Fundamental of Digital Transmission, Encoding & Modulation Techniques, Definition & Discription of Digital hierarchies, Digital Multiplexing concepts, Signal justification

& Control, Jitter & Line Coding

FUNDAMENTAL OF DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Introduction Basically there are two ways in which information of any type can be transmitted over telecommunication media – analog or digital. Analog means that the amplitude of the transmitted amplitude signal varies over a continuous range. Digital transmission means that streams of on/off pulses are sent on the transmission media. The pulses are referred to as bits. Examples of analog signals are human voice, hi–fi music, temperature reading, etc. While that of digital are data, telegraphy signals. Telecommunication systems started with the transmission of digital signals. In fact, non–electric signalling systems date back over 2000 years. The Greek General Polybius is known to have used a scheme based on an array of 10 torches in 300 B.C. and Roman armies made extensive use of a form of samaphore signalling. Claude Chappe, Sommering, Wheatstone and Cook were all experimenting with different kinds of Telegraphy till it was perfected by Mores. In all this, only written message was transmitted and message was converted to a coded signal to match the characteristics of a transmission line. Gary, Bandot and others developed other codes which were mainly used in Telegraph network. Thus, we can say, by 1972 most of the basic techniques of digital transmission had been discovered. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the Telephone and as means of communication, the telephone was fast, personal and convenient. It needed no training in the use of codes and so made electrical communications directly accessible to the general public. Thus, telephone began to dominate the development of communications. Telephony involves the transmission of analog signals and when a practical amplifying service appeared in the form of the thermionic valve, this also proved suitable for dealing with analog signals. Hence, after 1880, the developing Telecom networks were basically designed to handle analog transmissions and to an increasing extent, the digital transmission in the form of telegraphy had to be adopted to fit in with the characteristics of these networks. By 1950s, the world's communications systems were based entirely on analog transmission.

However, interest in the digital transmission received an impetus after the publications of classic papers of Nyquist and Shannon. With the invention of pulse code modulation by Reeves in 1938, the basic principles for digitizing analog speech signals were established. However, the technical means for transmitting digitized speech signals were not available at that time. It was not until the transistor came into use that indications of the economic advantages of digital techniques as compared to analog methods became apparent. LSI and VLSI techniques that are now available have made digital communications far more economical as compared to analog methods became apparent. LSI and VLSI techniques that are now available have made digital communications far more economical as compared to analog systems. Digital transmission systems are gaining more acceptance in view of : (1) introduction of digital switching systems, (2) the need to transmit non voice signals which are increasingly becoming important instead of the plain old Telephone service, and (3) the introduction of new media like optical fibres, waveguide which are more suitable for digital transmission systems, will be introduced in the network and by the turn of the century, most of the countries would have gone completely digital. Advantages of Digital Communication (i) Fig.1 shows the qualitative representation of the signal to noise ratio along a transmission line. In both analog and digital systems the signal power P is subject to line attenuation which can be compensated by repeaters. However, a main difference exists in the accumulated noise power N. In the transmission of analog signals, this power Na is amplified in linear repeaters by the same factor as the useful signal and the noise contributions from the individual repeater section accumulate. In the digital transmission on the other hand, the signal is practically achieved of the noise Nd with the aid of regenerative repeaters. Residual noise may only become effective in the form of digital errors and jitter due to regeneration, reshaping and retiming (3 Rs.) carrier out section by section, only the digital errors are accumulated while the noise is not. The need to recognise only

the presence or absence of a pulse makes the system highly immune from noise. Thus, the transmission quality is almost independent of distance and method of transmission involved. This is of particular value in transmission paths subject to extreme interference such as for instance in space flights or in communications with interplanetary probes.

Fig. 1 Signal to Noise Ratio Along A X–Mission Path

(ii)

Compatibility of different media : Cables, radio links, switching equipment can be interconnected without decoding the digital signals by means of relatively cheap interface equipment which contributes little or no impairment to the signal. There is thus no need to take any consideration of the particularities of the original signal.

(iii)

Compatibility of different traffic : Any digital media of suitable capacity can carry encoded speech, telephone signalling, telegraphy, digital data, encode visual information or an arbitrary mixture there of. The desperate requirements of these signals can be handled in the terminals and have no mutual interference between different types of traffic. The introduction of ISDN is thus possible.

(iv)

Multiplexing, demultiplexing, branching of digital signals produce no additional interference as noise in analog communications. Hence, these can be done as often as necessary. Moreover, all bits are subject to same interference and hence all TDM channels are treated equally, i.e. there are no channels of inferior quality as for instance in FDM transmission certain channels at the edges of the tranmission bands.

(v)

Level fluctuations occurring during transmission have no effect on the primary signal recovered in the receiver. In FDM, however, sophisticated equipments are required to maintain the level more or less constant.

(vi)

Economies in certain applications : PCM is inherently cheaper than the FDM and the investment needed can be made progressively as the traffic growth justifies it. Economies can be achieved by combining services already of a digital nature. Digital signals can be switched by digital exchanges without demodulation.

(vii)

Possibility of novel facilities : The digital mode lends itself to such things as cryptography, storage and various forms of digital processing not accomplished otherwise.

(viii)

Applicability to other transmission media : Optical fibre waveguides multiple access satellites appear to be more suited digital than to analog information.

(ix) (x)

Applicability to extremely difficult transmission paths. Simpler equipment : There is no need of complicated filter and analog amplifiers for various ranges.

(xi)

Easy repeatability of design.

Main Obstacles to Digitalisation (a) Spectrum width : For example the bandwidth required for 2700 channels is 12 MHz in the case of analog systems where as band width required in the case of 1920 channels is as much as 140 MHz. Thus, band width required is very large in the case of digital signals, this results consequently : (i) Less efficient use of carrier capacity in terms of telephone channels; (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Working at very high frequencies; Need of multi–level modulation for radio transmission; Voice interpolation required for satellite communication; Higher sensitivity to selective transmissions caused by

propagation. (b) Different transmission of TV signals : Digital transmission of TV signals requires a very wideband if redundancy reduction is not used which, however, involve higher cost and quality problems for moving images.

(c)

Reliability and power consumption : For the same transmitted signals, digital transmission equipments are in general more complex than analog ones. Eqpt. Line repeaters (12 MHz Vs 140 Mb/s) 1+1 Radio repeater (1800 FDM Vs 140 Mb/s) Analog 2W 200 W Digital 4W 600 W

Means to overcome digital transmission limits : (a) Evolution of high frequency components and technology – – – (b) Hybrid circuits High speed integrated circuits FET's amplifiers (for radio transmission)

Introduction of large scale integrated components (LSI, VLSI) – Use of microprocessor (for functions such as adaptive combination, voice interpolation etc.). – increased circuit compactness (TV encoding, Signal processing, etc.). – reduced power consumption.

Pulse Transmission Channel Capacity or Information Rate In general, the capacity of a channel for information transfer is proportional to its bandwidth. Two major theories that relate to the amount of data that can be transmitted based upon the bandwidth of a medium are the Nyquist Relationship and Shannon's Law. Prior to discussing these theories, it is important to understand the

difference between bit and baud due to the confusion that dominates the use of these terms. Bit versus baud The binary digit or bit is a unit of information transfer. In comparison, the term baud defines a signalling change rate, normally expressed in terms of signal changes per second. In a communications system, the encoding of one bit per signal element results in equivalency between bit and baud. That is, an information transfer rate of X bits per second is carried by a signalling change rate of X baud, where each baud signal represents the value of one bit. Now, suppose our communications system was modified so that two bits are encoded into one signal change. This would result in the baud rate being half the bit rate, which obviously makes bit and baud non– equivalent. The encoding of two bits into one baud is known as dibit encoding. Nyquist relationship In 1928, Harry Nyquist developed the relationship between the bandwidth and the baud rate on a channel as B = 2W where B is the baud rate and W the bandwidth in Hz. The Nyquist relationship was based upon a problem known as intersymbol interference which is associated with band–limited channels. If a rectangular pulse is input to a band–limited channel, the bandwidth limitation of the channel results in a rounding of the corners of the pulse. This rounding results in the generation of an undesired signal in which the leading and trailing edges formed due to signal rounding can interfere with both previous and subsequent pulses. This signal interference is illustrated in Fig.3.

Fig. 3 Pulse response through a band–limited channel. The bandwidth limitation of a channel causes the leading and trailing edges of a pulse to interfere with other pulses as the signal change exceeds twice the bandwidth of a channel. This condition is called intersymbol interference. The Nyquist relationship states that the rate at which data can be transmitted prior to intersymbol interference occurring must be less than or equal to twice the bandwidth in Hz. Thus, an analog circuit with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz can only support baud rates at or under 6000 signalling elements per second. Since an oscillating modulation technique such as amplitude, frequency or phase modulation halves the achievable signalling rate, a twisted pair telephone circuit supports a maximum signalling rate of 3000 baud. Shannon's law In 1948, Claude E. Shannon presented a paper concerning the relationship of coding to noise and calculated the theoretical maximum bit rate capacity of a channel of bandwidth W Hz. The relationship developed by Shannon is given by

C = W log2 (1+S/N) where C W S N = = = = capacity in bits per second, bandwidth in Hz, Signal power at the receiver input power of thermal noise = No.W

Bit Baud Rate, Symbols We wish to transmit fb bits/s in a baseband channel having a bandwidth of B Hz. In most applications, the transmission system is considered to be more cost effective, if, in a given bandwidth, more bits/sec can be transmitted. If fb, the transmission rate, is normalized to a Bandwidth B = 1 Hz, then the system efficiency can be characterised in terms of transmitted bits per second per Hz (b/s/Hz). Nyquist theorem on minimum Bandwidth transmission systems states that it is possible to transmit fs independent symbols in a channel (low pass filter) having a bandwidth of only B = fn = fs/2 Hz. If the digital signal changes at a rate of N bits/sec, then the modulated phase would change at a rate of N/2 symbols/sec. This rate of change of symbols is known as the Baud–rate (R). Nyquist Criteria, Roll Off Factor Give an ideal low pass change of Bandwidth Bo Hz, it is possible to transmit independent binary symbols through the channel at the maximum rate Rb = 2 Bo bits/sec. Equivalently, given a bit rate Rb = 1/Tb, the Bandwidth Bo = 0.5 Rb defines the minimum transmission bandwidth acceptable for distortion-less transmission. The Bandwidth Bo so defined is called Nyquist Bandwidth. For practical usefulness, however, the minimum Bandwidth Solution has to be modified. It is done by (1) permitting a channel Bandwidth B in excess of the Nyquist Bandwidth Bo, and (2) introducing transition region shaped as one–half of a raised– cosine. The width of the transition region is controlled by the role off factor x, defined

as excess bandwidth (i.e. the amount by which the channel Bandwidth B exceeds the Nyquist Bandwidth Bo) divided by the Nyquist Bandwidth itself. In the raised cosine solution, flexibility exists in the selection of the transmitting and receiving filters. This flexibility can be exploited to provide noise immunity. In particular, given a base-band channel of transfer function H(f) and a message source of known waveform, we can optimize the transfer function HT(f) of the transmitting filter and the transfer function HR(f) of the receiving filter, so that the following 3 requirements are jointly satisfied. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ISI is Zero. Probability of symbol error is minimized. Constant power is transmitted. Nyquist BW required has been defined as equal to half the symbol rate, i.e. N.BW = R/2 Thus, for a 140 Mb/s signal, the symbol rate = 70 Mb/s if QPSK is employed. The minimum BW needed for transmitting so many symbols without ISI is 35 MHz. This is the one sited filter Bandwidth. The total RF BW would include both sides of the spectrum and be equal to 70 MHz. This is the theoretical minimum BW. If 16 PSK is used, then Baud rate = 35 MB/s. Nyquist BW = 17.5 MHz. Total channel BW = 35 MHz. What is Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) ? Inter symbol interference is interference between adjacent symbols due to pulse spreading by band limited channels. Because of the delay (as the band width of channel is finite) the delayed version of wave form of one sampling interval will extend into the next sampling interval leading to ISI.

Suppose that binary information is transmitted using a pulse type waveform. A 1 Volt pulse is used to send a 1 and 0 Volt pulse for a binary 0. When this waveform goes through the system, it gets distorted. Among other effects, any sharp corners of the wave are rounded, since the system cannot pass infinite frequency. Therefore, the values in previous sampling intervals affect the value within the present interval. If for example, we send a long string of 1s, we would expect the channel output to eventually settle to a constant 1. Similarly, if we send a long string of 0's, the output should eventually settle towards 0. If we alternate 1's and 0's, the output might resemble a sine wave, depending upon the frequency cut off of the channel. Therefore, if we examine a single interval in which a binary 1 is being transmitted, the output waveform within that interval will depend upon the particular sequence that preceded the interval in question. If we now plot all possible waveforms within the interval, including those for a 1 and those for a 0 in the interval, we get a pattern that resembles a picture of an eye. The following figure (Fig.6) shows some representative transmitted waveforms and the resulting receiver waveform. The eye pattern is sketched. The eye pattern is, therefore, the superposition of many waveforms within one sampling interval, the components of this composite waveform being the signals due to all possible preceeding data strings. The number of individual waveforms contributing to the eye pattern depends upon the memory of the system. For example, if the system transient response extends over six sampling intervals, the particular pattern of six most recent bits determines the waveform within the interval.

