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SOCIOLOGY REVIEW Compiled by Julian Heidt

Participant Observation A method of study in which anthropologists live with their subjects for a long time, participate as a group or community member, and record their investigations. GDP The total wealth produced by a country's economy divided by total population. Per Capita (PCGDP Per Capita Gross Domestic Product) A measure of amount of goods and services, adjusted for inflation, produces on average, by every member of the population. Intuition elieving something to be true because of a person's emotions and logic support it. Patri inea A method of tracing and organi!ing families through the father's line. Et!no"rap!# The scientific study of human races and cultures. Sc!oo o$ t!ou"!t A certain way of interpreting a discipline's subject matter that has gained widespread capability. Institutions ". established laws, practises, and customs within a society. #. those organi!ations within society that act to mould us into individuals. %inar# Opposite ronislaw $alinows%i's principle that humans tend to see things in terms of two forces that are opposite to each other, such as night and day, good and evil, female and male.

&ateria ism ". A way of life with personal or societal values preoccupied with obtaining material possessions. #. The belief that technological and economic factors are the most important ones in moulding a society. Determinism The belief that the types of technology and economic methods, that are adopted always determine the type of society that develops. Con$ormit# Adopting ideas and behaviours considered appropriate by the group. e.g. &ashing your hands before eating, teachers e'pect to do their homewor%, etc. ' ienation (eople who reject social norms as old fashioned, boring, or restrictive of personal freedom, and practise behaviours outside the norms. (ins!ip ". )inship is the idea that we have a common ancestry with all or some of the members of the cultural group. This might refer to an entire people. *or e'ample, the Jewish people trace their ancestry bac% to the descendants of Abraham +ca. #,,, C-.. /r it might be members of a family who share descent from immigrants a number of generations ago. ecause of this common ancestry, %indred groups believe that they share common principles. 0 #. A family relationship based on what a culture considers to be a family. )ictive (ins!ip The practice of ac%nowledging as %in people who are not biologically related. Gender All cultures distinguish between females and males in some ways. 1orth Americans dress baby girls in pin% and baby boys in blue., though it ma%es no difference to the infant. Canadian boys and girls usually play on separate sport teams. 2n some cultures, for e'ample, in the highlands of 1ew 3uinea, men and women live in separate dwellings. Husbands and wives may eat meals together, although they must sit apart from each other and come together only for purposes of procreation. 2n some cultures. $en and women even have different religions. Creating male and female groups increases the bonds and unifying principles among members of each gender.

Common Goa s and Interests Cultures organi!e specific groups for people who have highly speciali!ed interests. These groups could be stamp clubs, coo%ing classes, cross0country teams, or seniors' e'ercise classes. Their members tend to be similar in their goals, language, views about other people in general, and attitudes towards specific other groups. *ierarc!# All cultures recogni!e differences in relative status and ran%. Hierarchy is a formal way of organi!ing this principle. The )wa%iutl people of the (acific 1orthwest regarded a first born son as having higher ran% than the other children. He inherited his father's entire wealth, in a system similar to that practised by aristocratic families all over -urope. 2n pictures of politicians today, you will see that the most senior advisors sit closest to the leader. &hen families eat together, elder members are li%ely to have the most prominent seats at the table. ' ienation $ost people will confirm, most of the time, to the norms of their group. 4ome, however, never develop a strong attachment to such norms. This may result from unhappy prior e'periences, conflicting pressures from different groups, or an unwillingness to give up one's individualism and surrender to the ways of the group. Alienation is a lac% of attachment to the norms of society or the culture of the group. As you would imagine, each social science discipline approaches alienation from a slightly different perspective. 'nomie + 'nomic /riginated from gree%5 without beliefs. lac% of the usual social or ethical standards in an individual or group. 6the theory that high0rise architecture leads to anomie in the residents6 Pro etariat wor%ing0class people regarded collectively +often used with reference to $ar'ism.. 6the growth of the industrial proletariat6 Socio o"ists on ' ienation 7in%ing societal change to alienation. e.g. e'clusion of wor%ers due to industrial revolution. Ps#c!o o"ists on ' ienation $uch of their wor% in this area relates to finding the causes of what society considers problem behaviours, such as crime and substance abuse. They find that people who have become alienated from society are far more li%ely to commit crimes than well0integrated people are.

'nt!ropo o"ists on ' ienation Cultural change can be orderly and not result in alienation. e.g. /rderly Cultural Change. 4tage ". 2nnovation -'ample *amilies of wor%ing parents e'press a need to eat more prepared meals at home. 4upermar%ets stoc% prepared meals9 meals are heated at home in conventional ovens +slow.. 8etails 8ecline of full0time homema%ers means there's insufficient time to prepare meals from scratch. There is an economic incentive for companies to create and sell prepared meals.

#. Acceptance

:. (erformance

1ew homes designed with built0 $embers of the culture accept in shelves for appliances such as the change as desirable and ma%e microwaves and convection accommodations to incorporate ovens to heat prepared meals it. +;uic%.9 consumer appliance stores e'pand to sell new products. igger power plants built to The culture ma%es structural generate electricity for wave of adjustments to ma%e the change new consumer %itchen products. permanent.

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