and the war in Iraq launched in 2003. In response." is the commission of an unlawful act. and is issued when the United States Congress is in session. the September 11. Eight months into Bush's first term as president. Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors. 8 . such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. the PATRIOT Act.

forms one of the two branches of the U. the oldest political party in the world. or by way of written affidavit. the most recent is the current president. education." it is the judge's strongest power to impose sanctions for acts that disrupt the court's normal process. It is the oldest political party in the world.is a legal body that is empowered to conduct official proceedings to investigate potential criminal conduct and to determine whether criminal charges should be brought. Grand Jury . Since the 1930s. the party has promoted a socially liberal and progressive platform. Constitution vests the 9 . for a total of 27 days. Barack Obama. and one of the two major political parties in the United States. It has elected 15 presidents. Congress.in the law of the United States. The "grand jury" in the United States is composed of 16 to 23 citizens. In other countries. The federal government of the United States put government workers on furlough and suspended non-essential services from November 14 through November 19. the modern Democratic Party was founded around 1828. and public health in the 1996 federal budget. Government Shut-Down 1995 . the judge is not present to supervise the examination)." such as a person "held in contempt. only the United States retains grand juries. who has served since 2009. Currently. 1995 and from December 16. Democrats = pertaining to the Democratic Party. A grand jury is separate from the courts. although some other common law jurisdictions formerly employed them. A grand jury may compel the production of documents and may compel the sworn testimony of witnesses to appear before it. and most other jurisdictions employ some other type of preliminary hearing.S. The House comprises 435 members who are elected to two-year terms. a deposition is the out-of-court oral testimony of a witness that is reduced to writing for later use in court or for discovery purposes.S. Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States along with the younger Republican Party. the environment. The investigatory functions of the grand jury include obtaining and reviewing documents and other evidence and hearing the sworn testimony of witnesses that appear before it. which do not preside over its functioning. Tracing its origins back to the DemocraticRepublican Party.a court order which in the context of a court trial or hearing. Deposition .Intentionally lying under oath about a fact material to the case under consideration. testimony is usually preserved for future use by way of live testimony in the courtroom. declares a person or organization to have disobeyed or been disrespectful of the court's authority.the result of conflicts between Democratic President Bill Clinton and the Republican Congress over funding for Medicare. Grand Jury Perjury . The government shut down after Clinton vetoed the spending bill the Republican Party-controlled Congress sent him.Contempt of court . The grand jury's accusatory function is to determine whether or not there is probable cause to believe that one or more persons committed a certain offense within the venue of the district court. The first was Andrew Jackson. The U. 1995 to January 6. Grand juries perform both accusatory and investigatory functions. House of Representatives . Often referred to simply as "contempt. serving from 1829 to 1837. 1996. It is commonly used in litigation in the United States and Canada and is almost always conducted outside of court by the lawyers themselves (that is.

S. Raleigh. Abraham Lincoln during the closing months of the American Civil War (1861–65). He was tried by the Senate in the spring of 1868 and acquitted by one vote. the House voted eleven articles of impeachment against him. is separate from the act of impeachment itself.S. and subsequent removal of an official on conviction on those charges. was hired in 1995 to work as an intern at the White House during Clinton's first term. Clinton entered into an out-of-court settlement. Impeachment in the United States is an expressed power of the legislature that allows for formal charges against a civil officer of government for crimes committed in office. and the White House travel office controversy. making it one of the most influential components of the U. near Carter Station. Johnson. where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. Hawaii. Lewinsky. and began a personal relationship with him. He worked as a civil 10 . Tennessee). while trial by the other house is analogous to the trial before judge and jury in regular courts. Impeachment is analogous to indictment in regular court proceedings. government.is a former Arkansas state employee who sued U. before the lawsuit was dismissed pre-trial on the grounds that Jones failed to demonstrate damages. the Independent Counsel who was investigating Clinton on other matters. Misdemeanor = 1.a graduate of Lewis & Clark College. Barack . The actual trial on those charges. Monica . Typically. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching. the Radical Republicans effected their own plan of Reconstruction. U.is the 44th and current President of the United States.S. House of Representatives and his subsequent acquittal on all impeachment charges of perjury and obstruction of justice in a 21-day Senate trial. In March 1867.000. Jones. while the United States Senate has the sole power to try all impeachments. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. Andrew = (born December 29. she delivered the tapes to Kenneth Starr. Stanton. 1808 . the White House FBI files controversy. Born in Honolulu. the first African American to hold the office. Paula . who took office upon the assassination of Pres. Obama. His lenient Reconstruction policies toward the South embittered the Radical Republicans in Congress and led to his political downfall and to his impeachment. President Bill Clinton for sexual harassment. who secretly recorded their telephone conversations.S. North Carolina. 17th president of the United States (1865–69).—died July 31. though he was acquitted. Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School. When Tripp discovered in January 1998 that Lewinsky denied in court that she had had a relationship with Clinton. agreeing to pay Jones and her attorneys a total of $850. the details of which she later confided to her friend and Defense department co-worker Linda Tripp. by dismissing Secretary of War Edwin M. a criminal offense less serious than a felony. They passed laws placing restrictions upon the President. The removal of impeached officials is automatic upon conviction in the Senate. an instance of bad behavior. The news of this extra-marital affair and the resulting investigation eventually led to the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998 by the U. again placing southern states under military rule. the lower house of the legislature will impeach the official and the upper house will conduct the trial. 2. 1875. When Johnson allegedly violated one of these.House with the sole power of introducing bills for raising revenue. the Tenure of Office Act. including the Whitewater scandal.

