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ARTURO CHIESA

RAFFAELE CHIESA

CELESTIAL NAVIGATION ELEMENTARY ASTRONOMY PILOTING

A text with 27 operative programs

Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://skyseasoftware.webs.com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION 1 - A text and an operative software 2 - Forms and running of the programs - 27 operative programs 3 - Data stored in the software 3.1 - Celestial bodies ow to deal with !un and stars and with "oon and planets 3.2 - #la$es % - &'( )''* and &'( )''* "A+A(,. - Format and $he$/ of the input and output 0uantities 1 - #re$ision of the output data

First part - CELESTIAL NA I!ATION


I - "#AT IS CELESTIAL NA I!ATION 2hree programs to immediatel3 obtain the true line of position and the fix and to sele$t the $elestial bodies to be sighted II - SE$TANT DATA REDUCTION 44.1 - From sextant altitude to true altitude and vi$e-versa. Corre$tion for atmospheri$ refra$tion and dip. !tars and planets5 !un and "oon 44.2 - "anual $al$ulation of the true altitude from the altitude read with the sextant using data and tables available in the +A624CA& A&"A+AC 44.3 - -unning the program 44.% - -everse pro$edure7 from true altitude to observed altitude III - INTER%OLATION OF SE$TANT h - t READIN!S 444.1 - A program to obtain the most probable value of the true altitude ht of a $elestial bod3 at the time t b3 a series of h - t sextant altitude - time readings 444.2 - -unning the program 444.3 - ,xample. 2rue altitude of the $entre of the !un8s dis/ obtained b3 a series of sextant and $hronometer readings I - T#E TRUE LINE OF %OSITION 49.1 - 2he :true line of position; as a part5 that is an ar$5 of the $ir$le of position 49.2 - #urpose and stru$ture of the program 49.3 - -unning the program 49.% - Appli$ations 49.%.1- 2he sele$ted true lines of position 49.%.2 - Five sele$ted true lines of position in a <ourne3 (ibraltar - Canar3 4slands 49.. - 'ption7 dire$tl3 enter the true altitude 49.1 - #ointing out the shape of the true line of position7 an ar$ 49.7 - &imits in the usual pro$edures of obtaining - the latitude and the longitude at the meridian passage of the !un - the latitude b3 the sight of the #olaris A%%ENDI$ A SU&-%RO!RA' TO I''EDIATEL( %LOT AN INTERCE%T
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Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

- CIRCLE OF A)I'UT#S 9.1 - A $ir$le of a=imuths for the best $hoi$e of the $elestial bodies 9.2 - -unning the program 9.3 - 2wo examples in a passage from Cape 9erde 4slands to Canar3 4slands at the dawn and evening twilights of "a3 1>5 2?1? IESSEL %OSITION - FI$ A metho* to imme*iate+, o-tai. a /ix -, sighti.g 0e+estia+ -o*ies1 R2..i.g /ix 94.1 - #rin$iple of the method 94.2 - "athemati$al and $omputer pro$edures 94.3 - !tru$ture of the program and running 94.% - Che$/ing and warning of ERROR 94.. - #ro$edure of verifi$ation 94.1 - A 0ui$/ demonstration of the running of the program 94.7 - 2wo fixes b3 two sights. 'bserved bodies7 the !un and the "oon 94.7.1 - A <ourne3 from !outh !ardinia 4sland to (ibraltar - August 2?1? 94.7.2 - Cal$ulation and drawing of the two $ir$les of position and their interse$tion points %3 and %2 94.> - 2hree examples of running fix pro$edure 94.>.1 - A preliminar3 statement - #roblems in the running fix pro$edure 94.>.2 - A passage on the +orth #a$ifi$ '$ean 2o/3o - onolulu. -unning fix with two planets and two stars when approa$hing the anti-meridian line !eptember 2?1? 94.>.3 - A passage in the !outh #a$ifi$ '$ean 2ahiti - "elbourne. -unning fix with the "oon5 two planets and a star when approa$hing the anti-meridian line. '$tober -+ovember 2?1?. A $ase of ERROR 94.>.% - A test of the program ESSEL %OSITION - FI$ with the greatest number of sights7 seven. A passage in the !outh Atlanti$ '$ean from Cape 2own to Cape orn5 +ovember 2?1? 94.@ - #lanning sights in an Atlanti$ passage (ibraltar - +ew Aor/. August 2?1? 94.@.1 - -oute. 94.@.2 - #rograms used to plan the sextant observations 94.@.3 - Diurnal observations of "oon and 9enus 94.@.% - Che$/ing the main $ompass of the vessel 94.@.. - Availabilit3 of "oon5 planets and stars at the twilights A%%ENDI$ A SU&-%RO!RA' TO I''EDIATEL( %LOT T#E INTERCE%T II - T#E %RACTICE OF T#E SE$TANT O&SER ATIONS 944.1 - !etting the sextant - andling - Care in reading the altitude of the $elestial bodies and the time 944.2 - Further $ares to get a good sight 'btaining the index $orre$tion 944.3 - Da3light observations 944.% - 'bservations at the twilights 944.. - #reliminar3 use of the sextant in the reversed position 944.1 - ,rrors due to an ina$$urate value of the time
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Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

