The Protestant Cathedral of Magdeburg (German: Magdeburger Dom), officially called the Cathedral of Saints Catherine and Maurice

(German: Dom zu Magdeburg St. Mauritius und Katharina), is one of the oldest Gothic cathedrals in Germany. One of its steeples is 99.25 m (325 ft 7 in) tall, and the other is !!.9" m (33 ft # in), ma$in% it one of the tallest cathedrals in eastern Germany. The cathedral is li$e&ise the landmar$ of 'a%de()r%, the capital city of the Bundesland of *a+ony,-nhalt, and is also home to the %ra.e of /mperor Otto 0 the Great. The first ch)rch ()ilt in 937 at the location of the c)rrent cathedral &as an a((ey called *t. 'a)rice, dedicated to *aint 'a)rice. The c)rrent cathedral &as constr)cted o.er the period of 3!! years startin% from 2!9, and the completion of the steeples too$ place only in 52!. 1espite (ein% repeatedly looted, the 2athedral of 'a%de()r% is rich in art, ran%in% from anti3)es to modern art.

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6istory o . Pre.io)s ()ildin% o .2 2onstr)ction of the c)rrent ()ildin% o .3 7)ther, the *&edes, and 8apoleon o .# The 2!th cent)ry 2 -rchitect)re 3 -rt # 9eferences 5 *ee also : /+ternal lin$s

[edit] History
[edit] Previous building

Tom( of Otto 0, 6oly 9oman /mperor.

The first ch)rch &as fo)nded *eptem(er 2 , 937 at the location of the c)rrent cathedral &as an a((ey called *t. 'a)rice (St. Moritz), dedicated to *aint 'a)rice and financed (y /mperor Otto 0 the Great. Otto &anted to demonstrate his political po&er after the s)ccessf)l ;attle of 7echfeld in 955, and ordered the constr)ction e.en (efore his coronation as /mperor on <e(r)ary 2, 9:2. <)rthermore, to s)pport his claim as s)ccessor of the /mperor of the Weströmisches Reich, he o(tained a lar%e n)m(er of anti3)es = for e+ample, pillars to (e )sed for the constr)ction of the ch)rch. 'any of those anti3)es &ere s)(se3)ently )sed for the second ch)rch in 2!9. The ch)rch had most li$ely one na.e &ith fo)r aisles, a &idth of # meters and a len%th of "! meters. The hei%ht is estimated as )p to :! meters. The &ife of Otto, >)een /ditha, &as ()ried in the ch)rch after her death in 9#:. The ch)rch &as e+panded in 955. 6ence, the ch)rch (ecame a cathedral. 0n 9:", /mperor Otto 0 selected 'a%de()r% as the seat of an archdiocese &ith -dal(ert .on Trier as arch(ishop, e.en tho)%h the city &as not centrally located ()t at the eastern (order of his $in%dom. 6e did this (eca)se he planned to e+pand his $in%dom, and also 2hristianity, to the east into &hat is no&adays *lo.a$ia. This plan, ho&e.er, failed. /mperor Otto 0 died soon thereafter in 973 in 'emle(en and &as also ()ried in the cathedral ne+t to his &ife. The entire cathedral *t. 'a)rice &as destroyed on Good <riday in 2!7 (y a city fire. -ll ()t the so)thern &in% of the cloister ()rned do&n. -rch(ishop -l(recht 00 .on ?efern()r% decided to p)ll do&n the remainin% &alls and constr)ct a completely ne& cathedral, a%ainst some opposition of the people in 'a%de()r%. Only the so)th &all of the cloister is still standin%. The e+act location of the old ch)rch remained )n$no&n for a lon% time, ()t the fo)ndations &ere redisco.ered in 'ay 2!!3, re.ealin% a ()ildin% "! m lon% and # m &ide. The old crypt has (een e+ca.ated and can (e .isited (y the p)(lic. The place in front of the cathedral (sometimes called @ne& mar$etplace@, Neuer Markt) &as occ)pied (y an imperial palace (Kaiserpfalz), &hich &as destroyed in the fire of 2!7. The stones of the r)in ser.ed for ()ildin% the cathedral. The pres)mpti.e remains of the palace &ere e+ca.ated in the 9:!s.

