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PCM systems use Time Division Multiplexing technique to provide a number of circuits on the same transmission medium viz open wire or underground cable pair or a channel provided by carrier, coaxial, microwave or satellite system.To develop a PCM signal from several analogue signals, the following processing steps are required Filtering Sampling Quantization Encoding Line Coding (i). Filtering: Filters are used to limit the speech signal to the frequency band 300-3400 Hz. (ii). Sampling: The amplitude of the sample depends upon the amplitude of the input signal at the instant of sampling. The duration of these sampled pulses is equal to the duration for which the switch S is closed. Minimum number of samples are to be sent for any band limited signal to get a good approximation of the original analogue signal and the same is defined by the Nyquist sampling Theorem. Mathematically, if fH is the highest frequency in the signal to be sampled then the sampling frequency Fs needs to be atleast greater than or equal to 2 fH.i.e. Fs>=2fH Since the voice signals are band limited to 4 KHz the sampling frequency be 8 KHz. Time period of sampling Ts = 1 sec or Ts = 125 micro seconds 8000 (iii). Quantizing: The process of measuring the numerical values of the samples and giving them a table value in a suitable scale is called "Quantizing". Of course, the scales and the number of points should be so chosen that the signal could be effectively reconstructed after demodulation. In practice, non-uniform quantization is achieved using segmented quantization (also called companding).

The A-law companding rules for the 30 chl. E1 PCM system used in India & Europe and -law used for 24 chl. T1 PCM in USA/Canada and Japan.

(iv). Encoding:Conversion of quantized analogue levels to binary signal is called encoding. To represent 256 steps, 8 level code is required. The eight bit code is also called an eight bit "word". The 8 bit word appears in the form P ABC WXYZ Polarity bit 1 Segment Code Linear encoding for + ve & 0' for - ve. in the segment The first bit gives the sign of the voltage to be coded. Next 3 bits gives the segment number. There are 8 segments for the positive voltages and 8 for negative voltages. Last 4 bits give the position in the segment. Each segment contains 16 positions. (v). Line Coding: For distortion free transmission, the PCM output signal should be converted into a suitable line code which will match the characteristics of the medium.

DIGITAL MULTIPLEXING In analogue system, multiplex equipment uses F.D.M (Frequency Division Multiplexing) to assemble individual channels into groups, super group etc. Similarly, in digital systems, hierarchical levels have been defined using T.D.M. and are identified by their digit rate measured in No. of bits/sec. Digital transmission systems and hierarchies have been based on multiplexing signals. In the European system, the E1 signal constitutes the first level of a hierarchy of signals that are each formed by successively carrying out the TDM multiplexing of 4 lower level signals. This way we obtain signals with the following formats: E2 (8.448 Mbit/s), E3 (34.368 Mbit/s) and E4 (139.264 Mbit/s). A fifth level, E5 (565.148 Mbit/s)m was also defined but in the end was not standardized. This digital multiplexing hierarchy is the European version of what is known as Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy or PDH.

Introduction to Optical Fiber Communication

The period of the 1900s saw a burgeoning demand on communication-network assets for services such as database queries and updates, home shopping, video-on-demand, remote education, telemedicine, and video conferencing. This demand was fueled by the rapid proliferation of personal computers (PCs), coupled with a phenomenal increase in their storage capacity and processing capabilities, the widespread availability of the Internet, and an extensive choice of remotely accessible programs and information databases. To handle the ever increasing demand for high-bandwidth services from users ranging from home-based PCs to large business and research organizations, telecommunication companies worldwide are using light waves travelling within optical fiber as the dominant transmission system. This optical transmission medium consists of hair thin glass fibers that guide the light signal over long distances. In 1970 Corning glass works, U.S.A. developed a low loss fiber giving a loss of 20 dB/km. This was the second major breakthrough to make optical communication a practical reality. By 1972, losses were reduced to 4 dB/km. Today, the best fibers have a loss of < 0.2 dB/km. The following step-by-step procedure should be followed when designing any system. 1. Determine the correct optical transmitter and receiver combination based upon the signal to be transmitted (Analog, Digital, Audio, Video, RS-232, RS-422, RS485, etc.).

2. Determine the operating power available (AC, DC, etc.). 3. Determine the special modifications (if any) necessary (such as impedances, bandwidths, special connectors, special fiber size, etc.). 4. Calculate the total optical loss (in dB) in the system by adding the cable loss, splice loss, and connector loss. These parameters should be available from the manufacturer of the electronics and fiber. 5. Compare the loss figure obtained with the allowable optical loss budget of the receiver. Be certain to add a safety margin factor of at least 3dB to the entire system. Check that the fiber bandwidth is adequate to pass the signal desired. The major elements of fiber optical communication are 1. Transmitter 2. Regenerator 3. Receiver.