Transmitter

Receiver

Superimposition of Received Waveform Fig. 6 Generation of Eye Pattern

Superposition of received waveforms

Encoding & Modulation Techniques If transmission media were perfect, we would not have to worry about errors in data communications. Unfortunately, that is not the case. Noise spikes and other types of interference can change 1s to 0s and 0s to 1s during transmission. A short 20 ms click on a telephone line may be annoying during a telephone conversation, but it is unlikely to disrupt voice communication. However, if data are being sent over the line at 4800 b/s, that same click may destroy 240 data bits. A number of techniques have been developed to detect and sometimes to correct errors. All of the methods of detecting errors involve the transmission of redundant data. Redundant data are data that are not necessary to the information content of the transmission. Redundant data could be omitted and communication would still take place. Error checking schemes compare the redundant data to see if they agree. If they do agree, it is likely that no error has occurred. If they do not agree, it is almost certain that an error has occurred. The simplest way to deal with errors is to let the receiving operator correct them. This method takes advantage of the fact that human language itself is redundant. For example, suppose the following sentence is sent over a news service communication system as part of a news story : THE DOWNTOWN BRANCH OF THE BANK OF CENTERVILLE WAS

ROBBED OF MORE THAN $4000 LAST NIGHT. If the transmission is sent to Baudot, and the first bit of the second W in the word DOWNTOWN is changed by a noise spike, the message will be received as : THE DOWNTOAN BRANCH OF THE BANK OF CENTERVILLE WAS ROBBED OF MORE THAN $4000 LAST NIGHT. It would not be difficult for the receiving operator to realize that DOWNTOAN is not a word and to make the necessary correction before publishing the story. There is enough reduntant information in the message to do that. However, if the character 4 in the sentence is affected by noise, and the message is received as :

THE DOWNTOWN BRANCH OF THE BANCK OF CENTERVILLE WAS ROBBED OF MORE THAN $8000 LAST NIGHT. the receiving operator will know that there is an error in the message but will probably not know how to fix it. There is enough redundant information in the message to detect the error, but there is not enough to correct it. In most of today's data communication systems, the only types of errors that humans are expected to correct are typing errors. Most communication systems detect and correct errors that occur after the information leaves the keyboard. Echoplex Echoplex is a simple form of error detection that relies on redundant transmission to help the sending operator make corrections. It is commonly used on full–duplex communications systems in which each character is sent as it is typed into the transmitting terminal. Almost anyone who has used a computer and a modem has used echoplex. As the receiving terminal receives each character, it retransmits or echoes it back to the transmitting terminal where it appears on that termianal's screen. The operator checks the character on the screen to see if it has been echoed correctly. If there is an error, the operator presses the backspace key to erase the erroneous character and then types the correct one. The advantage of echoplex is its simplicity. It does not require complex circuitry, and it is easy to implement. One disadvantage of echoplex is that it relies on a human operator to detect and correct errors. Another disadvantage is that it makes inefficient use of the communications channel, because the same information is transmitted in both directions. Although echoplex is commonly used to correct typing errors in communication systems that transmit information as the operator types it into a terminal, it is not used in other types of communications systems. Parity Parity is one of the simplest forms of automatic error detection and is frequently used with the ASCII code. Although ASCII is a 7–bit code, a redundant

bit, called a parity bit, is often added to the ASCII character. The parity bit is placed in the most significant bit (bit 7) position. There are two types of parity – odd and even. If even parity is used, every 8–bit data word in a message contains an even number of binary 1s. If odd parity is used, every word has an odd number of 1s. As the parity bit is added to the ASCII character by the sending terminal, it is either set or cleared to form the correct parity. Neither type of parity has an advantage over the other in most communications systems, and both are widely used. However, the transmitting and receiving terminals must use the same type of parity, and all characters sent between those two terminals must have the same type of parity. Example 5–6 The following ASCII characters are sent : 110 0001, 111 0010 and 110 0101. If the characters are transmitted with odd parity, where parity bit is added to each character, a 1 or a 0? What is the ASCII code for each character in hexadecimal including theparity bit ? Solution For odd parity, the total number of binary 1s in each character, including the parity bit is odd. The first character, 110 0001 has three 1s, which is already odd parity. Therefore, a parity bit of 0 is added in the MSB position to make the complete 8–bit data character 0110 0001, or $61. The second character, 111 0010 has an even number of 1s. The sending terminal adds a binary 1 as a parity bit to make the total number of 1s odd. The resulting ASCII character, including the parity bit , is 1111 0010, or $F2. The third character, 110 0101, also requires a 1 for odd parity, which makes the complete data character 1110 0101, or $E5. The receiver checks the parity of each incoming ASCII character to see if it is correct. If the receiver is programmed to receive odd parity, every incoming data word must have odd parity. If it is programmed to receive even parity, every incoming data word must have even parity. If one bit in a data character gets changed by noise during transmission, the parity of the received character will be

incorrect. When incorrect parity is received, it is called a parity error. For example, suppose a communications system uses even parity and that the ASCII character 1011 1000 is sent. If a noise spike changes bit 1, the character will be received as 1011 1010, which has odd parity. This is a parity error. How a communication system responds to parity errors depends on how the terminals have been programmed. In a half–duplex or full–duplex system, the receiving terminal may send a message back to the transmitting terminal requesting that the entire message containing the error be retransmitted. In a simplex system, the receiving terminal cannot send messages back to the transmitting terminal, so there is no way for it to request retransmission. In such a case, the terminal may be programmed to print a star (*) on the screen to let the receiving operator know that an error has occurred. A parity error is generated when an odd number of bits is changed during transmission, but no parity error is generated when an even number of bits is changed. For example, suppose 2 bits are changed by noise during transmission so that the character 1011 1000 is received as 1011 1110. Although the receiver character contains two errors, both the received character and the character that was originally sent have even parity. The receiving terminal does not generate a parity error, and the data error is not detected. Like all methods of error detection, parity adds redundant information ot the data stream. A disadvantage of parity is that it detects only errors that affect an odd number of bits in a data word. An advantage of parity is that it is simple to implement. Because of its simplicity, parity is widely used. Horizontal and Vertical Parity Check A better method of detecting errors involves using a combination of horizontal and vertical parity checks. The simple parity check discussed in Section 5–2–2 is a horizontal parity check. Vertical parity is calculated for all of the bits with the same bit number in a block of data. After a block of data has been sent, the transmitting terminal calculates a parity bit for bit 0 of all of the characters in the

block, another parity bit for bit 1 of all of the characters, and so on. The vertical parity bits are transmitted as a block check character (BCC) at the end of the block of data. Either even or odd parity may be used for both the horizontal and vertical parity bits. The same parity may be used for both, or one of them may have even parity, and the other may have odd parity. However, the transmitting and receiving terminals must use the same parity scheme. For illustration, the horizontal parity in Table 1 is even, and the vertical parity is odd. Bits 0 through 6 in the figure are the ASCII code for the information transmitted. Notice that even the parity bit of the BCC passes both the vertical and horizontal parity check. Table 1 A short message using even character and odd column parity P 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 b6 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 b5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 b4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 b2 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 b1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 b0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ASCII Character d a t a SP c o m m BCC

The receiver checks the horizontal parity of each character as it is received. The receiver also generates its own BCC and compares it with the check character received at the end of the block of data. The two should be identical. If they are not, an error has occurred, and the receiver can request that the sending terminal retransmit the block of data.

However, the combination of horizontal and vertical parity checking does more than detect errors. It also allows the receiver to correct single–bit errors without requesting further information from the transmitter, a process known as forward error correction (FEC). Table 2 shows the data block of Table 1, but bit 1 of the SP, or space, character has been altered by noise. Both the horizontal parity check for the space character and the vertical parity check for bit 1 fail. Therefore, bit 1 of the SP character must be in error. The receiver can correct the error by changing the 1 back to a 0. Table 2 Bit 1 of the SP character fails both character and column parity checks and is therefore in error. P 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 b6 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 b5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 b4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 b2 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 b1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 b0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ASCII Character d a t a SP c o m m BCC

Unfortunately, the combination of horizontal and vertical parity can reliably perform FEC only on single–bit errors. Errors that involve two or more bits cannot always be corrected. To illustrate, in Table 3, both bit 1 of the SP character and bit 2 of the character c have been changed by noise. Both characters fail horizontal parity checks, and bits 1 and 2 fail their vertical parity checks, but the receiver cannot determine which bits are in error. The error could just as easily be bit 2 of the space character and bit 1 of character c. Even though the receiving terminal cannot perform FEC, at least the receiving terminal can determine that a transmission error

has occurred, and it can request that the sending terminal retransmit the entire block of data.

Table 3 Two–bit errors can be detected by a combination of character and column parity checks, but they usually cannot be corrected P 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 b6 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 b5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 b4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 b3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 b2 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 b1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 b0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ASCII Character d a t a SP c o m m BCC

No system of error checking is 100% foolproof. Table 4 contains 4 bit erorrs. Bits 1 and 2 of both the SP and c characters have been altered during transmission. Both characters pass their horizontal checks, and both bit positions pass vertical parity checks. Even the combination of horizontal and vertical parity checks has failed to detect the errors. Parity bits can be generated by software routines in the sending terminal, and they can be checked by software routines at the receiving terminal. However, it is more efficient to generate and check parity bits in hardware. Figure 11 is the schematic of a circuit that can be used to generate horizontal parity bits. The 7 bits of the ASCII character are applied to the inputs labelled bit 0 through bit 6, and a

bias bit is applied to the remaining input. If the bias bit is a 1, the correct horizontal parity bit will be generated to give the character odd parity. A bias bit of 0 will cause the circuit to generate the correct horizontal parity bit for even parity. Trace the circuit by assuming a set of inputs to assure yourself that it works. Parity generator and checker circuits are part of the DTE circuit. They were once constructed from discrete, exclusive OR gates as shown in Figure 11 below, but today they are built into a larger integrated circuit that also performs other communication tasks, as will be discussed in Chapter 8.

Fig. 11 A Parity Generator Circuit

Table 4 Even the combination of character and column parity checks will not detect all errors P 1 1 0 1 1 b6 1 1 1 1 0 b5 1 1 1 1 1 b4 0 0 1 0 0 b3 0 0 0 0 0 b2 1 0 1 0 1 b1 0 0 0 0 1 b0 0 1 0 1 0 ASCII Character d a t a SP

0 0 1 1 1 Checksums

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 0

1 1 1 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

c o m m BCC

As illustrated in Table 5, a checksum is the least significant byte of the arithmetical sum of the binary data transmitted. As the data is sent, the transmitting terminals sums it. At the end of the data block, it sends the least significant byte of the sum as an extra character, called the checksum. The receiver generates its own checksum by summing the data as it is received. At the end of the block, it compares the checksum it generated with the checksum it receives from the transmitter. If the two are identical, it is likely that no error occurred. If the two checksums are different, an error has occurred, and the receiver requests that the block of data be resent. Table 5 The checksum is the least significant byte of the sum of the coded data Character T e r r i b l e Checksum EBCDIC $E3 $85 $99 $99 $89 $82 $93 $85 $BD

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) One of the more effective methods of error detection is the cyclic redundancy check (CRC). A circuit that can be used to generate a 16–bit CRC

character is shown in Fig.12. Identical CRC circuits are used in the transmitting and the receiving terminals to generate a check character which is highly dependent on all the data that were sent in the block. We will use the CRC circuit in the receiving terminal as our example.

Shift right register

Shift right register

Shift right register

Data input

Fig. 12 A CRC circuit The CRC circuit is initialized with all 0s in the shift registers. Each time a bit is received, every bit in the shift registers is shifted right. Assume that the first bit received is a 1. It is exclusively 0Red in G3 with a 0 shifted out of b0 of the shift register to produce a logical 1 which is in turn shifted into the b15 position of he shift register and continues to shift right as each subsequent bit is received. Four received bits later, it will have been shifted to the b11 position where it will influence the output of exclusive OR gate G1. The output of G1 is shifted to the right until it arrives at the b4 position and influences the output of G2. The G2 output in turn shifts right to the b0 position where it is exclusively 0Red with a received bit of data to influence the output of G3 and thereby the input to the CRC circuit. The important thing to recognize is that once a bit is received, it continues to influence the contents of the shift registers in the CRC circuit. If one bit is received incorrectly, it will cause the contents of the CRC shift registers to be different than they would have been if all bits had been received correctly. As mentioned, the transmitting terminal has a CRC circuit identical to the CRC circuit in the receiver. As each bit is transmitted, a copy of that bit is input into

the CRC circuit. At the end of the block of data, the sending terminal transmits the contents of its CRC registers. When the receiver receives the CRC character, it compares it with the contents of its own CRC registers. The two CRC characters should be identical. If they are not, an error has occurred in transmission, and the receiver can request that the sending terminal retransmit the block of data. Although Fig.12 shows a circuit that generates a 16–bit CRC, 32–bit CRCs are also common in many data communication systems. Twelve–bit and 24–bit CRCs are used in some systems. Like the parity checker circuit, CRC generators are usually not separate circuits as shown in the figure. They are included in a larger integrated circuit that also performs other data communications functions. Summary In this chapter, we have looked at codes used in data communications and methods used to detect and sometimes correct errors. Of the codes presented in this chapter, the two that are most commonly used in data communications are ASCII and EBCDIC. Baudot is a 5–bit code, and it was the first code to be widely used for data communications. Baudot has two modes, a letters mode and a figures mode, each with its own character set. The LTRS and FIGS characters are used to shift back and forth between the two modes. Communications systems that once used Baudot have now almost all switched to the ASCII code. ASCII is a 7–bit code, although a redundant 8–bit, called a parity bit, is sometimes added to detect errors. There is also an 8–bit version of ASCII which is called extended ASCII. ASCII is used both in data communications and to store data in personal computer memories and disks. EBCDIC is an 8–bit code that was developed by IBM Corporation for use in its larger computers. EBCDIC is also used in equipment that was designed to be compatible with those IBM Computers. Errors inevitably occur in data transmission. In some systems, those errors tolerated, and nothing is done to correct them. However, a number of schemes been developed to detect and sometimes correct errors. All of these methods are

redundant information. In echoplex, the receiving terminal echoes each recent character back to the sending terminal where it appears on the terminal screen, i.e. terminal operator visually inspects each character to make sure that it is correct. Echoplex's main use is to correct typing errors. Parity is an extra bit that is added to each data character in the MSB position. The parity bit is set or cleared to ensure that each character either contains an even number of 1s or that each character contains an odd number of 1s. Parity is consequently used with the ASCII code. A combination of horizontal and vertical parity checks cannot only detect errors, but also allow the receiver to correct single–bit errors, a process known as forward error correction (FEC). This system, in addition to having a parity bit each character, uses a binary check character (BCC) which is transmitted at the end of a block of data. A checksum is no more than the least significant type of the arithmetical sum of all the binary characters transmitted in a block of data. Both the transmitter and the receiver calculate a checksum, and at the end of a transmission, the sending terminal transmits the checksum which the receiver then compares with its own checksum. A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) character can be formed by circulating transmitted data through a system of shift registers and exclusive OR gates. Identical circuits are used at the transmitter and receiver. At the end of a block of data, a sending terminal transmits its CRC character, and the receiver compares it with the CRC character that it has generated. If the two CRC characters are different, then error has occurred.

