This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SECTION 1 TOPIC 1.1 C-DOT DSS Family 1.2 Basic Growth/ Building Modules 1.3 System Features 2 3 2.1 C-DOT System Capacity 2.2 Subscriber Features 3.1 General 3.2 Base Module (BM) 3.3 Central Module (CM) 3.4 Administrative Module PAGE 2 3 6 12 18 28 28 34 34
C-DOT SBM/MBM Chapter1
1.1 The C-DOT DSS Family
C-DOT DSS MAX is a universal digital switch which can be configured for different applications as local, transit, or integrated local and transit switch. High traffic/load handling capacity up to 8,00,000 BHCA with termination capacity of 40,000 Lines as Local Exchange or 15,000 trunks as Trunk Automatic Exchange, the C-DOT DSS family is ideally placed to meet the different requirements of any integrated digital network. The design of C-DOT DSS MAX has envisaged a family concept. The advantages of family concept are standardized components, commonality in hardware, documentation, training, installation and field support for all products and minimization of inventory of spares. In fact this modular design has been consciously achieved by employing appropriate hardware, software, and equipment practices. The equipment practices provide modular packaging. Common cards and advanced components have been used in the system hardware in order to reduce the number and type of cards. Standard cards, racks, frames, cabinets and distribution frames are used which facilitate flexible system growth. Interconnection technology has been standardized at all levels of equipment packaging. All these features, together with ruggedised design, make C-DOT DSS MAX easy to maintain and highly reliable. Another important feature of the design is the provision of both local and centralized operation and maintenance. Beginning with local operation and maintenance, with the installation of similar digital switches in the network, centralized operation and maintenance will provide maintenance and administration services very economically. All these services are provided through a simple, interactive man-machine interface. C-DOT MAX 2
1.2. BASIC GROWTH/BUILDING MODULES
C-DOT DSS MAX exchanges can be configured using four basic modules (Fig. 1.1) • Base Module • Central Module • Administrative Module • Input Output Module
i) BASE MODULE
The Base Module (BM) is the basic growth unit of the system. It interfaces the external world to the switch. The interfaces may be subscriber lines, analog and digital trunks, CCM and PBX lines. Each Base Module can interface upto 2024 terminations. The number of Base Modules directly corresponds to the exchange size. It carries out majority of call processing functions and, in a small-exchange application, it also carries out operation and maintenance functions with the help of the Input Output Module. In Single Base Module (SBM) exchange configuration, the Base Module acts as an independent switching system and provides connections to 1500 lines and 128 trunks. In such a configuration, the Base Module directly interfaces with the Input Output Module for bulk data storage, operations and maintenance functions. Clock and synchronization is provided by a source within the Base Module. It is a very useful application for small urban and rural environments. With minimum modifications in hardware through only one type of card, a Base Module can be remotely located as a Remote Switch Unit (RSU), parented to the main exchange using PCM links.
ii) CENTRAL MODULE
Central Module (CM) consists of a message switch and a space switch to provide inter-module communication and perform voice and data switching between Base Modules. It provides control message communication between any two Base Modules, and between Base Modules and Administrative Module for operation and maintenance functions. It also provides clock and synchronization on a centralized basis.
iii) ADMINISTRATIVE MODULE
Administrative Module (AM) performs system-level resource allocation and processing function on a centralized basis. It performs all the memory and time intensive call processing support functions and also administration and maintenance functions. It communicates with the Base Module via the Central Module. It supports the Input Output Module for providing manmachine interface. It also supports the Alarm Display Panel for the audiovisual indication of faults in the system.
iv) INPUT OUTPUT MODULE (I0M)
Input, Output Module (IOM) consists of duplicated Input Output Processor (IOP). The Input Output Processor (IOP) is a general-purpose computer with UNIX Operating System. It is used as the front-end processor in C-DOT DSS. It handles all the input and output functions in C-DOT DSS. The IOP is connected to AP/BP via HDLC links. During normal operation, two IOP’s interconnected by a HDLC link, operate in a duplex configuration. Working as front-end processor, it provides initial code down load to the subsystems, man machine interface and data storage for billing and other administrative information. IOP interfaces various secondary storage devices like' disk drives, cartridge tape drive and floppy drive. It supports printers and upto 8 serial ports for
video display units which are used for man- machine communication interface. All the bulk data processing and storage is done in this module Thus, a C-DOT DSS exchange, depending upon its size and application, consists of Base Modules (maximum 32), Central Module, Administrative Module, Input/Output Module and Alarm Display Panel. The Base Modules can be remotely located or co-located depending on the requirement.
1.2.1. REMOTE SWITCH UNIT
Remote Switch Unit (RSU) is an integral part of C-DOT DSS architecture. In order to realise a RSU, the normal BM can be modified for remoting with the host exchange via 2 Mbps digital links. The number of 2 Mbps links between the Main Exchange and RSU is primarily determined by the traffic. A maximum 16 PCMs can be provided between a RSU & Main exchange. Analog and Digital trunk interfaces are also implemented in RSU to support direct parenting of small exchanges from RSU itself instead of parenting it to the main exchange which will ultimately save the media required from main exchange. As far as call processing is concerned, RSU is an autonomous exchange capable of local-call completion. Operation and maintenance functions are handled by the host exchange. In the event of failure of PCM links, RSU goes into standalone mode of operation. In case it is not possible to process a call request due to unavailability of links to the host, the subscriber is connected to appropriate tone or announcement. During standalone mode of operation, the local and incoming terminating calls in RSU are switched and the metering information of all the RSU subscribers is stored in the RSU. It is sent to the host whenever the PCM links are available again.