[edit] Construction of the current building

*aint 'a)rice in 'a%de()r%.

Plan of the 2athedral of 'a%de()r%. -rch(ishop -l(recht 00 .on ?efern()r% decided to constr)ct a completely ne& cathedral. *ince -l(recht &as .ery ed)cated for his time and st)died in <rance and 0taly, he $ne& a(o)t the ne& Gothic architect)re de.eloped in <rance, ()t yet completely )n$no&n in Germany. *)(se3)ently he decided to ()ild the ne& cathedral in the modern <rench style. Aet the craftsmen did not $no& the style, and only slo&ly learned the %othic style. The constr)ction of the choir started in 2!9, only t&o years after the fire that destroyed the pre.io)s ch)rch, ()t this choir is still in a .ery 9omanes3)e style, initially still )sin% romanes3)e %roin .a)lts, com(ined &ith a %othic center stone, &hich ho&e.er is not needed for 9omanes3)e %roin .a)lts. The Gothic infl)ence increased especially (et&een 235 and 2:! )nder -rch(ishop Bil(rand. -s the constr)ction &as s)per.ised (y different people in the span of 3!! years, many chan%es &ere made to the ori%inal plan, and the cathedral siCe e+panded %reatly. The people of 'a%de()r% &ere not al&ays happy &ith this, since they had to pay for the constr)ction. 0n some cases already constr)cted &alls and pillars &ere torn do&n to s)it the &ishes of the c)rrent s)per.isor. 2onstr)ction stopped after 27#. 0n 325, -rch(ishop ;)rchard 000. .on *chrapla) &as $illed (y the people of 'a%de()r% (eca)se of e+treme ta+es. <ol$lore says that especially the (eer ta+ increase ca)sed m)ch an%er. -fter&ards 'a%de()r% &as )nder a (an, and only after the donation of fi.e atonement altars did the constr)ction of the cathedral contin)e )nder -rch(ishop Otto .on 6essen. Otto &as also a(le to complete the interior constr)ction, and formally opened the dome in 3:3 in a &ee$,lon% festi.al. -t this time the cathedral &as dedicated not only to *t 'a)rice as (efore, ()t also to *aint 2atherine. 0n 3:! the constr)ction stopped a%ain after the )ncompleted parts ha.e (een co.ered pro.isionally. Only in #77 did the constr)ction start a%ain )nder -rch(ishop /rnst .on *achsen, incl)din% the t&o to&ers. The to&ers &ere constr)cted (y master ()ilder ;astian ;inder, the only master ()ilder of the cathedral $no&n (y name. The constr)ction of the cathedral &as completed in 52! &ith the placement of the ornamental cross on the north to&er.

[edit] Luther, the Swedes, and Napoleon

Three of the fi.e &ise .ir%ins sho&in% their Doy.