MODULATION TECHNIQUES 1.0 Introduction
In order to transmit digital signals over Radio systems. It is necessary to transfer the information to the Radio frequency carrier.

Digital, information can be imposed upon the carrier by modifying the amplitude, frequency, phase or a combination of these characteristics, The choice of the modulating scheme is made after considering a number of conflicting requirements, which include susceptibilities to noise interference, fading, non linearities, spectrum efficiency (i.e. Bits/sec/Hz) and equipment complexities with associated cost aspect. The spectrum efficiency is a ratio of bit speed (say R bits per second) and band width say B Hz. This ratio i.e, R/B is known as the spectrum efficiency for the particular modulation technique adopted for the purpose of modulation of the RF carrier. The following sections describe the most commonly adopted digital modulation schemes. 2.0 Amplitude Shift Keying In general, for amplitude modulation, the amplitude of the carrier is varied in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal and the carrier frequency does not change The special cases-of digital modulating signals are referred to as amplitude shift keying. A number is usually added as per the number of the digital symbol states. Ti&us binary signals produce 2 ASK and 4 level signals produce 4 ASK. The ASK signals are generally expressed mathematically as: X (t) = g (t) x A x cos {2π fc t) where g ft) is the random digital signal. A binary ASK modulator is symbolized in Fig. 2.1 where the binary bits cause switching between carrier 'ON’ and 'OFF' states.

Binary input

Fig. 2.1 ASK MODULATOR

FIG. 2.2 SIGNAL CONSTELLATION

BANDWIDTH LIMITED AT 2 ASK AT Q FIG 2.3 ASK WAVESHAPE The power spectral density of the resultant 2 ASK signal as the same as that of the random data signal but mirrored about the carriers.

In the normal ASK signal the presence of DC component in the modulating signal results in the presence of a carrier component, which contains no information in the output signal and is a waste of available transmitted power. 2.1 Suppressed Carrier ASK If the DC component is removed from the random signal, the resultant Signal is referred to as double side band suppressed carrier amplitude modulated signal often abbreviated to the word DSB.

2.2

Single Sideband ASK The modulating process produces both upper and lower sidebands and the spectrum occupancy of the signal doubles. Since either of the sidebands of ASK signals contains the information to be transmitted, spectrum efficiency can be improved considerably by elimination of one of the sidebands, such a system is known as single sideband suppressed carrier amplitude modulation (SSBSCAM) usually abbreviated to SSB. To separate the sidebands a perfect high or low pass filter is required with a cut off at the carrier frequency. 2.3 Vestigial Sideband ASK An alternative method to overcome the difficulties associated with SSB signals is to transmit a small part (vestige) of the other sideband. This is known as vestigial sideband amplitude modulation VSBAM often abbreviated to VSB. Frequency Shift Keying In frequency modulation, the frequency of the carrier is varied in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal and the carrier amplitude remains constant; Since for 'digital modulation the baseband signal takes on only one of the two values, the frequency of the modulation also will take one of the two values and the modulation prosess can be thought of as a keying operation. In general, the binary FSK signal can be mathematically expressed by. X(t) = A Cos (2π fc t+2πfd ∫ g (t) dt + φ). where A. and fc are the carrier amplitude and frequency, g(t) is a random binary waveform with levels + 1 and -1 and -0 is an arbitrary phase. The instantaneous frequency is given by the derivative of the phase of X(t), namely by fc + fd g(t) which is equal to the two shift frequencies f 1 and f 2 where f1= fc - fd and f2 = fc + fd Figure 3.1 illustrates a simple modulator consisting of two oscillators and a switch (key). This form of FM is referred to as Frequency Shift Keying (FSK).

3.0

Carrier Wave

+E 0 -E

Bit Streem

+V 0

FSK

-V +E 0

The waveform for FSK modulation technique can be represented as in Fig. 3.2 The power spectral density of FSK waveform is as follows (Fig. 3.3).

3.1

Demodulation of FSK There are two methods of demodulation of FSK. They are Coherent detection Incoherent detection.

3.1.1 Coherent detection The Coherent detection is illustrated in Fig. 3.4

3.1.2 Incoherent Detection If the phase of the incoming wave is not known, we must resort to incoherent forms of detection. An incoherent demodulator is illustrated in Fig. 3.5.

Fig. 3.6. compares the performance of incoherent detector with that of coherent detector.

Incoherent

Coheren

FIG 3.6 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF INCOHERENT AND COHERENT FSK DETECTOR It may be seen that for a given BER requirement, the Eb/No (and hence C/N) requirement is more for incoherent detection compared to that of coherent detection i.e. Coherent detection is superior to incoherent detection.

3.2

M-ARY FSK M-ARY FSK (MFSK) -is-a way to trade bandwidth for signaling speed. Instead of sending data using binary signals with one of two frequencies, the signaling alphabet is expanded to include M possible frequencies. This process will normally increase the speed between the lowest and the highest freq. and therefore the bandwidth can be expected to increase. However, since increased information is sent with each signal element, the baud rate can be decreased to partially counteract the increase in bandwidth. For example, if it were necessary to send 1000 bps of, data, this could be one by sending a binary FSK pulse every millisecond. Alternatively, a 4 ary FSK burst could be sent every 2 ms, representing a decrease in baud rate by a factor of two. (Baud rate is a unit of signaling speed and it is the number of symbols (pulses)/ second in the Channel. If each symbol represents one bit, then baud rate is same as bit rate, if each symbol represents more than one bit then baud rate is less than bit rate. Baud rate= Bit Rate/No, of Bits per Symbol The performance of MFSK for the various values of M is shown in Fig.3.7. In the Fig.3.7 it may please be noted that ordinate is the symbol error probability and not the bit error probability. This is an important distinction, since a single symbol error can cause more than one bit error. We should also note that constant energy (E) does not imply constant signal power. As Main causes, the symbol period increases, so proportionately less signal power is required to achieve the same signal to noise ratio. Also shown on the figure is a theoretical bound for M——>∞ which is obtained from the Shannon channel capacity theorem.

Fig 3.7 SYMBOL ERROR PERFORMANCE FQR MFSK

C.E. Shannon has shown that a given communication channel has a maximum rate of information 'C', Known as .the channel capacity. If the information rate R, is less than C, one can approach arbitrarily small error probabilities by intelligent coding techniques. If the information rate R is greater than the channel capacity 'C', errors can not be avoided regardless of the coding technique employed. We consider the band limited channel operating in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. In this case, the channel capacity is given by: C= B log2 (1 + S/N) Where C is the capacity in bits per second, B is the bandwidth of channel in Hz and S/N is the signal to noise ratio. The signal power S is the energy per bit multiplied by the number of bits per second. The noise power is No multiplied by the system bandwidth. If we take the limit as the bandwidth approaches infinity. C = = Lim B Lim B = E/No = B log2 (1+EC/NoB) ∞ (EC/No) Log2 (1+EC/No B/Ec) ∞

(EC/No) Log2 e = 1.44 EC/No -1.6dB

This is shown in Fig. 3.7 labeled as M ∞ since the infinite bandwidth assumption coincides with the infinite value of M. 4.0 PSK Modulation In general for Phase modulation, the phase of the carrier is varied in proportion to the amplitude of the input signal and the amplitude and frequency remains constant. The special cases of Digital Modulation of signals are referred to as Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Modulation with a number in the front indicating the number of levels of the digital signal. 2 PSK, 4 PSK and 8 PSK are modulation methods that have been adopted for some digital radio systems. 4.1 Correspondence between carrier phase and bit stream state

Since a bit stream is a series of binary digits, it requires a 2 Phase PSK system, where phases of a ‘O’ and ‘π’ radians correspond to the Os and 1 s of the bit stream. The number of phases used is limited only by the requirement that each phase be distinguishable from the others, which result in an increased capacity for information transmission, n bit streams required 2n combinations of n bits as shown in table below.

Therefore, a system which can distinguish 2n phases can transmit upto n bit stream. Table: Correspondence between phases and codes. a. 2 Phase System Phase 0 π b. Binary 0 1 Binary Code Stream 1 0 1

4 Phase System Phase Quaternary Binary Code

Stream 1 0 π/2 π 3π/2 0 1 2 3 0 0 1 1

Stream 2 0 1 0 1

a- 2 Phase System

b- 4 Phase System

SIGNAL - SPACE DIAGRAM FOR BINARY CODES Since the required number of code combinations is the nth power of 2 i.e 2, 4 and 8 phase FSK systems are feasible.

4.2

Principles of Modulation There are two type of phase modulation.

• •

Absolute phase modulation Differential phase modulation

In the absolute phase modulation system, pulse signals directly modulate a carrier. Demodulation uses another carrier to synchronize with the carrier and detect difference in phase. Should the phase of the two sub carriers differ by rt, (for BRSK), the entire data train will be inverted and every bit will be in error. For this reason, we often choose differential form of encoding. In such techniques, the data are represented as changes in levels rather than by the particular signal level. In other words phase transitions rather than phase states are transmitted. Two phase differential phase modulation called 2-DPSK, is described with reference to the following (Fig.4.1).

On the top line, the original bit stream, X is the sequence 0110. The phase stream on the 2nd line is obtained by Yi=Xi Xi=Yi

+

Yi-1 (

+ exclusive OR)

At the receiving end the following calculation recovers the original bit stream.

+ Y.

i 1

4.3

Principles of Demodulation There are two ways to detect PSK signals : (1) Coherent detection (2) Differential) detection (delay detection)

signal, using each of these two methods.

(1) Coherent Detection The following figure (Fig,4.2) illustrates the coherent detection principle. A Cos (wt + ψ) represents a PSK signal and contains the information.

The PSK signa! and a synchronous carrier (i.e. having same phase and frequency of carrier on the transmitter side) are fed to the phase detector. Detected output after the LPF (Low Pass Filter) is proportional to Cosψ, Since Cosψassumes values of either +1 or -1 corresponding to ψ = o and π respectively, the decision circuit judges only polarity (+ or -1) in the 2 phase PSK system. Bits 0 and 1 correspond to phases 0 and π respectively. The carrier used in the receiver must be synchronized with that of the carrier on the transmitter side. Thus, a carrier synchronising circuit called the carrier recovery circuit is also necessary.

(2) Differential Detection (Delay Detection) The following figure (Fig.4.3) illustrates the differential! detection principle. The incoming PSK signal is expressed as E= A Cos (wt+ψ).

The one bit delayed PSK signal E' is expressed as: E = A Cos (wt +ψi-1), where ψIi and ψi-1 represent the phases corresponding to the ith and (i-1)th bits respectively. The E and E1 signals are fed to a phase detector. The output of LPF is Cos (wt +ψI-1), The decision circuit discriminates between different values of Cos (wi +ψi-1), in the same way as the decision circuit in the coherent detection case. Comparison Differential Detection is not applicable to low speed data streams, However, it is applicable to high speed data streams, but the detected output contains twice as much thermal noise as the O/P of coherent detection system. This is because differential detection uses two separately received PSK signals (with a time difference of one bit) which are equally noisy, whiie in the coherent detection case the carrier is assumed to be free of noise. For these reasons, the coherent detection is the preferred demodulation method. Unlike differential detection coherent detection needs carrier recovery.

4.4 Decision circuit {Threshold Comparator) The detector output, which represents the phase changes of received PSK signal, includes thermal noise, distortion arid interference, which enter the signal at repeaters and along propagation paths. Consequently, the detected output waveforms are considerably distorted as shown in the following figure.

ISI : Intersymbol interference NRZ : Non return to zero WAVEFORMS OF DETECTED BASEBAND Using the clock signal to discriminate between "1" and "0" states, it is possible to recover the original waveform from the distorted pulse waves. There are two "decision methods: Instantaneous decision and integral decision. The instantaneous decision method determines whether the detected value belong to the "range 1" (Over the threshold) or the "range 0" (Below the threshold) by comparing the detected output amplitude to the threshold level (0 Volts), at sampling points derived from the Clock Frequency. The output is a pulse stream with the appropriate voltages. The integral decision method integrates the amplitude of the detected output for a fixed time interval and compares the result with the threshold. The integral decision method is more sensitive to inter symbol interference than the instantaneous decision method, and so the instantaneous decision method is preferred.

4.4.3 What is Jitter ? Unwanted phase modulation is termed as jitter, in the decision circuit clock pulses are generated using PSK signal phase changes as a reference. These clock pulses may some times be inaccurate due to poor tuning of the pulse generating circuit causing jitter. 4.5 BPSK Modulation BPSK Modulator is shown in Fig. 4.6. 2 – PSK MODULATOR Ring Modulator (MOD)

4.6

Four Phase PSK Systems

The following figure (Fig. 4.7) illustrates a functional block diagram of QPSK Modulator

I

1

T H

Input Data

S/P Con

≈ ≈
II /2

M M

BPF

BPF

4 3 II /2 P/S

Outp ut

Q
Transmitter 1&2 : LPF 3 : Bit Timing Recovery 4 : Carrier TH : Threshold

2

T H

Receiver

Fig. 4.7 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF QPSK MODULATOR In this system the I/P pulse stream is converted into two bit streams. Their pulse speed is exactly half that original stream. The serial to parallel converter block includes a differential encoding function. QPSK modulator can be thought of 2 BPSK modulators in parallel. As the signal space diagram indicates, the QPSK modulator uses a gray code arrangement i.e., instead of having (0,1),(1 ( 1 , 1 ) , (0,0) symbols we Behaving (0,1) , (1,1), (1,0), (0,0) symbols. The reason is explained with reference to the following figure (Fig.4.8).