Only the even numbered BMs can be configured as RSU i.e. a maximum 16 RSUs are possible in C-DOT DSS MAX-XL and 8 RSUs in MAX-L.
1.3. SYSTEM FEATURES
1.3.1 GENERAL FEATURES
This section includes system features related to the CTOD DSS MAX. They are:
TYPES OF SERVICES The CDOT DSS of different capacities can be put to use at various switching nodes in the telecommunication network. MAX Main Automatic Exchange MAX is expandable to large capacities of order of 2000 lines or beyond. The MAX may have Remote Modules (RM) and Remote Line Concentrators (RLC) connected to it. RAX Rural Automatic Exchange (RAX) is a small exchange and is expandable upto 2000 lines capacity. Single Base Module configuration (i.e. CDOT SBM RAX with or without concentration) comes under the RAX category. TYPES OF APPLICATION The system can be put to the following applications: Replacements The exchange can serve as replacement of an existing switching system due to be phased out from the network.
New Exchanges Wherever new exchanges are opened, the CDOT DSS MAX can provide the switching network within the existing telecom network. Extensions The capacity of an existing CDOT switching system can be increased. For example if the capacity of an existing CDOT exchange is 512 points, it can be increased, to say, 4000 lines. TYPE OF SYSTEM The system is Stored Programme Controlled (SPC) which makes it possible to work in attended/non-attended type of working environment. TYPE OF NETWORK The switching network within the system is 4-wire digital. TYPE OF COMPONENTS The different type of components used include integrated circuits, miniature relays, PCB, etc. The connecting scheme between various modules emphasis connectorised hardware.
1.3.2 NUMBERING PLAN FEATURES
This section includes features related the directory numbering plan. LEVEL 0 FOR TAX STD Digit 0 is used for getting access to the trunk automatic exchange to route STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) traffic to subscribers connected to the national TAX network. LEVEL 1 SPECIAL SERVICES CDOT DSS provides for three digit or more than three digit access codes for level 1 special services. C-DOT MAX 7
LEVEL 9 POINT TO POINT STD Digit 9 is used for getting access to the Strowger STD tandem for point-topoint subscriber dialled calls. In CDOT DSS, ‘9’ is used for checking STD barring etc. MAXIMUM 16 DIGIT RECEPTION FROM TRUNKS The system has a provision to receive a maximum of 16 digits from a trunk. MAXIMUM 40 DIGIT RECEPTION FROM SUBSCRIBERS LINES The system has a provision to receive a maximum of 40 digits from the subscriber’s line. A typical case when so many digits could be expected in CDOT DSS is in case of credit card calling or when the facilities of “Dialling by Equipment Number” is used etc. PREFIX 00 FOR ISD THROUGH TAX Code 00 is used as access code for ISD calls through TAX. In early phases of ISD working in India, a second dial tone after dialling 00 was fed and was to be followed by further digits. The scheme has changed now. CDOT DSS provides for both the schemes of working, with second dial tone and without second dial tone. The digits 00 are used when checking for ISD barring; similarly, for near ISD barring checks, digits 09 are used. PREFIX 900 FOR ISD CALLS Code 900 was used as access code for ISD calls in Indian network when ISD was initially introduced. C-DOT DSS provides for this type of working also if needed. The digits 900 are used in CDOT DSS for checking ISD and near ISD restrictions (combined).
VARIABLE LENGTH DIRECTORY NUMBER OF SUBSCRIBERS The national number of a subscriber in India can have a maximum of 9 significant digits (i.e., excluding the access code 0). It includes the trunk code for the area to which the local exchange of the subscriber belongs and his directory number within the local exchange/local area. The director number can vary from 3 to 7 digits (including exchange code). CDOT DSS supports this numbering scheme fully. VARIABLE LENGTH ROUTE CODE The access codes for various routes may be of variable length (1 digit to 12 digits). The trunk (ISD) codes allotted for the area are handled in the same way as other “routes” in CDOT DSS therefore, trunk codes of 2 to 7 digits length, required in India, can be supported in CDOT DSS. ANALOG LINE INTERFACE The system is capable of being connected to the subscribers through ordinary, CCB or PBX lines. NORMAL LINE Line resistance including subscriber’s instrument may go upto 1200 ohms for which minimum 30 mA loop current is guaranteed. Insulation resistance between ‘a’ wire (or ‘b’ wire) and ground or between ‘a’ and ‘b’ wires may be as low as 20K ohms.
1.3.3 LINE SERVICE FEATURES
This section relates to various types of lines that the exchange can cater to, and briefly, services offered to such lines.
ORDINARY LINE A subscriber may have an ordinary telephone instrument connected to his/her line. COIN TELEPHONE (CCB LINE) The system provides a service by means of a special telephone permitting outgoing calls after insertion of adequate coin(s) or token(s) and incoming calls without payment. The two classes of service are: Local-calls within Unit Fee Zone (UFZ) can be made from coin collection box telephone. STD – from STD coin box telephones, the STD calls and calls to some special services are permitted (Not available presently).
