LOAD & TRAFFIC OBSERAVATION

The

most important objective of operation and maintenance of a switching

system is to ensure-consistently stable switching operation and to achieve the best possible grade of service (GOS) with optimum utilisation of resources. With a view to get the data concerning the GOS on a SWG system, the load and traffic observation function is implemented in the system. Also this function has been found to be offering a powerful tool to the managers and the engineers for planning and dimensioning and operation and maintenance of these exchanges.

Load :

No Of any type of calls or Exchange Units in a particular status, at a given instant of time.

Traffic : No Of calls or Exchange Units in a particular status, during a given
period of observation.

LOAD AND TRAFFIC OBSERVATION PRINCIPLE: RESOURCES
Load and traffic observation function has been implemented as a two stage operation

Counting operations are performed periodically by the various exchange units either automatically or by operator commands without involving OM and the results of such counting are stored in dedicated memory locations of exchange

units called : “BULK METERS” THESE COUNTERS ARE

“RAW DATA COUNTERS” or

AVAILABLE

AT

EXCHANGE

LEVEL

LOCATED IN The control Units (MR, TX, MQ) ETA & URA software machine In the No. 7 signalling processor software machine (MLPC)

• On demand from the operator, the OM fetches the Raw Data Counter values
from the exchange, and does some arithmetic computation based on predefined formula resident in the observation files in OM disk. The results of such computations are stored in what are called

“PROCESSED DATA COUNTERS” OR OBSERVATION METER
THESE COUNTERS ARE AVAILABLE AT OM LEVEL -Raw Data Counters are inaccessible to the operator, whereas Processed Counters are accessible to the operator -Size of Counters varies from 1 byte to 4 bytes. Data

TYPES OF COUNTERS At Exchange level : available Raw Data Counters are of 2 types:

1.

Raw Data Load Counters OR Bulk Charging meters “CC”
:- The contents of these counters indicate the instantaneous
value of

• • -

The No. of unit in a particular status The No. of Switching operations in progress These counters store values such as: no. of lines in lockout condition

-

no. of busy trunks in a trunk group no. of O/G calls in progress in the exchange no. of busy call processing registers in the exchange The content of these counters may vary and can go up or down. with the load at the time of observation.

2. Raw Data Peg (Total) counters or Bulk Total Meters
event counters.

“CT” :They indicate

These counters count the events as they occur and hence are also called the cumulative no. of events recorded in the exchange up to the time of their readout and will be reset when the max. value is reached. These are therefore always counting up. For example :• • no. of calls with no first backward signal from the forward exchange. no. of calls with incomplete dialling Raw Data Load Counters & Raw Data Peg Counters are also known by system as STATE “ET” & EVENTS “EV” METERS RESPECTIVELY.

AT OM LEVEL: Available Processed Data Counters are of 4 Types
1. PROCESSED DATA LOAD COUNTER OR OBSERVATION CHARGING COUNTER

“CCO” Stores the results of summing or differencing of raw data load counters values. Example: ZE = ZME1 (*) – ZME2 (*) Where
ZE =

No. of MR registers busy in the exchange at any moment

ZNE1 (*) = ZME1 (1) + ZME1 (2) + ....... + ZME1 (6) = sum of MR registers operational in each MR

or

= Total no. of MR registers operational in the exchange
ZME2 (*) = ZME2 (1) + ZME2 (2) + ....... + ZME2 (6) = No. of free / idle MR registers in the exchange

2. PROCESSED DATA PEG COUNTER OR OBSERVATION TOTAL COUNTE “CTO” Stores the results of summing or differences of raw data peg counters. Ex: – Where AE1 ARF3 (*) ARF5 (*) = Total no. of frequency receiver seizures
= No. of frequency receiver bids (seizure)

AE1 = ARF3 (*) – ARF5 (*)

= No. of unsuccessful frequency receiver bids Seizure

3. PROCESSED DATA RESULT COUNTER OR OBSERVATION RESULT COUNTER “CRO”
These store the results compared on the basis of raw data load or raw data peg counters values • In case of raw data load counters they represent percentage of equipment in a particular status at the end of every 1n or 5n minutes (periodicity).

Ex: Where :

ZE = 100* [ZME1 (*) – ZME2 (*) / ZME1 (*)

ZE = % of MR registers busy w.r.t. MR registers operational in the exchange • In case of raw data peg counter, they represent percentage variation in values or
events per minute over a period of 5Nminutes.

Ex: AA1

AA1 = [ARF3 (*) + ARF4 (*) ] * 60 / HOR
= No. of frequency receiver seizures per minute

Where :

ARF3 (*) = No. of RF seizures ARF4 (*)
= No. of unsuccessful RF seizures (Due to non availability of freq. receivers

HOR

= No. of second between two consecutive readouts.

4. PROCESSED DATA HOURLY COUNTER OR OBSERVATION HOURLY METERS “CHO” These are similar to CROs but store the result of variation in Raw Data Peg/Total Counter values only over a fixed period of time either full 30 or 60 minutes

0.

OBSERVATIONS RESOURCES AT EXCHANGE & OM LEVEL RAW DATA LOAD COUNTER
OR BULK CHARGING METER

RAW DATA PEG COUNTER
OR BULK TOTAL METER

“CC”
STATE METER

“CT”
EVENT METER

PROCESSED DATA LOAD COUNTER
OR
OBSERVATION CHARGING COUNTER

PROCESSED DATA PEG COUNTER
OR
OBSERVATION TOTAL COUNTER

“CCO”

“CTO”

PROCESSED DATA RESULT COUNTER
OR OBSERVATION RESULT
COUNTER

PROCESSED DATA HOURLY COUNTER
OR OBSERVATION HOURLY
COUNTER

“CRO”

“CHO”

PER 30/

PROCESSED DATA COUNTER : CLASSESS :
The four types of processed data counters or Observation Counters are further divided into the following classes :Z:C:F:Concerned with MR / TX memories & Traffic handled by them. Traffic Circuit Groups

A :- Auxiliaries – RF & CCFs R :- Switch Path in CSE & Switching N/W T:Call Counts, Analysis of call failures.

H :- % efficiency of O/G, I/C & BHCA S :No.; 7 signalling related

Thus, a Z-class designated as ZE belonging to the different types carries different meanings, as:ZE under CCO type Ex :- The value against ZE =69 indicate MR register busy at any instant say 699 (out of say 1270 operational in exch.) ZE under CRO type Ex:-The value against Z E = 55 % of MR registers busy say 55% ZE under CHO type Average No. of MR register busy over (say) one hour period.

TYPES OF OBSERVATIONS 1. Constant or Permanent Observations:a. In such observations recording by raw data counters is programmed as part of call set up and release and as such operator’s intervention is not needed. b. However the arithmetic computation of results stored in the Counters is done only, when the operator invokes appropriate observation command.

c. These observations are system initiated & very important as they
generally concerned with overall network monitoring and are definitely indicative of the health of the Exchange system.

2. Temporary Observations:a. In these observations the counter starts recording only when the operator invokes the relevant command. b. These observations are operator initiated to meet more specific requirements such as detailed traffic flow of subscribers and PBX groups, CSN traffic, Circuit traffic, Signalling Channel Traffic etc.

MORE ABOUT OBSERVATIONS
There are built in facilities of LOAD & TRAFFIC measurement in OCB-283 that continuously measures certain parameters. OM performs calculations to deduct useful result indicators. These are meant for the following:• To measure the load of circuit groups, service circuits, URA, switching matrix systems and working areas, circuit groups, service circuits, URA and the switching matrix,

• to measure the traffic on

• to measure the traffic flows, • to count failures for each cause on call set-up and clearing. The measurements are recorded in counters.

Permanent observations : Permanent measurements are those measurements / observations that are always ‘on’ and continuously performed by the exchange system, measuring Raw data counters and calculating processed data counters. These require commands to be given by operators only to get their printouts on output terminals. These are meant ; 1. To measure load on circuit groups, service circuits, subscriber access units (URA), the switching matrix, working areas and frame handling modules (FHM). 2. To measure traffic on circuit groups, service circuits, URA and the switching matrix. 3. To measure traffic categories. 4. To count failures to set up and clear calls, classified by calls

Temporary observations : -These measure the load on traffic in a certain
specified period. The operator has to give a command to start and stop these observations. These are of following kinds; A. Temporary observations on the exchange Traffic distribution measurement: measures the traffic flow and its efficiency per direction, per routing code, per URA and per circuit – Charging measurements: provide meter variation information. Charging archive storage: archive storage of charge meters.. Mis-dialing measurements: identify the sources of wrong numbers. Redirection measurements: identify sources of traffic redirection. Pre-selection time measurements: measure the pre-selection times of subscribers connected to a CSN type URA. Destination observation: to know the traffic flow and its efficiency per destination, for each URA and for each circuit group. Sundry unsolicited messages: • cancellation of a charging and traffic measurement processor register, • failed "wake-up" attempt, • charge rate change, • upper limit for charge units for a call exceeded, • long call interrupted, • type of day transition, • call redirection activated or de-activated, charge count zeroed. URA and charging efficiency measurements : identify URA and charging units whose efficiency is below a given lower limit. Observation relating to service specifications standards: permits to obtain indications on the exchange quality of service for a given length of time. Frame service observation : allows the operator to know the quality of service and to dimension the resources in terms of semi-permanent digital connections. B. Temporary observations on circuit groups and circuits Complementary observation on the circuit groups : to know the efficiency of each junction in a circuit group. Destination observation per circuit group: to know the traffic flow and its efficiency per circuit group with sorting of calls by destination.

Load observation on the CCITT7 signaling links: to measure the traffic appearing on line on a signaling link. Supervision of the CCITT7 signaling links : permits the observation of the level 2 operation of a signaling link by measuring the number of signaling frames sent, received or lost. Supervision of real calls : to note the characteristics of the calls occurring on incoming, outgoing or both-way circuits. Call observation on circuit groups and circuits : to know the telephone characteristics of the calls flowing on a list of circuit groups or circuits. C. Temporary observations on subscribers – • Subscriber observation by sampling : to obtain the telephone characteristics of the calls made by a series of subscribers. Observation of groups and heavy traffic lines : to know the incoming traffic flow to subscribers with heavy traffic (single lines or grouped lines) Observation of the URA links : to measure the URA load and of the URA input sections. Path-finding observation : to know the subscribers on which the calls have failed, either by internal blocking or because the subscriber was busy. Charging supervision : to check the evolution of the charge accounts for a series of subscribers or circuits. Malicious calls identification : to identify the sources of malicious or disruptive calls. One call in P observation : provides statistic information on the traffic sent or received by the exchange subscribers.