FIG. 4.9 Vector Diagram of PSK signals, noise, and sub-carriers Any noise superimposed in a PSK signal changes the signals vectors. The noise vector are constantly varying in phase and amplitude and if the vector sum of the noise and PSK signal cross a carrier vector, a bit error occurs. As a noise vector increases in magnitude, so does the possibility of mistaking the true PSK signal vector for an adjacent one. However, the possibility of the noise vector increasing

enough to mistake the true PSK signal vector for the signal vector 1800 opposite (differing by π) is very low. Gray coding therefore improves bit error rate compared with natural binary coding, because one symbol error results in a single bit error. i.e., bit error rate = Symbol error rate / 2 Circuits used for Natural Code to Gray Code conversion (At the transmitter) and vice versa (At the Receiver) are shown below. Natural Code to Gray Code Conversion

4.6.1 Coherent Detection For QPSK demodulation coherent detection is superior to differential detection. The block diagram of coherent detection circuit is as follows (Fig. 4.10).

FIG. 4.10 CONFIGURATION OF COHERENT DETECTION CIRCUIT 4.6.2 Carrier Recovery The carrier wave required for the coherent detection must be recovered from 4 PSK signal which does not contain the proper unmodulated frequency component. The 4 PSK signal is expressed by E = A Cos (wt+ φ + πn/2) The π n/2 phase component must be removed because it randomly assumes values of 0,1, 2, 3. There are many carrier recovery strategies. We will consider (1) Four multiplication system (2) Costa's Loop method. 4.6.2.1 Four Multiplication System The derivation of the four multiplication of a 4 PSK signal system is as fallows: E4 = A4 Cos4 (ωt + ϕ + πn/2) = A4 /8{3+4Cos2 (ωt + ϕ + πn/2)+ (ωt + ϕ + πn/2)} A band pass filter extracts the 4ω components called E(4ω). A4 Cos4 (ωt + ϕ + πn/2) E(4ω) = 8 = A4 Cos (4ωt + 4ϕ) Four times frequency division fo E(4ω) recovers a pure carrier. Similarly for BPSK scheme 2 multiplication system can be used.

Fig. 4.11 Costa’s loop
The VCO operates at the carrier frequency fc . The output of upper low pass filter is given by, 0.5 A (t) sin (θ -φ). This output is therefore proportional to the sine of the phase difference. If the two frequencies are not matched, the phase difference includes a linearly varying term. The output of the lower LPF is given by, 0.5 A (t) sin (θ -φ). This output is therefore proportional to the cosine of the phase difference. When these two terms are multiplied together, the result is the error term. 0.25 A2 (t) sin(θ -φ) cos (θ -φ). = 0.125 A2 (t) sin[2(θ -φ)] The error term is therefore proportional to the sine of twice the phase difference and the loop drives this term toward zero. E(t) =

5.0

16 QAM

The 16 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) system carriers twice as much information as the QPSK system. 5.1 Modulation The 16 QAM signal is obtained by vector summing two 4 level ASK signals in quadrature. The following figure shows two 4 level ASK signals in quadrature (Fig. 5.1).

FIG 5.1 TWO 4- LEVEL ASK SIGNALS PERPENDICULAR TO EACH OTHER The signal space diagram is as shown in the Fig. 5.2

The block diagram of 16 QAM is shown if Fig . 5.3. The modulator is provided with four data signal inputs S1 to S4 which are applied to D/A converters. The D/A converter delivers a single data stream with four amplitude levels from the two data input streams each with two amplitude levels. The four amplitude level output are applied to modulation circuits. The modulator circuits consist of two balanced diode mixers coupled with two hybrid transformers. The hybrid transformer at the input delivers two outputs with a 90° phase shift, the I channel and Q channel signals. The hybrid transformer at the output simply combines the two outputs. The demodulator block diagram is shown in Fig. 5.4. The demodulator demodulates the IF signal and produces four data signal outputs S1 to S4. The IF amplifier which contains an AGC loop reduce ; IF signal level changes before applying to the detector. The detector consists of two balanced diode mixers and hybrid transformer. The hybrid transformer at the input splits the IF signal into two signals with no phase shifting between them.

The other hybrid transformer produces two signals with a 900 phase shift between them. The local frequency signal is fed to the two mixers via the hybrid transformer. The output of the detector, the I channel and the Q channel signals are amplified separately and applied to cosine roll off filters for spectrum shaping and to A/D converters. The A/D converters perform the threshold decision.

DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OF DIGITAL HIERARCHIES
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION The term “digital hierarchy” has been created when developing digital transmission systems. It was laid down when by multiplexing a certain number of PCM primary multiplexers were combined to form digital multiplexers of higher order (e.g. second-order multiplex equipments). Consequently, a digital hierarchy comprises a number of levels. Each level is assigned a specific bit rate which is formed by multiplexing digital signals, each having the bit rate of the next lower level. In CCITT Rec. G.702, the term “digital multiplex hierarchy” is defined as follows : “A series of digital multiplexes graded according to capability so that multiplexing at one level combines a defined number of digital signals, each having the digit rate prescribed for the next lower order, into a digital signal having a prescribed digit rate which is then available for further combination with other digital signals of the same rate in a digital multiplex of the next higher order”. 2.0 WHY HIERARCHIES ? 2.1 Before considering in detail the digital hierarchies under discussion we are going to recapitulate in brief, why there are several digital hierarchies instead of one only. It has always been pointed out that as far as the analogue FDM technique is concerned, the C.C.I.T.T. recommends the world wide use of the 12-channel group (secondary group). Relevant C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation exists also for channel assemblies with more than 60 channels so that with certain exceptions – there is only one world-wide hierarchy for the FDM system (although the term “hierarchy” is not used in the FDM technique). In the digital transmission technique it was unfortunately not possible to draw up a world-wide digital hierarchy. In practice, equipment as specified in C.C.I.T.T. Recommendation G.732 and 733, they do not only differ completely in their bit rates, but also in the frame structures, in signalling, frame alignment, etc. Needless to say that, as a consequence, the higher order digital multiplexers derived from the two different PCM primary multiplexers and thus the digital hierarchies differ as well.

2.2

2.3

Since these two PCM primary multiplexers are available, two digital heirarchies only would have to be expected. In reality, however, two digital hierarchies with several variants are under discussion because the choice of the fundamental parameters of a digital hierarchy depends not only on the PCM primary multiplex, which forms the basic arrangement in that hierarchy, but on many other factors such as : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the bit rate of the principal signal sources. traffic demand, network topology, operational features, flexibility of the network. time division and multiplexing plant requirements. compatibility with analog equipment. characteristics of the transmission media to be used at the bit rates for the various levels of the hierarchies.

Since today these factors which are essential for forming digital hierarchies vary from country to country, it is no wonder that we now have to consider more than two proposals for digital hierarchies. 3.0 DIGITAL HIERARCHIES BASED ON THE 1544 KBIT/S PCM PRIMARY MULTIPLEX EQUIPMENT

It was around 1968 that Bell labs. proposed a digital hierarchy based on the 24-channel PCM primary multiplex at the various levels of the hierarchy : Level in hierarchy First level Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Bit rate 1544 kbit/s 6312 kbit/s 46304 kbit/s 280000 kbit/s 568000 kbit/s Trans. line T1 T2 L5 (Jumbo Grp) WT4 (Wave guide) T5

This proposal was modified during the following years. At the end of the study period 1968/72, the following digital network hierarchy was finally proposed as given in Fig.1.

Fig. 1 Encoded FDM (Master Group) USA & Canada 3.1 For the various bit rates at the higher levels of the two proposals, different reasons have been indicated. The bit rate of 44736 kbit/s was selected to provide a flexibility point for circuit interconnection and because it was a suitable coding level for the 600 channel FDM mastergroup. 3.2 It is also an appropriate bit rate for inter-connection to radio-relay links planned for use at various frequencies. 3.3 At the same time, N.T.T. published its PCM hierarchy are concerned (1554 and 6112 kbit/s, respectively), these two proposals are identical. They differ, however, in the higher levels as shown in Fig.2.

Fig. 2 Encoded TDM (Japanese)

3.4 In the N.T.T. proposal the bit rate of 32064 kbit/s at the third level of the proposed hierarchy might be considered a suitable bit rate to be used on international satellite links perhaps for administrations operating different PCM primary multiplex equipments. It is also a convenient bit rate for encoding the standardized 300-channel FDM mastergroup. Delta modulation and differential PCM for 4 MHz visual telephone are also suitable for this bit rate. Transmission of 32064 kbit/s via a special symmetrical cable of new design is also possible. 3.5 The above fact shows that the differing bit rates of the third level indicated in the two hierarchy proposals can, therefore, be justified by technical arguments. As far as the differing bit rates of the fourth level are concerned, only a few technical reasons are included in the two proposal. In both cases coaxial cables are used as a transmission medium so that the medium does not call for different bit rates. 3.6 Moreover, it seems that at present the specifications of the fourth level (and higher ones) in the two proposed hierarchies is not yet considered so urgent. For the time being the third level seems to be more important. 3.7 The C.C.I.T.T. faced with this situation has reached finally the solution which is covered by CCITT recommendation G.752 as one can see from this recommendation, two different hierarchical levels are existing in the third level of this hierarchy, namely 32064 kbits/s and 44736 kbit/s respectively. Higher level have not been specified so far. 4.0 DIGITAL HIERARCHY BASED ON THE 2048 KBIT/S PCM PRIMARY MULTIPLEX EQUIPMENT For this digital hierarchy, two specifications have at present been laid down only for the first level at 2048 kbit/s and for the second level at 8448 kbit/s. As for the higher levels, the situation is just contrary to that existing in the case of digital hierarchies derived from 1544 kbit/s primary multiplex, i.e. general agreement has more or less been reached on the fourth level having a bit rate of 139264 kbit/s. 5th order system where bit rate of 565 Mb/s have also been planned now. 4.1 The critical point in this hierarchy is whether or not the third level at 34368 kbit/s should exist.

4.2

The C.C.I.T.T. has agreed after long discussions on the following (Recommendation G.751) “that there should be a 4th order bit rate of 139264 kbit/s in the digital hierarchy which is based on the 2nd order bit rate of 8448 kbit/s”. There should be two methods of achieving the 4th order bit rate : Method 1 by using a 3rd order bit rate of 34368 kbit/s in the digital hierarchy. Method 2 by directly multiplexing sixteen digital signals at 8448 kbit/s. The digital signals at the bit rate of 139264 kbit/s obtained by these two methods should be identical. The existence of the above two methods implies that the use of the bit rate of 34368 kbit/s should not be imposed on an Administration that does not wish to realize the corresponding equipment.

4.3

In accordance with the above two methods the following realizations of digital multiplex equipments using positive justification are recommended : Method 1 : Realization by separate digital multiplex equipments : one type which operates at 34368 kbit/s and multiplexes four digital signals at 8448 kbit/s; the other type which operates at 139264 kbit/s and multiplexes four digital signals at 34368 kbit/s. Method 2 : Realization by a single digital multiplex equipment which operates at 139264 kbit/s and multiplexes sixteen digital signals at 8448 kbit/s. Method 1 has been put into practice.

4.4

Where the fifth level is concerned, some preliminary proposals (e.g. 565148 kbit/s) have been submitted which were not discussed in detail. Therefore, the present structure of this digital hierarchy is as given in Fig.3.

139.264

Fig. 3

Encoded TDM (European) 5.0 Most of the administrations favour the specification of a third level at 34368 kbit/s, mainly as a suitable flexibility point for the operation of the network and as an adequate bit rate for digital line systems which are to be set up either on new cables (screened symmetrical or micro-coaxial cables) or an radiorelay links. Other administrations do not consider the specification of a third level to be advantageous for their networks. On the contrary they regard it to be more economical to go directly from the second level at 8448 kbit/s so the fourth level at 139264 kbit/s, is also achieved by multiplexing four digital signals at 34368 kbit/s, each of which is obtained by multiplexing first four digital signals at 8448 kbit/s. However, this is a matter of internal multiplexing only, i.e. digital multiplex equipment of this type has no external input or output at 34368 kbit/s. All administrations interested in the third level at 34368 kbit/s would thus be offered the possibility of using this level. Their digital multiplex equipment which multiplexes in the same way each of the four digital signals at 8448 kbit/s has to provide external outputs for the resulting signal at 34368 kbit/s. The digital multiplex equipment which multiplexes each of the four digital signals at 34368 kbit/s has to provide four inputs for these bit rates and one output for the resulting bit rate of 139264 kbit/s. 5.1 Outlook The above context indicates that at the moment the discussion of digital hierarchies is still underway and is mainly concentrated on the third and fourth levels. Although certain trends are evident the specification of these and higher levels will take some time. In the interest of a comprehensive specification of the digital hierarchies to be drawn up as soon as possible, it is to be hoped that all parties concerned perform their studies with high priority. All digital multiplexes and hierarchies proposed till date are operating in an asynchronous mode (positive justification, “positive stuffing”, bit-interleaved). It is likely that in the future, synchronous digital multiplex equipment has to be considered when setting up digital hierarchies. For various digital line systems being developed in many countries non-hierarchical bit rates have provisionally been adopted with due regard to the characteristics of the transmission media used. These non-hierarchical bit rates for digital line

systems have also to be born in mind when defining the digital hierarchies and may affect the hierarchical bit rates. 6.0 6.1 CCITT Recommendations Second order digital multiplex equipment operating at 8448 kbit/s and using positive justification CCITT Rec. G 742. 1. This 2nd order digital multiplex equipment using positive justification is intended for use on digital paths using 2048 kbit/s primary multiplex equipments. Bit rates : The nominal bit rate should be 8448 kbit/s. The tolerance on this rate should be +30 PPM. Frame Structure : Frame Structure Frame alignment word (1111010000) Alarm to remote Tml National use Bits from tributaries Justification Control bits Bits from tributaries Justification Control bits Bits from tributaries Justification Control bits Bits for tributaries justification Bits from tributaries Frame Length bits/tributary 4. available for Bit No. 1 to 10 11 Set I 12 Set I 13 to 212 Set I 1 to 4 Set II 5 to 212 Set II 1 to 4 Set III 5 to 212 Set III 1 to 4 Set IV 5 to 8 Set IV 9 to 212 Set IV 848 bits 206 bits

2. 3.

Loss Recovery of Frame alignment and consequent action. Loss of frame alignment should be assumed to have taken place when four consecutive frame alignment signals have been incorrectly received in their predicted positions.

