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Dr.

GeorgeGougoulidis

Improve

Technology

Operations

Exteriorofship Hull Superstructure Propulsion components

Interiorofship Mainengines Machinery

Fuels

Variableexhaustvalvetiming Tuning Derating Permanentcylindercutoutimprovedengine efficiencyforslowspeedoperation1014%

Retrofitsolutionforlowloadoptimization Suitableforslowsteamingoperations Adjuststheexhaustvalvetimingbetween1060%of load 2 5g/kWfuelsaving IncreasedPmax cylinderpressure


Optimizescylinderpressuredistribution12% Deltatuning(Wrtsil)forreducedfuel consumptionintheloadrangethatismost commonlyused Tunedforlowerconsumptionatpartload Wrtsil IntelligentCombustionControl ensuresoptimalfiringpressures fuel reduction2.5g/kwh

Longerstrokeengines (MANGtype) low rpm largepropeller highefficiency S80engine78rpm G80engine68rpm Potentialsavings47% MANreportshaving almost200Gtype enginesonorder(spring
2013)

Cutoutofa turbochargerfor improvedengine efficiencyatpart&low loads Potentialsavings24%

Consistsofahigh pressurefuelrailfeeding individual solenoid/piezoelectric valves CommonRailcontrols combustionsoitcanbe optimizedateveryload

Nosacvolume LowerHC,NOx, particulateandsmoke emissions Improvedlowload performance Bettercombustionprocess Reducedfoulingofgas ways,exhaustgas boiler, pistontopland Nodrips,nooilwaste Canberetrofitted

Recoversenergyfrom exhaustgas Convertsthermal energytoelectricityfor reducedgenset consumption Savingsupto12%

Addingcertainsubstancestoheavyfueloilcan reduceclumping,modifyviscosity,andmakethe fuelmorehomogenous,resultinginimproved combustionandallowingformoreenergytobe extracted Wateremulsionisbasedoninjectingwaterintothe fuelortheengine.Emulsifiedfuelsleadtoamore effectiveatomizationandabetterdistributionof thefuelinthecombustionchamber

Waterlowerscombustiontemperature Waterincreasesfluegasmass
Increasedpoweroutputofmassflowdevicessuchas LowerNOx

gasturbines

Ashortcombustiontime

Lowerexcessoxygenneeded 99%carbonburnout Lowparticulateemissions Minimizespistonfouling

MultiphaseSuperfineAtomizedResidue SyntheticFuelOil Madebycombiningaliquidhydrocarbonwith waterandproprietaryadditives Ahighlystablefuelemulsionconsistingof70 80%hydrocarboninwater Anyliquidhydrocarboncanbeused Canemulsifyveryheavylowcostresidues

ENRJ HROHomogenisation System Neftech Pte LtdProprietaryCavitation Technology Nonox Ltd EmulsionCombustionUnit

76%ofthemarinefuelusedisHeavyFuelOil (HFO)whichhashighsulphur content TheoptionstocomplywiththeSOx regulationsare:

Operateonlowsulphur fueloil(MDO,MGO,ULSD) OperateonHFOwithanexhaustgastreatment

system Operateonalternativefuels:LNG Biodiesel

LloydsRegister

Composedmainlyofmethane,containing smallquantitiesofethane,propaneand butane Tomaximizestoragecapacities,naturalgasis usuallyrefrigeratedtochangeitsstatetoa liquid(LiquefiedNaturalGas LNG)

EliminationofSOx LowNOx andparticulateemissions Savingsfromnothavingtoseparateandheat HFO LNGcanbeusedtocooltheshipsHVACtosave ACcompressorpower Lackofinfrastructureandsupplychainnetwork Gasprovidersandbunkersuppliersunwillingto investininfrastructureuntilthereissufficient demand thereisnodemandsincethereisno infrastructure

Extremelylowtemperatures hazardsof coldburnsoncrewandbrittlenesson structures BLEVEduetohighexpansionratio~600:1(a smallvolumeofliquidcanyieldalarge amountofgas) Highflammability