PERMANENT OBSERVATIONS
OBJECTIVE :• To measure load on circuit groups, service circuits, subscriber access units (URA), the switching matrix, working areas and frame handling modules (FHM). • To measure traffic on circuit groups, service circuits, URA and the switching matrix. • To measure traffic categories. • To count failures to set up and clear calls, classified by calls.

Permanent observation counters can be operated in four ways: • to interrogate instantaneous values : • to view counter readings on screen : • to view limit violations on screen: • to observe periodic counters : OCIN OCRLA OSELA OCHLA

OCIN
View details of processed data load and peg counters (CCO and CTO), and of counters recording calls refused by the CPU of the CSN.
Thus CCO and CTO counter values can be interrogated using the OCIN command CCO : names of processed data load counters (up to max 12). CTO : names of processed data peg counters (up to max 12). TH = number of time band (1 to 8). The optional parameter, TH (number of time band), is for observing the CSN for a period of standalone operation. To view details of one or more counters recording standalone operation data, the TH parameter must be present, and vice versa. a) The contents accumulating on the counters will be available to the activating terminal. @ OCIN: @ CCO = ....+...+...+ , CTO = ...+...+... For a given time maximum of 12 CCO and /or 12 CTO counter can be interrogated b) By OCIN we can also view the details of some dedicated counters recording calls refused by CPU of CSND for a period of standalone mode.

@ OCIN:
@ CTO= ...+...+...+, TH= 1<8

where TH= No of time band (1<8) possible values of TH TH=1 : First hour observation TH=2 : Second hour Observation TH=3 : Third --do-TH=7 : Seventh --do-TH=8 : Remaining time after end of seventh hour.
Example: @OCIN: @ CTO=XD+XI+XA+XFS-ODTAX+XFS-OSPCT: CTO=XD CTO=XA CTO=XS CONT=0468746510 CONT=0033597637 CONT=0005120632 CTO=XI CTO=XTCONT=0141125039 CONT=0733100878

CTO= XFS –OD CONT=0484901300

CTO= XFS –OSPCT- CONT=0012768136

VISUAL DISPLAY OF RESULT COUNTERS :

OCRLA LFN=OPEC

This observation is used to view CRO counter readings on screen every "1n"or “5n” minutes. Where : 1 or 5 is the least count in minutes and N is the multiplying factor having the value 1<10

Operator command • • • • OCRLA : Start viewing counter readings. OCRAR : Stop viewing counter readings. OCRMO : Modify the list of counter readings to be viewed, OCRTP : Modify the viewing period.

* Make/Modify the list of counters for display @OCRMO : @ CRO=...+...+...+...+.../...+... up to maximum 15 counters can be observed at a time. * Initiate / Start/ Launch the Observation @ OCRLA; ®NCEN = GDM6 A01 AA1 96-01-04/02 H 01 TRAFFIC OBSERVATION A02 = 0000000004 % CCF = 0000000001 CCF CALLS/MIN = 0000000003 % RF BUSY

= 0000000002 RF CALLS/MIN AA2

* Modify Display Period @ OCRTP: @ PER= N (1<10) THE LEAST COUNT CAN BE KNOWN BY “BKCN” FILE & ITS STRUCTURE FBKCN.2 @ ARCIN: @FICH=BKCN, NOMS=FBKCN2, NUM=0<1; * Stop/Arrest the Observation @OCRAR;

DISPLY OF THRESOLD 0UT-OF LIMITS RESULT COUNTERS: OSELA LFN=OPEC

A threshold is a minimum % efficiency value and maximum % failure values which can be assigned to each CRO counters by which the operator
• • • • • • • After reaching the threshold the CRO will be considered to be “out of limit” This state will be displayed on the VDU at a fixed interval i.e. 1N or 5N.

command OSELA : Start viewing counters with limit violation. OSEAR : Stop viewing counters with limit violation. OSEMO : Modify limit assigned to CRO counters. OSEIL : View all limits assigned to CRO counters. OSEILC : View limits assigned to CRO counters with limit violation check active.

The OSELA command and the OCRLA command (to view counter readings) can be used simultaneously on the same counter, in which case limit violation output takes priority. * Listing the result counters for which thresholds have been fixed/defined @OSEIL; * Listing the result counter for which thresholds have been fixed/activated. @OSEILC; * Modify the threshold @OSEMO: @CRO= A+B+C+D+...,VS=A’+B’+C’+D’+.., ACTV=OK (Or NO), NECH=: Or VS=X A Maximum of 30 CRO counters can be modified. Where - A,B,C,D = CRO Counter names - A’,B’,C’,D’ are respectively the threshold values (VS) of these counters beyond which the counters A,B,C,D, will be displayed A’ corresponds to A, D’ to D and so on. @ CRO= A+B+C+D+……,VS=X

All counters will have common threshold value “X” - Vs = Threshold value - ACTV= Threshold activated or not - NECH= No of successive over flow ; default value of NECH=1and NECH is ignored if ACTV=No Note: A CRO counter mentioned in OSEMO will be displayed only when the threshold values fixed/defined has been crossed consecutively ‘Y’ times. * Start display of threshold out of limits result counters @OSELA; * Before OSELA Modify/Define the display period by @OCRTP: @PER=N Only those counters whose values cross the threshold are displayed.

TIME (HOURLY) COUNTERS OBSERVATION: “OCHLA”
LFN= OPTR

This is the most important and most useful observation of OCB 283 and is scheduled during the exchange busy hour.

• The data obtained through this observation gives a clear picture of

the overall (global) performance of the exchange (main + RSU) during the period of observation. • The data is also used for planning dimensioning & management of the exchange / network Some of the important information’s obtained during observation period are • MR/TX register’s occupancy & traffic handled by them • Internal /Incoming/ Outgoing / Transit/ Sunday / Total traffic • Traffic handled by various circuit groups. • Traffic handled by frequency receiver/conference circuits. (Z Class) (C Class) (F Class) (A Class)

• No of O/G & I/C call offered, processed & rejected separately For CSNs & Switching Networks. • Call counts, failure of calls due to various reasons such as calling , called party or exchange etc. • Percentage Efficiency of O/G, I/C,T & Internal & BHCA • CCS-7 Message transmitted, received & transited Note :• The observation results can be obtained on hourly or half-hourly basis (depending upon whether PER value in the HPRMO command is 60 or 30). • The actual observation start will coincide with the minutes ‘MM’ part of the HCH i.e. ( Busy hour) parameter in the HPRMO command. The value of HCH in the HPRMO command can be HH-00 or HH-30. • In the result printout obtained for every 30 or 60 minutes of observation OM gives the values of CTO and CHO counters, computed from the 30 or 60 min. variations in the values of the raw data counters involved in the formulae of CTO and CHO. For this OM takes the initial values of the raw data counters at the start (Either at the full half an hour or full one hour depending upon PER and BUSY HOUR value) of observation and final values at the end of period of observation.
COMMANDS • Modify the Busy Hour :@ HPRMO: (P) @ HCH=11-00: (R) @ HCH=11-00 (10-30) PER=60 • Modify the B.H. duration (period) to 30 min. @ HPRMO: @ PER=30: @ HCH=11-00 PER=30(60) • Modify the B.H. to Start at 10-30 & B.H. duration to 60 minutes so that hourly printout of OCHLA observation can be obtained

(R Class) (T Class) (H Class) (S Class)

@ HPRMO: @HCH=10-30, PER=60; where HCH : Start of Busy Hour in HH-MM Where HH : 00 to 24 (hour) MM : 00 or 30 (These are the only two options.) PER : Periodicity 30 or 60 minutes

Note: HCH & PER are defined in OM & exchange configuration file FBKCN.

These field automatically get modified when HPRMO command is given.
Managing Time (hourly) Counters Observation
@OCHLA,HOR=11-25: @ C=C+F+Z+A+H+R+T,ED=OK,T=1-15:

• During the second B.H. of the exchange , we may like to observe the performance of only certain circuit groups (and not all ) & certain URAs so for observing these entities instead writing cct gp and URAs every time first make a list
List of desired Circuit. groups & URAs is made by. @OCHMO: (To Create or Modify the list) @ LIST=1,ED=OK, NFSC=...+...+/..., URA=...+...+...+/.....; (possible Values of list are 1,2,3) In the case of LIST under class F and class R only the values concerning the NFSCs and URAs mentioned in the LIST=1 under OCHMO will be given , in the OCHLA printout .
Note: * When C Parameter is not specified in OCHLA, values of all classes of counters are output. * When OCHLA is launched, observation is started on the immediately following hour or half hour ( as the case may be).

PRACTICALLY THE COMMAND OCHLA IS KEPT IN CALENDER BY @CALMO: @ PG=OCHLA, T=01-10, ED=YES, HR=11-25, DAT=97-3-12<18; (Assuming B.H. : 11-30 hrs i.e. from 11.30 to 12.30 hrs) Stop of Observation @OCHAR;

OCHLA

: PRINTOUT ANALYSIS

NCEN=MALAD/98-11-14/12H 00 MN /TIME METERS SECONDARY

STORAGE CLASS CLASS TX MR CC Z (MR & TX Registers & Traffic handled by them) ZS1 = 24576 ZS3 = 1020 ZE5 =4860 ZBS =20280 ZCS = 41712 ZCFS =3576 ZRSS =1164 ZLGS =23688 ZMLS =14172 ZSSS =1632 ZIGS =14160 ZROC =3936

Z1 = 2023.63 * Z3 = 2378.9 ZE = 20.05 ZB =2677.12 ZC = 2579.02 ZCF =0.00 ZRS = 0.00

GS

ZLG = 0.00 ZML = 0.00 ZSS = 0.00 ZIG = 0.00 ZROC = 0.00

“MALAD”: Name of the Exchange Z1: Traffic handled by long format charging registers(512bits) Z2: Traffic handled by short format charging registers (256 bits) Z3: Traffic handled by charging extension registers ZS1: Average no of long format charging registers in service ZS2: Average no of short format charging registers in service ZS3: Average no of charging extension register in service ZE: Traffic handled by call processing registers i.e MR traffic ZES: Average no of call processing registers in service

Special Comments: • In the data memory of each TX, there are short format charging registers. One register is earmarked for doing charging function of a call and is held for the entire duration of the call in case of time-dependent calls. • Extension register are used for more data during processing of call. Then this 512 bit register is not sufficient less this extensive register are used in addition to the 512 bit register for a call. Thus for an ISD call are long format register & more no. of extension registers can be used. There are charging extension register ZS3 in Both TX. Extension register have a 32 word memory area in FIEXT file of TX. It is used for storing the additional data (say when the chargeable duration is more than 655 seconds and/or chargeable units are more than 4095) for IN MLCC: It is software machine hosted on SMC having two components: -The main MLCC component : The Secondary MLCC component : CC-P running on the PUP CC-S running on the PUS

MLCC contains the following blocks performing different functions. BCC (Call control Block) ZCS