he served as the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). dubbed "Reaganomics". Obstruction can include crimes committed by judges. He served three terms representing the 13th District in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. The specific statements were about the nature of his relationship with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. has lied to the investigating officers. The suit. and he switched to the Republican Party in 1962. refers to the crime of interfering with the work of police. advocated reducing tax rates to spur economic growth. His supplyside economic policies. the number of votes made in an election. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt. and the revelation of the Iran–Contra 11 . This lawsuit precipitated Clinton's impeachment.S. and reducing government spending. film and television actor. prosecutors. Clinton) – was a landmark United States Supreme Court case establishing that a sitting President of the United States has no immunity from civil law litigation against him. such as the ending of the Cold War. Obstruction of justice . and elected officials in general. Reagan implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas. Jones v. Out-of-Court Settlement . Prior to his presidency. Ronald – the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989). regulatory agencies. and was a radio. Generally. ruled that a sitting President could not be sued and deferred the case until the conclusion of his term (although she allowed the pre-trial discovery phase of the case to proceed without delay in order to start the trial as soon as Clinton left office). with whom he denied having a sexual relationship. Common law jurisdictions other than the United States tend to use the wider offense of perverting the course of justice. Originally a member of the Democratic Party. 3. obstruction charges are laid when it is discovered that a person questioned in an investigation. deregulation of the economy. the record of votes that were made by people in an election. 2. attorneys general. Judge Susan Webber Wright. his positions began shifting rightward in the 1950s. As president. proclaiming that it was "Morning in America". running unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives in 2000. the 1986 bombing of Libya. supervision. Charges of perjury and obstruction of justice were brought against Clinton based on statements he made during the depositions for the Jones lawsuit. Clinton. for acts done before taking office and unrelated to the office. or other (usually government) officials.an agreement reached between the parties in a pending lawsuit that resolves the dispute to their mutual satisfaction and occurs without judicial intervention.in United States jurisdictions. in most common law jurisdictions. investigators. and ordered an invasion of Grenada. Polls –1. However. other than a suspect. took a hard line against labor unions. was filed in the U. an activity in which several or many people are asked a question or a series of questions in order to get information about what most people think about something.rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. announced a new War on Drugs. or approval. His second term was primarily marked by foreign matters. prosecutors. Paula Jones Case (Jones v. the right to remain silent used to allow any person questioned by police merely to refuse to answer questions posed by an investigator without giving any reason for doing so. He was re-elected in a landslide in 1984. who had taken a class under then-Professor Clinton at the University of Arkansas School of Law. Reagan. controlling the money supply to reduce inflation.