TRUNK INTERFACE FEATURES
ANALOG TRUNKS The various types of analog trunk circuits possible to be terminated on the system comprise physical circuits (analog circuits working over physical wires). 2-Wire Physical Circuits The physical circuits employ DC Loop Signalling, MF Signalling (MFC R2 modified for Indian Network) and Carrier Circuits with E&M Signalling. These circuits can employ any of the following register signalling schemes. Decadic, MFC R2 modified for Indian Network and MF Semi-compelled Line signalling is as follows: Ring down (i.e. sending of ringing current) for exchange to manual board. DC loop signalling for manual board to exchange.
DIGITAL TRUNKS: The inter working of a CDOT system with other exchanges
on a digital trunk is possible using register signalling schemes viz. Decadic and MFC R2 modified for Indian Network. Digital Trunk interfaces provided is 4 wire, 2048 bit/s HDB3 coded PCM.
FIG 1.1 S Y S T E M A R C H I T E C T U R E
2.1 CDOT SYSTEM CAPACITY 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION
The capacity of C-DOT DSS is defined in terms of the following parameters: • .The termination capacity expressed as the number of lines and trunks • The amount of traffic (in Erlangs) that can be switched • The number of Busy Hour Call Attempts (BHCA) that can be processed with a given call-mix while meeting the overall service quality requirements This section indicates the maximum capacity of different system elements as well as that of complete exchange, equipped to its ultimate termination capacity. It has been ensured that the specified parameters are valid to meet overall reliability objectives for the C-DOT DSS as specified in ITU-T recommendations.
2.1.2. TERMINATION CAPACITY
A Terminal Card is the basic system element. It interfaces/ terminates the lines and trunks. The next higher element is a Terminal Unit. The types of terminal cards and terminal units used in C-DOT DSS along with its functions are explained in H/W description. Termination capacity of a BM is 488 analog terminals and that of LM is 768 analog terminals. A BM can be concentrated with 2 LMs to provide maximum termination capacity of 2024 analog lines. In case of a BM, a maximum of 256 B- channels can be provided for ISDN terminations at the cost of 128 analog lines. In its maximum configuration of one BM and 2 LMs with termination capacity of 2024 analog lines, 256 Bchannels are provided at the cost of 512 analog lines. One to one replacement of B-channels is planned in immediate future.
Base Module and Line Module are the highest level of system elements Each Base Module has four Terminal Units whereas a Line Module has six Terminal Units. A maximum of 16 BMs can be connected in MAX-L and 32 BMs can be connected in MAX-XL configurations. Table2.1 summarises the termination capacities of the various system elements of CDOT DSS MAX.
2.1.3 EXCHANGE CONFIGURATIONS
C-DOT DSS MAX can be configured to support any combination of lines and trunks. For different applications in the network as Local Exchange, Local cum Tandem Exchange. Trunk Automatic Exchange (TAX) or Integrated Local cum Transit (ILT) Exchange. In its maximum configuration, upto 40,000 lines and 5.500 trunks are supported when configured as Local/Local cum Tandem. When configured as TAX, 14,500 trunks are supported.
Termination Capacity of System Elements
Sl 1 A B C D E
System Element Termination Cards (TC): Analog Line Card Analog Trunk Card A set of DTS/DTC Cards #7 PHC Card (SHM) ISDN-BRI Card
Termination Capacity LCC – 8 Analog Subscribers CCM – 8 CCB subscribers with last two ports supporting 16-kHz metering TWT/ EMF – 8 Trunks One 2-Mbps E-1 link as CAS/CCS trunks 8 Protocol Handlers/ Signalling Links 8 BRI (2B+D) Interface i.e. 16 B13
F 2 A B C D 3 A
ISDN-PRI Card Terminal Unit (TU):
One PRI (30B+D) Interface i.e. 30 B16 Analog Terminal Cards (LCC/ CCM/
Analog TU (ATU) Digital TU (DTU) #7 Signalling Unit Module ISDN Terminal Unit (ISTU) Base Module (BM): Base Module (Line)
TWT/ EMF) to support any combination of Lines & Trunks in Four 2-Mbps E-1 links as CAS/ CCS7 64 Nos., #7 Protocol 256 Bearer Channels to be configured as BRI, PRI or any combination 480 Analog Subscribers. A maximum of 256 B-Channels for ISDN interface can be provided at the cost of 128 768 Analog subscriber lines. A
B C D E
Line Module (LM) BM (Analog Trunks) BM (Digital Trunks) BM (Analog + Digital)
maximum of two LMs connected with BM supports 2024 lines. 488 Analog Trunks Fifteen 2-Mbps E-1 links as CAS/ CCS7 Three possible configurations as 360 AT+ 4 PCMs/ 232 AT+ 8 PCMs/ 104 AT+
Termination Capacity of Exchange Configurations Sl 1 Exchange Configuration Single Base Module (SBM) Termination Capacity 1,500 Lines & 128 Trunks. The trunks can be analog and/or digital. The number of b i d h f
k Multi-Base Module (MBM) (DSS MAX) 2
Ideal configuration to support 40,000 lines and 5,500 trunks with 20 Line BMs i) MAX-XL and 12 Trunk BMs. The trunk capacity can be increased by 450 at the cost of 2,000 subscribers or vice versa. Ideal configuration to support 20,000 lines and 2,700 trunks with 10 Line BMs ii) MAX-L and 6 Trunk BMs. The trunk capacity can be increased by 450 at the cost of 2,000 subscribers or vice versa. 3 4 Remote Switching Unit (RSU) Multi-Base Module TAX 2,000 subscriber lines. Trunk interface at the cost of subscriber lines. 14,500 Trunks
Note: out of the total equipped capacity, a maximum of 30,000 lines may be remote subscribers through RSUs in MAX-XL whereas 14000 lines may be Remote Subscriber through RSUs in MAX-L.