Three of the fi.e foolish .ir%ins sho&in% their sorro&. On Octo(er 3 , 5 7 'artin 7)ther p)(lished the 95 Theses in Bitten(er%, Germany, &hich date is )sed as the start of the Protestant reformation. 7)ther also preached in 'a%de()r% in 52#. *ome smaller ch)rches in 'a%de()r% chan%ed to Protestantism soon thereafter. The )npop)larity of -rch(ishop -l(recht .on ;randen()r% also f)rthered the reformation, and after his death in 5#5 in 'ainC there &as no s)ccessor. 'a%de()r% (ecame a leader in the Protestant reformation, and &as o)tla&ed (y the emperor. The 2atholic ch)rch stored the cathedral treas)re in -schaffen()r% for safe$eepin%, ()t the treas)re &as later lost to the *&edes in the Thirty AearsE Bar. The priests of the cathedral also chan%ed to Protestantism, and on the first ad.ent *)nday in 5:7, the first Protestant mass &as held in the cathedral. 0n :3 , d)rin% the Thirty AearsE Bar ( : "= :#") 'a%de()r% &as raided, and only a small %ro)p of #!!! citiCens s)r.i.ed the m)rderin%, rapin%, and lootin% ($no&n as the sac$ of 'a%de()r%) (y see$in% ref)%e in the cathedral. The head priest, 9einhard ;a$es, (e%%ed on his $nees for the li.es of his people (efore the con3)eror Fohan TCerclaes, 2o)nt of Tilly. The cathedral s)r.i.ed the fires in the city, and &as dedicated a%ain to the 2atholic reli%ion. 6o&e.er, as TillyEs catholic forces left 'a%de()r%, the cathedral &as completely looted, and its colorf)l &indo&s &ere shot o)t. 2!,!!! people of 'a%de()r%

died d)rin% the &ar, and at the end of the &ar 'a%de()r% had a pop)lation of only #!!. 'a%de()r% (ecame part of ;randen()r%, and &as transformed into a lar%e fortress. 0n "!: 'a%de()r% &as %i.en to 8apoleon, and the cathedral &as )sed for stora%e, and also as a horse (arn and sheep pen. The occ)pation ended in " #, and (et&een "2: and "3# <rederic$ Billiam 000 of Pr)ssia financed the m)ch,needed repairs and reconstr)ction of the cathedral. The %lass &indo&s &ere all replaced in 9!!.

[edit] he !"th century

'a%de()r%er /hrenmal (y ;arlach. The cathedral s)r.i.ed Borld Bar 0 &itho)t maDor dama%e, ()t the fre3)ent -llied (om(in%s of Borld Bar 00 completely destroyed the &indo&s of the cathedral. 1)rin% the hea.iest fire(om(in% on Fan)ary :, 9#5, one (om( hit the dome on the &est side, destroyin% the &all, the or%an, and some other parts of the ()ildin%. <ort)nately, the fire (ri%ades &ere a(le to e+tin%)ish the flames on the roof str)ct)res in time, so dama%e to the cathedral &as only moderate. The cathedral &as opened a%ain in 955, and a ne&, smaller or%an &as installed at a different location in 9:9. Bith the esta(lishment of the comm)nist,led German 1emocratic 9ep)(lic in 9#9, 'a%de()r% fell )nder *o.iet control. 2omm)nist leaders tried to s)ppress reli%ion as a potential threat to comm)nist doctrine, th)s (ein% acti.e in ch)rch &as a social disad.anta%e. The eradication of reli%ion co)ld not (e accomplished, ho&e.er, and &ee$ly peace prayers &ere held in the cathedral (e%innin% in 9"3 in front of the 'a%de()r%er /hrenmal, a sc)lpt)re (y /rnst ;arlach. This led to the famo)s 'onday demonstrations of 9"9 (similar to those in 7eipCi%), &hich played a si%nificant role in the German re)nification process. The cathedral is c)rrently )nder%oin% a reconstr)ction phase that (e%an in 9"3 )nder the /ast German Go.ernment. 0n 99!, a n)m(er of solar cells &ere installed on the roof, mar$in% the first solar cell installation on a ch)rch in /ast Germany. The solar cells

pro.ide ener%y for )se in the ch)rch, &ith e+cess ener%y (ein% added to the re%ional po&er net&or$. The ma+im)m o)tp)t &as # " &atts. 0n 2!!#, a f)ndin% dri.e started in 997 for a ne& or%an &as completed, collectin% G2 million. The ne& or%an has (een ordered from a company near Potsdam and &ill (e a 3: ton instr)ment &ith 93 re%isters and appro+imately 5!!! pipes. 2onstr)ction is sched)led to (e completed in 2!!7, and the ne& or%an &ill hopef)lly (e )sed for the first time in 2!!". The 'a%de()r%er /hrenmal in the cathedral is once a%ain the startin% point of many 'onday demonstrations, ()t this time the demonstrations are aimed a%ainst social reforms red)cin% %o.ernment &elfare. 6o&e.er, these demonstrations occ)r on a m)ch smaller scale, so comparisons to the 'onday demonstrations of 9"9 are made mainly for p)(licity reasons.

