MA American Studies 2nd Year Course: American Presidency Course Instructor: Associate Professor Octavian Roske Group members

: Cristina A e!andru Andreea "atarus #aura Piciorus $ovember 22nd% 2&'( Presidentia #eaders)ip and Po itica Parties: Repub ican A*enda ")e $e+ American ,emocracy - Morris P. /iorina "e!t - Part I - Cristina A e!andru  In the summer of 2008, the Democrats and the Republicans organized national conventions in order to choose their presidential nominees.  During these conventions, the candidates among whom we can mention 0arack Obama for the Democratic Part ! and Sara) Pa in, the vice"president nominee for the Republicans, gave speeches which attracted the public#s attention, over $0 million people watching each convention on %&.  'owever, the three television networ(s gave the conventions onl one hour per night during a four da span because the public was not interested in watching the evolution of these conventions since the results were alread (nown. %herefore, the conventions were lac(ing an element of surprise and were viewed as long info"commercials.  In contrast with the 2008 conventions were those from )*+2, when the rivalr between the candidates on the Democratic side ! senator 1stes 2efauver and governor Ad ai Stevenson attracted the public#s attention.  ,n the Republican side, the battle was given between senator Robert "aft and -eneral ,+i*)t 1isen)o+er who won before a second balloting was necessar . %herefore, the conventions of )*+2 were popular because the candidates were not (nown in advance and the campaigns too( shape more slowl . Po itica Parties  Political parties are considered /the central institutions of democratic governments0 and also /the wor(ing mechanisms of liberal democrac 0. )

the parties that are in opposition are concerned with 3uestioning the solutions and propositions of the governing part .  %he political s stem is characterized b changes . candidates who will maintain and even improve the part #s reputation.  2hen a political part is strong enough to control the elected officials. namel the ma1orit part . there are times when popularit comes first so.  %hroughout the 6merican histor .  %he presiding officer is in charge with establishing the political agenda of the part who won the ma1orit of seats in the most recent election.  In case of a divided *overnment. but for the fact that the are alread (nown b the public.  Political parties don#t alwa s perform the activities that would simplif the electoral s stem or benefit the public because the are concerned onl with gaining power. part members need to sta united and to achieve a stable level of performance. it ma abuse its power and force the officials to follow the part #s desires and ignore the voters# needs and re3uests.  In order to maintain their reputation and gain public support.  Parties are responsible with providing strong candidates for elections. potential candidates are chosen not for their political s(ills.  Political parties struggle to gain the battle for public support b anal zing the problems that occur and b providing solutions for resolving them. Political parties are created in order to organize political life through their activities. in these cases. the political parties have been in charge with organizing the elections.  Political parties are responsible with verif ing if the government#s branches are well organized.  Part of the ma1orit part are the committee chairs who establish committee agendas and hire the committee staff.  5cholars believe that political parties cannot be replaced b alternative institutions since there are no other institutions that can perform the specific functions of political parties.  4ven though most of the times parties intend to promote candidates able to win the elections because of their integrit and intelligence. groups of people are li(el to support the Democrats for a certain period of time and then change their beliefs and switch their 2 .

pl@inde8A(000099 http7.sarah"palin.)ushistbio.infoplease. in spite of the e8istence of minor parties. $.wi(i.en. 9.www.4stes<?efauver from the Democrats to the Republicans.wi(i. 4ach part s stem is focused on one or two ma1or issues that are debated during the elections and after them.www... In a part s stem.wi(ipedia..biodispla . focusing on a foreign polic more favorable towards Grance than -reat Fritain.6dlai<5tevenson<II http7. to support the creation of a national ban( and favor closer ties with -reat Fritain Dat that %he two ma1or contestants for national power are the 4ach part is supported b groups of people from specific geographic areas.  %he changes that ma occur in a part s stem are called rea i*nments.  5cholars have identified several election eras or part s stems in the 6merican political histor .news.Part II . Sources: http7.Andreea "3t3ru4 ")e Party5Systems in American 6istory '.wi( while another group of officials coalesced around ")omas 8efferson D5ecretar of 5tateE and the hoped to (eep the >nited 5tates a predominantl agricultural countr . "e!t . 2. these part s stems have four characteristics that remain stable7 ).gov. lo al to A e!ander 6ami ton D%reasur 5ecretar E wanted to use the power of the federal government to encourage manufacturing interests.. $ . ")e /irst Party System 78effersonian9  'istorians believe that the fist part s stem began in the earl )B*0s and emerged from a series of controversies that began to divide :ongress and Geor*e :as)in*tonCs own cabinet7 one group of officials.wi(ipedia.whitehouse.bioguide.en. clopedia.scripts. the worldCs dominant economic powerE.Republican<Part <=28>nited<5tates=2* there is one part that is bound to win most elections. namel the ma1orit part .  :ritical elections happen when a part s stem ends and another one begins.html http7.www.