Handle call control functions for a call segment SCT (Transaction control service block) It is functional subsystem providing interface with various call control service located in MLTX, TR etc. & it also handles centralized recovery of raw data counters for which ML is polled in read mode. POS (Positioning Block)]

Handles positioning and sent by OM to each MLCC ..AUD (Audit Block)

It is functional subsystem responsible for auditing the resources of the ML UEM (Operation & Mtce. unit Block)

Provides interface with OM & ML PU PE environment for processing O&M functions & handouts mgmt. specific functions such as initialisation & recovery of site data BRS (Dedicated Resource Block) ZRSS Handles SRF (Specialised Resource function where there is a need to use external IP to perform on interaction between subs & server. BCF (GSM conference Block)

MLCC comprises of system archive only, no site archive is provided. MLGS is used for Mobile service GS (GCS/un server) is used for mgmt. of server. .MLGS is software machine hosted on SMC It has a main component and on ‘n-plicate’ secondary component supporting the following functions: BML (INER1 Alcatel INAP functionality) multi leg control block)

Hand leg the functions of Swg. to the leg or legs indicated by operation & mgmt of leg associations set up by the server. B1G (INER 1 leg control block)

Handles management of leg related operations (queuing, immediate execution, condition execution etc.) and check on operation semantics. Also the analyses of operation results, generation or non-generation of responses for the server. BML CS (Call segment multi control block)

It chooses BSS (Service script Block) for an internal server and a BST (remote control signalling block) block for an external server. It associates call segments belonging to different calls for a given service & routes operations from this service to the call segments concerned. BLG CS (Call segment control block) The BLG CS block is responsible for queuing operations & some of the SSF/FSM functional state machine of ITU – TSS recommendations for a given service. It also handles switching to the BSS, BST or BML. BSS (Service Scripts block)

The BSS block provides the server function for exchange informal services BROC (CCBS Management block) This manages call completion to Busy subs service POS (Positioning Block) It processes positioning commands sent by the OM to each ML GS and defence functions such as switchover & regeneration of backed up resources. EXM (Option & Mtce.) It is responsible for centralized recovery of raw data counters for which the ML is polled in read mode.
The MLGS comprises a system archive ZGS & a site archive XAGS.

CLASS - C ( Traffic)
CI CT Where CI: CA: Internal (local) traffic Incoming -terminated traffic CD: Originated - outgoing traffic CT: Transit traffic CV: Sundry, Miscellaneous , undefined traffic CC: Total exchange traffic = CI+CD+CA+CT+CV = = 247.27 3.17 CD CC = = 1723.97 3653.03 CA CV =1418.10 = 260.53

The Traffic CV results from situations like ‘no dialling’ , ‘incomplete dialling’, ‘call diverted to announcements’ for which analysis could not be done, dialling of nonexistent codes, barred codes etc. and is generally observed to be of the order of 5 to 15 % depending on the dialling habits of subscribers. This is thus the fruitless traffic/ traffic lost in the exchange itself.
Total traffic outflow = CC-CV Traffic throughput Efficiency = [ (CC-CV) /CC] X 100 CLASS F (Circuit Groups) OTHP4 OGL86 FO = FP = FO FP = = 20.42 1042 46.92 3818 FE = 403 FR = 327 FE = 504 FR = 4674 FS FQ FS FQ = 22.32 = 44 = 51.61 = 96

OTHP4 & OGL86 : Name of circuit groups FO: FE: FP: FR: FS: FQ: Traffic handled by the circuit group in Erlangs No of effective (answered) calls No of calls for which circuits were actually seized Seizure attempts rejected due to (i) lack of circuits (ii) non-receipt of P.T.S. Average no of circuits in service No of circuits equipped in the circuit group

SPECIAL COMMENTS • Providing the adequate no of circuits in a cct group (FQ) is the responsibility of the planning section of the concerned district/circle. For this purpose the O&M staff should send to planning cell for analysis OCHLA report of 5 consecutive working days of a week every month for each exchange in the network. The inter-exchange junctions should be so maintained to ensure the value of FS be as near to FQ as possible. The difference between FQ & FS shows the ‘average no of circuits out of service’ during the period of observation. (This may be due to the blocking of circuits by operator command, PCM faults, faults at distant ends, ccts under testing, automatic blocking by the system as part of protective control mechanism during the moments of traffic overload in the exchange etc.) In the case of OTHP4 circuit group in the report , or an average 21.68 circuits have been O/O/S out of 44 equipped. Apparently the circuit group was not maintained well during the period of observation and hence the failure and overflow. In case the number of circuits in service is not commensurate with the offered traffic, as is the case with OTHP4 and OGL86 in the report, calls are likely to be rejected from the group as seen from the FR value. Such calls may however, pass successfully through the alternate circuit group(s) if provided. FR is a indicator of the extent of overflow. FR as such has no relation to FP, and its value could be anything depending upon the traffic offered vis-a-vis the average no of circuits in service. In case of OGL86, traffic of 46.92 E (FO value) could not be handled by 51.61ccts. (FS value) and hence a heavy overflow (4674 attempts) from the group. The mtce. staff should realise that failure of calls due to all ccts busy condition forces the public to make retrials which in turn will load the processors apart from creating bottleneck in the smooth flow of I/C traffic in the exchange. A well dimensioned and well maintained circuit group is the key to the best possible call completion rate. The ratio FE/FP indicates the answer - to - Seizure ratio , ASR whereas FE/(FP+FR) indicates answer - to - bid ratio, ABR for the group. The performance of the group can be watched by either ASR, or ABR as both are recommended by CCITT. Calculation of ASR is to be done manually or through some program in the PC. The ASR value, though varying from network to network , of 40% or above in the metros and 45% in major stations of our network at present should be viewed as very good; yet a figure of 50% and above should be the target. Let it be clear that the values of F counters in the report pertain to the period of

• •

observation e.g. if all 20 circuits of a group are busy at the start of traffic recording and continue to be busy till the end of observation. FO should indicate a value of 20.00 E, whereas FP and FE will indicate 0 value meaning that not a single new seizure of circuit took place nor any call became effective during the observation period. • The traffic on a circuit group is measured by averaging the no. of circuits busy over 60 samples , each sample made every one minute after the start of observation. For this Oc sends a message to all URMs every minute to get the details of all busy inter-exchange channels; these channels are then got segregated circuit group-wise so as to know the no. of circuits busy in various groups. This no. is then added to the previous value of the busy circuits counter ( located in the OC) associated with the group, and the sample counter ( also located in the OC) of the group is incremented by 1 at the end of each sample. The system calculates the traffic using the formula:Traffic of a set of devices = ( CT2- CT1)/(S2-S1) Where CT1 : CT2 : S1 : S2 : Initial value of associated raw data total counter Final value of the raw data total counter Initial value of sample counter Final value of sample counter

For example, In case of a particular cct. group , the traffic (FO value) could be = (15256254-15254104)/(18060-18000) = (2150/60)=35.90 60 samples for 60 minutes of observation seem to be too few, yet the busiest hour traffic measurement for the cct. groups is quite accurate since minute to minute variations of traffic during the B.H. are generally not appreciable. CLASS BMV1 F (Both Way CCT GP) FOA FEA FPA FRD BMV1 FOA . . FOD FS1 =14.73 =178 =333 =0 FOD FED FPD =15.63 = 219 = 410 FS1=61.00 FQ1=61 FRA=0

PRS1 = 0 } } }

Name of the Both way cct. group I/C traffic handled by NFSC -BMV1 O/G traffic handled by NFSC-BMV1 Average no of cct. in service

FQ1 FEA FED FPA FPD FRA FRD PRS

-

No of equipped cct No of I/C effective (completed) calls No of O/G --do-No of I/C calls processed No of O/G calls processed No of I/C calls rejected No of O/G calls rejected i.e Both I/C & O/G were launching

} During the } Observation } } } } } } There are instructions from the directorate to measure the Route Busy Hour for all routes particularly in a DTAX . This helps in judicious allocation of channels and hence optimum utilization of the costly long distance media. The correction factor for a route is calculated from the ratio: exchange busy hour traffic of a rout / route busy hour traffic of the same route.

No of calls collision per minute on cct group}

CLASS A : RF AO1=214.42 AR1= CCF AO2=0.02 AR2= 0 0

AUXILIARIES : RFS / CCFS

AS1=2080.00 AE1= 80603

AP1=80603 AQ1= 2080 AP2= AQ2= 6 16

AS2=16.00 AE2= 6

AO1: Average no. of frequency receivers busy AE1: Effective frequency receiver seizures AP1: Frequency receiver seizures AR1: Rejected frequency receiver seizures due to lack of frequency receivers AS1: Average no. of frequency receivers in service. AQ1: Frequency receivers equipped in the exchange The subscript 2 stands for conference circuits.

AO2: •

Average no of conference circuits busy; the meaning of other counters for conference circuits can be understood similar to RFs.

A basic frequency receiver is seized for receiving. o 2/7 V.F. signals from DTMF telephone sets o R2 MFC codes from other MF exchanges. Ratio AE1/AP1, called RF seizure efficiency and is found to be between 90-98% Each CCF module provides 8 conference circuits. One conference circuit used to handle one 3-party conference call .These ccts are also required for trunk offering and call waiting facility CLASS R : SWITCH PATHS 1669 RRA= 0 RAA= 2403 4941 RRD= 0 : 3 RPA= RPD= 4 RPA= RPD= 5 RPA= RPD= CX RPX= 1126 RRA= 0 4095 RRD= 0 1766 RRA= 0 4441 RRD= 0 1399 RRA= 0 4701 RRD= 0 52761 RAA= 1613 RAD= 4095 RAA= 2735 RAD= 4441 RAA= 2055 RAD= 4701 RRX= 803 RAD= 4941

• •

URA 1 RPA= RPD=

RPA : No of terminating calls to free subscribers in a CSN RRA : No of terminating calls rejected due to lack of channels on LRs/ PCMs or internal paths in a CSN RPD : No. of originated calls attempts in a CSN RRD: No of originated calls rejected due to lack channels on LRs/ PCMs or internal paths in a CSN RAA: No of I/C calls offered in a CSN RAD: No of O/G calls offered in a CSN RPX: No of SMX Seizures for through connection RRX: No of rejected seizure attempts due to blocking in the SMX RRA and RRD should be ideally zero as they indicate the extent of congestion in a CSN in case a particular CSN shows higher values of RRA and RRD regularly in spite of all its 16

LRs operating normally, it calls for detailed analysis of the CSN loading point of view. For such CSN traffic measurement should be done by OMALA observation. RRx also should be zero or very small otherwise blocking in SMX is indicated.