Se0o.* part - ELE'ENTAR( ASTRONO'(


III - ARIES E%#E'ERIDES 9444.1 - !idereal time and e0uivalent Aries &o$al our Angle at a date5 time and longitude. Dire$t and reverse pro$edure 9444.2 - Dire$t and reverse manual $al$ulations b3 using the dail3 data and interpolation tables of the +A624CA& A&"A+AC 9444.3 - Dire$t and reverse pro$edure using the program ARIES E%#E'ERIDES I$ - %OSITION OF T#E CELESTIAL &ODIES I$13 - RECALL OF SO'E ELE'ENTAR( %#ENO'ENA I$12 - T#E FI E 'AIN %RO!RA'S 4B.2.1 - First program7 A&2426D, A+D AC4"62 4B.2.2 - !e$ond program7 62 A+D &2 24",! A2 A+ A&2426D, 4B.2.3 - 2hird program7 62 A+D &2 24",! A2 A+ AC4"62 4B.2.% - Fourth program 7 -4!4+(5 ",-4D4A+ #A!!A(,5 !,224+( 4B.2.. - Fifth program 7 2D4&4( 2! I$14 - !ixth program 7 -,9,-!, - 2,--,!2-4A& C''-D4+A2,! 4B.3.1 - #urpose of the program 4B.3.2 - -ule about the possible existen$e of terrestrial points 4B.3.3 - -unning the program and examples 4B.3.% - 'btaining four 0uadrangular terrestrial points A%%ENDI$
')2A4+4+( 2 , C,&,!24A& C''-D4+A2,! E! AF De$ G 'F 4+F4+42,&A FA')H,C2! E!2A-!5 (A&AB4,!5 +,)6&A5 ,2CG F-'" 2 , 24", 'F 2 , ",-4D4A+ #A!!A(, A+D 2 , A&2426D, A2 2 , #'&,!

$ - SOLAR S(STE' B.1 - -e$all of elementar3 notions B.2 - 9isibilit3 of the planets from the ,arth. ,longation of the planets from the !un B.3 - 2he $onstellations of the =odia$al band B.% - -unning the program B.. - Appli$ations B...1 - Configurations of the !olar !3stem at the two e0uinoxes and solsti$es in the 3ears 2?1? and 2?11 - 9isibilit3 of the planets in the night hours B...2 - ,longations of planets from the !un Comparison with the data of 2 , A!2-'+'"4CA& A&"A+AC B...3 - Dates of the $on<un$tions and oppositions of the planets in the 3ears 2?1? and 2?11. Comparison with the data of 2 , A!2-'+'"4CA& # ,+'",+A B.1 - "oving the planets on their orbits B.7 - !ub-program )ODIACAL DATES. Dis$repan$ies with the dates of the :=odia$al signs; B.7.1 - 2he =odia$al signs of the Astrolog3 B.7.2 - !ub-program )ODIACAL DATES - Aears 2?1? and 2?11 B.7.3 - A $urious anomal37 the names of the two tropi$ lines
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Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