although the both contained active opponents and supporters.  'owever. (. bridges.emocracy9  Parties are generall held together b the fear of the opposition and with the Gederalist Part out of concern the Democratic"Republicans were suffering a division with the )829 and )828 election and the opposing policies gave rise to the second part s stem. In )8+9. %he first group came to be (nown under the name of /Gederalists0. 2. %hus. the 2ansas5$ebraska Act was passed and the political stage divided between those in favor Dthe DemocratsE and those against it Dnow coalesced under the name of /Republicans0E. the >nited 5tates became at that time a one"part nation and ever important politician considered himself a Democratic"Republican. the issue of slaver was out of the congressional agenda and did not separate the parties.  %he dividing line between these two groups was the use of the federal government to promote national economic development b financing /internal improvements0 Droads. the Democrats and the 2higs could not (eep slaver out of the congressional agenda for too long. 'istorians claim the Gederalists were on the wrong side of the issues. the officials supporting Andre+ 8ackson were called the /Democrats0 and the ones opposing them were called the /2higs0. the Gederalist Part was no longer a significant force in the national government. %hose officials who publicl opposed slaver turned to third parties7 the #iberty Party D)890 and )899E and the /ree Soi Party D)898 and )8+2E. the part suffered from wea( leadership after 6le8ander 'amilton was (illed in a duel in )809. F the ear of )8)H. ")e Second Party System 78acksonian . 9 . ")e ")ird Party System 7Civi :ar and Reconstruction9  In spite of their attempts. %herefore. while the second group was referred to as the /Democratic"Republicans0. %he Democrats were the dominant part of the second part s stem. canalsE and b using tariffs to protect industries form foreign competition7 the 2higs favored such policies while the Democrats disagreed and pleaded for a more active role of the presidential power. supporting commercial and manufacturing interests at a time when most voters identified with agriculture.  Foth the Democrats and the 2higs were built on mass participation and developed national nominating conventions and established national committees that coordinated presidential campaigns ! these institutions are still used toda . 6dditionall .

 %he end of the third part s stem was brought b the depression that hit the countr in the earl )8*0s and the voters blamed the Democrats Dcontrolling presidenc and both houses of :ongress at that momentE for the economic crisis. ")e Contemporary Party System + . ")e /ift) Party System 7$e+ .. =. a loose aggregation of politicians. %he Democratic Part ceased to be competitive and Republicans too( the lead. another significant political force was shaped b the Pro*ressives.  <.  6dditionall . ")e /ourt) Party System 7Industria Repub ican9  2hile the >nited 5tates was emerging as an industrialized nation.epression of the )*$0s.ea 9  6long with the -reat Depression. Rooseve t president. parties reached such a high level of organization that the were referred to as mac)ines. the agricultural protest gave rise to the Popu ist Party that managed to seriousl challenge the ma1or parties of the time. whereas the Republican Part became the part of the affluent.  %he $e+ .ea instituted a class"based part s stem7 the Democratic Part became the part of the /common0 people. %here are two sub"periods in this third part s stem7 the first one when the Republicans dominated the presidenc and the :ongress and the second one when economic issues too( central stage with the Civi :ar and the Reconstruction of the 5outh when Democrats started to dominate the 6ouse of Representatives.  F the ear )8BH.  %owards the end of this part s stem in the )*H0Cs. .. %he fourth part s stem was brought to an end b the Great . especiall in Iorthern states. the Republicans managed to dominate the presidenc . political activists and intellectuals who promoted political reforms in an effort to clean up elections and government. the Republicans lost control of the 'ouse of Representatives and the )*$2 elections brought a Democratic 5enate and made /rank in .  %he two ma1or parties put together p atforms. and the are considered to fade when that problem no longer e8ists.depression..?ansas"Iebras(a<6ct.-eorge<2ashington "e!t 5 part III 5 Piciorus #aura "+o5Party and Mu ti5Party Systems: American Parties in Comparative Perspective %he natural state of affairs in 6merica is the two"part s stem ! two significant parties compete for office.www.4Fchec(ed.american"civil"war • • • • • • • • as statements of their positions on the ma1or issues of the da and the have increasingl unified ideologies. 5ome relevant e8amples are the Progressive Part .Jibert "Part http7.wi( Sources: • http7. affirmative action to name but a fewE. ga rights. abortion. in this case b the Democrats in )8*0s.4Fchec(ed.www. and the Populist Part .$$*$82.britannica. 6fter the Iew Deal that focused more on economic issues...Iew"Deal http7.9))$$).histor . other matters or cultural issues have ta(en central stage Dhealthcare.topics.topic. -reen Part .wi(i. H .britannica.britannica.Reconstruction http7..www. a Republican presidential candidate and a Democratic candidate for the 'ouse of RepresentativesE.topic.  %here is a balance of strength between parties on account of the realignments and of the ticket5sp ittin*.www. but some third parties have risen from time to time. 2hat changed in the contemporar part s stem is the issue agenda..9*$"5oil"Part http7.en.4Fchec(ed. since voters select candidates from different parties at the same election Dfor instance.about.<Roosevelt http7.html http7.illinois..Kachane .com.www.4Fchec(ed. of which the latter is significant as the t pe of third part which was later although the later disappeared or became assimilated b one of the ma1or parties. %hese two parties have dominated elections for national<D.topic. %hese third parties are seen as a reaction to a particular problem at the time of their rise.maps.www. crime.wi(i)00(.2)8$