CLASS

T : CALL COUNT ie .BREAK UP OF CALLS AND ANALYSIS OF CALL FAILURES
EFFICIENT CALLS I T01 T02 T04 T05 T06 T07 1729 0 2570 8409 0 3 D 2481 0 13930 13930 11929 7 A 2512 0 4779 7983 0 134 T 15022 0 96408 96408 73563 815

CALLS UNSUCCESSFUL DUE TO CALLING PARTY T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18 I 4052 1089 388 0 41 248 415 D 117 71 0 327 160 0 3661 A 745 50 675 385 126 0 1350 T 305 230 1 3496 724 0 13925

CALLS UNSUCCESSFUL DUE TO CALLED PA T22 T23 T24 316 130 0 828 231 1523 838 72 0 4925 923 72

CALLS UNSUCCESSFUL DUE TO EXCHANGE T32 T33 T34 T35 T36 T37 T38 T39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 57 0 0 0 0 1114

CALLS UNSUCCESSFUL DUE TO FORWARD SYSTEM T42 T43 T44 T45 T46 T47 T48 T49 T50 T51 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3072 115 22 153 28 336 4 515 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30494 1836 290 4216 311 524 67 4852 0 0

CALLS UNSUCCESSFUL DUE TO BACKWARD SYSTEM T54 T56 0 0 0 0 1138 91 28 2634

CAUSE NOT GIVEN T64 Meaning of mnemonics of Class T There are many sub counters providing different information regarding the exchange efficiency in respect of successful calls a reasons for unsuccessful calls at different stages Effective Calls T01- No of effective calls - No caller regulation T02- No of effective calls - with caller regulation T04- No of calls processed T05- No of calls offered T06- No of calls which have seized a circuit a circuit (O/G call) 0 284 0 3191

Calls Unsuccessful Due To Calling Party
T12- No of premature call clear due to incomplete dialling T13- No of prohibited actions T14- No of calls to spare codes T15- No of premature clear down actions after dialling but before selection T16- No of calls to spare Nos.

T17- No of calls to barred codes T18- No of clear down actions during ringing Calls Unsuccessful Due To Called Party T22- No of calls to busy subscribers T23- No of no reply calls timed our during ringing. Calls Unsuccessful Due To Exchange T32- No of term calls blocked due to No URA Channel T33- No of calls blocked due to no auxiliaries T34- No of calls blocked due to hardware fault. T35- No of term calls blocked due to URA Path T36- No of calls failed due to block in SMX T37- No of calls blocked due to control unit regulation T38- No of calls blocked due to originating URA regulation T39- No of calls failed due to TR file fault. Calls Unsuccessful Due To Forward System T43- No of calls failed due to No PTS signal. T44- No of calls failed due to register signal fault. T45- No of calls failed due to conges. signal reception from distant exch.. T46- No of calls failed due to line signalling fault. T47- No of calls failed due to incoherent signal reception. Calls Unsuccessful Due To Backward System T54- No of calls failed due to register signal fault. T56- No of calls failed due to Line signalling fault. (I) In case of I type of calls i.e. local, T5 counter shows the sum of (a) calls for which analysis could not be completed and calls had to be either timed out or artificially routed to some announcement . This includes no dialling & incomplete dialling cases, dialling of unauthorised additional facility codes, tapping of hook switches after dialling tone, level 0 and 00 calls attempted b STD-barred subscribers etc.

(b) local calls in which complete number is received and hence callls processed. 0.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.The difference between T5 and T4 would be generally high being dependent on the dialling habits of the subscribers, and perhaps nothing fruitful can be done by the maintenance staff to reduce it except educating the subscribers through different means to improve their dialling behaviour. 2. Similar situation exists in case of type of calls i.e. incoming -terminating calls. 3. In case of D type of calls i.e. originated-o/g ,T5 and T5 counter values would be equal, meaning that all offered o/g calls are processed. T6 counter indicates the no of o/g calls in which circuits could be seized on direct or alternate routes. The difference between T6 and T5 indicates the total no. of o/g calls for which the circuits could not be seized. This difference has to be watched daily and a persistently high values calls for detailed analysis of various circuit groups from the point of dimensioning , fault liability of inter-exchange PCMs, poor

maintenance of URMs etc. Similar comment applies to transit call counters. T18 counter values under I,D,A,T columns indicate the no. of calls switched through but abandoned by A-party before B-party could answer within the time-out period of 60 sec. This would also include (a) busy tone cases on o/g calls via decadic routes and (b) no tone cases ( generally from electromechancial exchanges) 4. T22 indicates the no of calls to busy B-subscribers in the local exchange or in distant MF exchanges(this is known thro A3B3 signals during MFC interchange) . 5. The counters T32 to T39 indicate the no. of calls failed in the exchange itself due to various technical reasons such as (i) Shortage of frequency receivers, conference circuits channels on PCMs/links between CSE/URM and the switching network. (ii) Internal blocking in the switching network and CSEs; (iii) Hardware failures in the exchange; (iv) File data corruption (v) MR/CSE regulation imposed by the mtce. staff, etc. Ideally all these counter values should be nil or almost very small. The present case shows not a well-maintained exchange. 6. T42 indicates the no. of failed o/g transit calls to Mf exchanges due to lack of circuits. T43 to T47 and T54, T56 indicate the technical failures attribute to distant MF exchanges, the former in case of o/g & transit calls, the latter in case of terminating & transit calls. To reduce these failures, the i/c MF chains of electromechanical exchanges in the local network must be improved. 7. The value (T5-T6-T42) indicates the no. of calls failed due to lack of circuits in decadic routes. The difference of T5&T6 gives the total no. of failed calls due to cct. congestion . In the present case , in all 18366 o/g & transit calls could not be set up due to cct. congestion out of offered calls of 62831, which means an overall group dimensioning or the junction mtce. is definitely poor or both. CLASS H : SUMMARY CENTER NCEN=COPERA DATE 95-06-25 12H 33MN Total Number Of Tentative Calls 0020777 - Incoming + O/G calls 0013943 - I/C + Transit Calls 006832 O/G Calls Partial Efficiency 0000043 -Efficient O/G Calls 0003292 - Processed O/G Calls 0007738 I/C Calls Partial Efficiency 0000055 -Efficient I/C Calls 0002311 - Processed I/C Calls 0004199 Local Calls Partial Efficiency 0000060 -Efficient Internal Calls 0000388 -Processed internal Calls 0000646 Calls O/G From Centre Abort Rate 0000000 Calls I/C From Centre Abort Rate 0000000 Transit Calls 0000827

Total No of Tentative Calls are nothing but sum of T05 counters under IDAT which is also BHCA Internal, I/C,O/G,/ T partial Efficiency= T01 (IDAT) ---- ------------- * 100 T04 (IDAT)

(I) Call completion rates enhanced by adopting the following measures (a) Proper traffic engineering of the routes so as to avoid circuit congestion (b) Improving : fault rate of the subscriber & junction network and the fault liability of interexchange PCM systems; the answering time of operator services such as 197,180 etc: performance of the TAX if any at the station (c) Proper management and dimensioning of PBX groups and other public utility service numbers (d) Promoting facilities like call waiting particularly among heavy users (e) Publishing only the principal number of the PBXs in the telephone directories and yellow pages (f) Requesting the business & corporate houses and commercial organisations to print only the principal no of their PBXs on their letter heads (g) Creating awareness among subscribers etc. and (h) Last but not the least by enhancing the telephone density of the network. (ii) All out efforts must be made to improve I/C call completion rate. This is very important for it will definitely boost up the overall call completion rate of the network Apart from other things it can be achieved by (a) Providing hunting facility on all PBX/ hunting groups (b) Providing only i/c facility on say 20 to 30 % numbers of the PBX as matter of technical necessity (c) Proper traffic engineering of the PBXs (d) Bringing the single telephone lines (i.e. those with non-plan instruments), if more than one at a subscriber premises into hunting group in consultation with subs. (e) Providing additional lines with only i/c facility to heavy traffic public utility (P.U. services like Railway and ST inquires , hospitals, LPG gas agencies etc. etc. (iii) Action on the OCHLA obs. results is taken on day to day basis only in case circuit groups and URAs. For all other classes of counters a concerted action is recommended based on detailed analysis of a number of observations. Sometimes when action is taken on a circuit group or URA based on the B.H. OCHLA results, there may be a need to check the efficiency of the action taken. For this OCHLA can be run, say during the second B.H. with only the required circuit groups and the URAs. Even class T counters can be avoided. An example is given below. (iv) The maintenance officers should keep a regular watch on the circuit group traffic when the DELs are being added to the exchange or when new stations are being brought onto the STD network. 10% to 20% circuit overprovision in circuit groups in a growing network as ours is welcome

CLASS

S:

CCS 7 SIGNALLING

INE = No of messages sent INR = No of messages received. INT = No of messages received & transferred IRR = No of irrational message received Uses Signalling network management Test and maintenance of signalling network TUP ISUP National MTP generator Signalling network management Test and maintenance of the signalling network. SSUCH (CSN Down loading) Ana log TUP Digital TUP SSUEM (OMAP for CSNs) Local MTP Generator IRR=3202 INE= 703 INE= 18434 INE= 0 INE= 0 INE= 355077 INE= 0 INE= 0 INE= 1440 INE= 0 INE= 107439 INE= 0 INE= 482 INE= 0 IOP 0 1 4 5 15 16 17 18 24 25 26 27

National

Local

CLASS S IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= IOP= 0 1 3 4 5 13 16 17 18 24 25 26 29 INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= INR= 368 8439 20533 0 384814 0 0 1440 0 131341 0 3802 0 INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= INT= 0 0 20533 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

CLASS D (Not Used) If the OCHLA command , T is not specified then command OCHAR has to be given with and without any parameter.