$I 5 AL'ANAC AND %LANETS T#E TI'E LINES B4.1 - #urpose of the two programs B4.2 - !tru$ture of the program AL'ANAC and running B4.3 - 2he shapes of the time lines of the fixed bodies and the ones of the wandering bodies #ointing up the periods of night visibilit3 B4.% - Appli$ations - #rogram AL'ANAC !irius5 "ars5 "oon. A $ir$umpolar star7 Alioth A $ultural notion. 2he phenomenon of the missing "oon B4.. - #rogram %LANETS B4...1 - #urpose of the program and running B4...2 - 2ime lines of the meridian passage of the !un and the seven planets for the 3ears 2??@ and 2?1? B4...3 - #eriods of night visibilit3 of rising5 meridian passage5 setting of the seven planets seen in !an Fran$is$o in the 3ear 2?1? $II - DIURNAL ARCS B44.1 - #urpose of the program B44.2 - !tru$ture of the program and running B44.3 - Appli$ations B44.3.1 - !tandard set of the three bodies !irius5 "ars5 "oon observed in !an Fran$is$o on "ars 215 2?1? B44.3.2 - Cir$umpolar bodies Alioth in !an Fran$is$o5 $losed ring Alnair at Cape orn5 open ar$ $III - C#OOSIN! %LANETS FOR SE$TANT O&SER ATIONS A S(NO%TIC TA&LE FOR T#E (EARS 2636 2633 $I - I'A!E OF T#E S7( B49.1 - !tru$ture of the program. 4mages of the s/3 with or without the names of the $elestial bodies and $onstellations. &ines of the e$lipti$ and $elestial e0uator. Adding other bodies. !e0uen$e of images Efun$tion STE%G B49.2 - Different images of the s/3 provided b3 the options of the program B49.3 - Adding $elestial bodies B49.% - '$$ultations of planets b3 the "oon B49.. - 4mages of the s/3 during four e$lipses of the !un o$$urring in the $urrent $entur3 $ - 'OTION OF T#E CONSTELLATIONS B9.1 - #urpose of the program B9.2 - Choi$e of the groups of $onstellations and their main star $ I - IDENTIFICATION OF STARS AND CONSTELLATIONS B94.1 - #urpose of the program B94.2 - -unning the program B94.3 - Appli$ations 4dentifi$ation of stars in the s/3 of Au$/land 'utlining the position of the estimated point in the s/3
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Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

Thir* part - %ILOTIN!


$ II - ROUTES B944.1 -2he four programs - First program7 !REAT CIRCLE ROUTE - Course5 distan$e5 duration #lotting a great $ir$le line point b3 point - !e$ond program7 !REAT CIRCLE ROUTE - Coordinates of the destination point5 duration - 2hird program7 R#U'& LINE ROUTE- Course5 distan$e5 duration - Fourth program7 R#U'& LINE ROUTE - Coordinates of the destination point5 duration. B944.2 - Correlation between the first and the se$ond program Egreat $ir$le routeG and between the third and fourth program Erhumb line routeG A !outh #a$ifi$ passage 2ahiti - "elbourne a$ross the anti-meridian line $ III - LE!S AND TAC7S ROUTES LE!S B9444.1 - A =ig-=ag route along a series of Da3#oints TAC7S B9444.2 - Dead re$/oning in a =ig-=ag route !ailing ta$/s in a passage Cape 9erde 4slands - Canar3 4slands $I$ - !REAT DISTANCES ROUTES B4B.1 - A great $ir$le route travelled with rhumb line legs B4B.2 - 2wo examples - A +orth Atlanti$ passage (ibraltar - +ew Aor/. ,leven legs - A !outh #a$ifi$ passage Cape orn - Au$/land. 2hirteen legs $$ - DRA"IN! T#E !RID OF A 'ERCATOR C#ART BB.1 - Features of a "er$ator $hart and purpose of the program BB.2 - 2wo examples 1 - Drawing the grid of a "er$ator $hart on a graph paper sheet 2 - Drawing the grid of a "er$ator $hart on a s0uared paper sheet IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII FUNCTIONS OF T#E %RO!RA'S

Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

3 - A text a.* a. operative so/tware


2he boo/ embodies three parts - Celestial +avigation - ,lementar3 Astronom3 - #iloting supported b3 an intera$tive software with 27 operative programs. 2he outstanding feature in Celestial +avigation is a new method of immediatel3 obtaining a fix Evessel positionG b3 entering the se0uen$es h - t of the sextant altitudes and $hronometer time readings of at least two $elestial bodies in a programmed $omputer. +o need of tables li/e ' tables or similar5 no graphi$al $onstru$tion on a nauti$al $hart. 2he $omputer immediatel3 provides the fix and optionall3 provides $ourse5 distan$e and time to rea$h a destination point. 2he pro$edure applies to an3 /ind of $elestial bod37 !un5 "oon5 planets5 stars. A set of astronomi$al programs offers wide fields of appli$ation to astronom3 hobb3ists. #osition of $elestial bodies for an3 date5 time and pla$e. 2imes for an altitude or an a=imuth. !olar !3stem. 4mage of the s/3. Diagrams of time lines of rising5 meridian passage and setting of an3 $elestial bod3 in a point of the ,arth for periods $hosen from three da3s up to one 3ear. 9alidit3 of the data7 two $enturies from Hanuar3 1st 1@??5 to De$ember 315 21??. A set of piloting programs. (reat $ir$le routes and rhumb line routes. #lotting point b3 point a great $ir$le route. Crossing point of the route for an3 longitude. (reat Distan$es7 route run along rhumb line legs. #lotting the grid of a "er$ator nauti$al $hart. 2he programs of the three parts are tightl3 $onne$ted in man3 examples wor/ed out in the boo/. )ut ea$h part also $overs /inds of appli$ation spe$ifi$ of that single part. 2he text of the boo/ has twent3 $hapters5 stru$tured as follows7 - relevant notions - the program and its running - examples5 aimed to highlight possible fields of appli$ation. 2he software in$ludes 27 operative programs. !ee farther the table of the programs. ,a$h program in$ludes a LO! &OO7 and a #EL%. 2he LO! &OO7 is a list of all input and output data of the last appli$ation $arried out. 4t $an be reviewed b3 the user5 printed and saved in a file with the fun$tion LO! &OO7 'ANA!ER. 2he #EL% has three $hoi$es7 a s3ntheti$ des$ription of the matter dealt with in the $alled program and its running. 2o eas3 an overall view of the matters dealt with in the boo/5 the texts of all 27 operative programs are summari=ed in the se$tion FUNCTIONS OF T#E %RO!RA'S at the end of the boo/. information about the formats of the input and output 0uantities and automati$ $he$/ of validit3 of the input 0uantities visuali=ation of the C#A%TER OF T#E &OO7 related to the program.

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Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

2he use of the programs is greatl3 fa$ilitated b3 two DATA &ASE7 - DATA &ASE o/ the 0e+estia+ -o*ies7 12%1 $elestial bodies5 ea$h with its name7 - $elestial $oordinates of !un5 "oon5 eight planets5 13 main stars - $oordinates of 1?%% minor stars and 2% non-stellar ob<e$ts7 galaxies5 nebulas of the "essier Catalogue - DATA &ASE o/ the p+a0es7 1? terrestrial pla$es of the five $ontinents E$oordinates and !tandard ConeG. 'ther %? pla$es at $hoi$e $an be stored5 substituted and $an$elled.

2 - Forms a.* r2..i.g o/ the programs - 27 operative programs


2he software in$ludes 27 operative programs7 - . main CELESTIAL NA I!ATION %RO!RA'S - 1% ASTRONO'ICAL %RO!RA'S5 the first of them5 %OSITION OF CELESTIAL &ODIES8 is a main program based on 1 programs - > %ILOTIN! %RO!RA'S8 the first of them5 ROUTES8 is a main program based on % programs

- C,&,!24A& +A9. #-'(-A"!

!,B2A+2 DA2A -,D6C24'+ 4+2,-#'&A24'+ 'F !,B2A+2 -,AD4+(! 2-6, &4+, 'F #'!424'+ C4-C&, 'F AC4"62 ! 9,!!,& #'!424'+ - F4B

A-4,! ,# ,",-4D,! #'!424'+ 'F C,&,!24A& )'D4,!

- A!2-'+'"4CA& #-'(-A"!

1 #-'(-A"! !'&A- !A!2," A&"A+AC #&A+,2! D46-+A& A-C! 4"A(, 'F 2 , !*A "'24'+ 'F 2 , C'+!2,&&A24'+! !2A-! 4D,+24F4CA24'+ % #-'(-A"! &,(! 2AC*! (-,A2 D4!2A+C,! ",-CA2'- C A-2

- #4&'24+( #-'(-A"!

-'62,! #-'(-A"!

- A6B4&4A-A F6+C24'+!

CA&,+DA #&AC,! DA2A )A!, &'( )''* "A+A(,-

- ,B42

Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

from the main program %OSITION OF CELESTIAL &ODIES9

-#'!. C,&,!24A& )'D4,!