2.1.4. TRAFFIC CARRYING CAPACITY
The traffic carrying capacity of C-DOT DSS MAX is ideally 8000 Erlangs in case of MAX-XL and 4000 Erlangs in case of MAX-L exchanges. This figure is based on the ideal traffic of one Erlang per switched circuit. But the actual traffic carrying capacity of one switched path is always less than one in practical application. Accordingly capacities are reduced to not less than 7,500Erlangs incase of MAX-XL and to 3800 in case of MAX-L exchanges.
2.1.5. BHCA HANDLING CAPABILITY
The basic processing elements of the exchange are the Base Processor (in the Base Module). Base processor has the capability of handling 12,500 Busy Hour C-DOT MAX 15
Call Attempts which can be increased to 30,000 using upgraded processor card. The C-DOT DSS MAX (MAX-XL) exchange with 32 Base Modules can handle upto 3,00,000 BHCA. By upgrading the processor card in BM/CM/AM/SUM and message switch in all the BMs, it is increased to 8,00,000 BHCA. In case of MAX-L exchanges with 16 BMs connectivity, the BHCA handling capability is 1,50,000. Various exchange configurations and their traffic capacities are summarised in Table2.3. Table 2.3 Traffic Capacity of Exchange Configurations Sl.No. Exchange Configuration I. SBM-RAX 250 Erlangs. The BHCA capacity depends on the type of processor used and it may be 12,500 or 30,000. 2. Remote Unit (RSU) Switching 250 Erlangs. The BHCA capacity depends on the type of processor used. It may be 12,600 or 30,000. 3. DSS-MAX/TAX i) MAX-XL Not less than 7,500 Erlangs. The BHCA capacity is more than 3,00,000 and upgradable to 8,00,000 by upgrading only processor cards. ii) MAX-L Not less than 3800 Erlangs. The BHCA capacityis 1,50,000. Note: For some of the sites already commissioned with one of the first three configurations, overall BHCA handling capacity may be lower due to use of old processor cards. C-DOT MAX 16 Traffic Capacity Description
2.1.6 SYSTEM RELIABILITY
The C-DOT DSS MAX is designed to meet the reliability standards as defined in the specifications. The system uses fully digital techniques for switching including the subscriber stage. The system is built using a minimal number of standard units/modules which allow flexible growth of the exchange and easy upgradation in technology and new features. A very important feature of C-DOT DSS MAX architecture is the extensive duplication of units. All controller units are duplicated or have n+1 redundancy. Software design matches the high degree of redundancy provided by hardware to minimize the system down time. To minimize failures caused by human and/or software errors the C-DOT DSS MAX has extensive software maintenance functions. The design of software is such that propagation of software faults is contained and it provides sufficient checks to monitor the correct functioning of the system. The facilities are in-built to ensure automatic software recovery on detection of software faults. Whenever a faulty condition occurs the software provides for the isolation of the faulty subsystem and automatically initiates diagnostic programs for diagnostic purposes. The diagnostic programs have a design objective of localizing 95 of the faults to a single PCB level and the rest to a two PCB level. Provision is also made for safety of charge-records. The charging information is dumped at regular intervals to non-volatile duplicated back-up memories automatically. The software maintenance functions include data audits as well; as system integrity monitors and controls. Alarm Display Panel is provided for a continuous indication of the system status. Audio-visual alarms are provided.
2.2 SUBSCRIBER FEATURES
The C-DOT Digital Switching Systems offer a wide range of telephony features and supplementary services. Further capabilities can be developed to meet specific customer needs. Due to mandatory requirement of exchange of messages between the switching systems and user's equipment, some of the services are exclusively offered to ISDN-subscribers. In case of few of the services offered to PSTN and ISDN subscribers, the implementation of services to PSTN subscribers may be partial and invocation procedure may also differ.
2.2.2 PSTN (ANALOG) AND ISDN SUBSCRIBER SERVICES
The subscriber services provided by C-DOT DSS MAX exchanges for PSTN (Analog) as well as ISDN subscribers are-explained as per their logical grouping: Number Identification Services
i) Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP)
When this service is subscribed by a user as terminating facility, all the incoming calls are offered to the user along with the details of calling party's identity. In exceptional cases as the calling party has subscribed CLIR or interworking constraints in the network, it will not be possible to provide caller's identity.
ii) Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR)
This service is offered to the calling party to restrict presentation of it's number to the called party. When CLIR is subscribed, the originating exchange notifies the destination exchange that the calling party's number is not allowed to be presented to the called party. The terminating local C-DOT MAX 18
exchange may indicate to the called user that the calling user identity is unavailable due to restriction.
iii) Calling Line Identification Restriction Override (CLIRO)
Subscriber with CLIRO as terminating facility instead of CLIP, receives the call with the calling line identification even if the calling party has requested that his (the calling party's) identification should not b« presented to the called user. The CLIRO facility is offered at the discretion of the administration to special category subscribers like the police, hospitals, operator positions and other emergency centres.
iv) Malicious Call Identification (MCID)
This facility is used for ascertaining the origin of malicious calls. During conversation the subscriber has to use suitable procedure to notify the exchange about the malicious call. The detail of the call is recorded in the exchange which can be retrieved later on. If the caller is from an exchange which does not support identification of calling line, "junction identity" is found and an "identification request" may be sent to the originating exchange by tee exchange personnel.