B . political parties are well" defined organizations. which means that there is onl one winner in the contest. . if the number of votes received in the area places them first or second in the electoral run.ther factors that come to the disadvantage of third parties are7 automatic ballot access Dif the have not won in the previous elections. regionall concentrated. staff. both in television and newspapersM televised debates. %hird parties in 5L5P s stems might persist if the votes are geographicall concentrated. state. 2. %he structure is as follows7 elections ta(e place within geographic units and the candidate who wins the most votes wins the election. 2hat ma(es a difference in understanding this two"part ! multi"part problem is the electoral s stem. because onl the parties with the smallest amount of votes are left behind . in which the parties receive a share of seats in parliament that is proportional to the popular vote the receive. In these cases. which means that other minorit parties form coalitions and the government is based on combined parliamentar ma1orit . so part leaders maintain their organizations separate. %he part is the electorate ! there is a ps chological affiliation between voters and their part Cs candidates. %here are three distinct notions b which 6mericans understand parties7 ).Lulti"part s stems are characteristic to the ma1orit of democracies around the world. that are usuall reserved for the ma1or"part candidates. %he percentage of 6mericans who had a part identification declined between )*H9 to )*B9. or more specificall . >suall . their e8istence is /nebulous0. $. which is the wa in which a countr Cs constitution or its laws translate popular votes into control of public affairs. the votes are spread and no single part wins control of the government. %he strength of modern political parties in 6merica is a matter closel investigated b scholars. local and national officeholders.ward. %his s stem is characteristic of the 6nglo"6merican democracies. precinct wor(ers. committees. %he electoral s stem in the >5 is the 5L5P s stem ! single member. In PR s stems. as parties win seats in proportion to its votes. In the >5. which includes former colonies of the Fritish 4mpire. %he s stem is also called /first past the post0.ther world democracies are based on PR" proportional representation s stem. &oters do not abandon smaller parties. 6 proof of this is the fact that independent or third"part candidates face a decline in popular votes as 4lection Da approaches. because such a part rarel has a chance to come first in electoral votes. . In a 5L5P s stem. simple pluralit . %he part is government ! the winning candidates who bear inscribed the label of their part and the other candidates for public office. People have changed their conceptions of what a part is. the must go to some lengths to secure their presence in the ballotEM less media coverage. there is no single winner in the elections. ordinar citizens realize that there is virtuall no use in wasting a vote on small part representatives. %he part organization ! formal machiner of the part 7 leaders.