A&2426D, A+D AC4"62 A2 A 24", 24",! A+D AC4"62 ! A2 A+ A&2426D, 24",! A+D A&2426D,! A2 A+ AC4"62 -4!4+( ",-4D4A+ #A!!A(, !,224+( 2D4&4( 2! -,9,-!, - 2,--,!2-4A& C''-D4+A2,!

from the main program ROUTES7

(-,A2 C4-C&, -'62, - C'6-!, D4!2A+C, 24", (-,A2 C4-C&, -'62, - D,!24+A24'+ #'4+2 - -'62,! - 6") &4+, -'62, - C'6-!, D4!2A+C, 24", - 6") &4+, -'62, - D,!24+A24'+ #'4+2

4 - Data store* i. the so/tware 413 - Ce+estia+ -o*ies #ow to *ea+ with S2. a.* stars a.* with 'oo. a.* p+a.ets
2he astronomi$al $oordinates of 12%? $elestial bodies are permanentl3 stored with their names.

S2. a.* stars


Dire$tl3 enter their name - 12?7 stars of the >> $onstellations defined b3 the Astronomi$al Asso$iation5 see the list in the table of the se$ond following page7 - 13 stars of 1st level Efig. ?.1G - 113 stars of 2nd level - @>1 stars of 3rd level - 2% non stellar ob<e$ts of the "essier8s $atalogue Egalaxies5 nebulasG5 visible and not visible at the na/ed e3e Efig. ?.2G. 2he astronomi$al data of the !un and the 13 stars of 1st level are automati$all3 $orre$ted for the date within two $enturies from Hanuar3 1st5 1@?? to De$ember 315 21?? . An3 other $elestial bod3 $an be dealt with b3 entering its pair of $elestial $oordinates E!idereal our Angle ! A or the e0uivalent -ight As$ension -.A. and De$lination 3G.
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2 , +A624CA& A&"A+AC5 6nited !tates +aval 'bservator35 2he 6nited *ingdom5 +auti$al Almana$ 'ffi$e5 uses the $oordinate !idereal our Angle ! A for the stars and non stellar ob<e$ts. 2 , A!2-'+'"4CA& A&"A+AC uses the e0uivalent $oordinate -ight As$ension -.A. K E31?L - ! AG hh.mm.ss 1?
Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

Fig. 0.1 !he "# stars of 1st le$el permanently stored in the software with their coordinates %R.A. or &'A and (ecl) and magnitude. !o operate with a star* select it from the (A!A +A&,. Any other celestial body can be entered: press with the mouse on the bo- &'A/R.A. and (ecl

Fig. 0.. !he ./ non stellar ob0ects permanently stored in the software

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Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

2he >> $onstellations defined b3 the Astronomi$al Asso$iation


&atin name Ara And A0r A0l Ari Cet )oo &ib Cae #ix Cha Cn$ C"i C9n Cap Car Cas ,0u Cep Cen C3g Aur Col Cir CrA Cr) Crv Cru Ara Andromeda A0uarius A0uila Aries Cetus )ootes &ibra Caelum #3xsis Chamaleon Can$er !irius #ro$3on Canis "inor Canes 9enati$i Capri$ornus Carina Cassiopeia ,0uuleus Cepheus Centaurus C3gnus Auriga Columba Cir$inus Corona Austr. Corona )oreal. Alphe$$a Corvus Crux Australis (ienah A$rux -igil/ Deneb Capella Canopus !$hedar Altair amal "en/ar Ar$turus Alpherat= main star Del Dor Dra er ,ri #he For Cam (ru 3a 3i 4nd &"i &eo &ep &3n &3r &a$ &up Ant "en "i$ "us 'ph 'ri or 6"a 6"i '$t &atin name Delphinus Doradus Dra$o er$ules ,ridanus #hoenix Fornax (emini Chamaleon (rus 3dra 3drus 4ndus &eo "inor &eo &epus &3nx &3ra &a$erta &upus Antlia. "ensa "i$ros$opiu. "us$a 'phiu$us 'rion orologium 6rsa "aior 6rsa "inor '$tans . Dubhe #olaris 9ega -egulus Alphard #ollux A$hernar main star #av #eg #er 9ol #s$ #i$ #up -et !ge !gr !$o !$t !$l !er !ex +or Crt 2el 2au 2ri 2u$ &atin name #avo #egasus #erseus 9olans #is$es #i$tor #uppis -eti$ulum !agitta !agittarius !$orpius !$utum !$ulptor !erpens !extans +orma Craters 2eles$opium 2aurus 2riang. )or. 2u$ana Aldebaran *aus Aust. Antares "ar/ab "irfa/ Fomalhaut main star

#sA #is$is Austr .