Call Offering Supplementary Services Call offering services permit the served user to request the network to divert the incoming calls to a specific number. In call forwarding, the network forwards the call to a pre-registered number which can be specified by the user or exchange administrator.
i) Call forwarding unconditional (CFU)
This service permits the served user to request the exchange to forward all incoming calls to other Number. The served user's originating service remains unaffected. The other number could be a fixed pre-determined number or a number specified by the subscriber in the activation request.
Call Forwarding Busy (CFB)
This service permits the served user to request the exchange to forward all incoming calls to other number if the served users number is not free. The served user's originating service remains unaffected.
iii) Call forwarding no reply (CFNR)
This service permits the served user to request the exchange to forward all incoming calls which are not replied with in ring timeout period. The served user's originating service remains unaffected.
Call Completion Services
i) Call Waiting
A subscriber engaged in an existing call, is given an indication (Call Waiting tone or ZIP tone) that another caller is attempting to connect to his number. The caller will hear ring back tone. By flashing the hook-switch the called subscriber can talk with either party while keeping the other on hold (acceptance without clearing). If the called subscriber replaces his handset in response to the tone (acceptance by clearing), the exchange will automatically extend ring to the subscriber and re-establish the connection on answer with the party waiting.
ii) Call Hold
This facility is used by the user to put the existing conversation on hold for the time being and initiate a new call or receive a call in waiting. The call, which has been put on hold, is retrieved by the user as and when it is required. The procedure of invocation to put the conversation on hold and its subsequent retrieval is different for ISDN and PSTN subscribers.
Three party conference i) The three party call service enables the served user to establish,
participate in, and control a simultaneous communication involving the served user and two other parties. The served user can request to convert two party conversation into a three party conference. During the three party conversation, the served user can disconnect one party, disconnect the 3-way conversation or choose to communicate privately with one of the parties, in which case the call to the other party is held. ii) Multi party conference (Add-on conference) The CONF (Add-on conference) service enables the served user to establish and control a conference i.e. a simultaneous communication, involving of users (max. up to 6). When the CONF service is invoked, the serving local exchange allocates conference resources to the served user and add any existing call indicated by the served user to the conference. On successful invocation of conference the served user becomes the 'conference controller'. The conference Controller may then add, drop, isolate, and reattach parties from the conference. The conference controller can also hold and retrieve the conference (e.g. to add parties) and finally end the conference. Miscellaneous Services
i. Hot Line (Timed)
This service is also referred as a Fixed Destination Call with Time-out. This allows a subscriber to establish calls to a pre-registered number. After getting dial tone, if the subscriber does not dial any digit for a specified minimum time, he is automatically connected to the number already registered in the system. If subscriber dials digits before the time-out, a normal connection is established in accordance with the dialled digits. Incoming calls are not affected by this service. C-DOT MAX 21
Hot Line (Without Time-out)
This service is also referred a Fixed Destination Call - Immediate. This allows a subscriber to establish calls to a pre-registered number by just lifting the handset. In this service such a connection is set up immediately upon lifting the handset, hence the subscriber cannot dial normal outgoing calls. Incoming calls are not affected by this service.
iii. Reminder Call/ Alarm Services
When this service is activated, the subscriber is offered a call initiated by the exchange at a specified time/s. When the alarm call matures and is answered an announcement follows to notify the alarm call. This service is available in two forms: (i) In semiautomatic form, the booking is manual through exchange operator and the execution is automatic. In this case, the operator needs to be 'local' operator, connected to the system via a VDU (ii) (ii) In automatic form, the booking is done automatically by the subscriber through a control procedure and its execution is also automatic.
iv. Subscriber Controlled Call Restriction Services
Denying all calls to a line, while allowing it to originate calls as per current access level, Denying various level of originations from a line (no ISD calls, no STD and ISD calls, only local calls and selected Level I services, etc.) while allowing incoming calls to terminate normally on it. Subscriber controlled barring offers flexibility to a subscriber to change outgoing restriction by selecting one access level, using predefined procedure through secret password. To maintain the secrecy of the password, the user can modify the password by using predefined procedure.
Intrusion Barring Service
For reasons of call security in terms of fully undisturbed call, subscriber can avail of intrusion barring facility. This can be useful, for example, when data transmission is being effected on the line.
vi. Dialling by Terminal Equipment Number
Sometimes, a specific line/trunk, tone or announcement is to be accessed by its Terminal Equipment Number (TEN) in the exchange. This is specifically required for dialling to lines which do not have a directory number w in case of "directed calls" via outgoing trunks. This facility is used by the maintenance personnel as part of routine maintenance activities.
This service makes it possible for the operator to interrupt a call in progress, in order to allow another incoming call to be offered. The choice of accepting or rejecting the new call rests with the subscriber.
viii. Queuing Service
This enables the subscriber to have one or more calls placed in a queue when his line/group of lines are busy. When the subscriber line becomes free, the first caller in the queue is connected and the other callers in the queue move one place ahead.
ix. Priority Subscriber
During overload and network congestion, priority service assures an improved service level for priority subscribers such as those responsible for maintenance of law and order or essential services. The priority subscribers are served even during overload due to heavy traffic in the exchange via alternate group of trunks. A few trunks may be identified for this purpose which are exclusively used by priority subscribers while normal subscribers are denied access to them. The eligibility of priority subscribers for an alternate group of trunks is programmed by the exchange administrator. C-DOT MAX 23
Distinctive Ringing for Long Distance Calls
The PSTN subscribers are connected different ringing cadence to inform them that this call is a long distance STD/ISD call.