these national committees are active and receive considerable funds. %he control of patronage was eliminated graduall b the regular e8pansions of the public sectors of civil service protection and unionization of the public sector. as a decline in tic(et"splitting and part defection has been noted. %here is no final conclusion on the issue of part organizations decline or growth. %he control of nominations was destabilized b the Progressive reform of direct primar . Recent studies have shown that there is evidence that parties have recuperated their losses in recent ears. campaigning and media. 6lso. better educated voters needed less guidance from parties to ma(e sense of politics and choose their affiliation. economic. the contribute onl a fraction of the resources devoted to electioneering. Despite their efforts. when the Progressive movement arose. 5ome other factors are the communication revolution and the increase in mobilit . Iational organizations were not true part organizations.Lost people identif themselves as independents who ma or ma not lean towards a part . less people needed parties to help them get 1obs. as the econom was booming in the aftermath of 22II. emails. In the case of interest groups. fund"raising. the >5 5upreme :ourt ruled most forms of patronage as unconstitutional. up until the moment when Republican 2illiam Froc(. as a result freeing the candidates from dependence on interest 8 . informative websites e8plain that traditional parties have lost ground. 5tate and local part organizations were at their pea( around )*00s. %his model was later adopted b Democrats also. advertising. chairman of the Republican Iational :ommittee from )*BH to )*82 revolutionized the s stem and opened the wa to modern part politics. as candidates create personal organizations. throughout the larger part of their )+0 ears histor . e8perts on polling. because the penalized public emplo ees for their beliefs and associations. %he decline of 6merican part organizations came as a result of some public policies instituted b the Progressives. and can also provide resources and deliver the vote. often disregarding common sense and fair pla . and b 20)0 these national committees were closel involved in candidate recruitment and all other necessar elements of the campaign. :ompetition between parties has become less civil. Part organizations have become large campaign"consulting firms. Iational committees were the wea(est level of part organization. %he >nited 5tates is the onl world democrac that relies on open. 'is model strateg included the hiring of political operatives. but temporar alliances of state parties and local machines that 1oined their forces to wor( for the election of a president. since these powerful structures wor( ver hard to assure their candidateCs success. 6lso. popular elections to decide nominations. Iowada s. Parties tr to s nthesize narrow interests to ma(e the broad appeals necessar to win elections. %wo principal resources part organizations depended upon were control of patronage and control of nominations for the office. Political reforms do not e8plain entirel wh the 6merican parties have wea(ened. Internet based fund" raisers. In the case of social. political theorists have developed the theor that the balance of power between interest groups and parties is negativel correlated. residential mobilit .

en.www.wi(i..www*.org. due to the change in the influence political parties have and the competition between them.)+)H9H9. which places under debate the merit of parties or interest groups in conve ing voter preference to elected <voting<s stem. F the time it ended in :onfederate surrender in )8H+. 5upport or encouragement proffered in a condescending manner.htm http7. %he 2ar Fetween the 5tates. 6ntietam.(ingch.patronage http7.inde8. among %o sum up.9 million soldiers (illed.cfm http7. having served from )*B) to )*BB. decades of simmering tensions between the northern and southern >nited 5tates over issues including states# rights versus federal authorit .www.html http7. Froc( became the new chairman of the Republican Iational :ommittee. :hancellorsville.gwu. %he power to distribute or appoint people to governmental or political positions.en.4Fchec(ed.wi(i)00(. Froc( was a darling of the conservative movement but was less than overwhelmingl popular at home.Republican<Iational<:ommittee http7.www..wi(i.electoral"s stem http7.. brother against and their resources or reprisals. %he parties have been democratized.Fill<Froc( G ossary: 0rock% :i iam is a former Republican >nited 5tates senator from %ennessee. as the :ivil 2ar was also (nown.Kachane" %he election of the anti" slaver Republican 6braham Jincoln as president in )8H0 caused seven southern states to secede from the >nion to form the :onfederate 5tates of 6mericaM four more 1oined them after the first shots of the :ivil 2ar were fired. http7.www. %he act of distributing or appointing * .php. but the do not fail to dominate the structure of governance and elections.glossar .wi(i)00(. Gour ears of brutal conflict were mar(ed b historic battles at Full Run DLanassasE. -ett sburg and &ic( sites. Contro of patrona*e7 %he support or encouragement of a patron. 5ources7 http7. millions more in1ured and the population and territor of the 5outh devastated.Kachane . 6fter leaving the 5enate.5upreme<:ourt<of<the<>nited<5tates http7.Kerpapers.wi(ipedia. Civi :ar ! In the spring of )8H).4lectoral<5 stems.wi(ipedia...)*00.www. 2hile in the 5enate..thefreedictionar"era http7.000 of 2.Defection interest groups and the media in determining who is the best e3uipped to manage the development and outcome of electoral http7. a position he held from )*BB to )*8). pitted neighbor against neighbor and in some cases.%wo"part <s stem.en. westward e8pansion and slaver e8ploded into the 6merican :ivil 2ar D)8H)"H+E.www.wi(i.facult .greenpart .docs..tmve. 6nother competitor for the parties is the as for an institution or cause. the :ivil 2ar proved to be the costliest war ever fought on 6merican soil. with some H20.american"histor . %he Democratic and Republican parties must adapt to the Iew 6merican Democrac in order to modern 6merican political life is rather uns stematic.