Cubenelge. (em

C"a Canis "a<or

2rA 2riang. Austr. Atria

Com Coma )ereni$.

Aps Apus -asalhagu "on "ono$eros )etelgeuse 9el 9ir 9ul 9ela 9irgo 9ulpe$ula !uhail !pi$a

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Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

'oo. a.* p+a.ets :'er02r,8 e.2s8 'ars8 ;2piter8 Sat2r.8 Ura.2s8 Nept2.e<
2wo pro$edures of $al$ulation are available a$$ording to the re0uired degree of pre$ision. - (irect procedure. !impl3 enter the name of the bod35 as for the !un and the 1 st level stars. 2he apparent semi-diameters of !un and "oon5 the parallax and the age of the "oon are dire$tl3 provided b3 the program or $an be read in the +A624CA& A&"A+AC. -esults of good approximation are obtained5 suffi$ient for man3 /inds of appli$ation5 as the ones of the !RA%#ICAL %RO!RA'S7 medium level of pre$ision. ,stimated pre$ision of the data provided b3 the programs7 altitude 18 a=imuth ?.1L - ,phemerides procedure. Dhen a high pre$ision is re0uired5 as in the $al$ulations of Celestial +avigation7 line of position and fix5 the pair of the integer ( A and De$ values of the previous and following integer hour of the relevant fra$tional time must be ta/en from the dail3 pages of the +A624CA& A&"A+AC. ,nter7 De$ our De$ our M ( A our ( A our M 2he programs lead the operator step b3 step.

412 - %+a0es
2he latitude5 longitude and !tandard Cone of 1? pla$es are permanentl3 stored. %? other pla$es or Da3points ED#G $an be stored5 $an$elled and substituted Efig. ?.3G. Dhen running a program5 it is not ne$essar3 to use the %LACES DATA &ASE. 2he pla$e $an be dire$tl3 $hosen in the input form of the program b3 shifting the mouse along the box of the pla$es. An3 other terrestrial point $an be dealt with b3 entering its latitude5 longitude and !tandard Cone.

Fig. 0.# !he "0 places permanently stored in the software with their latitude* longitude and &tandard 1one. 2ther /0 places can be entered* named and cancelled. Any other terrestrial point can be entered with its coordinates and &tandard 1one. !he chosen place in the figure is &an Francisco.
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Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

= - LO! &OO7 a.* LO! &OO7 'ANA!ER


2he LO! &OO7 is a list of all the input and output data of the last appli$ation $arried out. 4t $an be saved and printed. 2he LO! &OO7 'ANA!ER fun$tion allows to list5 view and delete ea$h saved LO! &OO7.

> - Format a.* 0he0? o/ the i.p2t a.* o2tp2t @2a.tities !e.era+ r2+e
Dhen an input 0uantit3 $ontains fra$tional parts5 an3 arbitrar3 number of fra$tional digits $an be entered7 de$imal fra$tion of the last group of digits. For instan$e7 21.?273 for an altitude 21 degrees5 2 minutes and 73 hundredths of a minute 3%...@3 for a distan$e 3%. nauti$al miles and .@3 thousandths of a mile simpl3 23 for 23h??m??s 2he whole entered figure is ta/en into a$$ount in the $al$ulations5 even if the figure displa3ed on the s$reen of the $omputer is rounded off a$$ording to a standard format of limited number of digits5 as shown in the following examples of inputNoutput formats. 2he LO! &OO7 provided b3 the program shows the values of the entered 0uantities5 last de$imal parts in$luded. DA2, 2he $urrent date set in the $omputer is ta/en as default b3 the software 4nput format 2he da3 and month are $hosen b3 $li$/ing on their lists with the mouse. 2he 3ear is to be entered with four digits. 'utput format dd5 name of the month5 3333. 4nput $he$/ 'nl3 3ears between 1@?? - 21??5 months between 1-125 dates of da3s between 1 and 2>5 2@5 3? or 31 a$$ording to the month are a$$epted. 24", 2he $urrent time set in the $omputer5 expressed in hours5 minutes and se$onds5 is ta/en as default. 4nput time is expressed in 62 'utput time is generall3 expressed both in 62 and in !2 E!tandard or Cone 2imeG . 4nput format hh.mmss Ee.g. 21.?73. for 21h?7m3.sG. 4nteger hours $an be expressed without fra$tional digits Ee.g. 21G. 'utput format xxhxxmxxs Ee.g. 21h?7m3.sG. 4nput $he$/ 2imes less than ? and e0ual to or more than 2% hours are not a$$epted Einstead of entering 2%5 enter ? of the following da3G. 9alues whose first fra$tional digit is higher than . are not a$$epted5 being not $ompatible with the sexagesimal format.
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Da3light-saving time is not adopted5 owing to the different dates in the 3ears. 1%
Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