When frame alignment is assumed to be lost, the frame alignment device should decide that, such alignment has effectively been recovered, when it detects the presence of three consecutive frame alignment signals. The frame alignment device having detected the appearance of a single correct frame alignment signal, should begin a new search for the frame alignment signal in one of the two following frames. 5. Multiplexing Method Cyclic bit inter-leaving in the tributary numbering order and positive justification is recommended. Positive justification should be indicated by the signal 111, no justification by the signal 000. Majority decision is recommended. 6.2 Third order digital multiplex equipment operating at 34368 kbit/s. 1. Bit rates : The nominal bit rate should be 34368 kbit/s. The tolerance on the rate should be + 20 PPM 2. Frame Structure (Fig. 5) Bit No. 1 to 10 Set I 11 Set I 12 Set I 13 to 384 Set I 1 to 4 Set II 5 to 384 Set II 1 to 4 Set III 5 to 384 Set III 1 to 4 Set IV 5 to 8 Set IV 9 to 384 1536 bits 378 bits Frame Structure Frame alignment word (1111010000) Alarm to indication to the remote TML National use Bits from tributaries Justification Control bits Bits from tributaries Justification Control bits Bits from tributaries Justification Control bits Bits for tributaries available for justification Bits from tributaries Frame length bits/tributary 3. 4. Loss and Recovery of Frame alignment Same as the 2nd order digital MUX system. Multiplexing Method

Same as the 2nd order digital MUX system.

Fig. 5

34368 Kb/s Multiplexing Frame Structure

6.3 kbit/s. 1.

Fourth order digital multiplex equipment operating at 139264 Bit rates : The nominal bit rate should be 139264 kb/s. The tolerance on the rate should be +15 PPM 2. Frame Structure Frame Structure Bit No. 1 to 12 13 Set I 14 to 16 17 to 488 1 to 4 5 to 488 Set II to V 1 to 4 5 to 8 Set VI 9 to 488 2928 bits 723 bits

Frame alignment word (111110100000) Alarm to indication to the remote digital MUX tml Bit reserved for National use Bits from tributaries Justification Service bits Bits from tributaries Justification Control bits Bits for tributaries available for justification Bits from tributaries Frame length bits/tributary 3. 4. 7.0 7.1 Loss and Recovery of Frame alignment

Same as the 2nd and 3rd order digital MUX system. Multiplexing Method Same as the 2nd and 3rd order digital MUX system. INTERFACES Specification for Interfaces at 2048 kb/s. 1. General characteristics : Bit rate Code : : HDB3. 2048 kb/s + 50 PPM

2.

Specification at Output Port Pair(s) in each direction One Coaxial Pair 75 ohm (rest.) 2.37 V 0+0.237 V 244 ns 0.95 to 1.05 0.95 to 1.05 One Symmetrical Pair 120 ohm (rest.) 3V 0+0.3 V 244ns 0.95 to 1.05 0.95 to 1.05

Test Load Impedance Nominal peak voltage of a mark (pulse) Peak voltage of a space (no pulse) Nominal pulse width Ratio of amplitude of +ve and –ve pulses at the centre of pulse interval Ratio of widths of +ve and –ve pulses at the nominal half amplitude 3. Specification at I/P Ports

The digital signal presented at the i/p port shall be modified by the characteristics of the interconnecting pair. The attenuation of this pair shall be assumed to follow f law and the loss at a frequency of 1024 KHz shall be in the range of 0 to 6 dB. This attenuation should take into account any losses incurred by the presence of a digital distribution frame between the equipments. The input port shall be able to tolerate a digital signal with these electrical characteristics but modulated by sinusoidal jitter. 7.2 1. Specification for Interfaces at 8448 kb/s General Characteristics : Bit rate : 8448 kb/s + 30 ppm Code : HDB3 2. Specification at o/p Port : One Coaxial Pair 75 ohm (rest.) 2.37 V 0 + 0.237 V 59 ns 0.95 to 1.05 Pair(s) in each direction Test Load Impedance Nominal peak voltage of a mark (pulse) Peak voltage of a space (no pulse) Nominal pulse width Ratio of amplitude of +ve and –ve pulses at the centre of pulse interval

Ratio of widths of +ve and –ve pulses at the nominal half amplitude 3. Specification at I/P Ports

0.95 to 1.05

The digital signal presented at the i/p port shall be modified by the characteristics of the interconnecting cable. The attenuation of this cable shall be assumed to follow a f law and a loss at a frequency of 4224 KHz shall be in the range of 0 to 6 dB. This attenuation should take into account only losses incurred by the presence of a digital distribution frame between the equipments. The i/p port shall be able to tolerate digital signal with these electrical characteristics but modulated by sinusoidal jitter. 7.3 1. Interface at 34368 kb/s General Characteristics Bit rate : 3436 kb/s + 20 ppm Code : HDB–3. 2. Specification at o/p Port Pair(s) in each direction Test Load Impedance Nominal peak voltage of a mark (pulse) Peak voltage of a space (no pulse) Nominal pulse width Ratio of amplitude of +ve and –ve pulses at the centre of pulse interval Ratio of widths of +ve and –ve pulses at the nominal half amplitude 3. Specification at I/P Ports One Coaxial Pair 75 ohm (rest.) 1.0 V 0 + 0.1V 14.55 0.95 to 1.05 0.95 to 1.05

The digital signal presented at the i/p port shall be modified by the characteristics of the interconnecting cable. The attenuation of this pair shall be assumed to follow f law and the loss at a frequency of 17184 KHz shall be in the range of 0 to 12 dB. The i/p port shall be also to tolerate a digital signal with these electrical characteristics but modulated by sinusoidal jitter.

7.4 1.

Interface at 139264 kb/s General characteristics Bit rate : 139264 kb/s + 15 ppm Code : CMI

2.

Specification at o/p Port Pair(s) in each direction One Coaxial Pair 75 ohm (rest.) 1 + 0.1 V < 2 ns > 15 dB for 7 MHz to 210 MHz

Test Load Impedance pk. to pk. voltage Rise time between 10% and 90% amplitude of measured amplitude Return loss 3. Specification at I/P Ports

The digital signal presented at the i/p port shall be modified by the characteristics of the interconnecting coaxial pair shall be assumed to follow f law and have a maximum insertion loss of 12 dB at frequency of 70 MHz. The Return loss characteristic should be same as o/p port. The input port should be able to tolerate a digital signal with these electrical characteristics but modulated by sinusoidal jitter.

DIGITAL MULTIPLEXING CONCEPTS, SIGNAL JUSTIFICATION & CONTROL AND JITTER 1. INTRODUCTION The functions of digital multiplex equipment are to combine a defined integral number of digital input signals (called tributaries) at a defined digit rate by time division multiplexing and also to carry out the reverse process (demultiplexing). In analogue system, multiplex equipment uses F.D.M. to assemble individual channels into groups, super group etc. Similarly, in digital systems, hierarchical levels have been defined using T.D.M. and are identified by their digit rate measured in bit/sec. Bit rate Mbit/sec. 2.048 8.448 34.368 139.264 MULTIPLEXING OF DIGITAL SIGNALS No. of channels 30 120 480 1920

2.0

The digital signals which are to be multiplexed may be synchronous to one clock (called master clock) or they may not be synchronous (called asynchronous signals). 3.0 MULTIPLEXING OF SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL SIGNALS The various tributary bit streams are synchronous and operate at the same rate defined as T bit/sec. To multiplex ‘n’ such tributaries the rate of multiplex output should be nT bit/s. The method adopted for multiplexing such n signals into one stream may be as follows : (i) Block interleaving : Bunch of information taken at a time from each tributary and fed to main multiplex output stream. The memory required will be very large. (ii) Bit interleaving : A bit of information taken at time from each tributary and fed to main multiplex output stream in cyclic order, a very small memory is required. At the demultiplex end, it is necessary to recognise which bit of information belongs to which tributary. This could be achieved by transmitting a fixed code after a fixed number of information bits called “frame”. The fixed code is called frame alignment signal. It is recognised first and received frame of information is aligned to this fixed code.

This method of multiplexing is easy but not reliable. If any deviation in nominal bit rate of a tributary occurs, it will cause loss of time slot and hence loss of information.

4.0

MULTIPLEXING OF ASYNCHRONOUS SIGNAL Here, various tributaries operate at different bit rates.

Two signals are asynchronous at their corresponding significant instant occur at nominally the same rate, any variation in rate being constrained within specified limits. When nominal bit rate of tributaries are within specified limit. It is necessary to synchronize the tributary signal with a common nominal bit rate of multiplexer derived from timing generator of multiplexer. The synchronization is done in such a way that there is no loss of information. The process adopted for such synchronization is called “Pulse stuffing” or justification. Justification is a process of changing the rate of digital signals in a controlled manner. There are three types of justification processes : (a) Positive justification : Common synchronization bit rate offered at each tributary is higher than the bit rate of individual tributary. (b) Positive-negative justification : Common synchronization bit rate offers is equal to the nominal value. (c) Negative justification : Common synchronization bit rate offered is less than the nominal value. Fig. 1(a) shows a configuration where the outputs of two PCM transmitters A&B are to be multiplexed in the combiner. If A and B are synchronous, they can be easily multiplexed by the combiner as shown in Fig. 1(b). Generally, however, A&B are clocked by separate clock sources of asynchronous. In this case multiplexing is not successively accomplished simply by the use of combiner owing to the occurrence of pulse phase fluctuations and/or pulse amplitude superposition as can be seen in Fig.1(c). 5.0 RETIMING ASYNCHRONOUS SIGNALS BY JUSTIFICATION Figure 2 shows a system for explaining the principle of the multiplexer for successfully multiplexing plural asynchronous signals. The waveforms appearing at various points in Fig.2 are shown in Fig.3. An asynch. input pulse train A is written into MEM I comprising several elements. The writing pulse train C whose bit rate is f is extracted from A at a clock extraction (CLK EXT I). On the other hand, the written information is read out of MEM I with a sufficient phase lag with respect to time of writing in. Through an inhibit gate (INH GATE I), the reading pulse train D is obtained by dividing the output bit rate nf (1+ ∆) of a common clock generator (CLK GEN) at a bit rate divider (DIV 1). n ∆ no. of asynch. signals to be multiplexed. clock increase rate.

As the bit rate of the reading pulse train D is set at (f+ ∆ f) which is higher than any value of f, the time of read out (D) gradually approaches that of write in ©. The phase difference between C&D is monitored by a phase comparator of COMP I and just before the difference reaches zero, a pulse is applied to the inhibit input of INH GATE I from a control circuit (CONT I) to inhibit the gate. At this moment, with one bit of the reading pulse train D being removed, the reading operation pauses and an information less pulse (or justification pulse) is inserted into the read out pulse train E. the time of read out (D) at the same time is again set to a sufficient lag with respect to time write in (G). As all the signals read out of the respective memories are now retimed by timing pulses derived from the common CLK GEN, they are now easily multiplexed as F in Fig.3 at the combiner (COMB). The information pulses inserted into E (those hatched in Fig. 3) and this sort of retiming method are respectively called “justification pulses” and “justification”. The information whether or not justification has been performed, is inserted into F and COMB and transmitted to the receiving side. 6.0 RECOVERING ORIGINAL SIGNALS BY DEJUSTIFICATION The justification pulses have to be removed at the receiving side to perfectly recover the original signals. This operation is called “dejustification”. The transmitted pulse train F from the line is received and demultiplexed at distributor (DIST). One of the demultiplexed signal E that corresponds to A, is written into memory MEM 2. The writing pulse train G whose bit rate is ∆is obtained through an ingibit grate (INH GATE 2) by dividing the output bit rate nf(1+ ∆ f) of clock extractor (CLK EXT2). On the other hand, the written information is read out of MEM 2 with a slight phase lag with respect to the time of write in. The reading pulse train H, whose bit rate is f, is applied from voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). As the bit rate of the reading pulse train H is lower than that of the writing pulse train G, the time of read out (H) gradually drifts away from that of write in (G). Just before a justification pulse in E (ONE of these hatched in Fig.3) is written into MEM 2, the information, telling that the justification has been performed is applied from DIST to a control circuit (CONT 2). Then a pulse is applied to the inhibiting input of INH GATE 2 from CONT 2 to inhibit the gate.

At this moment, with one bit of the writing pulse train G being removed, the writing operation pauses and the justification pulse is removed or dejustified. At the same time, the time of read out (H) again set to be very close to the time of write in (G). As the reading operation does not pause, the original signal is recovered as ‘A’. The phase difference between G and H is monitored by a phase comparator (COMP 2), and the low frequency components of the output voltage of COMP 2 are applied to VCO through a low pass filter (LPF). Thus, the jitter introduced due to dejustification into the read out pulse train ‘A’ is sufficiently suppressed. The loop formed by VCO, COMP and LPF is called a “Phase controlled loop”. Figure 4 gives the frame structure for 34 Mbits/sec system. 7.0 JUSTIFICATION CONTROL SIGNAL Justification control signal indicates at demultiplexer the presence of justifiable bit in the frame. To avoid errors present in the justification control bit, more than one bit is transmitted as control bit and majority decision is taken at demultiplexer. Normally 3 or 5 bits (3 bits in case of 8 and 34 Mbits systems and 5 bits in 140M bits system) are transmitted per tributary per frame as justification control bits and 2 or 3 bits present at demultiplexer out of 3 or 5 bits transmitted are taken as majority decision and it is assumed that justifiable bit is present in the frame. These 3 or 5 bits of justification control bits per tributary per frame are distributed in the frame. Two or three digital errors are required to cause false information of justification (loss of one digit or addition of one digit) which results in a loss of frame alignment in lower hierarchical levels. 8.0 HARDWARE REALIZATION OF DIGITAL MULTIPLEX SYSTEM System are realized by digital circuits using TTL and ECL ICs. The typical gate delays and toggling speeds of the different series of ICs are given below : Propagation (typical) LS series TTL S series TTL 10,000 ECL series 15 ns 5 ns 3 ns delays Toggling (typical) 25 MHz 75 MHz 200 MHz speed

As is is evident from the above rates that LS series is suitable only till 8 MHz system, where as S series is suitable for 34 MHz system and 10,000 series is being used for 140 MHz system. 9.0 TRANSMIT TRIBUTARY The information from tributary is written in an elastic memory with tributary clock derived from incoming signal. Elastic memory is read out by a clock which is faster than the clock of its own. Reading clock is derived from common transmit clock (Common synchronization clock). The reading clock is of rate F2/n (where n is the no. of tributaries and F2 is output frequency of multiplexer for ex. 34,368/4 for 34M bit system) with gaps where non information bit occurs in the frame structure (i.e., for frame alignment signal and justification control bit, service digits). Since read clock always operates faster than write clock, it is required to stop read clock for a bit and insert non-information bit-justification bit. The information which read out from memory contains information bit, justification control bit and justifiable bit. The decision when to insert the justifiable bit is taken when linearly increasing phase difference crosses a threshold level. The threshold value is selected in such a way that average rate of read clock is equal to the write clock rate. In the demultiplexer, the clock timing of the input multiplex signal enables a control on the timing of operations. The detection of frame alignment signals enables the receive frame to be aligned with the transmit frame which enables the receiver to demultiplex the tributary information. This tributary information is written in elastic memory as in transmit tributary by the clock derived from receive clock. A phase locked oscillator is used to read the elastic memory with a timing rate equal to the average write clock and, therefore, equal to that of the corresponding tributary signal at the input of the multiplexer. 10.0 JITTER ASPECT OF MULTIPLEX EQUIPMENT While considering the jitter aspect of the multiplex system, different types of jitter introduced in the systems are taken into account such as : (a) (b) (c) Jitter introduced due to the routine insertion of the frame alignment words and of the service digits and justification instructions. Justification jitter. Waiting time jitter.

