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Morna (music)

A typical morna group.

The morna(pronunciation in both Portuguese andCape Verdean Creole: [mn]) is a music and dance genre rom Cape Verde. !yrics are usually inCape Verdean Creole" and instrumentation o ten includes ca#a$uinho" clarinet" accordion" #iolin" piano and guitar. Morna is o ten compared to theblues% there is little research on the relationship bet&een the genres" though there are interesting similarities and signi icant cultural connections bet&een Cape Verde and the 'nited (tates. Morna is &idely considered the national music o Cape Verde" as is the fado or Portugal" the tango or Argentina" the rumba or Cuba" and so on. The best internationally )no&n morna singer &as Ces*ria +#ora. Morna and other genres o Cape Verdean music are also played in Cape Verdean migrant communities abroad" especially in ,e& -ngland in the '(" Portugal" the ,etherlands" .rance" /est A rica and parts o !atin America.

As a music genre

0hythmic model o the morna" 1 23 bpm. As a music genre" the morna is characteri4ed by ha#ing a lento tempo" a 56beat bar (sometimes 7)[8] and in its most traditional orm by ha#ing an harmonic structure based on a cycle of fifths"[5] &hile the lyrics structure is organi4ed by musical strophes that alternate &ith a re rain. The morna is almost al&ays monotonic"[9] i.e." it is composed in :ust one tonality. Compositions that use more than one tonality are rare and generally they are cases o passing rom a minor to ma:or tonality or #ice6#ersa.
Harmonic structure

;n its most traditional orm" the morna obeys to a cycle o i ths. The harmonic progression starts in a chord (the tonic) o a certain tonality" the second chord is the lo&er i th (the subdominant)" the third chord is the same as the irst and the ourth chord is the upper i th (the dominant se#enth). These chords < tonic" dominant se#enth" subdominant < ha#e in Cape Verde the popular names o =primeira>" =segunda> and =terceira> ( irst" second and third) respecti#ely o the tonality in $uestion. .or e?ample" i the music is being per ormed in a A minor tonality" the A minor chord has the name = primeira de L menor> (A minor@s irst)" the - Ath chord has the name o = segunda de L menor> (A minor@s second) and the B minor chord has the name o = terceira de L menor> (A minor@s third).

Co&e#er" this structure corresponds to the most basic and most primary harmonic se$uence o the morna. .irst" this structure has been enriched later &ith the so6called passing chords (see belo& under Cistory). (econd" this structure is by no means mandatory. (e#eral composers" specially recent composers" employ di erent chord progressions.
Melodic structure

The melodic line o the morna #aries a lot through the song"[5] &ith ascending and descending note se$uences" and &ithin a bar the notes generally do not ha#e the same length. Dne re$uent characteristic o the morna is thesyncopation" more precisely" one note at the end o a bar is e?tended to the strong beat o the ne?t bar. The melody is accentuated on the irst beat and the last hal 6beat o the bar. The melody is structured in #erses that in turn are organi4ed in strophes. The main strophes alternate &ith a re rain strophe" and this alternation can ha#e se#eral models: AEAEAE..." AECEAECE..." ACEACE..." AAECCE..." etc. The melody o the re rain is ne#er the same as the melody o the other strophes.

The theme o the morna is #aried" but there are certain sub:ects that are approached &ith more re$uency. Eesides uni#ersal sub:ects li)e lo#e" typically Cape Verdean sub:ects are tal)ed about" such as departure abroad" the return" the saudade" lo#e or the homeland and the sea. Dne o the great per ormers responsible or this thematic &as the poetFcomposer -ugGnio Ta#ares &ho introduced in the beginning o the 53th century the lyricism and the e?ploration o typical romanticism still used today.