[edit] #rchitecture

0nside of the 2athedral of 'a%de()r%, loo$in% to&ards east.

- s)ndial at the co)rtyard. The c)rrent cathedral &as constr)cted o.er a period of 3!! years startin% from 2!9, and the completion of the steeples too$ place only in 52!. -s there &ere no pre.io)s e+amples of %othic architect)re in Germany, and German craftsmen &ere still .ery )nfamiliar &ith the style at the start of the constr)ction. 6ence they learned (y doin%, and their pro%ress can (e seen in small architect)ral chan%es o.er the constr)ction periods, &hich started &ith the *anct)ary in the east side of the ch)rch near the ri.er /l(e and ended &ith the top of the to&ers. This sanct)ary sho&s a stron% 9omanes3)e architect)re

infl)ence. Hnli$e most other Gothic cathedrals, 'a%de()r% 2athedral does not ha.e flyin% ()ttresses s)pportin% the &alls. The ()ildin% has an inside len%th of 2! meters, and a hei%ht to the ceilin% of 32 meters. The to&ers rise to 99,25 and !!,9" meters, and are amon% the hi%hest ch)rch to&ers in eastern Germany. The layo)t of the cathedral consists of one na.e and t&o aisles, &ith one transept crossin% the na.e and aisles. /ach side of the transept has an entrance, the so)th entrance leadin% into the cloister. The ceilin% in the na.e is hi%her than in the aisles, allo&in% for clerestory &indo&s to %i.e li%ht to the na.e. There is a separate narthe+ (entrance area) in the &est. The pres(ytery in the east is separated from the na.e (y a stone &all, ser.in% the same f)nction as a rood screen. The sanct)ary and the apse follo& the pres(ytery. The apse is also s)rro)nded (y an am()latory. (*ee 2athedral dia%ram for details on cathedral layo)ts) - secondary ()ildin% aro)nd a lar%e non, rectan%)lar cloister is connected to the so)th side of the cathedral. The cloister, &hose so)th &all s)r.i.ed the fire of 2!7 and is still from the ori%inal ch)rch, &as parallel to the ori%inal ch)rch. Aet, the c)rrent ch)rch &as constr)cted at a different an%le, and hence the cloister is at an odd an%le &ith the ch)rch. The %ro)nd aro)nd the /l(e ri.er in 'a%de()r% is soft, and it is diffic)lt to constr)ct tall ()ildin%s, e+cept for one lar%e roc$. 6ence the cathedral &as constr)cted on top of this roc$, called Domfelsen in German, &hich means athedral Rock. -t lo& &ater le.els, this roc$ is .isi(le in the /l(e. -s in old times lo& &ater meant a small har.est, this roc$ is also called !ungerfelsen, meanin% star"ation rock. 0n any case, the roc$ &as not (i% eno)%h for the cathedral, and on the &est end only the north to&er co)ld (e placed on a solid roc$ fo)ndation, &hereas the so)th to&er stands on soft %ro)nd. To red)ce &ei%ht the so)th to&er is therefore only an empty shell &ith no interior or stairs, and the three (i% (ells, #Susanne# (e), #$postolica# ((♭) and #Dominica# ((), are in the north to&er &ith a solid roc$ fo)ndation. 6o&e.er, the so)th to&er is sli%htly hi%her than the north to&er, &hich is optically corrected (y addin% an ornamental cross on the north to&er.

[edit] #rt

;aptismal <ont made of rose porphyry.