The first two jitter components are at high frequencies in relation to the pass band of the P.L.L. and hence filtered out, whereas waiting time jitter which is due to

phase difference between write and read clock and varies from frame to frame, has a low frequency component and cannot be jittered out by P.L.L. at the demultiplexer output. 11.0 LINE INTERFACE The output of multiplexer is purely a unipolar digital signal having D.C. voltage. Normally cable are balanced, having no DC component, or minimum DC to avoid cross talk. Any code such as AMI, HDB3, CMI can be chosen, which are bipolar in nature. These line codes are selected in such a way that : 1. Timing signal at the receiver could be extracted easily, hence it should contain enough timing information. Timing signal extraction circuit has limitations because of the “Q factor” of the coil used in the circuit. Higher the Q of coil, the costlier it is. The bandwidth of the signal is kept small. The energy in the upper part of the frequency spectrum should be small in order to avoid attenuation distortion caused by high transmission loss at higher frequency. The energy in the lower part of the frequency spectrum should also be kept small in order to reduce the interference from voice frequency circuit in the same cable and vice-versa. It should have no DC component which could be obtained by selecting a code having minimum digital sum variation.

2.

3.

4.

The output of 2, 8 and 34 MBit systems is in HDB3 code. Rules followed for HDB3 line code are as follows : (i) Every sequence of four consecutive zeros is replaced by either 000V or B00V, where B is a normal bipolar mark and V is a mark violating the AMI sequence. Sequence 000V or B00V is used such that the number of bipolar pulses between successive violation pulse is odd. This ensures that violation pulses, form their own bipolar sequence. The output of 140 MBit system is in CMI code, where the coding rule is as follows : Binary element 1 00 } 11 } CMI code transmitted alternately

(ii)

0

01

Combiner PCM

FIG. 1 (a)
When A & B are Synchronous

FIG. 1 (b)

FIG. 1 ( c )

Fig. 1

Fig. 2 System for Multiplexing & Demultiplexing Asynchronous Signals

ME M2

Fig. 3 Waveforms at Respective Points

380 BITS

FIG. 4

LINE CODES
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The digital output of a PCM equipment contains "1s and 'O's. For transmission of the digital signals between two points, the '1' s and 'O' s contained by the signal are transmitted in the form of pulses as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Pulse representation of digital signals The transmission medium normally used for transmitting PCM signals is the VF cable pair. If the stream of pulses shown in Fig. 1. is transmitted as it is, the signal undergoes high frequency attenuation distortion and also suffers from other kinds of distortion such as cross talk etc. This is because of the electrical characteristics of the VF pair. Moreover the .signal passed through the cable pair has strong DC content. This is because of the characteristics of the signal and those of the medium do not match. 1.2 For distortion free transmission, the PCM output should be converted into a suitable code which will match the characteristics of the medium. This code is called the "line code" and the signal converted to the line code is called a line signal. This handout briefly describes the basic requirements of a line code, the different types of line codes and the operation of an HDB3 code decoder.

2.0 REQUIREMENTS OF A LINE CODE. 2.1 The line code used for transmission of PCM signals should meet the following requirements. (i) The total band width of the signal should be as small as possible. (ii) The energy in the upper part of the signal spectrum should be small so that the attenuation distortion caused by the high transmission losses at high frequencies is very low. The energy in the lower part of the spectrum should also be low to reduce the interference (cross talk) from VF circuits in the same cable. This would minimize interference from the PCM signals to the other VF circuits as well. (It may be recalled that a narrow

(iii)

(iv) (v)

pulse has. a wide frequency spectrum, the energy distribution, i.e. the levels of the various frequency components of the spectrum should be such that the major chunk of the signal power is around the centre of the spectrum. The frequency components in the lower and higher limits of the spectrum should have low levels). There should not be any DC comonent in the line coded sinal (line signal) so that transformers can be used for coupling purposes. The line code should permit easier designs of repeaters. The line code should contain adequate timing information since this is vital for regenerating the signals at repeater stations and at the receiving station for the purpose of synchronization.

2.2

(vi) The line code must have an in-built error monitoring capability. Since the invention of PCM by A.M. Reeves in 1938, a number of line' codes has been designed. A few of them will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

3.0 NRZ BINARY CODE. 3.1 NRZ stands for "Non-return to Zero" code. (i) Suppose we have a code 100111011001 In Pulse form this would appear as in Fig. 2.

. Here it may be seen that whenever a' 1' is continuously transmitted, the output continues at 'V level for a duration equal to the number of bits transmitted. In a30 chl. PCM system, the bit duration is 0.488 micro second. If three '1' 1 s are transmitted, the output signal is a pulse which is 3x0.488 micro seconds wide.

(ii)

In the example the signal has only one polarity. A 'O1 is O volt and a ' 1 ' is positive (say-f-5v). Sometimes, however, a ' 1 ' is denoted by a positive voltage and "O1 is denoted by a negative voltage. A pulse stream 10,0.110111001 in such a case can be represented graphically as in Fig.3.

Here also when there is a string of% 1' s to be transmitted, the output continues at * 1' for as many bits as are continuously transmitted. In both cases, the output does not return to zero after every 'V bit when a number of 1's are transmitted.- for this reason, this type of code is called a non return to zero or "NRZ" binary. When the signal has only one polarity, as in the first example, the code is called unipolar or unbalanced NRZ binary and when the signal has dual polarity, as in the second example it is called a balanced NRZ binary or bipolar NRZ. 3.2 Limitation of NRZ Binary Code. Fig 4. Shows the spectrum of an NRZ binary signal. (i) From the spectrum for the NRZ signal, it can be seen that there is a strong DC component.

FIG.3

BIPOLAR

NRZ

(ii) (iii)

There is a large low frequency content. This may result in cross talk. There is no frequency component at 1/T, 2/T etc. It means that there is no component corresponding to the clock frequency. This makes efficient recovery of timing pulses very difficult. The high DC component does not permit the use of transformers for coupling. Thus the simple NRZ binary code does not satisfy the requirements of a line code.

(iv) (v)

4.0 RZ BINARY 4.1 This is a modification of the NRZ code and stands for "Return to zero" binary. In this '1' bit is represented by a pulse of half the bit duration as shown in Fig. 5 (b) The spectrum for this code is shown in Fig. 5 (c).

FIG. 5. RZ BINARY - WAVEFORM & SPECTRUM

4.2

Here the '1' bits pulse have only 50% duration. From the spectrum we can seen that there is a strong component at 1/T, the clock frequency. Hence clock recovery is possible. But still, because of the strong DC.component and low frequency content, this code is also not suitable for transmission.

5.0 BIPOLAR CODING (AMI CODE). 5.1 AMI stands for "Alternate Mark Inversion" This code solves the DC content problem,. Here, a logic 'O' is represented by o volt and logic '1' is alternately encoded with positive & negative voltages. Therefore, the average voltage is maintained very close to zero and hence there is no DC component. Under steady state conditions a low DC of the order of 0.4 to 0.9 volts only remains. The waveform for an AMI code is shown in Fig. 6.

FIG. 6. AMI CODE. SIGNAL WAVEFORM 5.2.1 From the AMI wave form is can be seen that this code has a built in error monitoring facility. Since alternate marks (or *1's) are to be inverted, any deviation from this would mean an error. This can be practically achieved by having a comparator network which will check the polarity of the ' 1' s received. The spectrum of an AMI code signal (after doing Fourier analysis and plotting the various frequency components of the signal) has a shape as shown in Fig. 7.

FIG. 7. SPECTRUM OF AMI SIGNAL (ii) From the spectrum For the AMI code it can be seen that the maximum power is centred around the half bit rate i.e. 1/2T and that there is no DC component. Although the AMI code satisfies most of the line code requirements, a series of *O's is encountered, the timing information is likely to be lost. This is a limitation of the AMI code.

(iii)

(iv) 5.3

The AMI code is the one specified for 24 channel PCM systems.

Generation of AMI code. Fig. 8. shows the block schematic of the network used to generate the AMI code.

The serial PCM output in RZ binary form is fed to the flioflop toggle point and to the gates G1 and G2 as show (ii) Cricuit operation (A) First make arrives Under this condition, the flip flop is set and Q goes HIGH. Consequently Gl output goes HIGH which triggers the positive generator. The output of this generator is a positive pluse. The wave forms for this condition are shown in section I of Fig. 9.

(i)

FIG. 9. AMI GENERATION - WAVEFORMS FOR FIG.5

(B)

The next mark arrives
This pulse will reset the flip flop. Hence Q goes HIGH. G2 will be also HIGH and it triggers the -ve generator whose output is a negative pulse as shown in section II.

(C)

Two continuous ‘1 ' s arrive
Under this condition, the flip flop is Set by the first bit and Reset by the second. Therefore G1 goes HIGH first to generate a positive pulse and G2 goes HIGH next to generate a negative pulse as shown in section III. The adder network combines the outputs of negative and positive pulse generators to give the AMI output. These various wave forms are shown in Fig. 9. from (a) to (h).

6.0 HDB3 CODE 6.1 To overcome the timing difficulties in the AMI code another code called the HDB3 code has been devised. The abbreviation HDB stands for HIGH-DENSITY BIPLOAR code.

6.2 (i) The HDB3 code is actually a code from a family of codes derived from what is called binary N zero substitution or BNZS method. (ii) In this method, the PCM signal is usually transmitted according to the AMI code; but when a string of N zeroes is encountered, the N zeroes are replaced by a special code, which will deliberately introduce a bipolar deviation or violation. (Normally in the AMI code, if there are N zeroes, they will be transmitted as such. But in the BNZS method, a ' 1 ' pulse is introduced deliberately. The polarity of this " 1 ' depends upon the polarity of the previous mark encountered. This additional' 1 ' pulse introduced in place of a '0' is called a "violation"). (iii) When the substitution of a zero by a violation pulse is done for 4 zeroes, (i.e. N = 4) the BNZS code is called the B4ZS code. Since this code precludes strings of zeroes greater than three, it is also referred to as a HDB3 code. Here when the number of zeroes is more than 3, the fourth bit position is filled with a violation pulse. Consecutive violations are made to be of opposite polarity so that these violations themselves donot produce any DC component. The violation pulse is always placed in the last bit position. Suppose there are 4 zeroes coming in a row. Then the HDB3 code for this would be BOOV in general where V is the violation pulse. The polarity of this depends on the polarity of the last '1' and the number of %1'"encountered prior to the four zeroes.

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

The first bit of the code was shown as B in (v) above. B is set to '0' if the number of '1' s encountered prior to the violation is ODD. If it is EVEN or ZERO then the "B" bit is filled with a T whose polarity is in

accordance with the AMI code. i.e. if the previous ' 1' was positive + then B is '1' with negative polarity and vice versa. (vii) The substitution rules stated above are summarized in table 1.

Table 1. HDB3 Code - Substitution Rules Number of ' 1 ' since last Violation Polarity of preceding Odd '1' Negative 000 V" Positive 000 V + Even B+OOV+ B" 00 V

From the above Table it can be seen that when the number of Ts is even, the HDB3 substitution is BOOV; in this, B follows the AMI code and V follows B. If 'B' is positive, then V is also a positive pulse. Thus consecutive violations are made to be of opposite polarity so that there is no DC component added by the violations themselves. 6.3 Examples of HDB3 Code Conversion Condition 1.

6.3.1. (Number of' 1 's preceding violation is ODD.) Consider the NRZ binary wave form given in Fig 10 (a). Assume that there is no previous violation.

[NO of 1 = ODD] Fig 10 (b) is the RZ binary form for Fig 10 (a).

Fig 10 (c) is the corresponding HDB3 Code. (i) Notice that upto pulse Z, the HDB3 Code follows the AMI Code. (ii) After pulse Z, we have four consecutive zeroes. This calls for a violation. (iii) Prior to the arrival of these zeroes, three ‘1's were encountered i.e. number of ‘1 's preceding the violation is ODD. (iv) This means that the HDB3 substitution for the 4 zeroes will be of the form 000V. (v) Also the polarity of the last ' 1 ' before the arrival of the zeroes is positive. Therefore the violation pulse will also be a positive pulse, as shown shaded in Fig 10 (c). Then the fourth pulse P arrives which is converted according to AMI code as shown. EX: Draw the HDB3 code with the first pulse in Fig 10 (c) as a negative pulse. 6.3.2 Example 1. (b) Consider the RZ binary wave form shown in Fig 11 (a). In this the first pulse is a violation pulse resulting from the occurrence of 4 zeroes just before pulse X. (vi)

(i)

Here, the first pulse is positive violation pulse. The next pulse (i.e. pulse X) is converted in accordance with AMI code and is therefore shown as a negative pulse in Fig 11 (b). After pulse X we get 4 Zeroes. Now, the total number of '1's SINCE the last violation is one, i.e. ODD. Therefore the substitution is of the form 000V. As the polarity of the last M' before the arrival of zeroes is negative, the violation pulse is also negative which is shown as a shaded pulse. (V-).