Important Counters to be watched in OCHLA Printout ZE ---- should be <0.7 ZES FO ---- should be <0.7 FS FR should be least possible, ideally zero. FR in case of outgoing circuit group is due to the following - No of seizure attempts rejected due to NO PTS ( No first Backward ) cases - No of seizure attempts rejected due to shortage of circuits (i.e. Due to all circuits busy condition) FR in case of I/C circuit Group means - No of seizure attempts due to no auxiliary available in the Exch. FS --- should be nearly 1 It is Junction Availability Indicator and speaks FQ AE1 ------ *100 % gives RF seizure efficiency AP1 RRX, RRA,RRD T32 to T39 Failure of calls in Exchange due to Technical reasons T42 to T46 Failure of calls due to forward system (MF directions carrying our O/G traffic/Transit traffic) T54, T56 Failure of calls due to backward system (MF directions carrying traffic towards this exchange) CCR: O/G , I/C , Local ; Call completion rate

MANAGEMENT OF TEMPORARY OBSERVATION
SAMPLED SUSCRIBER LINE OBSERVATION: OABLA LFN=PSAD This observation is used to obtain details of outgoing and incoming subs line traffic on a certain numbers ( sample) of lines.
The sample of subscriber lines observed should be representatives of the exchange as a whole viz it should include as equal proportions of different categories of subscriber lines e.g. residential, business lines and PBX lines etc. Either originating or terminating or both the traffic can be observed . The subscriber line can be grouped into lists ( Maximum of 3 lists each of max 600 Subs) Observation is stopped at the end of time specified in the start command or by operator command OABAR

The results are available on TTY in the real time printing mode
Operating mode: • Stop the observation initiated (if any) by: OABAR; • Consult the list: @OABIL: @LIST=1<3,ED=YES: In response No of objects each list and their details will be output. • Create alist of subscriber @OABMO: @LIST=1,ED=YES,ND=------+-----+-----.(Subs ND) Thus maximum three list can be created • Removal of list @OABMO: @LIST=/1: • Launching the observation @OABLA :

@LIST =1,T=HH-MM,ED=YES,TRAF=A+D: OR ND= --------------+-------------• The printout on device can be inhibited or activated by @OABTP: @ED=YES or NO;

Stop of sample subscriber observation @OABAR;

@OABLA: CEN=1/ 00-03-06/10 H 45 MN 41/ START OF SBSCRS SAMPLE OBSERVATION @ND=300003,TRAF=A+D,ED=YES,T=00-15; PROCESSING TOTLA ACC NCEN=TTCJBL/00-03-06/10H46MN 28/START OF SUBSCRS SAMPLE OBS. LIST=000 TRAF=M PROCESSING TOTLA EXC NCEN=TTCJBL/00-03-06/10 H 46 SUBSCRIBER SAMPLE OBSERVATION ND= 0761300003 TRAF= DSO=0000 ND= 0761300003 DSO=0000 ND-DE= DCO= 00000 TRAF= D D CHN= CE=007 CHN=310004 CE=0050 DET = 000003.48 SS=00 ICT=000000 DET = 000009.37

NCEN=TTCJBL/ 00-03-06/10 H 47 SUBSCRIBER SAMPLE OBSERVATION DCO= 00000 SS=00 ICT=000000

NCEN=TTCJBL/ 00-03-06/10 H50 SUBSCRIBER SAMPLE OBSERVATION 0761300003 TRAF= A DCO= 00000 ND-DR=0761300002 CE=060 SS=00 NE=001-02-003 NDA=0761300003 DSO=0003 ND-DE= NCEN=TTCJBL/ 00-03-06/10 H50 SUBSCRIBER SAMPLE OBSERVATION 0761300003 TRAF= A DCO= 00000 ND-DR=0761300002 CE=060 SS=00 NE=001-02-003 NDA=0761300003 DSO=0004

0.2.
ND/NDG: TRAF CHN : :

MNEMONICS DESIGNATIONS IN PRINT OUT
SUB LINE/MASTER LINE UNDER OBSERVATION TYPE OF CALL: DIGITS DIALLED D=OUTGOING A=TERMINATING

DET DSO DCO CE

: : : :

CALL SET UP TIME IN SECONDS RINGING DURATION IN SECONDS CONVERSATIO TIME IN SECONDS CALL EFFICIECY CODE 00= EFFECTIVE CALL 11= PREMATURE CALL CLEAR DUE TO INCOMPLETE DIALLING 12= PROHIBITED ACTION 13= CALL TO SPARE CODE 21= BUSY SUBS 22= NO REPLY 33= HARDWARE FAULT

SS

:

ADDITIONAL SERVICE INVOKED BY SUBS 00= NO FACILITY 01= SHORT CODE DIALLING 02= REGISTERED CALL 03= ALARM CALL 04= TEMPORARY TRANSFER 05= MALICIOUIS CALL TRACING 06= BASENTEE SUBS -

ICT

:

NO OF METERED UNIT ADDED TO SUBS CHARGE ACCOUNT

OBSERVATION OF ONE CALL IN “P” - OAPLA LFN=PSAD
The observation supplies the characteristic of the call sample that are selected randomly from all the calls at the rate of one call every P calls. It is used to generate statistic data on incoming and subscriber traffic. It can also be helpful in distribution of traffic by destination 7 in detecting subscriber equipment that is not well sized for the I/C traffic.
Command *Initiate / Launch the observation @OAPLA: @TRAF=....,P=....,T=HH-MM,ED=YES; Where TRAF=Type of traffic for which the subscribers have to be under observation ie A=I/C D=O/G A+D= Both way P= Sampling frequency >5<200 T= Observation duration in hour and minutes ED= results output parameter on TTY *Stop / Arrest the observation @OAPAR;

Three types of messages are printed • Start of observation message • Call observation message

• End of observation message
NCEN=SHIMLA/00-01-1/20H 3/CALL OBSERVATION OVER P SG=L03E01 NDDR=225929 CHN= DSO=0000 DCO=0000000 CACT=000 CE=020 SS=00 ICT=0000000 DNUM=00000.00 DANU=00000.00

NCEN=SHIMLA/00-01-1/20H 37/CALL OBSERVATION OVER P

SG=L03E01 NDDR=250307 CHN=483451 DSO=0019 DCO=0000172 SG=L03E01 NDDR=257315 CHN=0121766798 DSO=0000 DCO=0000000 SG=L03E01 NDDR=257315 DSO=0000 DCO=0000000 SG=L03E01 NDDR=223252 CHN= 220448 DSO=0000 DCO=0000000 SG=L03E01 NDDR=222349 CHN= 94 DSO=0008 DCO=0000000

CACT=000 CE=001 SS=00 ICT=0000001

DNUM=00009.12 DANU=00002.80

NCEN=SHIMLA/00-01-1/20H 37/CALL OBSERVATION OVER P CACT=000 CE=054 SS=00 ICT=0000000 DNUM=00002.88 DANU=00005.80

NCEN=SHIMLA/00-01-1/20H 38/CALL OBSERVATION OVER P CACT=000 CE=054 SS=00 ICT=0000000 CHN=0121766798 DNUM=00002.49 DANU=00005.60 NCEN=SHIMLA/00-01-1/20H 38/CALL OBSERVATION OVER P CACT=000 CE=050 SS=00 ICT=0000000 DNUM=00009.66 DANU=00000.20

NCEN=SHIMLA/00-01-1/20H 39/CALL OBSERVATION OVER P CACT=000 CE=013 SS=00 ICT=0000000 DNUM=00000.00 DANU=00000.00

NCEN=SHIMLA/00-01-1/20H 40/CALL OBSERVATION OVER P

GROUP AND HEAVY LINE OBSERVATION :
This observation is initiated to obtain the characteristic of:-

OLXLA

LFN=OBSP

• Traffic pattern of a PBX/Hunting group to ensure that groups are
adequately traffic engineered

• The traffic pattern of an individual line • The answering delay by operators/ attendants
This is the observation which provides the traffic generated by a PBX as a whole and / or its individual lines or even single lines , in terms of erlangs. Important results obtained are • % incomplete terminating calls due to busy line conditions • Answering delay • % unanswered calls Suitable remedial measures can be initiated to improve the performance e.g. % incomplete terminating calls due to busy / line conditions can be improved by dedicating some lines to handle terminating traffic . For the other two conditions subscriber can be suitably counselled to improve the service of his PBX. This not only improve thee credibility of both the service agency and the telecom department but also reduces call attempts on the exchange . • Up to 3 list of 255 objects with a maximum of 255 groups. • The observation is stopped on expiry of the defined period on activation or at the end of 60 minutes by default or until an operator command stops by OLXAR • The result are O/P on request every 30 or 60 minutes. Command *Stop / Arrest the Observation @OLXAR; *Consult the list @OLXIL: @LIST=1<3, ED=YES;

*Removal of Existing list @OLXMO: @LIST=/1; @LIST=/2; @LIST=/3; *Create a list @OLXMO: @LIST=...., NDG=....., ND=...; *Initiate / Launch the observation @OLXLA: @LIST=...., PERM=30; *Check the output of these test results @OLXTP: @NDG=....,ED=YES, ND=...; * Stop the observation @OLXAR: @ED=YES The results out on OBSP printout file assigned to TTY as follows:
OBSERVATION : GROUPS AND LINES # NDGL #ND NAO=23 ANR=21 TEO=9% 5-10 =0% #ND NAO=26 ANR=1 TEO=4% 5-10 =0 #ND NAO=23 =2827111 =2827111 APEF=0 ARV =0 TENR=100% 10-15=0 =2827112 APEF=24 ARV =0 TENR=4% 10-15=2 =2827113 APEF=13 AD=0 AOT=2 AD=0 TA=000.18 0-5=19 15-20= 120<T=2 AOT=1 TD =000.00 AD=0 TA=000.28 0-5=0 15-20= 0-20<T=0 AOT=2 TD =000.00

ANR=8 TEO=9% 5-10 =1

ARV =0 TENR=38% 10-15=0

TA=000.28 0-5=8 15-20=1

TD =000.00 20<T=3

NCEN-COPERA /95-06-28 / 16 H 00 MN 27 / RESULTS END / OBSERVATIONS : GROPUS AND LINES R1613 /005/ NCEN=COPERA / 95-06-28 / 16-00 ACTIVATION TEMPORARY TRANSFER N ND=2843127 NAR=2046747 DAY=179 HH-MM=16-00

Mnemonics: NAO = No . of calls offered APEF = No of completed incoming calls AO = No of O/G calls AOT = No. of incoming calls not completed due to all lines busy ANR = No. of calls not completed due to no answer ARV = No. of calls forwarded. TA TO TEO = I/C traffic in Erl. = O/G traffic in Erl. = Failure rate due to all lines busy

TENR = Failure rate due to no answer 00-05 = No. of completed I/C calls for which ringing time is < 5 sec. 05-10 = No. of completed I/C calls for which ringing time is < 5 & 10 s 10-15 = No. of completed I/C calls for which ringing time is < 10 & 15 s 15-20 = No. of completed I/C calls for which ringing time is < 15 & 20 s
20<T = No. of completed I/C calls for which ringing time longer than 20 s

SUBSCRIBERS CHARGE MONITORING : SABLA
LFN=OSAB

This observation makes possible to measure completed call or incomplete call from subs and completed and incomplete calls received on the circuits
• The measurement results for a given subscriber are Identification of subs being monitored Display start and end date and time Value of charge count at start and end of measurement Total charge units recorded Date and time of end of call Number dialled by subs Call duration Increment in charging account Value of charge count at end of call

• For each outgoing call from subscribers being monitored

@SABIL: @ED=YES;

This gives the total ND or NDG kept under observation, and from the date and tine these have been under observation.

• Initiate the observation by.:
@SABLA: @ND=---------------and/or NDG=--------------,

we can give parameter as
@ND=-----------+------------+---------------etc.
Results are available when the subscriber under observation completes 100 calls ie one page .The one call attempt is completed when the subscriber lifts his handset and keep it back with or without dialling. The 100 records in a page are listed in chronological order.