D6-A24'+ Eof timeG 4nput format hh.mmss if greater than 2% hours5 the da3s are to be $onverted in hours and added e.g.7 3d?>h%.m3%s J >?.%.3% 'utput format ExxdGxxhxxmxxs D4!2A+C, nauti$al miles EnmG and de$imal fra$tions. 4n some $ases /ilometres E/mG !#,,D /nots E/nG and de$imal fra$tions. &A2426D, and &'+(426D, 2hese are expressed in degrees5 minutes and de$imal fra$tions of a minute. !outh latitudes and Dest longitudes are $onventionall3 expressed with the minus sign. 4nput format Oxxx.xxx...Ee.g. -12.?23 for 12 degrees5 2 minutes and 3 tenths of a minute5 !outh or DestG. Alternativel35 the name of a pla$e $an be $hosen from the list of the #&AC,! DA2, )A!, Ewhi$h alread3 $ontains the latitude5 longitude and !tandard Cone $orre$tionG. 'utput format OxxLxx.xP 4nput $he$/ &atitude less than -@?L or greater than @?L and longitude less than -1>?L or greater than 1>?L are not a$$epted. 9alues where the first digit of the fra$tional part is over . are not a$$epted. A&2426D, Eof a $elestial bod3G 2his is expressed in degrees5 minutes and de$imal fra$tions of a minute . 2he minus sign indi$ates altitudes below the hori=on. 4nput format Oxx.xxxQEe.g. 71.?%32 for 71 degrees5 % minutes and 32 hundredths of a minuteG. 'utput format OxxLxx.xP . 4n some programs and for some $elestial bodies onl3 the integer degrees are displa3ed. 4nput $he$/ Altitudes greater than @?L or less than -2?L Efor the !unG or less than -.L Efor ever3 other $elestial bod3G are not a$$epted. 9alues whose first fra$tional digit is higher than . are not a$$epted. AC4"62 2his is expressed in degrees and de$imal fra$tions of a degree. 4nput format xxx.xx.... Ee.g. 321.7. for 321 degrees and 7. hundredths of a degreeG. 'utput format xxx.xL . 4n some programs and for some $elestial bodies5 onl3 integer degrees are displa3ed. 4nput $he$/ 9alues less than ?L or greater than 31?L are not a$$epted.
1.
Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com

Celestial Navigation, Elementary Astronomy, Piloting Contents and Introduction

D,C&4+A24'+ 'F A C,&,!24A& )'DA 2his is expressed in degrees5 minutes and de$imal parts of a minute. 2he minus sign $onventionall3 indi$ates !outh de$linations. 4nput format Oxx.xx...Ee.g.-7.?.>3 for 7 degrees5 . minutes and >3 hundredths of a minute !outhG. 'utput format OxxLxx.xP 4nput $he$/ 9alues e0ual to or lower than -@?L and greater than or e0ual to @?L are not a$$epted. 9alues whose first fra$tional digit is greater than . are not a$$epted. '6- A+(&,! ( A5 ! A5 & A5 are expressed in degrees5 minutes and de$imal parts of a minute. -4( 2 A!C,+!4'+ E-.A.G5 &'CA& !4D,-,A& 24", E&.!.2.G are expressed in hours5 minutes and se$onds.

A - %re0isio. o/ the o2tp2t *ata


2he $al$ulations of all programs of the software wor/ at medium level of pre$ision.

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Arturo and Raffaele Chiesa http://s yseasoft!are"!e#s"com