The main instrument associated &ith the morna is the guitar" popularly called =violo> in Cape Verde. ;n its most simple orm" a guitar is enough to pro#ide the accompaniment or another solo instrument that can be another guitar" a#iolin (popularly called =rabeca> in Cape Verde)" the singer@s #oice or any other melodic instrument. The speci ic &ay o strumming the strings in a guitar is popularly called =mozada> in Cape Verde. The strumming o the mornaarticulates a bass (played &ith the thumb" mar)ing the accentuation o the rhythm) &ith chords (played &ith the other ingers" either in an arpeggio" rhythmically" or in a combination o both). The morna can also be per ormed on a piano" &ith the le t hand pro#iding the bass and the accompaniment and the right hand pro#iding the accompaniment and the melody. The composition o a morna band is not rigid. A medium6si4ed band may ha#e" besides the a orementioned guitar" a cavaquinho (that plays the chords rhythmically)" a ten or t&el#e string guitar (popularly called =viola> in Cape Verde" that pro#ides an harmonic support)" a solo instrument besides the singer@s #oice and some percussion instrument. A bigger band may ha#e another guitar" anacoustic bass guitar" more than one solo instrument (#iolin" clarinet" trumpet" etc.) and se#eral percussion instruments (sha)er" gHiro" bongos" etc.). .rom the 8I23s" morna began electri ication" &ith the percussion instruments being replaced by a drum )it and the bass F accompaniment play per ormed on the guitar replaced by a bass guitar and an electric guitar. ;n the late 8II3s" there &as a return to the roots &ith unplugged (acoustic) per ormances sought a ter again. ;n its most traditional orm" the song starts &ith an introduction played on the solo instrument (this introduction generally being the same melody as the re rain) and then the song de#elops in an alternation bet&een the main strophes and the re rain. Appro?imately a ter the middle o the song" instead o the sung re rain" the solo instrument per orms an impro#isation. 0ecent composers" ho&e#er" do not al&ays use this se$uence.

As a dance As a dance the morna is a ballroom dance" danced in pairs. The per ormers dance &ith an arm embracing the partner" &hile &ith the other arm they hold hands. The dancing is made through t&o body s&ings to one side in a music@s bar" &hile in the ne?t bar the s&inging is to the other side. Cistory The history o the morna can be di#ided into se#eral periods"[2][4] not al&ays agreed among scholars:
1st period: the origins

;t is not )no&n or sure &hen and &here the morna appeared. The oral tradition[J] gi#es it or certain that the morna appeared in the Eoa Vista ;sland in the 8Kth century" but there are no musicological records to pro#e this. Eut &hen Al#es dos 0eis says[2] that" during the 8Ith century" &ith the in#asion o pol)as"ma4ur)as" galops" country dances and other musical genres in Cape Verde" themorna &as not in luenced" it suggests that by that time the morna &as already a ully ormed and mature musical genre. -#en so" some authors[5] trace the origins o the morna bac) to a musical genre < the lundum < that &ould ha#e been introduced into Cape Verde in the 8Kth century. [A] There is also a relationship bet&een the morna and another musical genre that e?isted already in the islands"[7] the choros" &hich are plainti#e songs per ormed on certain occasions" such as the &or)ing songs and &a)e songs. The morna &ould be" then" a cross bet&een the choros and the lundum" &ith a slo&er tempo and a more comple? harmonic structure. (ome authors claim that speeding up the tempo o some older songs rom Eoa Vista or e#en the song =.orLa di cretcheu> rom -ugGnio Ta#ares" produces something #ery close to the lundum. .rom Eoa Vista" this ne& musical genre &ould ha#e gradually spread to the other islands. At that time" the morna did not ha#e the romantic thematic that it has today" nor the noble character that it &as gi#en later. Musicologists cite the morna MErada MariaM as the composition &ith the longest documented pro#enance" composed around 8KA3.[K] The origin o the &ord =morna> or this musical genre is uncertain. Co&e#er" there are three theories" each &ith its supporters and detractors. .or some"[I] the &ord comes rom -nglish =to mourn>. .or others[83] the &ord comes rom .rench =morne>" the name gi#en to hills in the .rench Antilles" &here the chansons des mornes are sung. Eut to most o the people the &ord =morna> &ould correspond to the eminine o the Portuguese &ord =morno> (&arm) clearly alluding to the s&eet and plainti#e character o the morna.
2nd period: Eugnio Tavares