Two pages are assigned to each subs line being monitored: A current page receiving the message and results

-

A full page for output

When the current page is full, it becomes the output page and the other page, the content of which have just been output, becomes the current page. During the observation period , full pages are output as they are complete. • The observation for particular subs no. can be halted by:
@SABAR: @ND=------------ ;

This will ask for VALIDATION which can be answered by typing OK or O; All the call attempts with completed calls successfully or unsuccessfully etc will be printed in the format as given below
SUBSCRIBERS’ NUMBER DATE AND TIME OBSERVATION COMMENCED ---------------------------DATE AND TIME OBSERVATION TERMINATED ---------------------------INITIAL METER READING DIFFERENCE Followed by details ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------FINAL METER READING ---------------------------TOTAL METER UNITS REGISTERED

• Use the SABIN command to output the current and the last full page (if any) on the assigned terminal without interrupting observation

@SABIN: @ND=----------; @SABIN,CEN=1: CEN=1/95-06-29/10H 42 MN 14/ INTERROGATIONOF SUPERVISION RECORDS @ND=2841917;

PROCESSING TOTCTX ACC NCEN=COPERA/95-06-29/10-42-47/METER OBSERVATION SUMMARY SUBSRIBER NUMBER OBSERVATION START OBSERVATION END METER NUMBER INITIAL METER READING FINAL METER READING DIFFERENCE TOTAL METER UNITS REGISTERED: METER NUMBER INITIAL METER READING FINAL METER READING METER NUMBER INITIAL METER READING FINAL METER READING METER NUMBER INITIAL METER READING FINAL METER READING : TOTAL METER UNITS REGISTERED:
*NCP DATE TIME B NUMBER

: : : : : : : : : :

2841917 95-06-24/11H48 95-06-27/13H20 1 0000001864 0000036 2 0000000000000

0000001900 0000036

0000000000000 0000000000000 : : 3 0000000000000

TOTAL METER UNITS REGISTERED:

:

0000000000000 0000000000000 : : 4 0000000000000

TOTAL METER UNITS REGISTERED:

0000000000000 0000000000000 DURATIO N
********** 0000:00 UNITS METER *

***************************************************************

***** *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1

******** 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24

****** * 18-31 19-52 19-52 19-53 19-54 19-54

**********

********** 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000

******** * 00001864 * 00001864* 00001864* 00001864* 00001864* 00001864*

2186189 3722932 2186111 3722932 2861

0000:00 0000:00 0000:00 0000:00 0000:00

*1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1 *1

95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-24 95-06-25

19-55 19-56 20-15 20-15 20-15 20-16 20-32 20-34 20-34 20-40 20-41 20-43 09-10

2186111 3734724 2186118 431 3641107 3641071 4310857 3641071 4944708 4924708 3883296

0000:00 0000:00 0000:00 0000:00 0000:00 0000:08 0015:36 0000:00 0000:51 0005:32 0000:08 0001:44 0000:19

00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000001 00000004 00000000 00000001 00000002 00000001 00000001 00000001

00001864* 00001864* 00001864* 00001864* 00001864* 00001865* 00001869* 00001869* 00001870* 00001872* 00001873* 00001874* 00001875*

************************************************************** MNEMONICS DETAILS:-

Date Time Durations Units Meter

: End of communication date : End of communication time : Durations in minutes and seconds : Total unit call charged : Meter reading at the end of the call

B Number : Dialled number

****************************************************************

TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION & NON COMPLETION CAUSES OBSERVATION

OTDLA
LFN=OPTR

Traffic distribution is observed in order to monitor the flow of traffic based on Access code, prefixes and routing. On demand i.e. by using some parameter the obtained results can be classified based on call origin or set of call origins. * Observations results of routing code/Prefix give information about
-

Number of calls offered to routing code observed. Exchange outlet efficiency for calls involving routing code under observation. Subscriber line efficiency or end to end efficiency.. * Observations results on observed direction gives the information Total number of calls offered for that direction. Exchange outgoing line efficiency. total number of calls on first choice, second choice and third choice circuit gp and their percentages *The observation also determines the non completion causes of some calls according to their origin and their destination. * Traffic distribution measurement is optional. The objects observed are destination and call origins and are divided into four

-

types. Destinations • Access Code (Type 1) - Identified by analysis data base (TRAD)- access code. • Prefixes (TYPE 1) - Identified by Pre-analysis-prefix-pair.

Routing ( TYPE 2)-Identified by ACH number.

Call origin * Subscriber access unit URA (TYPE-3) identified by number.
* I/C or both way cct gp ( TYPE 4 ) identified by name Each list can have up to: # object of type 1 # object of type 2 # object of type 3 # object of type 4 25 Access code or prefixes 1023 Routing 256 URA 511 Circuit group

There can be no more than 20 lists. There are TEN observation modes MODE 1 MODE 2 MODE 3 MODE 4 MODE 5 MODE 6 MODE 7 MODE 8 MODE 9 MODE 10 : : : : : : : : : : Observation of destinations irrespective of call origin. Observation of destinations for a specified set of call origins. Observation of destinations with results classified by call origin. Observation of destinations for a limited number of call origin with results classified according to origin.. Observation of failure causes irrespective of call origin. Measurement of failure causes for a given set of call origin. Mode 1 & 5 combined. Mode 2 & 6 combined. Mode 3 & 5 combined. Mode 4 & 6 combined.

On table once the command OTDLA is launched then system sets a single observation mode which depends upon the - Type of observation where 1. - SCE If SCE = NO APP or (APP+ TRAF) or (APP+TRAF+INEFF) APP is call dispersion TRAF is traffic handled by destination INEF causes of ineffectiveness YES or NO Result will be destination ( under observation) wise from all the sources under observations combined(i.e URA or NFSC or LIST) .

If SCE = YES

Result will be source under observation wise i.e from each source

traffic dispersion to all destinations mentioned under observation Thus classification of results by origin TYOBS=A PP NO ORIGINE +(TRAF) ORIGINE SPECIFIE D SCE=NO MODE=1 NOTE (1 SCE=YE S 2. TRAF COMMANDS * Stop the observations if initiated by @OTDAR: @ED=YES ; * Check the list @OTDIL : @ED=YES,LIST=1<20 ; * Removal of existing list @OTDMO: @LIST=/.. ; * Creation of list with certain destinations as access code, prefixes, ACH and source as URA or NFSC. OTDMO: NOTE(S): MODE=3 MODE=4 MODE=2 MODE=5 NOTE (2) XXXXXXX MODE=6 NOTE (2) XXXXXXX X (1) ED=YES : Mandatory Parameter MODE=9 MODE=10 MODE=7 TYOBS=A PP TYOBS=IN EF NO ORIGINE TYOBS=IN EF ORIGINE SPECIFIED NO ORIGINE TYOBS=AP P + INEF TYOBS=A PP +INEF +(TRAF) ORIGINE SPECIFIE D MODE=8

NOTE(S):

(2) SCE= NO : Implicit value not to be given in command when included initiate traffic distribution measuremen

@LIST=1, ACH= ED=YES;

, INDO=

--

,PREO=

-

, URA=

, NFSC=

- Initiate the observation Mode 4 for sample. @ OTDLA: @LIST=1, T=HH-MM, TYOBS=APP+TRAF, SCE=YES; - In Mode 1,2,7 & 8 results are provided for each access codes, prefixes or routing under observation. - In mode 3,4,9 &10 results are given for each URA or NFSC under observation for all access codes or prefixes & all directions. EXAMPLE: @ OTDMO: LIST=1, INDO=2-011+2-022, ACH=1, NFSC=ITEST, PREO=1-198,URA=1+2; @OTDLA: CEN=1/----------------------/STRAT-UP OF TRANLATION OBSVRVATION. @LIST=1,T=00-15,TYOBS=APP+TRAF, SCE=NO @OTDIL: CEN=1/.................../INTERROG. ON TRANSLATION OBSERV. @LIST=0,ED=YES; PROCESSING TOTLA ACC LIST=00 MODE=02 NB OBJ TYPE 1=0003 NB OBJ TYPE 2=0001 NB OBJ TYPE 3=0002 NB OBJ TYPE 4=0001 PREO=01-198 INDO=02-011+02-022 ACH=0001 URA=001+002 NFSC=ITEST PROCESSING TOTPT EXE

@OTDAR; # ED=YES #TYOBS=APP+TRAF #T=0000-02 LIST=1 #CMA=0000000001.33 URA=001+002 NFSC=ITEST # PREO=01-098 NBAP=000000000000, EFF=***% + ***% NAP=00000000000 MTE=0000-0 #INDO=02-011 NBAP=00000000003, EFF=100% + 067% NAP=00000000003 MTE=0000-11 #INDO=02-022 NBAP=000000000003 EFF=100% + 067% NAP=00000000003 MTE=0000-14 ACH=0001 EFF=100% NBAP=0000000005+0000000005 - 100% +0000000000 - 000% +0000000000 - 000% NAEF=0000000004 MTE=0000.06 NCEN=TTCJBL/..........RESULTS END NAFF=000000000002 NAFF=000000000002 NAFF=000000000000

@ OTDMO: LIST=1, INDO=2-011+2-022, ACH=1, NFSC=ITEST, PREO=1-198,URA=1+2; @OTDLA: CEN=1/----------------------/STRAT-UP OF TRANLATION OBSVRVATION. @LIST=1,T=00-15,TYOBS=APP+TRAF, SCE=YES @OTDAR; # ED=YES

#TYOBS=APP+TRAF # #T=0000-02 LIST=1 #CMA=0000000001.33 PREO= 01-198 INDO=02-011+ 02-022 # URA=001 NBAP=000000000000, EFF=***% + ***% NAP=00000000000 MTE=0000-0 # URA=002 NBAP=00000000005, EFF=100% + 080% NAP=00000000005 NAFF=000000000002 MTE=0000-10 # NFSC=ITEST NBAP=000000000000, EFF=***% + ***% NAP=00000000000 MTE=0000-0 ACH=0001 # URA=0001 EFF=***% NBAP=0000000000+0000000000 - ***% +0000000000 - ***% +0000000000 - ***% NAEF=0000000000 MTE=0000.00 # URA=0002 EFF=100% NBAP=0000000003+0000000003 - 100% +0000000000 - 000% +0000000000 - 000% NAEF=0000000002 MTE=0000.04 # NFSC=ITEST EFF=100% NBAP=0000000001+0000000001 - 100% +0000000000 - 000% +0000000000 - 000% NAEF=0000000001 NAFF=000000000000 NAFF=000000000000