Wrtsil
34DF 50DF

MANDiesel&Turbo
32/40DF(400kW/cylinder) 51/60DF(975kW/cylinder)

Ottocycleengines MANDiesel&Turbo 51/60G Wrtsil 34SG&50SG

TheworldsfirstnewLNG fuelledtankerclassedbyLR 6,100dwt dualfuelled chemicaltanker L=110m Dualfuelsystemdesigned toburnan80/20mixtureof naturalgasanddiesel LNGstoredinatransport tanklocatedondeck DualfuelCaterpillarDF3512 1,115kWeach

Thefirstcruiseferrypoweredexclusivelyby naturalgas InserviceintheNorwegianfjords 4xRollsRoyceBergenB35:40V12PGasgas engines,5.400kWeach

AlternativetoLNG Globalconsumption~45vs ~90millionton production Advantages



Lowcost:inEurope~$350/tn Noneedforcryogenicpressuretanks Canbeproducedfromnaturalgas,orforestry

biomass Sustainable,madefromcellulose,doesnot competewithfoodsources

Conversionofmethanetoliquidfuelsismore expensivethanLNGproduction TheGasToLiquids(GTL)process consumes about30%oftheenergyinthegasvs 10%for theLNGprocess Theamountofenergy/ton=2timeslowerthan thatofHFO Moretoxicthanotherfuels

Specialtankandauxiliaryenginesforthe methanoltrial Methanolisconvertedintodimethylether (DME)priortoinjectionintotheengine

Anewenginethatenablestheuseofmore sustainablefuels,suchasmethanol,Liquefied PetroleumGas(LPG) dimethylether (DME),and (bio)ethanolaswellasother,lowflashpoint fuels MANhassignedaLetterofIntentwith WaterfrontShippingfortheuseof4MANME LGIenginesonitsships Theengineswillrunonablendof95%methanol and5%dieselfuel

Basedonvegetableoils(camelina,cornetc.) andanimalfat(tallow) SignificantlyreducedSOx emissions Lowerparticleemissions NOx emissionsdependonthefueltype Enginesmayneedmodifications

Fuelinstability Corrosion Susceptibilitytomicrobialgrowthinlong termstorage Adverseeffectsonpipingandsystemslike injectorsandoilpumps Poorcoldflowproperties


Lowerthermalvalue 5%lessoutputfora4 strokeengine Lowerenergycontentmeanslargerfuel tanks Biofuelproductionhasnotmovedtofull scale Moreexpensive

Currentrefersto2012

Conflictbetweenthebiofuelandthefood industry Thechallengeistofindfeedstocks whichare sustainableandavailableatareasonablecost Additionallandtogrowcropsforbiofuelsis needed

TheconsequenceofEUsulphur directivesonthe supplychainhasbeenthatmarinedieseloilwill becontaminatedwithFattyAcidMethylEsters (FAME~biodiesel) Alreadyusedintheautomotiveindustry BiofueltrialonthecontainervesselMaersk Kalmarinoneauxiliaryengine FAMEblendedwithdieselata5%95%ratio(B5) Resultsshowedthatthebiodieselfor automotiveapplicationsmaynotbeoptimalfor theuseonships

Builtin2006 Sunkin2010 Partoftheprojectwasto breaktheworldrecord forcircumnavigatingthe globeusingonly renewablefuels Theboat'sengineswere poweredcompletelyby biodiesel

"FarmtoFleet"collaborationbetweenthe USNavy andthe USDepartmentof Agriculture(USDA) Thegoalistobeindependentofforeign resources Advanceddropinbiofuelsblended1050% withconventionalfuels Projectedcostby2016 <$4/gallon~ competitivewithpetroleumproducts

Notfoundinnatureinitspureform Producedbyelectrolyzingwater,orby reforminghydrocarbonfuels Productionrequiresenergyconsumption Ifenergycomesfromrenewablesources, hydrogenisa100%renewablezerocarbon fuel Untilrecentlyusedonlyinfuelcellsubmarine systems