During the ne8t three ears stoc( prices in the >nited 5tates continued to fall. %he 2ilmot concept. was a direct ideological antecedent to the Gree" 5oil Part .N. %he failure of so man ban(s.4lection that mar(s the emergence of a new. village merchants. which failed in :ongress.000 of the >nited 5tates# 2+..peration %orch in )*92!9$ and the successful invasion of Grance and -erman in )*99!9+ from the 2estern Gront. :andidates for public office ma be elected directl or indirectl . (nown as /Farnburners.epression " was an economic slump in Iorth 6merica. In an indirect primar . particularl those holding stoc(s in their portfolios. Gearful of e8panding slave power within the national government. manufacturing )0 . Fesides ruining man thousands of individual investors. %he result was drasticall falling output and drasticall rising unemplo mentM b )*$2. and other industrialized areas of the world that began in )*2* and lasted until about )*$*.ivided *overnment ! -overnment in which one part holds the presidenc but does not control both houses of :ongress. who resented the prospect of blac("labour competitionO whether slave or freeOin the territories. 1 ectora system7 Lethod and rules of counting votes to determine the outcome of elections. and household and mill wor(ers. %here the were 1oined b delegates from )B states drawn from the Jibert Part and the antislaver faction of the Iew Nor( Democrats. >. %hough the >.people to such positions. debtors. combined with a general and nationwide loss of confidence in the econom . It was the longest and most severe depression ever e8perienced b the industrialized 2estern world. . /ree Soi Party " D)898!+9E. /:onscience0 2higs held a convention in 6ugust )898 at Fuffalo. In )*+). 1isen)o+er% . an e8traordinar ma1orit Da percentage of the vote greater than +0=E. %he Gree"5oilersC historic slogan calling for /free soil.000 ban(s had failed. or unanimit . this precipitous decline in the value of assets greatl strained ban(s and other financial institutions. . 'e was a five"star general in the >nited 5tates 6rm during 2orld 2ar II and served as 5upreme :ommander of the 6llied Gorces in 4uropeM he had responsibilit for planning and supervising the invasion of Iorth 6frica in . 4urope. led to much"reduced levels of spending and demand and hence of production. Representative David 2ilmot of Penns lvania in )89H introduced into :ongress his famous 2ilmot Proviso. minor but influential political part in the pre":ivil 2ar period of 6merican histor that opposed the e8tension of slaver into the western territories. Critica e ection . until b late )*$2 the had dropped to onl about 20 percent of their value in )*2*.0. Lan ban(s were conse3uentl forced into insolvenc M b )*$$.5. Disappointed b the ambivalent position of the 2hig Part toward slaver . lasting alignment of partisan support within the electorate. 2inners ma be determined b a pluralit .ctober )*2*. Great . free speech. the -reat Depression ma be said to have begun with a catastrophic collapse of stoc("mar(et prices on the Iew Nor( 5toc( 48change in .irect primary7 functions as a preliminar election whereb voters decide their part Cs candidates. he became the first supreme commander of I6%.5.+i*)t " was the $9th President of the >nited 5tates from )*+$ until )*H). voters elect delegates. econom had gone into depression si8 months earlier. calling for the prohibition of slaver in the vast southwestern lands that had been newl ac3uired from Le8ico. )). free labor. thus aggravating the downward spiral. a ma1orit Dmore than +0= of the voteE. 6 countr Cs electoral s stem is the method used to calculate the number of elected positions in government that individuals and parties are awarded after elections. and free men0 attracted small farmers. I.