FIBRE TYPES : The refractive Index profile describes the relation between the indices of the core and cladding. Two main relationships exist: 1. Step Index 2. Graded Index The step index fiber has a core with uniform index throughout. The profile shows a sharp step at the junction of the core and cladding. In contrast, the graded index has a non uniform core. The Index is

highest at the center and gradually decreases until it matches with that of the cladding. There is no sharp break in indices between the core and the cladding.

Optical fibre cable systems have the following parameters. 1. Wavelength 2. Frequency 3. Window 4. Attenuation 5. Dispersion 6. Bandwidth 7. .Numerical Aperture


With the arrival of digital systems in the 60s, improving the performance of the old analog communication networks became a real possibility. These networks were based on a frequency modulation scheme for transmitting voice channels, but this approach was very rigid and degraded the channel quality, due to successive analog modulations and demodulations, which

introduced noise in the transmitted signal. The first digital communications system was set up in 1962 by Bell Labs in the USA, and consisted of a system of 24 digital voice channels running at what is known today as T1, that is, 1544 Kbit/s. This technology was not completely adopted until the mid 70s, however, due to the large amount of analog systems already in

place and the high cost of digital systems, as semiconductors were very expensive.

T1 and E1 PCM systems: At the beginning of the 60s, the proliferation of analog telephone lines based on copper wires in the streets, and the resulting lack of space for new installations, led US transmission experts to look at the real application of PCM digitalization techniques and TDM multiplexing and the introduction of the corresponding systems. With four copper wires it became possible to transmit dozens of telephone signals and these were of a better quality than that provided by the old analog systems.

In 1965 the standard appeared that permitted the TDM multiplexing of 24 digital telephone channels of 64 Kbit/s into a 1.544 Mbit/s signal whose format was called T1 and which was also adopted by Japan. For the T1 signal, a synchronization bit is added to the 24 TDM time slots that correspond to the telephone channels, in such a way that the aggregate transmission rate is the result of the following calculation: (24channels x 8bit/channel + 1bit) / 125 ms = 1.544 Mbit/s Where 125 ms is the PCM sampling period or interval between one sample and the next in the same channel. Europe developed its own TDM multiplexing standard a little later (1968), although its capacity was greater: 30 digital telephone channels of 64 Kbit/s plus one for synchronization/transmission of alarms and another

for signaling. The resulting signal was transmitted at 2.048 Mbit/s and its format was called E1. This European standard was adopted by the rest of the world except for the USA and Japan.For an E1 signal, the aggregate transmission rate can be obtained from the following calculation: (32channels x 8bit/channel) / 125 ms = 2.048 Mbit/s


We have learnt about Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) systems, which are progressively being replaced with Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) systems in telecommunication networks due to their technical advantages.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is an international standard networking principle and a multiplexing method. The name of hierarchy has been taken from the multiplexing method, which is synchronous by nature. The evolution of this system will assist in improving the economy of operability and reliability of a digital network.

Limitations Of PDH: Homogeneity of equipment Limited functionality The problem of channel segregation The problem of cross-connection of channels Incompatibility

Features of SDH: (i) Simplified multiplexing /demultiplexing techniques. (ii) Direct access to lower speed tributaries, without need to multiplex/demultiplex the entire high speed signal. (iii) Enhanced operations, Administration, Maintenance and

provisioning capabilities. (iv) Easy growth to higher bit rates in step with evolution of transmission technology. (v) Capable of transporting existing PDH signals. (vi) Capable of transporting future broadband (ATM) channel bit rates. (vii) Capable of operating in a multi vendor and multi-operator environment. Principles Of SDH: SDH defines number of Containers, each corresponding to existing plesiochronous rate. Each container has a Path Overhead (POH) added to it POH provides network management capability. Container plus POH form a Virtual Container. All equipment is synchronized to a national clock. Delays associated with a transmission link may vary slightly with timecausing location of VC within the STM1 frame to move. Variations accommodated by use of a Pointer- Points to beginning of VC. Pointer may be incremented or decremented.