;n the beginning o the 53th century" the poet -ugGnio Ta#ares &as one o the main responsibles or gi#ing to the morna the romantic character that it has until today. ;n the Era#a island the morna su ered some trans ormation" ac$uiring a slo&er tempo than the Eoa Vista morna" the poetry became more lyricised &ith themes ocusing mostly on lo#e and eelings pro#o)ed by this same lo#e.
3rd period: B !e"a

;n the 8I93s and the 8I73s" the morna gained special characteristics in (No Vicente. The Era#a style &as much appreciated and culti#ated in all Cape Verde by that time (there are records about -. Ta#ares being recei#ed in apotheosis in (. Vicente island[K] and e#en the Earla#ento composers &rote in (ota#ento Creole"[7] probably because the maintenance o the unstressed #o&els in (ota#ento Creoles ga#e more musicality). Eut speci ic conditions

in (. Vicente such as the cosmopolitanism and openness to oreign in luences brought some enrichment to the morna. Dne o the main people responsible or this enrichment &as the composer .rancisco Oa#ier da Cru4 (a.).a. E.!e4a) &ho under Era4ilian music in luence introduced [2][4] the so6called passing chords" popularly )no&n as =meio-tom brasileiro> (Era4ilian hal 6tone) in Cape Verde. Than)s to these passing chords" the harmonic structure o the morna &as not restrained to the cycle o i ths" but incorporated other chords that made the smooth transition to the main ones. As an e?ample" a song in a C ma:or tonality could be enriched in this &ay: Basic chord sequence: C F C G7 Chord sequence with passing chords: C C7 F Fm75 C A7 Dm G7 Another e?ample" but in an A minor tonality: Basic chord sequence: Am Dm Am E7 Bm7 E7 5 Chord sequence with passing chords: Am A7 Dm G7 Am F

Although it loo)s simple" this introduction has le t its deep mar) on the mornaand passed through later to the coladeira. Another inno#ation is that this period slightly coincides &ith the literary mo#ement Claridade" and conse$uently the thematic &as &idened to include not only themes related to the 0omanticism bat also related to the 0ealism.
#edit$%th period: the 1&'(s to the 1&)(s

;n this period a ne& musical genre" the coladeira" reached its maturity and a lot o composers tried this no#elty.[7] There ore" the years rom the 8IJ3s to the 8IA3s did not bring big inno#ations in musical techni$ues to the morna. Co&e#er" some compositions &ith a =subtle and sentimental melodic trait> came up"[5] and i mo#ement against the Portuguese colonial policy began" in the morna it is made discretely &ith the thematic &idening to include lyrics praising the homeland or belo#ed people in the homeland. The lyrics &ere also inspired by other music[5] (bolero" sambacano" American songs" chanson franaise" etc.). ;n the 8IA3s" there &ere e#en political songs. ;n the 8I23s" electric instruments began to be used and the morna began to be )no&n internationally" either by per ormances abroad or records production.
#edit$'th period: the more recent years

0ecent composers ta)e ad#antage o more artistic reedom to gi#e to the morna unusual characteristics.[7] More recent mornas hardly ollo& the cycle o i ths scheme" there is a great reedom in chord se$uences" the musical strophes do not al&ays ha#e a rigid number o #erses" in the melody the reminiscences o the lundum ha#e practically disappeared" and some composers try usioning the morna &ith other musical genres.