Pust after the war ended. ma(ing it one of the most influential components of the >. civil rights groups. and allowed settlers in those territories to )) . social 1ustice. 'e was a spo(esman for democrac and the rights of man with worldwide influence. %his includes corporations. the -reen Part of the >nited 5tates became the primar national -reen organization in the >nited 5tates. which emphasized non"electoral movement building. created largel in support of his views. and was opposed b the Democratic"Republican Part . non"hierarchical participator democrac . %he -reen Part of the >nited 5tates of 6merica is founded on the Gour Pillars of the -reen Part 7 4cological 2isdom. Interest *roups7 refers to virtuall an voluntar association that see(s to publicl promote and create advantages for its cause. Pefferson was the first >nited 5tates 5ecretar of 5tate D)B*0!)B*$E serving under President -eorge 2ashington. from mid")B89 Pefferson served as a diplomat. %he )8$0!)8+0 period later became (nown as the era of Pac(sonian democrac . representing &irginia and then served as a wartime -overnor of &irginia D)BB*!)B8)E. the founder of the nation#s financial s stem. 'is enthusiastic followers created the modern Democratic Part . 6s 5ecretar of the %reasur . and Ionviolence and Peace.rleans D)8)+E. stationed in Paris. Pac(son was a politician and arm general who defeated the :ree( Indians at the Fattle of 'orseshoe Fend D)8)9E.9 5 created the territories of ?ansas and Iebras(a.5. It emphasizes environmentalism. and unemplo ment had risen to between )2 and )+ million wor(ers. 6 polarizing figure who dominated the 5econd Part 5 stem in the )820s and )8$0s. the establishment of a national ban(. and friendl trade relations with Fritain. 'e became the leader of the Gederalist Part .output had fallen to +9 percent of its )*2* level. and the Fritish at the Fattle of Iew . 6ami ton% A e!ander . opened new lands. peace. respect for diversit . as president he dismantled the 5econd Fan( of the >nited 5tates and initiated forced relocation and resettlement of Iative 6merican tribes from the 5outheast to west of the Lississippi River. :onstitution vests the 'ouse with the sole power of introducing bills for raising revenue.-reen Part >56. -rassroots Democrac . or 2+"$0 percent of the wor( force. 'amilton was the primar author of the economic policies of the -eorge 2ashington administration. 8efferson% ")omas 5 was an 6merican Gounding Gather. 2ith his close friend Pames Ladison he organized the Democratic"Republican Part . a s stem of tariffs. he served in the :ontinental :ongress.5.was a Gounding Gather of the >nited 5tates. the principal author of the Declaration of Independence D)BBHE and the third President of the >nited 5tates D)80)!)80*E.was the seventh President of the >nited 5tates D)82*!)8$BE. and subse3uentl resigned from 2ashington#s cabinet. 2ansas5$ebraska Act 7'><. In La )B8+. 2ith its founding. 6t the beginning of the 6merican Revolution. %he >. %he 'ouse comprises 9$+ members who are elected to two" ear terms. charitable organizations. It applies to a vast ara of diverse organizations. neighborhood associations. professional and trade associations 8ackson% Andre+ . repealed the Lissouri :ompromise of )820. and nonviolence. one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the :onstitution. eclipsing the -reens. and the founder of the first 6merican political part . 5ocial and 4conomic Pustice.Q)R chief of staff to -eneral 2ashington. especiall the funding of the state debts b the Gederal government. Fased in frontier %ennessee.5. Green Party7 a national 6merican political part founded in )*89 as a voluntar association of state green parties. government. 6ouse of Representatives 5 forms one of the two branches of the >. :ongress. led b %homas Pefferson and Pames Ladison. he became the >nited 5tates Linister to Grance.

waterpower.0 . 5tephen 6. 6 member of the Democratic Part . because the 5outh could e8pand slaver to new territories but the Iorth still had the right to abolish slaver in its states. Iew Nor(. vastl increasing the scope of the federal governmentCs activities. 2efauver% 1stes 5 was an 6merican politician from %ennessee. 'e served three terms representing the )$th District in the Illinois 5enate from )**B to 2009. Mac)ine ! a highl organized part under the control of a boss and based on patronage adn control of government activities. 'e wor(ed as a civil rights attorne in :hicago and taught constitutional law at the >niversit of :hicago Jaw 5chool from )**2 to 2009. a group of abolitionists met in 2arsaw. It became problematic when popular sovereignt was written into the proposal. political part D)890!98E created b abolitionists who believed in political action to further antislaver goals. Roosevelt between )*$$ and )*$*. commentator and author who served as the ninth -overnor of 6las(a. It prohibited slaver in the former Jouisiana %erritor north of the parallel $HS$0T north e8cept within the boundaries of the proposed state of Lissouri. 'e was a communit organizer in :hicago before earning his law degree. #iberty Party 5 >. Reacting to the ineffectiveness of the administration of President 'erbert 'oover in meeting the ravages of the -reat Depression. Missouri Compromise 7'>2&9 " between the pro"slaver and anti"slaver factions in the >nited 5tates :ongress.bama is a graduate of :olumbia >niversit and 'arvard Jaw 5chool. Douglas of Illinois. %he act was designed b Democratic 5en.5. 'awaii.determine if the would allow slaver within their boundaries. labour.ea " the domestic program of the administration of >. involving primaril the regulation of slaver in the western territories. in the name of popular sovereignt or rule of the people. which too( action to bring about immediate economic relief as well as reforms in industr . Douglas hoped that would ease relations between the Iorth and the 5outh. Obama% 0arack " is the 99th and current President of the >nited 5tates. 6s the Republican Part nominee for &ice President in the 2008 presidential election alongside 6rizona 5enator Pohn Lc:ain. aimed to stop the e8pansion of slaver and soon emerged as the dominant force throughout the Iorth. the first 6frican 6merican to hold the office. %he initial purpose of the ?ansas! Iebras(a 6ct was to create opportunities for a Lideastern %ranscontinental Railroad. Pa in% Sara) " is an 6merican politician. 'ouse of Representatives from )*$* to )*9* and in the 5enate from )*9* to his death in )*H$. to organize the Jibert Part . .5. opponents denounced the law as a concession to the slave power of the 5outh. %he act established that settlers could vote to decide whether to allow slaver . she was the first 6las(an on the national tic(et of a ma1or part and first Republican woman nominated for the vice )2 . and housing. which was created in opposition to the act. %he new Republican Part . President Gran(lin D.pposed to the traditional 6merican political philosoph of laissez"faire. where he was president of the Harvard Law Review. %he term was ta(en from RooseveltCs speech accepting the Democratic nomination for the presidenc on Pul 2. the Iew Deal generall embraced the concept of a government"regulated econom aimed at achieving a balance between conflicting economic interests.5. finance. agriculture. )*$2. Forn in 'onolulu. $e+ . Lachines were common in man cities in the late )* th and earl 20th centuries. 6merican voters the following Iovember overwhelmingl voted in favour of the Democratic promise of a /new deal0 for the /forgotten man. running unsuccessfull for the >nited 5tates 'ouse of Representatives in 2000. he served in the >. from 200H to 200*. Instead. In opposition to 2illiam Jlo d -arrison and his followers Dwho scorned political activit as both futile and sinful in the battle to end slaver E.