Theworld'sfirst hydrogenpowered ship Launchedin2009 Hydrogenfuelcells thatgenerate100kW Capacityof100 passengers Operatesoninner citywaterwaysin Hamburg

AjointindustryR&D projectbetweenDNV andEidesvik Offshore Offshoresupplyship VikingLady Thefirsthybrid propulsionplanttouse fuelcells Installedin2009 Fuelcelloutput:330kW

Itwilltaketimebeforefuelcellsbecomea competitivealternative Restrictedbycost Storageofhydrogenonboard Duetothesmallsizeofhydrogenmolecules therecanbeleakages requiresventilationin ordertostoptheunavoidableleakagefrom becomingdangerous Purehydrogencorrodesmetals maintenance concerns Lackofinfrastructure

Intheshort term,LNGisrelativelyeasyto adoptthankstostandardsandtechnical knowledge,despitethechallengesofbuilding LNGinfrastructure Windandsolarenergyareappropriate auxiliarypowersources Inthemediumandlongterm,biofuelsand syntheticfuelshavepromise Intheevenlonger term,hydrogenisseenas anoption

GreatGreenFleetprojectedfor2016 Demonstrationtookplace inJuly 2012 Shipswerepoweredby,eithernuclearorbiofuel blends Thebiofuelblendswere5050mixturesofbiofuel (madefromusedcookingoilandalgae)and petroleumbasedmarinedieseloraviationfuel Thegoalsoftheprogramare:
Reducethedependenceonoilbasedfuelsby50%by2020 Reducetheconsumptionofenergy Decreasethedependenceonforeignsourcesofoil

USSNIMITZ(CVN68)andCarrierAirWing ELEVEN USSCHAFEE(DDG90) USSCHUNGHOON(DDG93) USSPRINCETON(CG59) USNSHENRYJKAISER(TAO187)

Shaftgeneratorsdrivenbythemainengines Reducetheneedtorunauxiliarygensets Electricalsystemrequiresfixedvoltage&frequency meaningthatenginespeedhastobeconstant

Twosolutions:
Powertakeoff(PTO) systemwithfrequency

controlensuringconstantfrequency Hybrid systemconditioningthepowerfromshaft generatorsothatthesupplytotheswitchboard remainsconstantatanyenginespeed

Shaftgeneratormaybeusedasamotor providingpowertothepropeller

Benefitfromefficientelectricdriveforcruise speeds&costeffectivemechanicaldrivefor higherspeeds TheelectricdriveallowstheMainDiesel Generators(MDG)toprovidepowerforthe shipselectricalloadandthepropulsionmotors Thesemotorsoperateasalternatorswhen runningontheMainDieselEngines(MDE)at higherspeeds Theresultisfewerprimemovers,fewerengine runninghoursandalsofueleconomy

2CPPpropellers Foreachshaftline,1Wrtsil maindieselengine(ME)and oneelectricmotor(PTI)are connectedtoagearbox Thepropellercanbedriven bythedieselengine,the electricmotor,orbyboththe dieselengineandtheelectric motor Themainengineshavea powertakeoffinthefront end,drivingashaftgenerator

GEAR ME GEN

PTI AUXGEN

AUX

Themainenginecanbeusedasthepropulsionengineatvariable speed,thepropulsionengineatconstantgeneratorspeed,orasa generatormotordisconnectedfromthepropeller Thevariablespeedelectricmotorshavetwonominalratingsand speeds(operatinginparallelwiththedieselengineandoperating astheonlypropulsionmotor)

<4kt poweredbybatteries < 8kt themotorspoweredbythe generator,withonlytheCLenginein operation 8 13kt andduringtowingoperations onlythe lateralenginesinoperation Excesselectricalpowerusedforbattery charging Infirefightingmodethemainengines providepropulsionpowerandthefire pumpsdrivenbythegeneratorengine Upto30%fuelsavingscomparedtothe conventionalversion