MTE=0000.00 NCEN=TTCJBL/..........RESULTS END CMA= Total exchange traffic during observation (a). ACCESS CODE / PREFIX RESULTS MNEMONICS NBAP=No of calls offered EFF = Exchange O/L efficiency % + End to end efficiency % routed calls ---------------------------% no of calls offered NAP --------------------------% NBAP NAP = No of Calls processed/ Routed/ Handled NAEF= No of Effective /Completed calls (b) DIRECTION (ACH) REULTS No of Routed calls EFF= -------------------------% No Of Calls offered NBAP=Total No of calls offered to Direction + % of calls routed to 1st choice route + % of calls routed to 1st choice route + % of calls routed to 1st choice route Under Mode 5,6,7,8,9 & 10 the results also give failure causes for Internal, O/G , I/C, Transits calls. + + effective call -----------------------------% routed calls NAEF -------------------------------% NAP

************************************************************

ADDITIONAL CIRCUIT GROUP OBSVERVATION:
LFN=OPTR

OTFLA

This is an important observation from the point of maintenance of circuit as it enables us to know the performance of each circuit under live traffic flow in the exchange. With this observation it is possible to detect killer trunk circuit (the trunk with high probability of seizure but with practically zero or very poor call completion/success) Up to 20 list of 250 circuits max. , with a max of 25 cct gp per list
Results give information about mean seizure time in seconds, No of seizure & No of successful seizure of individual circuit of a cct gp.
COMMANDS: * Listing of the object of a list @OTFIL: @ED=YES; (LIST=0 WILL BE PRINTED) @ OTFIL: @ED=YES,LIST=1<2: * Modify the list @OTFMO: @LIST=1,NFSC=.........+............+........,ED=YES,AFCT=......+.........+.......... @LIST=2,NFSC=.........+..............+........,ED=YES: *Starting the observation @OTFLA: LIST=1,ED=YES,T=01-00,TF=25,DMP=20 Where DMP= Mean holding time in Seconds TF= Answer To Seizure Ratio By setting TF(ASR) & DMP in OTDLA it is possible to have a selective print out only for those circuits which have not fulfilled either of the Threshold conditions OR Both

* Stopping the observation @ OTFAR: ED=YES: PRINT OUT OF OTFLA NCEN=................../RESULTS/OBSERVATION :CRCT GP CMPLMNTRY OBS # ED=YES # T=00-15 LIST=00 # NFSC=OBMY1 #AFCT=222-01-05 #AFCT=222-01-06 #AFCT=222-01-07 #AFCT=222-01-08 #AFCT=222-01-10 DMP=0000000035.35 NPR=0000000071 NPRE=0000000018 DMP=0000000009.21 NPR=0000000034 NPRE=0000000001 DMP=0000000021.25 NPR=0000000071 NPRE=0000000018 DMP=0000000015.65 NPR=0000000071 NPRE=0000000018 DMP=0000000024.15 NPR=0000000071 NPRE=0000000018

#AFCT=222-01-09 DMP=0000000000.00 NPR=*********** NPRE=**********

AFCT=CIRCUIT IDENTITY (SMT-PCM-CHL) 2.1.1. DMP= MEAN HOLDING TIMEIN SECONDS NPR= SEIZURE DURING THE PERIOD OF OBS NPRE= EFFECTIVE SEIZURE The circuits shown in bold letters behaving erratically should be tested thoroughly by CIRDEM & APDLA commands and got attended.

OBSERVATION OF CALLS ON CIRCUIT GROUP:
LFN=OPTR

OFCLA

This Observation is used to find out the telephone characteristic of the calls that flow through a list of cct gp or circuits. The idea is to give an observation snapshot for each observed call, which is received from the exchange in real time at the end of each call.
- There can be 3 list and each list contains up to 100 circuits distributed on maximum of 16 cct group. Observation Stopped - At the end of time specified - At the end of hour by default - By the stop command.
2.1.2. COMMANDS

* To get o/p on TTY @OFCTP: @ ED=YES; If ED=NO the results are not output to terminal assigned to PSAD during the observation period. * Stop Observation @OFCAR; *Check the existence of list @OFCIL: @List=1<3,ED=YES; *Removal of list @OFCMO: @List=/...; *Creation of list of ccts. @OFCMO:

@List=1,afct=URM NO-PCM NO-CHL NO< , ED=YES; *Activate/Launch the Observation @OFCLA: @List=1,T=1-00,ED=yes, TRAF=D Or @OFCLA: @TRAF=..., ED=...., NFSC= Circuit Gp Code -P (<NFSC> - <P>) There are three Observation results 1. One Observation Start Message 2. One Call Observation Message 3. One End Of Observation Message

*************

DESTINATION OBSERVATION :

ODSLA
LFN=OPTR

A destination is made up of a set of codes that can designate part of an exchange , a region or a service.
This observation covers three observations:I) Observing the distribution of calls on destinations in order to give the operator better knowledge of the traffic flow through the Network by selecting the source and the destination of the observing call. With this information he should be able to optimise the structure and dimensioning of his network. ii) Observing the causes of non-completion on destinations, in order to give the operator the means to determine the non completion causes of certain types of calls according to their destination. iii) Measurement of traffic in Erlang from specified origins and traffic flow to destinations. Conditions:There can be maximum 3 lists. There are three types of object & lists can have up to • Object of type 1 : - 100 destinations • Object of type 2 : - 255 URAs • Object of type 3 : - 511 Circuit groups There can be ten observation made . Simulate the traffic & check the result at the end of observation period. Mnemonic Meaning Of the Observation For Call Distribution NTP = No of Calls attempts submitted to destination NTT = No of CCBT & TRANCOM ISDN calls attempts submitted to destination

NTA = No of call attempts routed to destination NTR = No of call attempts rejected on call spacing if any MTE = Traffic measurement for destination For Failure causes Observation : - Refer the Document 2- 3-1 COMMANDS • Prior to the start of observation create Destination & link to the IND to be made. @DSTCR: @ NDST=(Name)-(Name 1 to 6 Characters) @INDMO: @TRAD=..., IND=...,NDST=(Name) *Stop the Observation ( if any ) by @ODSAR; *Check the list by @ ODSR: @List=1<3,Ed=YES; *Removal of already Existing list @ODSMO: @LIST=/...; *Creation of list containing one or more destinations, sources as URA or NFSC or both by @ODSMO: @LIST=1,NDST=....,URA=....,NFSC=....,ED=YES; *Initiate the observation @ODSLA: @LIST=1,TYOBS=APP+TRAF,T=01-00,ED=YES; System will set this as MODE=4

UR MASH OBSERVATION (Transfer Link) :

OMALA
LFN=OPTR

This observation is used to measure the load on the incoming section (SE) in the URAs in order to balance the traffic between them and to measure the load on the outgoing links (MS) in order to adjust their dimensioning.
• Whether there is channel congestion as the Lrs / PCMs of a CSN & if so up to what extent • Traffic handled by individual CSN as a whole • Traffic handled by each CN in a CSN. There is s maximum of 3 lists including object of type 1 Object of type 2 = 64 URA = 256 test signallers or subs cards

Commands * Stoppage of observation @OMAAR: @ED=YES: * Check the list @OMAIL: @List=1<3,ED=YES: *Removal of list @OMAMO: @List=/.... *Create a list @OMAMO: @List=1, MAI=MS+SE,ED=YES, URA=....; MAI=URA link type

CSN traffic is observed with MAI=MS CN traffic is observed with MAI=SE *Start / Launch the Observation @OMALA: @List=1, T=HH-MM, ED=YES; The first part of the Printout gives the value of TSAT, the % saturation of channels on the LRs/PCMs of various CSNs. i. e “what % of calls to & from a CSE faced channel congestion” As long as the TSAT value is 0 % we need not care no matter what is the total traffic handled by the CSN. In case CSN traffic is quite high & still the value is 0 % it can be safely inferred that the CSN is balanced from traffic point of view. But even if the traffic of CSN is of lower order but TSAT is of the order 5 % to 10 % this definitely mean the congestion in CSN so further loading of CSN should be stopped If a particular CN traffic is high then try to observe the traffic on individual time by OLXLA & redistribute the number in less loaded Cns. This OMALA is another traffic observation command related to subscribers connection unit traffic and CN traffic. This command can be inserted in calendar to observe the above traffic during Busy Hours. Two ways of giving this command are explained below:@CALMO: @PG=OMALA,DATE=YY-MM-DD,HR=HH-MM,T=1-05,URA=CSN NOS,MAI=MS, ED=YES: The MAI=MS will give the total traffic handled by each CSN rack. This command can be given normally every day is required. But for smooth dispersion of traffic in the CSN - PCM matrix it is essential to load each XES card to balanced traffic distribution on each CSN of particular CSN. For this , in above mentioned command MAI=SE can be given. This observation should be carried out every six months in following way. Observe the CN wise

traffic for 5 to 6 CSN racks during Busy Hours continuously for one full working week i .e No public holiday during the week of observation. Six days figures can be plotted and second highest figures for each card in each CSE amongst six day results can be highlighted. These figures will show the traffic handled by each card normally. The balancing of traffic on CNs should be done by reducing the high calling subscribers lines from overloaded cards and redistribution of the same to the other less loaded cards. The command for shifting the working lines to any other equipment is ABOMU. This command will be given only by DE E10 B (Intl) This exercise may be done every six months so that there is no rejection in R counter or in OMALA , and the grade of service can be maintained at satisfactory level.
#URA=001 #SE = 000 #SE = 001 #SE = 002 #SE = 003 #SE = 004 #SE = 005 #SE = 006 #URA=002 #SE = 000 #SE = 001 #SE = 002 #SE = 003 #SE = 004 #SE = 005 #SE = 006 NBRS= 021 CM= 00040.18 CM= 00008.45 CM= 00004.92 CM= 00005.36 CM= 00010.02 CM= 00004.05 CM= 00003.50 CM= 00003.89 CM= 00001.86 CM= 00004.65 CM= 00005.68 CM= 00010.16 CM= 00004.11 CM= 00003.50 CM= 00003.67

NBRS= 021 CM= 00032.64

CM= Total traffic in CSN SE= CN No. CM=Traffic in each CN.

PRESELECTION TIME OBSERVATION - OTPLA
LFN=OPTR It gives a very fine observation of pre-selection time for subs connected to a CSN.