culminating in the INF Treaty and the decrease of both countries' nuclear arsenals. The most recent Republican presidential nominee was former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney. Starr. Starr served as a federal Court of Appeals judge and as solicitor general for George H. is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. it dominated politics nationally for most of the period from 1860 to 1932. original name William Donald Rehnquist (born October 1.S.S. But Tripp claimed that her motives were purely patriotic. Arlington. Bush. Republicans = also commonly called the GOP (for "Grand Old Party"). Bush. Tripp.S. President Bill Clinton. A conservative icon. Wisconsin. Reagan negotiated with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev. There have been 18 Republican presidents. She then claimed that her firing from the Pentagon at the end of the Clinton administration was 12 . Tripp's action in secretly recording Lewinsky's confidential phone calls about her relationship with the President caused a sensation. appointed to the Supreme Court in 1971 and elevated to chief justice in 1986. Starr filed the Starr Report. Presidents and is credited for generating an ideological renaissance on the American political right. W. After several years of investigation. 2005 . He received the most publicity for his tenure as independent counsel while Bill Clinton was U. Rehnquist. Republican Party. it dominated politics nationally for most of the period from 1860 to 1932. Linda Rose . also commonly called the GOP (for "Grand Old Party").affair. the first being Abraham Lincoln. serving from 1861 to 1865. Clinton lawsuit. Virginia). is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. the other being the Democratic Party. Thwart = to prevent (someone) from doing something or to stop (something) from happening. 16th chief justice of the United States. Starr was initially appointed to investigate the suicide death of deputy White House counsel Vince Foster and the Whitewater real estate investments of Bill Clinton.former U. Founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854. he ranks highly in public opinion polls of U. the other being the Democratic Party. and the most recent being George W. The allegation opened the door for the impeachment of Bill Clinton and the fiveyear suspension of Clinton’s law license. William = in full William Hubbs Rehnquist. Kenneth Winston is an American lawyer and educational administrator who has also been a federal judge. The three-judge panel charged with administering the Independent Counsel Act later expanded the inquiry into numerous areas including an extramarital affair that Bill Clinton had with Monica Lewinsky. Founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854. He carried out controversial investigation of figures during the Clinton administration.—died September 3. president.S. U. serving from 2001 to 2009. civil servant who figured in the Monica Lewinsky scandal of 1998/99 that led to the impeachment of U. Publicly describing the Soviet Union as an "evil empire".S. and she was able to avoid a wiretap charge in exchange for handing in the tapes. and the disclosing of notably intimate details. 1924 . with their links to the earlier Jones v. which alleged that Bill Clinton had lied about existence of the affair during a sworn deposition. Milwaukee.[2] he supported anticommunist movements worldwide and spent his first term forgoing the strategy of détente by ordering a massive military buildup in an arms race with the USSR.

at the peak of U. though it was shown to be a standard routine. United States Defense Department . Vietnam War .S. forces in 1973. Each U.S. United States Office of the Independent Counsel . both before and after President Richard Nixon ordered the withdrawal of U.2 million servicemen. The chamber of the United States Senate is located in the north wing of the Capitol. Constitution. sailors. although it may only act within the context of a case in which it has jurisdiction. Air Force. more than 500.S. House of Representatives makes up the U.S. the Supreme Court is the final interpreter of federal constitutional law. the national capital. state is represented by two senators.[5] with more than 2.an independent prosecutor — distinct from the Attorney General of the United States Department of Justice — that provided reports to the Congress. marines. involvement in the war.. costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies. US Senate –is a legislative chamber in the bicameral legislature of the United States of America.C.S. Growing opposition to the war in the United States led to bitter divisions among Americans. and the country was unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the following year. Navy. Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel. More than 3 million people (including 58. and civilians. plus original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. In 1975. after the rise to power of Ho Chi Minh and his communist Viet Minh party in North Vietnam.13 million active duty soldiers. In the legal system of the United States. The war began in 1954 (though conflict in the region stretched back to the mid-1940s).000 U. United States Supreme Court . and together with the U.is the executive department of the government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.S. servicewomen. more than half were Vietnamese civilians. The House of Representatives convenes in the south wing of the same building.1 million National Guardsmen and members of the Army. and continued against the backdrop of an intense Cold War between two global superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. The Department is also the largest employer in the world. 13 .vindictive. and civilian workers. ending the Vietnam War.S. The office was terminated in 1999 and replaced by the U.established pursuant to Article III of the United States Constitution in 1789 as the highest federal court in the United States. regardless of population. By 1969. D. against South Vietnam and its principal ally.S. Congress. The grand total is just over 3. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U. But she was able to claim generous compensation for unauthorized revelations about her security clearance. military personnel were involved in the Vietnam conflict. communist forces seized control of Saigon.The Vietnam War was a long. and Marine Reserves. and over 1. airmen. in Washington. the United States. known as the Viet Cong. It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law.000 Americans) were killed in the Vietnam War. who serve staggered six-year terms.

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