violence. racism. Popu ist Party ! sought to represent the interests of farmers and laborers in the )8*0s. as of allegiance or dut . class warfareE could best be addressed b providing good education. where some cit councils are elected using forms of PRE. and a graduated federal income ta8. PR5 proportiona representation system7 a class of voting s stems that attempt to ma(e the percentage of offices awarded to candidates reflect as closel as possible the percentage of votes that the received in the election. Po itica parties ! -roups of li(e"minded people who band together in an attempt to ta(e control of government. transformed the scope. and its variants can be found at some level of government in almost ever countr Dincluding the >nited 5tates. Repub ican $ationa Committee7 is a >. Rea i*nment ! 5hift occurring when the pattern of group support for political parties changes in a significant and lasting wa . political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Part of the >nited 5tates. Reconstruction has since the late 20th centur been viewed more s mpatheticall as a laudable e8periment in interracial democrac . new laws and constitutional amendments permanentl altered the federal s stem and the definition of 6merican citizenship. Progressivism began as a social movement and grew into a political movement. social. the were people who believed that the problems societ faced Dpovert . Reconstruction ! the period D)8H+!BBE that followed the 6merican :ivil 2ar and during which attempts were made to redress the ine3uities of slaver and its political. their reforms tended to finesse obstacles the could not completel overcome. P atforms ! 5tatements of political parties highlighting their positions on ma1or issues of the da . progressivism is as controversial as ever.presidenc . Lan of the progressivesC prescriptions turned out to have conse3uences that were unintended and counterproductive. Pro*ressive Party ! faded 3uic(l after the elections of )*)2. Pro*ressive movement7 Progressivism is the term applied to a variet of responses to the economic and social problems rapid industrialization introduced to 6merica. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform. structure. greed. and with it a redefinition of the responsibilities of government. and economic legac and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the >nion of the )) states that had seceded at or before the outbrea( of war. the progressivesC vision of a new democrac . one released from the constraints of the past and reorganized to pursue great national purposes. and an efficient wor(place. %he earl progressives re1ected 5ocial Darwinism. as well as coordinating fundraising and election strateg . a politicall mobilized blac( communit 1oined with white allies to bring the Republican Part to power. a safe environment. It is also )$ . and even in their decades of greatest achievement. %oda . It is the most widel used set of electoral s stems in the world. Party defection7 the act of giving up allegiance to one state in e8change for another. Jong portra ed b man historians as a time when vindictive Radical Republicans fastened blac( supremac upon the defeated :onfederac . but over the course the ensuing centur . 6t the national level. and operations of 6merican government. advocating increased currenc issue. Parties represent the primar connection between ordinar citizens and the public officials the elect.5. Reconstruction witnessed far"reaching changes in 6mericaCs political life. In other words. public ownership of railroads. It involves abandoning a cause or doctrine to which one is bound b some tie. free coinage of gold and silver. In the 5outh. in a wa which is considered illegitimate b the first state.

%racing its origins bac( to the Democratic" Republican Part . counties. Rooseve t% /rank in . $2nd President of the >nited 5tates D)*$$!)*9+E. noted for his intellectual demeanor. "aft% Robert " was an 6merican politician.sin* e member% simp e5p ura ity 7 voting s stem in which the single winner is the person with the most votesM there is no re3uirement that the winner gain an absolute majority of votes. ")e . the 2Bth President of the >nited 5tates and tenth :hief Pustice of the >nited 5tates. conservative statesman and presidential hopeful who served as a Republican 5enator from . %he composition and powers of the 5enate are established in 6rticle . Stevenson% Ad ai " was an 6merican politician. he was the eldest son of 2illiam 'oward %aft.hio from )*$* until his death in )*+$. 4ach >. it dominated politics nationall for most of the )9 . who has served since 200*.. %he first was 6ndrew Pac(son..P Dfor U-rand .:. SMSP system . regardless of population. and a central figure in world events during the mid"20th centur .5. but then relapsed into a deep recession.R. %he chamber of the >nited 5tates 5enate is located in the north wing of the :apitol. Farac( . Reince Priebus is the current RI: :hairman. 6 dominant leader of the Democratic Part and the onl 6merican president elected to more than two terms. :onstitution. the onl president ever to do so. although in some states part organization is structured b congressional district. %he 'ouse of Representatives convenes in the south wing of the same building. 'ouse of Representatives ma(es up the >. and together with the >.5. ")e Repub ican Party% also commonl called the -. 5ince the )*$0s. 4isenhower. ?enned of Lassachusetts. allied campaign organizations being governed b a national committee. he built a Iew Deal :oalition that realigned 6merican politics after )*$2.5.5. 'e sought the Democratic presidential nomination for a third time in the election of )*H0. /. elo3uent orator . serving from )82* to )8$BM the most recent is the current president.5. leading the >nited 5tates during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war.emocratic Party is one of the two ma1or contemporar political parties in the >nited 5tates along with the ounger Republican Part . 6fter his election. Gounded b anti"slaver activists in )8+9. served for )2 ears and four terms until his death in )*9+. )*$$.bama. Roosevelt spearheaded ma1or legislation and issued a profusion of e8ecutive orders that instituted the Iew DealOa variet of programs designed to produce relief Dgovernment 1obs for the unemplo edE. but was defeated b 5enator Pohn G. in 2ashington. as his domestic policies defined 6merican liberalism for the middle third of the 20th centur . President ?enned appointed 5tevenson as the 6mbassador to the >nited IationsM he served from )*H) to )*H+. recover Deconomic growthE. state is represented b two senators. the other being the Democratic Part . and received the Democratic Part #s nomination for president in )*+2 and )*+HM both times he was defeated b Republican Dwight D. 5imilar committees e8ist in ever >.responsible for organizing and running the Republican Iational :onvention. which began Larch 9. ! commonl (nown b his initials. state and most >. ban(s and transportationE. Senate " is a legislative chamber in the bicameral legislature of the >nited 5tates of 6merica. 'e served as the $)st -overnor of Illinois. %he econom improved rapidl from )*$$ to )*$B. and promotion of liberal causes in the Democratic Part . It has elected )+ presidents.5. In his first hundred da s in office. is one of the two ma1or contemporar political parties in the >nited 5tates. the national capital. 6 member of the %aft political famil . and reform Dthrough regulation of 2all 5treet. the modern Democratic Part was founded around ) of the >. the part has promoted a sociall liberal and progressive platform.ld Part UE. D. :ongress. who serve staggered si8" ear terms. It is the oldest political part in the world.

'is leadership st le established man forms and rituals of government that have been used since. and one of the Gounding Gathers of the >nited 5tates. serving from 200) to 200*. In the legal s stem of the >nited 5tates. >nder a two"part s stem. well" financed national government that maintained neutralit in the wars raging in 4urope. or nearl all. 'e oversaw the creation of a strong. )+ . plus original 1urisdiction over a small range of cases. all. through 6rticle $ of the :onstitution. :as)in*ton% Geor*e . elected offices are members of one of the two ma1or parties. and he served two terms in office. "icket5sp ittin* ! when voters select candidates from different parties at the same election Dfor instance. the first being 6braham Jincoln. and won acceptance among 6mericans of all t pes.was the first President of the >nited 5tates D)B8*!)B*BE. which replaced the 6rticles of :onfederation and which remains the supreme law of the land. 'e presided over the convention that drafted the >nited 5tates :onstitution. suppressed rebellion. and the most recent being -eorge 2. Fush. such as using a cabinet s stem and delivering an inaugural address.period from )8H0 to )*$2. 2ashington was elected President as the unanimous choice of the electors in )B88. %here have been )8 Republican presidents. the commander"in"chief of the :ontinental 6rm during the 6merican Revolutionar 2ar. as the highest federal court in the >nited 5tates. %he most recent Republican presidential nominee was former Lassachusetts -overnor Litt Romne . one of the two parties t picall holds a ma1orit in the legislature and is usuall referred to as the majority party while the other is the minority party. although it ma onl act within the conte8t of a case in which it has 1urisdiction. It has ultimate Dand largel discretionar E appellate 1urisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law. 6s a result. serving from )8H) to )8H+. ?S Supreme Court7 established in )B8*. the 5upreme :ourt is the final interpreter of federal constitutional law. "+o5party system7 where two ma1or political parties dominate voting in nearl all elections at ever level of government. a Republican presidential candidate and a Democratic candidate for the 'ouse of RepresentativesE.

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