2.2.3. ISDN-SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES
In addition to the services available for PSTN/Analog as well as ISDN subscribers, a number of supplementary services are offered only to ISDNsubscribers. Charging Related Supplementary Services The Advice Of Charge service provides charging information to the user paying for a call. The option of providing the information at a predefined stage of the call is based on the type of AOC facility subscribed.
i) AOC-E, Charging information at the end of the call
The charging information is provided by the serving local exchange at the end of a call. It is sent in the charge advice information element of the call clearing message.
ii) AOC-D, Charging information during a call
In this case the charging information is provided by the serving local exchange every time a quantum of charge has been added. The charging information is sent in an appropriate message. When the call is cleared, the remaining number of charge units (incremental case) or the total charge units (cumulative case) is transferred to the user in the call clearing message.
Group Line Supplementary Services
i) Direct Dialling In (DDI)
This service enables a user of ISPBX to be called without attendant intervention. This service is based on the ISDN number. The DDI user, while being a subscriber of an ISPBX, is allocated an ISDN number from directory number set of the serving public exchange. The administration allocates a range of ISDN numbers towards the ISPBX, one for each DDI user.
ii) Multiple Subscriber Number (MSN)
This service provides the facility of assigning multiple ISDN numbers to more than one user on a single interface. This service allows direct dialling to one of the terminals connected to an access and enables the network to determine ISDN number which is applicable for originating calls for subscriber characteristics and charging services. The addressing of terminals is achieved by applying a set of ISDN numbers which need not be consecutive. When a call with one of these ISDN numbers is delivered, the corresponding MSN number is indicated to the MSN user.
iii) Sub - Addressing (SUB)
This service is offered to the called user that expands its addressing capability beyond that provided by the ISDN number. The sub-address is used by the served user to identify a particular terminal on a multi- drop access, or a, virtual terminal or process within a terminal. If the calling party provides a sub-address in 'SET-UP message, the network delivers this subaddress unchanged and without interpretation to the called user's installation. It is the called user's responsibility to interpret the significance of the sub-address. Number Identification Service
i) Connected Line Identification Presentation (COLP)
It is a supplementary service offered to the calling party to know the complete ISDN number of the connected party, on answer. It should be noted C-DOT MAX 25
that if the called user belongs to an ISPBX, the connected number shall only identify the ISPBX and not the called user's extension. The extension itself can be identified only if the called user has subscribed to the DDI service and has included his DDI digits during call confirmation.
ii) Connected Line Identification Restriction (COLR)
This is a service offered to the connected party to restrict the presentation its identity to the calling party. When COLR is subscribed, the destination exchange informs originating exchange with a notification that the connected party's identity is not allowed to be presented to the calling party.
Iii) Connected Line Identification Restriction Override (COLRO)
Subscriber with the COLRO facility is given the connected line identification even if the connected party has requested that his (the connected party's) identification not to be presented to the calling user (by the invocation of the COLR service). Miscellaneous Services:
i) Terminal Portability (TP)
Terminal Portability (TP) is a supplementary service that allows the user to move a terminal from one socket to another within the same basic access during the active phase of the call. It also allows the user to move a call from one terminal to another with the same basic access in the active phase of the call. It allows a user with an established call to suspend communication by an appropriate signalling procedure and resume communication at a later time. This service permits the user: To move the terminal from one socket to another within the same basic access. C-DOT MAX 26
To suspend the will and subsequently resume it at the same terminal & socket. To replace one terminal by another compatible terminal at the same socket To move the call from one terminal, to another compatible terminal at the same basic access. This service is used only in the active phase of a call and not in the call establishment and clearing phases. In addition the service shall independently apply to the calling and called user.
Chapter 3 Hardware Architecture
The hardware architecture of C-DOT DSS MAX is mapped closely on the System Overview described in the previous chapter. In the following sections, the hardware architecture of each constituent module is described.
3.2 BASE MODULE (BM)
Base Module (BM) is the basic building block of C-DOT DSS MAX. It interfaces the subscribers, trunks and special circuits. The subscribers may be individual or grouped PBX lines, analog or digital lines. The trunks may be Two Wire Physical, E&M Four Wire, E&M Two Wire, Digital CAS or CCS. The basic functions of a Base Module: Analog to digital conversion of all signals on analog lines and trunks Interface to digital trunks and digital subscribers Switching the calls between terminals connected to the same Base Module Communication with the Administrative Module via the Central Module for administrative and maintenance functions and also for majority of inter-BM switching (i.e. call processing) functions Provision of special circuits for call processing support e.g. digital tones, announcements, MF/DTMF senders/receivers C-DOT MAX 28
Provision for local switching and metering in stand alone mode of Remote Switch Unit as well as in case of Single Base Module Exchange (SBM-RAX) For these functions, the Base Module hardware is spread over different types of Units. (Ref. fig. 3.1) Analog Terminal Unit - to interface analog lines/trunks, and providing special circuits as conference, announcements and terminal tester. Digital Terminal Unit - for interfacing digital trunks i.e. 2Mbps E-1/PCM Links #7 Signalling Unit Module - to support SS7 protocol handlers and some call processing functions for CCS7 calls. ISDN Terminal Unit - to support termination of BRI/PRI interfaces and implementation of lower layers of DSS1 signalling protocol. Time Switch Unit - for voice and message switching and provision of service circuits. Base Processor Unit - for control message communication and call processing functions.