The 9oyal 2o)ple. 1espite the lootin% and pl)nderin%, the 2athedral of 'a%de()r% is rich in art, ran%in% from anti3)es to modern art. The follo&in% list is not complete and only a s)mmary of the most si%nificant pieces. The list is ro)%hly sorted (y the time of creation.

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-nti3)e pillars made from mar(le, porphyry, and %ranite are )sed in the apse, ori%inatin% from ()ildin%s in 9a.enna, transported to 'a%de()r% for the constr)ction of the first ()ildin% in 937 The ;aptismal font made of rose porphyry from a site near -ss)an, /%ypt. Ori%inally desi%ned as a fo)ntain &ith a hole in the center, the item may (e tho)sands of years old, and is still )sed for (aptism today. The Gra.e of Otto 0, 6oly 9oman /mperor from 973. 1)rin% an e+h)mation in "## it &as fo)nd that the %ra.e contains a s$eleton and some remains of clothes, ()t all offerin%s ha.e (een looted, pres)ma(ly d)rin% the thirty year &ar. The 7atin (ronCe inscription is made similar to historic desi%ns. The sc)lpt)re of *aint 'a)rice, created aro)nd 25!, is the first realistic depiction of an ethnic -frican in central /)ropean art, sho&in% clearly the ethnic feat)res as for e+ample a (road nose. The fi%)re is no lon%er complete. The sc)lpt)re of *aint 2atherine, also aro)nd 25!, &as created (y the same artist as the sc)lpt)re of 'a)rice. The 9oyal 2o)ple (!errscherpaar) in the si+teen,sided chapel (also aro)nd 25!) (ear .ery realistic and lifeli$e e+pressions. The identity of the co)ple is )n$no&n, ()t they may represent /mperor Otto 0 and his &ife /dith, or Fes)s in hea.en &ith his &ife the holy ch)rch. The sc)lpt)res of the fi.e &ise and the fi.e foolish .ir%ins (see The ten .ir%ins from the 7ist of ;i(le stories), also aro)nd 25!. This is the most remar$a(le piece of art in the cathedral. The fi.e &ise .ir%ins are prepared and (rin% oil to a &eddin%, &hereas the fi.e foolish .ir%ins are )nprepared and (rin% no oil. 6ence they ha.e to %o find oil and s)(se3)ently arri.e late and cannot Doin the &eddin% anymore. The )n$no&n artist masterf)lly e+presses the emotions in the faces and the (ody lan%)a%es of the %irls, sho&in% a m)ch more realistic e+pression than &hat &as common in art aro)nd that time. -ll fi%)res are different, and ha.e ethnic *la.ic feat)res. The sc)lpt)res are o)tside of the north entrance to the transept.

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The seats in the choir from 3:3 are masterf)lly car.ed and sho& the life of Fes)s. The )n$no&n master also created the seats in the choir in ;remen. The Magdeburger %hrenmal (y /rnst ;arlach &as ordered as a heroic &ar memorial, ()t d)e to his .ol)ntary participation d)rin% Borld Bar 0 ;arlach &as a%ainst the &ar and sho&ed the pain and s)fferin% of the &ar instead. This created a %reat contro.ersy, and the &or$ &as almost destroyed. The spot in front of this sc)lpt)re &as also the startin% point of the 'onday demonstrations. The &ebensbaumkruzifi' (literally: (ree of life cross) is a painted (ronCe sc)lpt)re from 9": and e+panded in 9"" that sho&s Fes)s nailed to a tree instead of a cross. Fes)s is attached to the tree only &ith his hands and feet, and is other&ise han%in% freely. The sc)lpt)re &as desi%ned not only to (e .ie&ed from the front ()t from all sides. The tree is (arren e+cept for a small leaf of hopeIlife &here the (lood of Fes)s drips on the tree. The artist, Prof. )*rgen Weber, &anted the sc)lpt)re to (e the centerpiece near the altar, ()t the sc)lpt)re &as placed on the so)th side of the transept a%ainst his &ishes.

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