(ii) (iii) (iv)

6.3.3 Example 1 (c) Consider the RZ wave form shown in fig 12 (a), assume that there was no previous violation.

(i) (ii)

FIG. 12. EXAMPLE OF HDB3 CODE [1(c)] Here after pulse X, we have 4 zeroes and again after pulse Y, 4 more zeroes. The first pulse goes as a positive pulse. The next four zeroes are substituted by 000 V because the polarity of the last '1' is positive and the total number is ODD. Then pulse is converted into a negative pulse according to AMI code. The next 4 zeroes are substituted by 000V since in this case the total number of '1' s is again ODD and the polarity of the last '1' is negative. Condition 2 :Number of T EVEN consider the RZ binary shown in Fig.13 (a) and assume that there was no previous violation.

(iii) (iv) 6.3.4

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

In this case the pluses X and Y are converted according to AMI Code as shown in Fig 13 (b). Four zeroes are encountered after pulse Y. Here the number of' 1 's prior to these zeroes is EVEN and therefore the substitution is of the form BOOV. Since the last "1' is a negative pulse, from Table 1 the substitution BOOV. The HDB3 substitution for the 4 zeroes is shown in Fig 13 (b) as shaded positive pulses. The next pulse Z is converted as a negative pulse in accordance with AMI code.

6.3.5 Example 2 (b) Consider the RZ wave form shown in Fig 14 (a). Assume there was no previous violation.

Fig 14. HDB CODE CONVERSION (eg 2b) (i) In this case, the wave form begin with 4 zeroes. There are no previous violations. The number of "1's preceding the string of "0" is zero i.e. EVEN. Therefore, The substitution is of the form boov.

(ii)

(iii)

The (AMI) coding network is so designed that the very first bit is always a positive pulse. Hence the HBD3 code for Fig 14 (a) would be 00 V which is as shown in Fig 14 (b). The following " 1's X, Y and 2 are converted according to AMI code.

(iv)

6.3.6 Example 2 (C) Consider the RZ wave from in Fig 15 (a). Assume a positive violation pulse to start with.

Fig. 15 HDB2 code conversion [eg. 2 (c) (i) Here, as shown in Fig 15 (b), a positive violation pulse is assumed. Then we have pulses X and Y which are converted according to AMI code. After pulse Y, we get 4 zeroes. Theses should be substituted by BOOV since the number of' 1 's is EVEN. Further since the polarity of the last ' 1 ' is positive, the code would be B 00V. This is shown as shaded pulsed in Fig 15 (b). Then pulse Z is converted according to AMI code.

(ii) (iii)

6.3.7 Example 2 (d) Consider the RZ Wave form in Fig 16 (a)

(i) (ii)

Here after pulses X and Y, we get eight consecutive zeroes. X and Y follow AMI code. Number of T s is Even in this case.

(iii)

The first four zeroes are substituted by B 00 V since the last' 1' was

negative. (iv) (v) After the first 4 zeroes, we have another 4 zeroes coming number of' 1' in this case zero i.e. EVEN again. Hence the second set of zeroes is also converted as BOOV. But the polarity of the last '1' (although it was a violation pulse), was positive. Hence, the second set of zeroes is converted, as B 00 V Pulse Z, then follows AMI code, The substitution pulses are shown in shaded areas in Fig 16 (b).

(vi) (vii) 6.4

But for the insertion of violation pulses, the HDB2 coding is similar to the AMI code. The spectrum for the HDB3 code is shown in Fig. 17

From the spectrum it can be seen that there is no DC component and that maximum power is around 0.46/T. It means that the power in the lower and upper limits of the spectrum is low. This would minimize high frequency alternation and cross talk. Although this spectrum also has mulls at 1/T2/T etc, because of the violation pulse introduced, timing is not lost when a long string of zeroes is encountered. The HDB3 code satisfies ad the requirements of a line code and is therefore specified by the CCCTT for 30 channel PCM systems having 2048 kbits/sec, clock. 7.0 HDB3 CODER & DECODER Fig. 18 shows a simplified block schematic of an HDB3 CODER Here, the encoder output is passed to the AMI circuit through a A bit shift register. The shift register output is also fed to a ^4 ZERO DETECTOR'. Normally, the HDB3 CODER FUNCTIONS as an AMI code generator. When 4 or more *O's come, they are detected and an output goes to the violation command circuit during this operation the 0 detector is inhibited for 4 clock periods. The mark counter gives a ' 1 ' when even number of marks are encountered. When ODD ' 1 ' are encountered, the AND gate O/P is zero. The pulse from the violation command circuit is added to AMI output. When even * 1 ' s are encountered, the AND gate output SETS the first stage of the shift register. This goes to the AMI circuit and gets coded according to AMI law. The violation pulse is then added after a delay of 2 bits. After the violation pulse is added, the inhibit circuit and more counter are cleared.

7.2

HDB3 DECODER The HDB3 code must be decoded into RZ binaryform at there receiving end for detecting the analog signal. The HDB3 decoder used for this purpose has the following function. (a) Detect an AMI violation (b) Count the number of zeros preceding the violation This is done to determine if the last received mark is HBD substitution or an error. Fig. 19 shows a simplified block schematic of an HDB3 decoder.

Here the RZ converter converts all negative pulse into positive pulses. These are then fed to a four bit shift register. When there is no violation. (i.e. when there are no continuous zeroes present) the shift register gives a serial output which is RZ binary form.

Simultaneously, The AMI violation detector checks for a deviation from the AMI code. If alternate N1's are not having opposite polarity, then it gives an output which will reset all the four bits of the shift register to zero. (This is done because, at the transmitting end when a number of zeroes are faced the V bit in BOOV code was inserted with a polarity opposite to that of the previous mark By resetting the shift register we are converting the BOOV code back to 0000. This is what is desired). The output of the shift register is a serial RZ digital signal with the HDB3 code substitutions removed. This RZ signal is the same as the TDM multiplexed output of the PCM equipment and this can be further processed through PCM decoder to retrieve the analog signal. Waveforms Typical HDB code/decoder wave forms are shown in Fig.20.

8.0 CMI CODE (CODED MARK INVERSION) 8.1 This is a 2 level NRZ code in which a binary '0' is coded as '01' and binary ‘1's are coded alternatively as a logic '0' or T. In case of a binary '0' the two CMI bits '0' and '1' are for half clock duration whereas for binary Ts the 'O1 and '1' are for full clock duration. This is illustrates in Fig.21.

This is basically a binary code and the bit rate of the code is twice the bipolar AMI code. For this reason CMI code is grouped with 1B2B family of line codes. The CMI code has a high clock content and for this reason. The CMI code is recommended by CCITT for 140 Mb/s multiplex equipment (not a line code). 9.0 4B-3T CODE 9.1 This is a redundant ternary line code. In this code, blocks of FOUR binary input digits are translated into cords of three ternary digits. The code has following features. • Reduction of line frequency by 25% compared to AMI signals. • • • Provides possibility of Inservice Monitoring of BER by monitoring RDS (Running Digit sound) Code efficiency is a high as 84% Rapid block synchronization

This code is used in line systems of 34 Mb/s and 140 Mb/s capacity.

AB3 T code combination 0000 + 0 0001 + 0 0010 0 + 0011 + 0 0100 + + 0 0101 0 + + 0110 + 0 + 0111 + + + 1000 + + 1001 + + 1010 + + 1011 + 0 0 1100 0 + 0 1101 0 0 + 1110 0 + 1111 0 A Bit binary 3 Bit Ternary Other Ternary combinations are also possible. The Exact combination Varies for manufacturer to manufacturer. 10.0 BINARY CODES 10.1 There are 2 level binary codes for used in optical line transmission. These are called alphabetical codes, these have the form 2N-1) B2NB where N is an integer. Some of the codes are : 1B2Bcode(n = 1) 3B 4B code (n = 2) 5B 6B code (n = 3) 11.0 COMPARISON OF LINE CODES Parameter Levels Redundancy Normalized timing constant Normalized average power Max. No. Of consecutive 'O's Input rate O/P rate DSV (Digital sum variation) AMI 3 58.5% 1 1 4 1 1 HDB3 3 58.5% 1.28 1.2 3 1 2 4B3T 3 18.8% 0.76 1.36 4 1.33
7

9.2

11.2 SPECTRAL COMPARISON OF LINECODES Fig. 22 Shows a comparison of the spectra of various line codes.

12.0 POWER DENSITY OF DIFFERENT CODES The digital output of the PCM equipment is as such not suitable for transmission over a cable pair. It has to be converted into a suitable line code which will match the physical parameters of the medium. A number of codes have been devised for this purpose of these the most important are the AMI code and the HDB3 code which meet almost all the basic requirement of a line code. The working principle of an HDB3 decoder has also been outlined in this handout. 13.0 5B6B CODE: 13.1 The coding is done as per Table - 1. For 5 bits of input signal to the code, either state 1 or state 2 of 6 bit code is selected as shown in figure (23). Disparity information is used to select the state of the current 6 bit code word as compared with the previous transmitted state. For example, if state 1 is selected, the input 5 bit data is converted into the corresponding 6 bit code in state-1 in Table-1.

If the disparity of the converted 6-bit"code is 0, the next 5-bit data is also converted into a6-bit code in state-1. if the disparity is +2, the next 5 bit data is converted into a 6 bit code in state 2. Thus state 1 and state 2 are alternated by a detection of disparity + 2 or - 2.

In 5B6B Decoder, the disparity information is used to decide the state of the current 6-bit code as compared with the previously recognized state. Normally disparity+2and -2 are received alternately with disparity 0 ; thus state 1 and state 2 .are alternated. If an error detector detects any uncertainty state shown in figure (24) with reference to violation of 5B6B decoding law or detects no code word, the error detector generates an error alarm. 5B6B code in used in 34 Mb/s and 140 Mb/s optical line systems. ` ````` Input word 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 State 1 101011 011100 110001 101001 011010 010011 101100 111001 . 100110 010101 010111 100111 110011 011110 101110 110100 OOT011 011101 011011 111000 110110 111010 101010 011001 101101 001101 110010 010110 100101 100011 001110 110101 Table -1 5B6B Coding Law d State 2 2 010100 0 011100 0 110001 0 101001 0 011010 0 010011 0 101100 2 000110 0 100110 0 010101 2 101000 2 011000 2 000111 2 100001 2 010001 0 110100 0 001011 2 100010 2 100100 0 001100 2 001001 2 000101 0 101010 : 0 011001 2 010010 0 001101 0 110010 0 010110 0 100101 0 100011 0 001110 2 001010 d -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 -2 -2 0 -2 -2 0 0 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2. 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2

Different Access Techniques

Different Access Techniques 1.0 INTRODUCTION

Across Network, the network between local exchange and subscribers in the Telecom Network accounts for A major portion of resources both) in terms of capital and manpower. So far, the subscriber loop has remained in the domain of the copper cable providing cost effective solution in the past. Need for quick deployment of subscriber loop, coverage of inaccessible & remote locations and requirement of more bandwidth for new services coupled with advances in technology have led to the emergence of new Access Technologies. Modern access network technologies are discussed here. 2.0 IMPORTANCE OF ACCESS NETWORK

At present the access network represents approximately 45% to 50% of the total capital investment in the telecom network. It is therefore a very substantial portion of total network and must be given due attention. If this access network is properly maintained most of the problems in the telecom network could be avoided. However the copper pair cables still dominate the subscriber loop (local network) due to certain reasons primarily based on techno- economic considerations. This copper based local network is considered to be responsible for most of the faults in telecom network. The obvious reasons are congestion of underground facilities, complex network planning and limitation of copper cables to handle digital signals leading to a network inappropriate for extending broadband integrated services digital network (ISDN). Introduction of Digital Technology coupled with radio transmission and optical fiber cable has revolutionized Telecom Network worldwide. The overall reliability of network has improved vastly. In India too these concepts have been field tried in the access network. The implementation of the above technologies in the access network can be as follows: a) b) c) Using radio in the access network (WILL Technology) Using fiber in the access network (FITL Technology) Exploiting the existing copper (HDSL,ADSL,VDSL Technologies) network for higher bandwidths.

Let us discuss above modern technologies which are largely set to replace copper in subscriber loop.

3.0

WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP (WILL)

Radio communication has been employed as a replacement for copper based cables in the long distance media for several years. More recent developments of digital radio and advances in micro-electronic circuits have given rise to wireless in local loop (WILL). It involves using radio to replace the wired link between PSTN switch and the subscriber. WILL is generally used as "the last mile solution" to deliver basic phone services expeditiously where none has existed before. It shall facilitate cordless telephony for residential as well as commercial complexes where people are highly mobile. It is also used in remote areas where it is uneconomical to lay cables and for rapid development of telephone services. The main advantages of this technology are: 1. Fast deployment and hence early access to revenue. 2. Reduced service interruptions. 3. Low maintenance & operational costs. The radio technology is able to offer the same level of service quality as that provided by wire line technology. The subscribers have no knowledge of their radio connection and may access all the offered PSTN services in exactly the same way as if they were directly connected by wire line. Application of wireless local loop has just started worldwide. The technology employed shall depend upon various radio access techniques like FDMA, TDMA, CDMA. There is no international standard for this so far. However, a number of national and regional air interface standards for Digital Cellular Mobile Telephone system and cordless telephony are available. These are being adopted for fixed wireless in local loop application. The various technologies available in International market for WILL application are as follows. 4. TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR WILL 4.1 Basically two types of technology options are available for wireless in local loop. The first one based on cellular mobile Telephone system can be adopted for fixed wireless in local loop application. These systems have Macro cell architecture with cell radius of tens of kilometers ( typically 10-20 Kms), The second type based on Micro cell architecture are extension of cordless telephone systems. These systems have cell radius of few hundred meters (typically 50-200 mts). 4.2 Point to Multi Point (PMP) systems also called Digital MARR systems are becoming available. These systems can cover long range depending upon line of sight conditions (LOS) and repeaters. These systems can be found attractive in hilly areas, isolated islands or largely dispersed habitation where multiple of subscribers are to be served.