3.2.1. Analog Terminal Unit (ATU) (Figure 3.2A)
The Analog Terminal Unit (ATU) is used for interfacing 128 analog terminations which may be lines or trunks. It consists of terminal cards which C-DOT MAX 29
may be a combination of Line Circuit Cards (LCC), CCB with Metering (CCM) cards, Two Wire Trunk (TWT) cards, E&M Two wire (EMT) Trunk cards and E&M Four wire (EMF) trunk cards, depending upon the module configuration. Also, provision has been made to equip Conference (CNF) card to support “six party” conference, Announcement (ANN) to support 15 user-friendly announcement messages, and Terminal Test Controller (TTC) for testing of analog terminations. Power Supply Unit (PSU-I) provides logical voltages and ringing current in the ATU.
Analog Subscriber Line Cards: Two variants of subscriber line cards as LCC or CCM with interfaces upto 8 subscribers, provide basic BORSCHT functions for each line. Analog to digital conversion is done by per-channel CODEC according to A-law of Pulse Code Modulation. Each CCM card has the provision of battery reversal for all the 8 lines with the last two lines having provision to generate 16 KHz metering pulses to be sent to subscriber's metering equipment. The 8-bit digital (voice) output of four LCCs is multiplexed to form a 32channel, 2 Mbps PCM link - also called a terminal group (TG). Since a Terminal Unit has a maximum of 16 terminal cards, there are four such terminal groups. The signalling information is separated by a scan/drive logic circuit and is sent to the signalling processor on four different scan/drive signals. The LCC/CCM also provides test access relay to isolate the exchange side and line side to test it separately by using the Terminal Test Controller (TTC).
Analog Trunk Cards: Analog trunk cards interface analog inter-exchange trunks which may be of three types as TWT, EMT and EMF. These interfaces are similar to Subscriber Line Card, with only difference that the interfaces are designed to can/drive events on the trunks as per predefined signalling requirement. C-DOT MAX 30
Signalling Processor (SP) Card Signalling Processor (SP) processes the signalling information received from he terminal cards. This signalling information consists of scan/drive functions like origination detection, answer detection, digit reception, reversal detection, etc. The validated events are reported to Terminal Interface Controller for further processing to relieve itself from real-time intensive functions. Based on the information received from the Terminal Interface Controller, it also drives the event on the selected terminal through scan/drive signals.
Terminal Interface Controller (TIC) Card Terminal Interface Controller (TIC) controls the four terminal groups (TG) of 32 channels, and multiplex them to form a duplicated 128-channel, 8 Mbps link towards the Time Switch (TS). For signalling information of 128channels, it communicates with Signalling Processor (SP) to receive/send the signalling event on analog terminations. It also uses one of the 64 kbps channel out of 128 channels towards Time Switch, to communicate with Base Processor Unit (BPU). In concentration mode, three other Terminal Units share this 128-channel link towards the Time Switch to have 4:1 concentration. Terminal Interface Controller is built around 8-bit microprocessor with associated memory and interface and it is duplicated for redundancy. Special Service Cards: A Terminal Unit has some special service cards such as Conference (CNF) Card to provide six party conference. Speech samples from five parties are added by inbuilt logic and sent to the sixth party to achieve conferencing. Terminal Test Controller (TTC) Card is used to test analog terminal interfaces via the test access relays on the terminal cards.
Announcement Controller (ANN) Card provides 15 announcements on broadcast basis. Only one service card of each type is equipped in a Base Module with provision of fixed slot for TTC and variable slots for CNF/ANNC. Announcement and Conference Cards are equipped in Terminal Unit through S/W MMC command. Two slots are occupied by each card i.e. 16 channels for each card is used out of 128 channels available on a Bus between a TU &TS.
3.2.2. Digital Terminal Unit (DTU) (Ref. Fig. 3.2B)
Digital Terminal Unit (DTU) is used exclusively to interface digital trunks. One set of Digital Trunk Synchronization (DTS) card along with the Digital Trunk Controller (DTC) card is used to provide one E-1 interface. Each interface occupies one TG of 32 channels and four such interfaces share 4 TGs in a Digital Terminal Unit. The functions performed by TIC and SP in Analog Terminal Unit, are collectively performed by the Terminal Unit Controller (TUC) in the Digital Terminal Unit. The scan functions are - HDB3 to NRZ code conversion, frame alignment and reconstitution of the received frame. The drive functions include insertion of frame alignment pattern and alignment information. Each interface can be configured as CAS or CCS interface.
3.2.3. SS7 Signalling Unit Module (SUM) (Ref. Fig.3.2D)
Any one of the ATU or DTU in a BM can be replaced by SUM frame to support CCS7 signalling. Only one such unit is equipped in the exchange irrespective of its configuration or capacity. For details of SUM architecture, refer to chapter no.4.
3.2.4. ISDN - Terminal Unit (ISTU) (Ref. Fig. 3.2C)
One of the four ATUs/ DTUs in a BM can be replaced by ISTU to provide BRI/PRI interfaces in C-DOT DSS. The only constraint is that ISTU has to be principal TU i.e. directly connected to TSU on 8 Mbps PCM link. The ATU/DTU cannot be used in concentration with ISTU. By equipping one ISTU in the exchange, a max. of 256 B channels are available to the administrator which can be configured as BRI, PRI or any mix as per site requirement. Depending on the requirement of number of ISDN-Interfaces, one or more ISTUs can be integrated in C-DOT DSS, either in one BM or distributed across different BMs. For details, refer chapter no. 4.