Variants o the morna

The Boa *ista morna

The Eoa Vista morna is the oldest #ariant o the morna. ;t is characteri4ed by ha#ing a $uic)er tempo (andante 1 I2 bpm) and a rubato style"[5] and by being structurally simpler. The themes o ten tal) about :o)es" satires or social criticism. The melody accentuation is #ery close to the lundum.
The Brava morna

The Era#a morna is in the origin o the most )no&n #ariety o morna today. Eesides ha#ing a slo&er tempo than the Eoa Vista morna (lento 1 23 bpm)" it has typical 0omanticism characteristics" such as the use o rhymes" an accentuated lyricism and a more rigid metre. The Era#a style is still practiced by composers rom Era#a and .ogo.
The +,o *icente morna

The (No Vicente morna is a deri#ati#e o the Era#a morna. Eoth ha#e the same tempo" but in the (. Vicente morna the chord se$uences ha#e been enriched &ith the passing chords. The thematic has also been &idened to include not only romantic themes and the poetry is not so rigid. ,either ma)es use o rhymes li)e the Era#a morna. Beparting rom the (. Vicente morna one can &itness[5] rom more recent and inno#ati#e composers to some other morna #ariants that ha#e not been systemi4ed yet.
-?amples o mornas 0abilona>" traditional
per ormed by TetG Alhinho in the album =Vo4> ('ni#ersal Music < 5335)

.orLa di cretcheu>" rom -ugGnio Ta#ares

per ormed by Celina Pereira in the album =,Ps TradiLNo> (Q < 8IQQ)

-clipse>" rom E.!e4a

per ormed by Chico (erra in the album =-clipse> (-d. (ono#o?" !isboa < 8II9)

.id:u maguadu>" rom Rorge Monteiro

per ormed by Bany (il#a in the album =!ua Vagabunda> (-d. Valentim de Car#alho" !isboa < 8IK2)

Eiogra ia d@ um criol@>" rom Manuel de ,o#as

per ormed by Ds tubarSes in the album =B:onsinho Cabral> (-d. Ds TubarSes" 0e . T6339 < 8IAK)

,ha berLu>" rom EetT

per ormed by ;ldo !obo in the album =,Ps morna> (-d. !us* rica" < 8II2)

[edit]0e erences

1. - Erito" M." Breves Apontamentos sobre as Formas Musicais existentes em Cabo Verde < 8IIK 2. U a b c d e f g h i Martins" Vasco" M sica !radicional Cabo-verdiana Vol" # $ A morna 3. - (ousa" P.e R. M. de" %ora di Bai < Cape#erdean American .ederation" Eoston" 8IA9 4. U a b c d e f VonLal#es" C. .." &ab Verd Band < 5332 5. - Ta#ares" -ugGnio" Mornas' Cantigas Crioulas < R. 0odrigues. - C. !. da -ditora" 8I95 6. - Al#es dos 0eis" R." W(ubsXdios para o estudo da mornaY in (a)*es < ,.Z 58" 8IK7 7. - !ima" A. V." A dana do landu +,os antigos reinos do &ongo e de -gola . Boa Vista/ 8. U a b 0odrigues" Moacyr e ;sabel !obo" A Morna na 0iteratura !radicional < ;nstituto Cabo6#erdiano do !i#ro" 8II2 9. - !opes" RosG" 1ardim das %esp2rides < !isboa" 8I5I 10.- .reyre" Vilberto" Cabo Verde visto por 3ilberto Fre4re < -d. ;. ,." Praia" 8IJ2
-?ternal lin)s The Morna Music Video Ere#es Apontamentos sobre as .ormas Musicais e?istentes em Cabo Verde < ;n Portuguese Elog de Ns em homenagem [ Bi#a dos PGs BescalLos 6 (ince 533K \ ;n Portuguese A Morna < a e#oluLNo (bre#es apontamentos) < ;n Portuguese MTsica e Cabo6#erdianos em !isboa < ;n Portuguese A danLa do landu (dos antigos reinos do ]ongo e de ,gola [ Eoa Vista) < ;n Portuguese