4.3

Satellite media can also be used to extend local loop to subscribers who are otherwise located at inaccessible places where laying of cables or line of sight radio media is not economically justified. For example certain villages have been extended gram panchnyat telephones using satellite media for providing rural communication. Generally social factors dominate cost considerations for providing local loops in such cases. Now a days very small aperture terminals (VSATs) being used for interactive data communication have proved successful in business/ corporate applications. Multichannel per carrier VSATs are also used to extend trunk junctions to remote and inaccessible/ hilly areas. Through its wide area broadcast capability, a geo stationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite is able to deliver essentially the same throughput signal throughout the country or region at an attractive cost per user.Taking advantage of this factor direct to home (DTH) satellite broadcasting with a smaller antenna at the subscriber roof top is also an extension of local loop over the satellite. Many personal communication services (PCN) services have been planned using low earth orbit ( LEO) satellites which permit users with portable/ handheld terminals to connect themselves directly to the LEO satellites. In the process the local loop is extended for fixed/mobile application.

4.5

FREQUENCY BAND

The WILL technologies available in different frequency & their important parameter are indicated below: SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY MACRO CELLULAR GSM FREQUENCY 890-915 935-960 Mhz LARGE TDMA DAMPS 824-849 869-894 Mhz LARGE TDMA CDMA 824-849 869-894 Mhz LARGE CDMA MICRO CELLULAR CT2 864-868 Mhz DECT 18101900 Mhz SMALL TDMA PHS 18951918 Mhz SMALL TDMA

CELL SIZE MULTIPLE ACCESS

SMALL FDMA 100 Khz 1

RF CHL 200 Khz SPACING VOICE CHL / 8

30 Khz 3

1250 Khz 25-45

1728 Khz 12

300 Khz 4

CARRIER

MODULATION GSM DAMPS CDMA CT-2 DECT PHS 5.0

GMSK

PIE/4QPSK

CDMA

FSK

GFSK

PIC/4 QPSK

Global System for Mobile Communication Digital Advance Mobile Phone Service Code Division Multiple Access Cordless Telephony-2 Digital Enhanced Cordless Technology Personal Handiphone Service FIBER IN LOCAL LOOP (FITL)

In order to overcome the limitations of copper cable and to be able to support value added broadband service like data, cable Video, HDTV and increased use of computer which require bandwidth on demand, optical fiber is introduced in the local loop. In light of its infinite bandwidth and high reliability, optical fiber cable is the automatic choice for the local loop. 5.1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL FIBER IN THE LOOP Impact of environmental factors is almost negligible on optical fiber cable. Optical fiber cables are not susceptible to electromagnetic interference and hence there is no possibility of intercepting information at any point The limitation on loop resistance is eliminated by introduction of active elements providing appropriate amplification. Because of fiber’s unlimited bandwidth capacity up-gradation is very simple as it can be affected by simply changing the end terminal equipment. Repeated digging & cable laying is not required. Small size of fiber cable avoids congestion in ducts & crowding at MDF. Due to their inherent wide band width capability optical fiber cable can support narrow band and broadband ISDN services. They can also support video transmission, thus bringing the telephone services and cable TV operations together.

(v) (vi)

The advantages offered by FITL and limitations of copper access network can be tabulated as:

Copper Access Challenges • • Bandwidth Limited

Network • • •

FITL Advantages Virtually unlimited bandwidth Reduced errors impact of forecasting with

Planning/Engineering

Simplified engineering universal access “No maintenance with fiber" Requires physical security only Dielectric media Permanent Outside Plant

• • • •

Maintenance Security Reliability Obsolescence

• • • •

5.2

FITL NETWORKING

The long term objective of FITL is to take the fiber right upto the subscriber premises or else to extend the fiber as close .to subscriber as possible. The various approaches towards the end goal depending upon its penetration in the access network can be listed below (I) (ii) (iii) Fiber to the Building (FTTB) Fiber to the Curb Fiber to the Home (FTTC) (FTTH)

IMPLEMENTATION While the use of fiber optics in the access network is extremely advantageous and promising but it is still in the initial stages. Currently fiber costs are higher as compared to copper but there is a trend towards decreasing costs of opto-electoronics and optical fiber cables. Some of the implementation issues and limitations of FITL specially in Indian contest are as follows:

(I) The reliable power supply at the remote end other than the exchange end is a must to exploit the reliability and other advantages promised by FITL concept. (II) There is no major identified demand for broad band ISDN service. Thus unless the cost economics of FITL is justified its application may be some what slow. 6.0 HIGH BIT RATE DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (HDSL) While there is no denying the fact that the fiber will eventually take over the last mile (access portion) of the network ,it is felt & generally accepted that it would not be economically justified immediately and, would take some more time before it penetrates in the access network. The Telecom Administrations world over have already invested a lot in, terms of their copper based network and will continue to do so until the fiber becomes more techno-economically feasible. Till such time there is no alternative but to exploit the already buried (but not dead) copper to carry more and more bandwidth. HDSL is one such1 technology employing a transmission technique which derives substantial capacity advantage in transporting digital signals in local network over existing copper pairs by providing clear 64 kb/s channels supporting voice, FAX and data services with a improved transmission performance. In other words HDSL is able to convert the copper pairs into high speed digital line carriers what were essentially individual voice telephone line carriers. HDSL technology promises following advantages a) b) c) d) e) The subscriber connectivity over a. distance of 4.5 Kms on 0.5 mm copper pairs carrying 2.048 Mb/s data. The adaptive digital signal processing used in HDSL allows near fiber-quality transmission. Remote power fading over copper wires from exchange to subscribers. There is no need for any cable conditioning or selection of pairs. It is possible to extend the range of operation to 9 Kms over single repeater.

HDSL Technology can prove very useful in improving inter exchange junction working and subscriber access network utilizing The already buried copper pair cables. Recently some new technologies Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSI.) and very high Speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) have come up which promise to

implement digital TV broadcast , video on demand interactive distance learning and home shopping on the same simple existing copper lines. ADSL can carry 6 Mb/s signal over 3.5 Kms (approx)and VDSL can carry 26 Mb/s to 52Mb/s over a short distance of 600-1000 meters approximately. Later on it is expected to carry even 620 Mb/s over 100 meters. VDSL may find its use in business applications within a building. Many Telecom Administrations are beginning to evaluate and install ADSL services.

8.0

CONCLUSION

Subscriber loops form a very important part of telecom network The increasing appreciation of draw backs of present copper based network and introduction of high band width services have necessitated many alternate modern access technologies. Flexibility and expediency are becoming the key driving factors behind the deployment of WILL. This is a step towards mobile communications leading towards personal communication services.(PCS) The deployment of optical fiber in the access network promises many advantages as compared to traditional copper cable network. Fiber extension closer to subscriber premises will provide an economical, flexible and easily up gradable transport media for carrying existing and emerging range of services including telephony, distributive video services, high bit rate data and Broadband ISDN services. HDSL, ADSL and VDSL technologies allow a techno-economically feasible migration from copper based network to a broad band fiber based network of future. These modern Access Technologies shall avoid further large scale deployment of copper cable and shall pave the way for setting up a strong Access Network infrastructure required to step in the future Telecom Network of 21st Century.

PLANNING GUIDELINES FOR OFC OVERLAY ACCESS NETWORK In January 2001 BSNL Board in its meeting has decided to provide direct fiber to the Commercially Important Customers. Minutes of the meeting have been issued vide letter number 214-117/2000 TPL ( CX ) dated 31/01/01. Initially the project was to be taken up in 8 cities, viz Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Ernakulam, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune, where the No of DELs have exceeded 3 Lakhs. The business cases of Chennai, Hyderabad and Ernakulam Access Network is planned for 37 cities during this year, where more than 1 Lakh DELs are existing. These guidelines are issued in order to achieve the following objectives.

a. Provision of fiber to customers from end to end at a later date. b. Provide strong fiber infrastructure in an organized manner c. To achieve convergence d. Minimise the investment on the outdoor plant. e. Avoid repeated trenching in the city limits in the same areas. f. Integrate the needs of all the services/ wings of BSNL requiring the fiber media. At present our fiber network is in the Fiber To The Network (FTTN) state. The Access Network is proposed to reach upto the Curb so that the Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) can be achieved. Fiber to the Building (FTTB) and Fiber to the Home can be achieved in the later phases of expansion. Thus Access Network is essential in every city where data/ leased line customers are in a good number. The last mile to the customer is the most unreliable link compared to the reliable communication system we have from one exchange to other. It is more appropriate to call this last mile as First mile since the customer is always comes first in any direction to the exchange. Access Network shall strengthen the First mile and also allows us to

deliver the giga bit band width to the customers. It shall also enable us to enter in to Service Level Agreements with customers to the extent of 99.9%. The Access Network is proposed to be used as the platform for offering future services such as Metro Local Area Network (Metro LAN), Wide Area Network ( WAN ), Ethernet over SDH, Ethernet over MPLS ( EoMPLS) and Storage Area Networks ( SAN). The planning aspects can be mainly classified under following points :Network Planning 1. Type of Duct 2. Duct Planning 3. Duct Utilization 4. Detailed Survey 5. Fiber Planning 6. FDMS 7. Project Estimate 8. Duct Laying 10. Cable Laying 11. Preventive Maintenance 1. NETWORK PLANNING The Network ultimately should provide end to end fiber connectivity for high bandwidth users. The Network should provide additional fiber connectivity between BSNL exchanges and Transmission centers. It should also be capable of building up of leased lines traffic from exchanges to other exchanges or transmission centers as required. The Network should provide alternate media between exchanges, RLUs, RSUs and DLCs. Broadband data traffic should have access and aggregate points in the network. The duct planning should be done in order to cover the potential customers as listed below. Universities, colleges, schools, hospitals, hostels, multistoried buildings, cinema theatres, software technology parks, industrial pockets, exhibition grounds, Air ports, posts, railway station, travel agencies internet

service providers, cable operators, call centers, training institution, research centers, banks, cellular service providers etc.

The following information is to be collected before planning the Network :Existing duct plan Existing OFC Network (N/W) DLCs working & planned Pillar locations Location of existing exchanges, RLUs, RSUs Location of TAX, & transmission centers Route for cable laying where permission is already granted Routes for which permission applied for Road map of the city Location of important places such as Hospitals, Colleges, Business establishments etc. All the above data is to be drawn on the road map of the city. This shall be the starting point for the planning of the network. 2. TYPE OF DUCT : In order to provide fibers for CICs, DLCs, junction traffic, long distance traffic and other value added services such as cellular, WILL High Count fibers are to be used. Provision of fibers for these needs may be required to be done in many phases. This indicates that multiple pipes are essentially to be laid in city limits. 40 mm Permanently lubricated HDPE pipes (PLB HDPE pipes) are to be used for laying the OF cables. Coloured pipes should be used to identify the multiple cables to be laid. Quality of the pipe is plays very critical role in the Access network. The PLB pipe being laid is proposed to serve as the permanent reusable duct. The cables are

expected to be deblown and blown in these ducts, when high count fibers are to be laid in place of the existing cables. TEC specification is available for 40mm & 32 mm (outer diameter) PLB HDPE pipes. OF cables with 16 mm Outer diameter, can be easily blown in 40mm Pipe. The 96 F/ 48F OF cable supplied by M/s Sterlite and M/s Icomm have an outer diameter of 18 mm. The 96F cable has been successfully blown in 40mm PLB pipe in Chennai. 96/48F can be also pulled in the PLB pipe subject to the condition that the pulling force does not exceed 2.5x Weight of cable for 1 KM. Cable blowing is to be planned in the PLB pipe used in the Access Network. In general the cable blowing shall be done by the pipe supplier within the agreement time. Access Work may require more PLB couplers and end plugs. Since pipes are being laid by other private operators, it becomes essential to identify our pipes. Accordingly manufacturer may be asked to put BSNL logo, name on the pipe. Protection arrangements for these multiple PLB ducts should be reconsidered. When multiple pipes are laid, the trench width shall increase. For protecting these multiple pipes, RCC slabs or rocky slabs ( eg: cuddapah stones) of width atleast 40 cms may have to be used. ( 40 cm x 50 cm x 4cm ). Use of higher diameter GI and RCC round pipes are required at the bridges and culverts. A minimum of 7 PLB pipes can be accommodated in 150 mm GI / RCC pipes. 3. DUCT PLANNING Trenching and reinstatement in cities is becoming very difficult, time consuming and highly expensive. Lot of coordination with corporation/municipality and other infrastructure agencies is required. Apart from this, the inconvenience to public and other infrastructure agencies imply that the trenching for laying the PLB ducts should be a one time job. Hence instead of laying one or two pipes, looking at the current need, it is essential that multiple pipes are to be laid.

In general, the number of ducts may be planned as 8/7/6/5/4. In the core areas more than 8 number of ducts may be planned. More number of ducts may be planned within 200 Mtrs of the exchange surroundings. While doing the duct planning, existing concrete duct is to be considered. Possibility of removing existing unused copper cables in ducts may have to be explored. The new duct being planned should cover all the existing pillar locations, DLC locations. In general polygonal architecture is proposed, with the main telephone exchanges, RLUs, RSU, Transmission centers as the polygon vertices. Main The polygon arms are planned with Multiple PLB HDPE Pipes. RSU Triangle B

A

Outer arm Primary Arm C Main

A

B

Inner arms are also proposed in Polygon each with 12 no. of ducts

Inner arm Distribution Arm C

The polygon by name indicates that the duct can be planned with any number of arms. A few examples are shown for rectangle and Pentagon.

A

B

A

B

C C D E RECTANGLE PENTAGON

D

Many places as the geography does not permit such Polygons with the distribution arms meeting at a place, the polygons may be planned as shown below.

A

B

C

D

The advantages of planning the ducts in the polygon fashion is as given below.

a. The exchange areas are demarcated automatically b. OF Cable ring structures are formed inherently. c. This structure helps in growing towards mesh network. d. Facilitates direct connectivity among different exchange areas. e. Transmission Network integration is achieved. f. The network is scalable as the Polygons can be added externally as well as internally. Triangle and rectangular(parallelogram) type polygons may be planned in the core areas and Pentagons, Hexagons and above may be planned in the areas surrounding core areas and Peripheral areas.

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