G.709 defines different combinations of VCs, which can be accommodated in the payload of an STM1 frame. When STM1 payload is full, more network management capability is added to form the Section Overhead (SOH). SOH remains with payload for the fibre section between synchronous multiplexers. SOH bytes provide communication channels to cater for: OA&M facilities. User channels. Protection switching. Section performance Frame alignment Other functions

Concept of DWDM
Evolution of Transmission Capacity In the 80s, it was possible to transmit 140 Mbit/s with optical PDH systems. SDH technology in the 90s has improved this capacity. SDH can transmit the capacity of 16 times 140 Mbit/s or 155 Mbit/s (16 X STM 1 = STM 16, 2.5 Gbit/s) or up to 64 times 140 Mbit/s or 155 Mbit/s (64 X STM 1 = STM 64, 10 Gbit/s). Currently, it is possible with WDM wavelength division multiplex systems to transmit between 32 and 96 times 10 Gbit/s (320 Gbit/s) over very large distances. Soon we will have 160 times 10 Gbit/s, and in the laboratory it is possible to transmit in the terabit range (10 X 1012). In the case of optical systems the available bandwidth can exceed several Terahertz (1012Hz). TDM could not be used to take advantage of this tremendous bandwidth due to limitations on electrical technology. Electrical circuits simply cannot work on these frequencies. The solution was to use frequency multiplexing at the optical level or Wavelength Division Multiplexing. The basic idea is to use different optical carriers or colours to transmit different signals in the same fibre.

Consider a highway analogy where one fibre can be thought of as a multi-lane highway. Traditional TDM systems use a single lane of this highway and increase capacity by moving faster on this single lane. In optical networking utilizing DWDM is analogues to accessing the unused lanes on the highway (increasing the number of wavelengths on the embedded fibre base) to gain access to an incredible amount of untapped capacity in the fibre. An additional benefit of optical networking is that the highway is blind to the type of traffic that travels on it. Consequently the vehicles on the highway can carry ATM packets, SDH and IP. A distinction is made between WDM and DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing).With WDM the spacing between channels can be relatively large. In Dense multiplexing the frequency spacing between channels can be as small as 50 GHz or less, increasing the overall spectral density of the transmitted signal. Transmission Windows

Today, usually the second transmission window (around 1300 nm) and the third and fourth transmission windows from 1530 to 1565 nm (also called conventional band) and from 1565 to 1620 nm (also called Long Band) are used. Technological reasons limit DWDM applications at the moment to the third and fourth window. The losses caused by the physical effects on the signal due by the type of materials used to produce fibres limit the usable wavelengths to between 1280 nm and 1650 nm. Within this usable range the techniques used to produce the fibres can cause particular wavelengths to have more loss so we avoid the use of these wavelengths as well.

Application Advantages
Optical networks are opening up new horizons for telecommunication operators. Technologies such as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical amplification are giving them a multitude of ways to satisfy the exploding demand for capacity. New architectures will increase network reliability and decrease the cost of bit rates and distance, therefore, creating economic benefits for network operators and users alike. Based on existing fibre optic backbone networks, the idea of an all optical network (AON) is revolutionizing the structures of our communication networks. In short, optical networks are the future of the information super highway.

The biggest advantages of such an optical network would be : Properties Applications Multiple use of fibres Ideal in cases of fibre shortage Extremely high transport capacity Multiple use of opt. amplifiers yielding decreased investments & maintenance costs. at low cost Format and bitrate transparency Data, video and voice over a common N/w 4. Transponder Applications A Transponder Terminal can be used to transmit a wide variety of signal types, like SDH, ATM or PDH signals.

The Transponder adapts to the arbitrary bit rate of the incoming optical signal, and maps its wavelength to the chosen WDM channel. Its main function is OEO. It converts wavelength (say 1550 nm) coming from user equipment to electrical signal and electrical signal is converted into optical signal of a specific wavelength, which forms an optical channel for particular user.
Optical transparency yields a multitude of new application options and enables network operators to utilize existing network resources in a far more flexible manner. It provides major advantages such as : Greatly enhanced transmission capacity. New services offered. Transmission of restructured signals. Use of devices and interfaces from other vendors. The semitransparent transponder keeps one of the major advantages of the DWDM i.e. Protocols are transmitted transparently, providing a very high flexibility. 5. Optical NE Types (a) Optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer Multiplexing and Demultiplexing of different wavelength signals. (b) Optical Amplifiers Pure optical 1R regeneration (just amplification) of all transmitted signals. (c)Transponders Wavelength change and 2R regeneration (reshaping and amplification) or 3 R regeneration (reshaping retiming and amplification). (d) Regenerators Real 3 R regeneration (reshaping, retiming and amplification) of the signal. Therefore, the signals have to be demultiplexed, electrically regenerated and multiplexed again. They are necessary if the length to be bridged is too long to be covered only by optical amplifiers, as these only perform reshaping and retiming. (e) Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer

Adding and Dropping only specific wavelengths from the joint optical signal. This may use complete de-multiplexing or other techniques. (f) Optical cross-connects To cater for the huge amount of data expected in an optical network even the crossconnects have to work on a purely optical level.