3.2.5. Time Switch Unit (TSU) (Ref. Fig. 3.2 F)
Time Switch Unit (TSU) implements three basic functions as time switching within the Base Module, routing of control-messages within the Base Module and across Base Modules and support services like MF/DTMF circuits, answering circuits, tones, etc. These functions are performed by three different functional units, integrated as time switch unit in a single frame (Refer Fig. 3.2).
3.2.6. Base Processor Unit (BPU) (Ref. Fig. 3.2 E)
Base Processor Unit (BPU) is the master controller in the Base Module. It is implemented as a duplicated controller with memory units. These duplicated sub-units are realised in the form of the following cards: Base Processor Controller (BPC) Card Base Memory Extender (BME) Card BPC controls time switching within the Base Module via the Base Message Switch and the Time Switch Controller. It communicates with the Administrative Processor via Base Message Switch for operations and maintenance functions. In a SBM configuration, BPC directly interfaces with the Alarm Display Panel and the Input Output Module.
To support 8,00,000 BHCA, the BPC card is replaced by High performance Processor Card (HPC). It is pin to pin compatible for hardware and also for software so that they are interchangeable at any site to meet specific traffic requirement.
3.3. CENTRAL MODULE (CM)
Central Module (CM) is responsible for space switching of inter-Base Module calls, communication between Base Modules and the Administrative Module, clock distribution and network synchronisation. For these functions, Central Module has a Space Switch, Space Switch Controller and a Central Message Switch. Figure 3.3 summarises the various units and sub-units of the CENTRAL MODULE.
3.4. ADMINISTRATIVE MODULE (AM)
Administrative Module (AM) consists of a duplicated 16/32-bit controller called the Administrative Processor (APC). It communicates with Base Processors via the Central Message Switch for control messages and with the duplicated Input Output Processors in the Input Output Module for interfacing peripheral devices Administrative processor is responsible for global routing, translation, and resource allocation and all other functions that are provided centrally in C-DOT DSS MAX. The implementation of AM is similar to Base Processor Complex of BM, using the same hardware configuration. As explained earlier, HPC instead of BPC is used to support 8,00,000 BHCA.
TERMINAL UNIT-1 (TU-1) TERMINAL UNIT-2 (TU-2) TERMINAL UNIT-3 (TU-3) TERMINAL UNIT-4 (TU-4)
1 2 3 4
BASE PROCESSOR UNIT 5 (BPU) TIME SWITCH UNIT (TSU)
NOTE: TU CAN BE ATU, DTU, ISTU or #7SU WITH ONLY EXCEPTION THAT TU-4 SHOULD BE ATU IN CASE OF LINE BM AND ANALOG TRUNK BM FIG: 3.1 BASE MODULE (BM) CONFIGURATION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 S P S U I T T T T T T T C C C C C C C T C P T I C C / I S P T U I T U I T I C S P C / I S P T C T C T C T C T C T C T C T C P S U I
1) TC MAY BE LCC, CCM, TWT or EMF
2) IN CASE OF TU4 AS ATU IN BM, SLOT 24 WILL BE TTC FIG: 3.2A ANALOG TERMINAL UNIT (ATU) CONFIGURATION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 P S U I D T S 0 D T C 0 D T S 1 D T C 1 T U C T U I T U I T U C D T S 2 D T C 2 D T S 3 D T C 3 P S U I
DIGITAL TERMINAL UNIT (DTU) CONFIGURATION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 P S U 1 P S U 2 L L L L L C C C C C 1 2 3 4 5 L C 6 L C 7 L C 8 I T C 0 I C C 0 I I C 0 I I C 1 I C C 1 I T C 1 L C 9 L C L C L C L C L C L C L C
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
NOTE: LC MAY BE BRL or PRL CARDS
1 2 3 4 5 6
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 H H T U C T U I T U I P T U C C / B P C S H M 5 S H M 6 S H M 7 S H M 8 B M E P S U 4 P S U 3 P C / B P C
P S U 1
P S U 2
B M E
S H M 4
H H H M M M 1 2 3
NOTE: 1) SHM IS #7 PROTOCOL HANDLER CARD 2) WITH BPC, ONLY SHM 1-4 CAN BE EQUIPPED 3) HPC IS USED TO SUPPORT SHM1-8 CARDS AND HIGHER MESSAGE PROCESSING CAPABILITY FIG: 3.2D #7SU CONFIGURATION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 H P S U II P B M E C / B P C H P C / B P C B M E P S U II
NOTE: HPC USED TO SUPPORT 800K BHCA FIG: 3.2E BASE PROCESSOR UNIT (BPU) CONFIGURATION
1 2 3 P S U II
6 7 S C I C
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 T S I T S M T S C T S S T S S T S C T S M T S I M S C M S D A F B S C I C M F C M F C T G A P S U II
T M M G F A C F C
A M M F S S C B D
1) REPLACE TSS CARDS BY ETS CARDS IN CASE OF REMOTE BASE
MODULES (RSU) 2) MSC AND MSD CARDS ARE REPLACED BY HMS FOR 800K BHCA FIG: 3.2F TIME SWITCH UNIT (TSU) CONFIGURATION
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.