Pre-selection Time :- Period between the moment the status “ receiver picked up “ is recognised on subs -exch interface (URA) & the moment the exchange sends the subs the D/Tone.
*Initiate / Launch the Observation @OTPLA: @AFUR=....,T=HH-MM, VB=Vb1+Vb2+Vb3+...Vbn Where AFUR=URM No T=Observation duration VB= List of 4 positive values Vb1,Vb2,Vb3,Vb4, with O<Vb1<Vb2<Vb3<Vb4 There 4 values determines 4 time periods T1,T2,T3,T4 with Ti=Vbi >< 20ms Each Observed URA has 5 meters C1,C2,C3,C4 &C5 reset to zero at the start of observation. Each call increments a meter unit such as If t < T1 If t > T1& t< T2 If t > T2& t< T3 If t > T3& t< T4 If t> T4 Where “t” being the call pre-selection time *Stop / Arrest the Observation @OTPAR; :C1 :C2 :C3 :C4

PATHFINDING OBSERVATION - ORILA
LFN=PSAD

The observation enables as to observe subscriber lines on which incoming calls are unsuccessful either due to line being busy or internal congestion (blocking) in the CSN to which a subs is connected
The observation is performed for a defined period or by default, until an operator stops the observation The results are output in real time on file assigned TTY Commands *Stop the observation if any @ORIAR; *Check the list by @ORIIL: List=1<3, ED=YES; * Removal of list @ORIMO: List=/....; *Creation of list @ORIMO: @List=1, ED=YES, URA=....+...+....; *Initiate / Launch the observation @ORILA: @List=1, T=HH-MM, ED=YES, TYO=O+B; Where TYO=Type of observation requested B= Calls failing because internal congestion O= Calls Failing because the called subs being busy.

@ TELIN:
CEN=1/00-09-19/16H19MN/EXCHANGE EQUIPMENT STATUS DISPLAY

@AFLR=!-0<7: PROCESSING TPPMIL ACC AFLR=001-00 STATUS=INDL AFLR=001-01 STATUS=INDL AFLR=001-02 STATUS=INDL AFLR=001-03 STATUS=INDL AFLR=001-04 STATUS=INDL AFLR=001-05 STATUS=INDL AFLR=001-06 STATUS=INDL AFLR=001-07 STATUS=INDL PROCESSING TPPMIL EXC. After blocking TS of all LR @ORILA: @URA=1,TYO=B,T=00-15,ED=YES; NCEN=TTCJBL/00-09-19/16H 38 PATHFINDING OBSERVATION URA= 001 TYO= B ND= 0761300002 NE-DE=001-02-002 NE-DR=002-00-007 NCEN=TTCJBL/00-09-19/16H 38 PATHFINDING OBSERVATION URA= 001 TYO= B ND= 0761300001 NE-DE=001-02-001 NE-DR=002-00-004 NCEN=TTCJBL/00-09-19/16H 38 PATHFINDING OBSERVATION URA= 001 TYO= B ND= 0761300002 NE-DE=001-02-002 NE-DR=002-00-007

@OCIN: CEN=1/00-09-19/16H 46 MN/CC/CT METERS INTERROGATION @CTO=RRD-1 PROCESSING TOTPT ACC CTO=RRD - 1 CONT=0000000009 PROCESSING TOTPT EXC @CTO=RRD-1 PROCESSING TOTPT ACC CTO=RRD - 1 CONT=0000000012 PROCESSING TOTPT EXC @CTO=RRD-1 PROCESSING TOTPT ACC CTO=RRD - 1 CONT=0000000013 PROCESSING TOTPT EXC @CTO=RRA -1 PROCESSING TOTPT ACC CTO=RRA - 1 CONT=0000000016 PROCESSING TOTPT EXC @CTO=RRA -1 PROCESSING TOTPT ACC CTO=RRA - 1 CONT=0000000017 PROCESSING TOTPT EXC

The busy subscribers causing I/C traffic unsuccessful be advised to apply for more No of lines as due to them overall quality of service is affected. Subscriber connection unit facing internal congestion may be observed further by OMALA & traffic load may be balanced

*******************

OBSERVATION OF LOAD OF SIGNALLING CHANNEL : TCSLA
LFN=OBSP It makes it possible to know the traffic proposed on line by applying for each observed signalling link. The number of bytes in the signalling unit for message transmitted on line for the first time The number of bytes in a signalling unit received for the first time on line Operating Mode * Start of the observation @TCSLA: @ TYR=...., COC=....., PER=......, Ed=YES or No, T=......, NFSM Where TYR= Type of network to be observed (RL or RN) COC= Signalling link code to be observed NFSM= Signalling link set to be observed ED = Option for print T= Observation duration PER= Periodicity of results output(30 or 60)

By default a measurement is carried out at the busy hour of the exchange. • If the COC parameter is present , the parameter NFSM is mandatory and can only contain one signalling set number • If COC is absent the observation will be made on all signalling link belonging to link set designated by the parameter NFSM • If parameter NFSM does not exist , the observation concerns all the signalling links belonging to National or Local network (parameter TYR) • If TYR is not indicated it means that only the national network links are set under observation.

3. 4.

The meaning of some mnemonic is the following:HRD= Time the measurement period started

HRF = Time the measurement period ended
NFSM= Name of signalling link set COC= Signalling link code number NTE= No of bytes (in Kbytes) for the TSM issued for the first time NTR= No of bytes (in Kbytes) for the TSM received for the first time

* Halt the Observation @TCSAR;

SIGNALLING LINK SUPERVISION - SCSLA
LFN=OPTR It makes possible to supervise the level 2 of signalling links by supplying for each observed signalling link the number of MSUs • Issued for the first Time • Received for the first time • False • Lost • If the link sets observed are operated in preventive cyclic retransmission (PCR) made, the function also supplied the number of • Forced retransmission cycle violating threshold N1 • Forced retransmission cycles violating threshold N2 Threshold N1 & N2 are set by the FSMCR Command on Creation of the link set. The Maximum No of Signalling link subject to the same observation is limited to 100. *Initiate the observation @SCSLA: @NFSM=...., COC=...., T=...., TYR or AFUR=...., COC=...., T=....; Where TYR=Type of network I) RL=Local N/W ii) RN= National N/W By default the observation is executed on national network NFSM= List of signalling link set to be observed AFUR= UR No for the CSN Observed COC = Code pf signalling links to be observed T= Duration of the Observation

Parameter NFSM & AFUR are exclusive

If Parameter AFUR is present , only COC 0 & 1 are authorised If Observation is deactivated by the command SCSAR or after a period T given at activation. Meaning of Mnemonic HRD HRF NFSM COC NTE the first time NTR NBE,NBEL = Number of bytes (ie Kbytes) for TSM received for the first time = No of 128 TSM blocks issued for the first time NBR,NBRL = No of 128 TSM blocks received for the first time NTC,NTCL = Number of TSMs received with a false CRT NTP,NTPL NRF1 NRF2 = Number of TSMs lost through blockage on the level 2 unit buffer = No of forced retransmission cycle violating threshold N1 = No of forced retransmission cycle violating threshold N2 • Stop of observation @SCSAR; = Time the measurement started = Time the measurement ended = Signalling link set No. = Signalling link code Number = Number of bytes (ie Kbytes) for TSM issued for

CHARGING OBSERVATION : OTXLA
LFN=OPTR This observation makes possible to know the number of charge unit for a defined period, per type of call (local call, facility, circuit group)
The observation is performed for a defined period or by default, until the observation is arrested by command

COMMAND: • Start of observation OTXLA: @ T=01-00; Print out available as follows:
NCEN=MALAD /YY-MM-DD/HH-MM-SS/RESULTS /OBSERVATION :CHARGING # T=01-00 LIST=00 # NFSC= # SERV # NFSC= # NFSC= LOC SUP OTHP4 OJPT TAX=0067211782 TAX=0002848200 TAX=0002160849 TAX=0011124356

# NFSC= ONOID Where LOC TAX : :

TAX=00057684

Local Traffic Counter Counter For Additional Service Number Of Charge Units Allocated ***********

SERV SUP:

OBSERVATION OF TRANSFERRED CALLS :

ORVLA
LFN= PSAD

• It makes possible to know all calls forwarded due to processing failure • This observation identifies the sources of transferred call as well as the numbers that were dialled for each no of call transfer ie REN The result O/P in real time on the TTY where file PSAD is assigned. COMMANDS *Launching of Observation @ORVLA: @REN=......,CODE=....... REN = No of call transfer 1<127 Code = Code No to be observed 1<15 *Stop / Arrest of Observation @ORVAR;

CODE is the PREA nos. & REN= REN file numbers. It will give the number dialled, CCT. No if I/C call or NE number if local subscriber REN file number, signalling of the direction and the Announcement No the call has been diverted. Note:- Here the OFNLA and ORVLA cannot be together run in a exchange.

5.

FAULTY (WRONG) NUMBER OBSERVATION:

OFNLA

LFN=PSAD This observation is used to define the source of calls with wrong dialling The output is available in real time
Thus the purpose of this observation is : • To know (Identify) line causing wrong number • To identify I/C Jn from where wrong call are originated • Identified the unauthorised dialling code.

command:
OFNLA,CEN=1;

PRINT OUT
NCEN=………../YY-MM-DD/HH-MM-SS/START OF WRONG NUMBER OBSERVATION.

NCEN= ……../YY-MM-DD/HH-MM-SS/START OF WRONG NUMBER OBSERVATION
ND=856 ND=441 NE-DR=001-00-03 NE-DR=001-00-08 SG=03-01. SG=03-01

ND= number dialled NE-DR= equipment number of caller or source SG= signalling used (lxx-eyy)

*************************

NSS ( SYSTEMSPECIFICATION NORMS) METER DATA SORAGE:

NSSSV - NSSIN
The value indicated on the NSS meters • can be stored (NSSSV) on the disk and • can be retrieved o The number of calls made- Proposed calls o Number of calls disconnected released Call o Number of calls interrupted (during conversation)-call break Thus these are the performance indicator of the system
@NSSSV; CEN=1………………………….NSS METERS DUPLICATION PROCESSING TOTPT ACC
NSS SEC. STOR. NCEN=TTCJBP

(during processing)-

PAST CONTENT 99-01-20/16-40 0000000087 0000000002 0000000001

PRESENT CONTENT 99-08-06/10-31 0000000239 0000000001 0000000000

PROPOSED CALLS RELEASED CALLS CALL BREAK @NSSIN;

PROCESSING TOTPT EXE CEN=1………………………….NSS METERS DUPLICATION PROCESSING TOTPT ACC
NSS METERS. NCEN=TTCJBP

SEC. STOR. CONTENT 99-08-06/10-31 0000000239 0000000001 0000000000

PRESENT CONTENT 99-08-06/10-32 0000000239 0000000001 0000000000

PROPOSED CALLS RELEASED CALLS CALL BREAK

PROCESSING TOTPT EXE

After making 5 calls @NSSSV; CEN=1………………………….NSS METERS DUPLICATION PROCESSING TOTPT ACC
NSS SEC. STOR. NCEN=TTCJBP

PAST CONTENT 99-01-20/10-31 0000000239 0000000002 0000000001

PRESENT CONTENT 99-08-06/10-34 0000000245 0000000001 0000000000

PROPOSED CALLS RELEASED CALLS CALL BREAK

PROCESSING TOTPT EXE

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful