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Page 1 of 8 Falsification of Public Documents

Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila FIRST DIVISION G.R. No. 139857 September 15, 2006

LEON L! "!TUL!NON, petitioner, vs PEOPLE O# T$E P$ L PP NES, respon!ent D"#ISION %N!RES&S!NT !GO, J.' This petition assails the October $%, &''( Decision& of the #ourt of )ppeals in #)*+ R #R No &,--&, affirming .ith mo!ification the )pril &,, &''$ Decision- of the Regional Trial #ourt of +eneral Santos #it/, 0ranch -- in #riminal #ase Nos $1,$, $2-,, $2-2 an! $2-3, convicting 4eonila 0atulanon of estafa through falsification of commercial !ocuments, an! the 5ul/ -', &''' Resolution$ !en/ing the motion for reconsi!eration #omplainant Polomolo6 #re!it #ooperative Incorporate! 7P##I8 emplo/e! 0atulanon as its #ashier9Manager from Ma/ &'(% up to December --, &'(- She .as in charge of receiving !eposits from an! releasing loans to the member of the cooperative During an au!it con!ucte! in December &'(-, certain irregularities concerning the release of loans .ere !iscovere!
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Thereafter, four informations for estafa thru falsification of commercial !ocuments .ere file! against 0atulanon, to .it: Cr(m()*+ C*,e No. 3625 That on or about the -n! !a/ of 5une, &'(- at Poblacion Municipalit/ of Polomolo6, Province of South #otabato, Philippines, an! .ithin the ;uris!iction of the <onorable #ourt sai! accuse! being then the manager*cashier of Polomolo6 #re!it #ooperative, Inc , 7P##I8, entruste! .ith the !ut/ of managing the aff=a>irs of the cooperative, receiving pa/ments to, an! collections of, the same, an! pa/ing out loans to members, ta6ing a!vantage of her position an! .ith intent to pre;u!ice an! !efrau! the cooperative, !i! then an! there .illfull/, unla.full/ an! feloniousl/ falsif/ a commercial !ocument, namel/: #ash9#hec6 Voucher No $%*) of P##I in the name of "rlin!a Oma!lao b/ then an! there ma6ing an entr/ therein that the sai! "rlin!a Oma!lao .as grante! a loan of P1,&2%, Philippine #urrenc/, an! b/ signing on the appropriate line thereon the signature of "rlin!a Oma!lao sho.ing that she receive! the loan, thus ma6ing it appear that the sai! "rlin!a Oma!lao .as grante! a loan an! receive! the amount of P1,&2% .hen in truth an! in fact the sai! person .as never grante! a loan, never receive! the same, an! never signe! the cash9chec6 voucher issue! in her name, an! in furtherance of her criminal intent an! frau!ulent !esign to !efrau! P##I sai! accuse! !i! then an! there release to herself the same an! receive! the loan of P1,&2% an! thereafter misappropriate an! convert to her o.n use an! benefit the sai! amount, an! !espite !eman!s, refuse! an! still refuses to restitute the same, to the !amage an! pre;u!ice of P##I, in the aforementione! amount of P1,&2%, Philippine #urrenc/ , Cr(m()*+ C*,e No. 3626 That on or about the -1th !a/ of September, &'(- at Poblacion, Municipalit/ of Polomolo6, Province of South #otabato, Philippines, an! .ithin the ;uris!iction of the <onorable #ourt, sai! accuse! being then the manager*cashier of Polomolo6 #re!it #ooperative, Inc 7P##I8, entruste! .ith the !ut/ of managing the affairs of the cooperative, receiving pa/ments to, an! collections of, the same, an! pa/ing out loans to members ta6ing a!vantage of her position an! .ith intent to pre;u!ice an! !efrau! the cooperative, !i! then an! there .illfull/, unla.full/ an! feloniousl/ falsif/ a

. !i! then an! there.hen in truth an! in fact Ferl/n )rro/o never ma!e such a !eposit an! . .. the sai! accuse! being then the manager*cashier of Polomolo6 #re!it #ooperative. !i! then an! there . receive! the loan of P1. Philippines.%%% %% .ith. thus ma6ing it appear that the sai! Ferl/n )rro/o receive! the loan of P$.. refuse! an! still . an! !espite !eman!s. never receive! the same. Inc . 7P##I8.as grante! a loan. an! thereafter.ith the !ut/ of managing the affairs of the cooperative.uris!iction of the <onorable #ourt. an! thereafter.ith the P##I b/ then an! there entering on the appropriate column of the le!ger the entr/ that the sai! Dennis 0atulanon ha! a fiAe! !eposit of P-. ta6ing a!vantage of her position an! .full/ an! feloniousl/ misappropriate an! convert to her o. an! in furtherance of her criminal intent an! frau!ulent !esign to !efrau! P##I sai! accuse! !i! then an! there release to herself the same an! receive! the amount of P1.ith.ith the !ut/ of managing the affairs of the cooperative.as grante! a loan b/ the P##I .hen in truth an! in fact Dennis 0atulanon never ma!e such a !eposit an! . an! collection of. namel/: an In!ivi!ual Deposits an! 4oan 4e!ger of one Ferl/n )rro/o .illfull/.ith the P##I an! .as so falsifie! in the manner set forth. an! .%%%. !i! then an! there .at Poblacion.e No. Philippine #urrenc/ #ONTR)R? TO 4)@ 2 Cr(m()*+ C*.Page 2 of 8 Falsification of Public Documents commercial !ocument.as so falsifie! in the manner set forth.u!ice an! !efrau! the cooperative. Province of South #otabato. receiving pa/ments to.u!ice of the P##I in the aforementione! amount of P$.n personal use an! benefit the sai! amount. Philippine #urrenc/.n use an! benefit the sai! amount.%%. an! in furtherance of her criminal intent an! frau!ulent !esign to !efrau! P##I sai! accuse! !i! then an! there release to herself the same. refuse! an! still refuses to restitute the same.u!ice an! !efrau! the cooperative.%%% %% an! thereafter misappropriate an! convert to her o.%%% %% . Province of South #otabato.as grante! a loan in the amount of P$.ith intent to pre. thus ma6ing it appear that the sai! person ma!e a fiAe! !eposit on the aforesai! !ate . an! . .ilfull/.as never grante! loan an! after the !ocument .hen in truth an! in fact sai! person . 3-53 That on or about the &%th !a/ of October &'(. to the !amage an! pre.illfull/. receiving pa/ments to.n personal use an! benefit the sai! amount.hen in truth an! in fact sai! Ferl/n )rro/o never receive! the loan. &'(. namel/: an In!ivi!ual Deposits an! 4oan 4e!ger of one Dennis 0atulanon . an! receive! the amount of P$. unla. 3627 That on or about the 3th !a/ of December.u!ice of P##I.full/ an! feloniousl/ falsif/ a commercial !ocument.hen in truth an! in fact sai! Dennis 0atulanon never receive! the loan an! in furtherance of her criminal intent an! frau!ulent !esign to !efrau! P##I sai! accuse! !i! then an! there release to herself the same an! receive the loan of P.%%% %% thus ma6ing it appear that the sai! person ma!e fiAe! !eposit on the aforesai! !ate . namel/: #ash9#hec6 Voucher No -$3 ) of P##I in the name of +onafre!a Oracion b/ then an! there ma6ing an entr/ therein that the sai! +onafre!a Oracion . an! never signe! the #ash9#hec6 voucher issue! in her name. unla.ith the P##I an! . the sai! accuse! being then the manager*cashier of Polomolo6 #re!it #ooperative.illfull/. in the aforementione! amount of P1.%%% %% an! b/ signals on the appropriate line thereon the signature of +onafre!a Oracion sho. an! !espite !eman!s.ing that she receive! the loan. an! collection of the same an! pa/ing out loans to members.e No.full/ an! feloniousl/ misappropriate an! convert to her o. !i! then an! there . Philippine #urrenc/ #ONTR)R? TO 4)@ 3 Cr(m()*+ C*.%%. unla. Inc .as never grante! a loan. ta6ing a!vantage of her position an! . sai! accuse! !i! then an! there again falsif/ the #ash9#hec6 Voucher No $31 ) of P##I in the name of Dennis 0atulanon b/ signing therein the signature of Dennis 0atulanon. refuse! an! still refuses to restitute the same.as grante! a loan b/ the P##I . an! . an! . an! =!espite> !eman!s.%% %%.%%% %% . thus ma6ing it appear that the sai! +onafre!a Oracion .ith the P##I b/ then an! there entering on the appropriate column of the le!ger the entr/ that the sai! Ferl/n )rro/o ha! a fiAe! !eposit of P&. 7P##I8 entruste! .%%.. thus ma6ing it appear that the sai! Dennis 0atulanon receive! the loan of P. Municipalit/ of Polomolo6.%%%. the same an! pa/ing out loans to members.as never grante! loan an! offer the !ocument .ithin the . to the !amage an! pre.as grante! a loan in the amount of P. entruste! ..as grante! a loan of P1.. sai! accuse! !i! then an! there again falsif/ the #ash9#hec6 Voucher of the P##I in the name of Ferl/n )rro/o b/ signing therein the signature of Ferl/n )rro/o.at Poblacion..ithin the .full/ an! feloniousl/ falsif/ a commercial !ocument. Municipalit/ of Polomolo6.%%% %% .uris!iction of the <onorable #ourt. unla.ith intent to pre. Philippines.

%%% %% . &'(-.as settle! -The !efense presente! t.ith!re.ere pa/ees an! recipients of the amount state! therein &()s to the signature of Oma!lao in #ash Voucher No $%).hose . Maria Theresa Me!allo .ere not bona fi!e members of the cooperative &.as release! to Dennis 0atulanon thru #ash Voucher No $31) &1 Me!allo testifie! that Oma!lao.as subpoenae! b/ the trial court on behalf of the !efense an! .itnesses Me!allo.&2% %% .as release! to "rlin!a Oma!laoB on September -1.as release! to Ferl/n )rro/o on October &2.as as6e! to i!entif/ the entries in the 5ournal . &'(.riting -& 5a/oma also testifie! that among the four loans ta6en.ere raffle! to 0ranch -.as onl/ $ /ears ol! in &'(. Oracion.as not the one .of the Regional Trial #ourt of +eneral Santos #it/ an! !oc6ete! as #riminal #ase Nos $1.$. &'(-.ere signe! b/ the loan applicants in her presence at the P##I office after she personall/ release! the mone/ to themB-1 that the three .as a member of P##I since &'3.%%%. . 5r . namel/.OracionB P$.as able to i!entif/ onl/ #ash Voucher No -$3) in the name of +onafre!a Oracion She faile! to i!entif/ the other vouchers because the 5ournal ha! missing pages an! she . onl/ bona fi!e members .as presente! as a hostile . . she !eclare! that the same .ith respect to the vouchers in Cuestion Me!allo .ith P##I in &'(. $2-.until &'($ <e testifie! that the loans ma!e to Oracion.She subseCuentl/ .ere not eligible to appl/ for loan because the/ .s: On 5une -. an! Dennis 0atulanon . )rro/o an! Dennis 0atulanon !i! not pass through the cooperativeDs #re!it #ommittee an! P##IDs 0oar! of Directors for screening purposes <e claime! that OracionDs signature on #ash Voucher No -$3) is 0atulanonDs han!. 0ene!icto +opio.ith her the P##I +eneral 5ournal for the /ear &'(.riting of appellant &' +opio. P. the posting cler6 . #ash Voucher No -$3)&& for P1. Oracion an! )rro/oB that the same .)fter certif/ing that the sai! !ocument reflecte! all the financial transactions of the cooperative for that /ear.hich a .an! on December 3. &'(-.ere members of the cooperative as sho.ith the approval of +opio 5r .as the Vice*#hairman of the P##I 0oar! of Directors in &'(% before becoming its #hairman in &'(.hile Dennis 0atulanon is her son .as no proof that she applie! for a loan .%%% %% . Ferl/n )rro/o on the other han!..ho . .u!ice of the P##I in the aforementione! amount of P.as a member of the cooperative but there . Oma!lao. #ash Voucher No $%)&% for P1. $2-2 an! $2-3 0atulanon plea!e! not guilt/ to the charges.. onl/ that in )rro/oDs name . after.Page 3 of 8 Falsification of Public Documents refuses to restitute the same to the !amage an! pre. 0atulanon release! four #ash Vouchers representing var/ing amounts to four !ifferent in!ivi!uals as follo. Oracion an! Dennis 0atulanon are not members of P##I <e state! that Oracion is 0atulanonDs sister*in*la..authoriEing her to certif/ to the correctness of the entries in the vouchersB that it has become an accepte! practice in the cooperative for her to release loans an! !ispense .itnesses.o . )rro/o.oint trial on the merits ensue! The prosecution presente! Maria Theresa Me!allo. an! 0onifacio 5a/oma as .ob .ho prepare! the entries -$ 0atulanon !enie! all the charges against her She claime! that she !i! not sign the vouchers in the names of Oma!lao.<e averre! that membership in the cooperative is not open to minors -% 5a/oma . in . 5r . an! a member of its boar! of !irectors since &'3' <e corroborate! Me!alloDs testimon/ that Oma!lao.s. 0atulanon sign the names of Oracion an! )rro/o in their respective cash vouchers an! ma!e it appear in the recor!s that the/ .as to assist 0atulanon in the preparation of cash vouchers ' testifie! that on certain !ates in &'(-.ho . her membership in &'($ &2 Me!allo state! that pursuant to the cooperativeDs b/*la.n b/ their in!ivi!ual !eposits an! the le!gerB that the boar! of !irectors passe! a resolution in )ugust &'(.itness an! 0atulanon Me!allo .ho must have a fiAe! !eposit are eligible for loans &3 Me!allo categoricall/ state! that she sa.%% %% thru #ash Voucher No -32)&$ . Philippine #urrenc/ #ONTR)R? TO 4)@ ( The cases . she .as as6e! to bring .as actuall/ the han!.as release! to +onafre!a&.

e hel!: From a legal point of vie.of the Revise! Penal #o!eB an! is hereb/ sentence! to suffer the in!eterminate penalt/ of siA 728 months of arresto mayormaAimum. the best .. the cooperative !i! not have b/*la.hich his attention shoul! be !irecte!. )rticle &3.. shoul! be most intereste!.u!ice to a thir! person She insists that P##I has not been pre. fin!ing the accuse! 4eonila 0atulanon guilt/ be/on! reasonable !oubt in all the above*entitle! case.as a minor but she clarifie! that she as6e! +opio.hen he !eposits mone/ . an! in . People.s /et -' On rebuttal.a/ ai!s him in a !efense on the merits A A A That to . 5a/oma belie! that P##I ha! no b/*la. 5r . )S MINIMFM.hat is the technical name of the crime of .as #ashier9Manager of P##I from &'(% to &'(-.u!ice! b/ these loan transactions because these loans are accounts receivable b/ the cooperative $1 The petition lac6s merit )lthough the offense charge! in the information is estafa through falsification of commercial !ocument.as !enie!.ith the cooperative -( @hen she . an! in a ver/ real sense. to in!emnif/ the P##I in the total sum of P&2. are the facts allege! The real Cuestion is not !i! he commit a crime given in the la. thus the prosecution shoul! have presente! "rlin!a Oma!lao.hich he stan!s charge! It in no . )S M)GIMFMB to pa/ a fine of five thousan! 7P.Page . minors are eligible for membership in the cooperative provi!e! the/ are chil!ren of regular members 0atulanon a!mitte! that she too6 out a loan in her sonDs name because she is no longer Cualifie! for another loan as she still has to pa/ off an eAisting loanB that she ha! starte! pa/ing off her sonDs loan but the cooperative refuse! to accept her pa/ments after the cases . plus legal interests from the filing of the complaints until full/ pai!. premises consi!ere!. to four 718 /ears an! t.s: @<"R"FOR".22% %% .hich he. appellant coul! be convicte! of falsification of private !ocument un!er the . but !i! he perform the acts allege! in the bo!/ of the information in the manner therein set forth A A A The real an! important Cuestion to him is.&2% %%8. &''$.$. +onafre!a Oracion an! Ferl/n )rro/o instea! of rel/ing on the testimon/ of an unreliable an! biase! . hence this petition 0atulanon argues that in an/ falsification case. some technical an! specific name.ere file! in court -3 She also !eclare! that one automaticall/ becomes a member . $% . .ith mo!ification the !ecision of the trial court.%%% %%8 pesosB an! to in!emnif/ the Polomolo6 #ooperative #re!it .itness is the person .s from &'(%*&'(-.of 8 Falsification of Public Documents case of his absenceB-. plus costs SO ORD"R"D $& The #ourt of )ppeals affirme! .o 7-8 months of prision correccional me!ium.that she signe! the loan application an! voucher of her son Dennis 0atulanon because he .ell*settle! rule that it is the allegations in the information that !etermines the nature of the offense an! not the technical name given in the preamble of the information In Andaya v. plus costs SO ORD"R"D $The motion for reconsi!eration .ith legal interest from the institution of the complaints until full/ pai!.hose signature .. 5r . the !ecision appeale! from is MODIFI"D )ppellant 4"ONI4) 0)TF4)NON is foun! guilt/ be/on! reasonable !oubt of Falsification of Private Documents un!er Par -. she is sentence! in each of the four cases to 1 months of )RR"STO M)?OR to & /ear an! months of PRISION #ORR"#TION)4. it is of no concern to the accuse! . to a!! his signature on the !ocuments to avoi! suspicion of irregularit/B -2 that contrar/ to the testimon/ of +opio. above all things else.as allege!l/ forge!. Inc the sum of thirteen thousan! one hun!re! siAt/ 7P&$. thus: @<"R"FOR". the trial court ren!ere! a Decision convicting 0atulanon as follo.itness such as Me!allo $$ She avers that the crime of falsification of private !ocument reCuires as an element pre. because the cooperative ha! been registere! since &'23 On )pril &.

)rticle &3&B 7-8 that the falsification .ers are not members of P##I an! neither are the/ eligible for a loan Of the four accounts.itness is . the prosecution is not !ut/*boun! to present the persons . then he ought to be punishe! an! punishe! a!eCuatel/. the han!. evi!ence! or set forth 1$ In all criminal prosecutions. an! $1.ith the han!.ho believes it to be the han!. the la.ere forge! as Me!alloDs e/e. an! -23). Oracion. . HDi! /ou commit a crime name! mur!erIH If he performe! the acts allege!.ho signe! the name of )rro/o #ontrar/ to 0atulanonDs contention.of )rticle &3&.$2 of the Revise! Penal #o!e are: 7&8 that the offen!er committe! an/ of the acts of falsification.ing that Me!allo . "rlin!a.$. Rule &$.riting purporting to be his upon . eAcept those involving Cuasi*offenses or criminal negligence or those allo. to be compromise!.hen the/ !i! not in fact secure sai! loan nor receive the amounts reflecte! in the cash vouchers The prosecution establishe! that 0atulanon cause! the preparation of the #ash Vouchers in the name of Oma!lao an! Oracion 6no. causing it to appear that persons have participate! in an/ act or procee!ing . $2-2. b/ .riting of a person ma/ be prove! b/ an/ .hile the former is a member. an! has thus acCuire! 6no.hich have been !efine! as !ee!s or instruments eAecute! b/ a private person .ith intent to cause such damage $3 In #riminal #ase Nos $2-.ith the cooperative Me!allo categoricall/ !eclare! that she sa. the/ are private !ocuments. agree! to settle the loan to avoi! legal prosecution .ith the un!erstan!ing ho. un!er Section --. onl/ that in Ferl/n )rro/oDs name . an! )rro/o in #ash Voucher Nos $%).Page 5 of 8 Falsification of Public Documents HDi! /ou perform the acts allege! in the manner allege!IH not.e! b/ la. i. respectivel/. -$3).as not an a!mission of guilt is untenable Section -3.hat the name of the crime is an! fiAes the penalt/ therefor A A A If the accuse! performe! the acts allege! in the manner allege!.as settle! because her mother.rite. she !i! not appl/ for a loan .riting of such person <er insistence that Me!allo is a biase! .are that .hich the .hich those acts constitute The elements of falsification of private !ocument un!er )rticle &3-.ect vouchers are private !ocuments an! not commercial !ocuments because the/ are not !ocuments use! b/ merchants or businessmen to promote or facilitate tra!e or cre!it transactions 1& nor are the/ !efine! an! regulate! b/ the #o!e of #ommerce or other commercial la. or has seen . as pa/ee of the amounts appearing in the correspon!ing cash vouchers.as in!ee! the latter .of the Rules of #ourt.as sufficient Moreover.ithout basis There is no evi!ence sho. eAcept those in paragraph 3.as committe! . that she . Me!alloDs cre!ible testimon/ an! her familiarit/ .ing that the/ are not P##I members an! not Cualifie! for a loan from the cooperative In the case of )rro/o.hen the/ !i! not in fact so participate This is because b/ signing the name of Oma!lao. an offer of compromise b/ the accuse! ma/ be receive! in evi!ence as an implie! a!mission of guilt There is no merit in 0atulanonDs assertion that P##I has not been pre.ith no subsisting loan These allege! borro.itness .u!ice! because the loan transactions are reflecte! in its boo6s as accounts receivable It has been establishe! that P##I onl/ grants loans to its bona fi!e members .ill be reimburse! once the mone/ is collecte! from 0atulanon $' The #ourt of )ppeals1% correctl/ rule! that the sub.riting of such person because he has seen the person . 0atulanon forge the signatures of Oracion an! )rro/o in the vouchers an! ma!e it appear that the amounts state! therein .ever.le!ge of the han!. 0atulanonDs act $( of falsification falls un!er paragraph .e.. 0atulanon ma!e it appear that the/ obtaine! a loan an! receive! its procee!s .as committe! in an/ private documentB an! 7$8 that the falsification caused damage to a thir! part/ or at least the falsification . 0atulanon ..as prompte! b/ an/ ill motive The claim that 0atulanonDs letter to the cooperative as6ing for a compromise .riting of 0atulanon prove! that it . in the manner state!. !etermines .ithout the intervention of a public notar/ or of other person legall/ authoriEe!.itness account of the inci!ent .hose signatures . the bur!en of proof is on the prosecution to establish the guilt of the accuse! be/on! reasonable !oubt It has the !ut/ to prove each an! ever/ element of the crime charge! in the information to . paragraph .as able to !ischarge its bur!en completel/ . 1-Rather.arrant a fin!ing of guilt for the sai! crime or for an/ other crime necessaril/ inclu!e! therein 11 The prosecution in this case .as a.hich some !isposition or agreement is prove!. Rule &$% of the Rules of #ourt provi!es that in criminal cases.hatever ma/ be the name of the crime . .itness has acte! or been charge!.ere actuall/ receive! b/ these persons )s to the signature of )rro/o.

&'-'. or official boo6 In #riminal #ase No $2-3.ith the penalt/ of prision correccional in its me!ium an! maAimum perio!s .nshop for an amount largel/ in eAcess of the true value of the article pa. the #ourt of )ppeals correctl/ impose! the penalt/ of siA 728 months of arresto mayor.. $2-2 an! $1. signature.or6 for .ill reimburse the former once the mone/ is recovere! The amount shall earn interest at the rate of 2J per annum from the filing of the complaints on November -(.ith estafa If the falsification of a private !ocument is committe! as a means to commit estafa.hether the offen!er is to be charge! . 0atulanon is entitle! to an in!eterminate penalt/ the minimum of . . the .as convicte! of falsification of private !ocument In U. or !ifferent from..hich the laborer !i! not . in #riminal #ase Nos $2-.as to sign: Hb/: lbatulanonH to in!icate that she receive! the procee!s of the loan in behalf of Dennis Sai! act !oes not fall un!er an/ of the .u!gment From the time the !ecision becomes final an! eAecutor/.ith a !uration of t.ithout !e!ucting the amount of P$. nine 7'8 months an! ten 7&%8 !a/s Ta6ing into consi!eration the In!eterminate Sentence 4a. to four 718 /ears an! t. or inclu!ing in such cop/ a statement contrar/ to.as foun! guilt/ of falsification of a private !ocument In U. siA 728 months an! t.S. ho. .%% %% pai! b/ Ferl/n )rro/oDs mother as the same .ith falsification of a private !ocument or . as minimum. the acts that ma/ constitute falsification are the follo. or rubricB #ausing it to appear that persons have participate! in an/ act or procee!ing . the proper crime to be charge! is estafa Thus.12 the accuse! ma!e it appear in the time boo6 of the #alamba Sugar "state that a laborer. four 718 months an! one 7&8 !a/ to siA 728 /ears There being no aggravating or mitigating circumstances. an! thereafter pa. .as hel! guilt/ of falsification of a private !ocument In vie. . an! then charge! the offen!e! part/. reveal that in #ash Voucher No $31).hich is .hen in realit/ he ha! . 1.punishes the crime of Falsification of a Private Document . Dennis The recor!s.o 7-8 /ears an! four 718 months 1' Thus.Page 6 of 8 Falsification of Public Documents )s there is no compleA crime of estafa through falsification of private !ocument.or6e! -& !a/s !uring the month of 5ul/.hich changes its meaningB Issuing in an authenticate! form a !ocument purporting to be a cop/ of an original !ocument .13 the accuse! change! the !escription of the pa.ing: & $ 1 .o 7-8 /ears. the proper crime to be charge! is falsification If the estafa can be committe! .% sac6s of sugar. %% as the value of &. or four 718 months an! one 7&8 !a/ to t. the crime committe! b/ 0atulanon is estafa an! not falsification Fn!er )rticle &3& of the Revise! Penal #o!e.%.o 7-8 months of prision correccional.riting. the #alamba Sugar "state.ithin the range of the allo. $2-2 an! $1. she shall suffer the aforementione! penalties for each count of the offense charge! She is also or!ere! to in!emnif/ P##I the amount of P&&.ages !uring . of the foregoing.$.ever.or6e! onl/ && !a/s. Reyes.ne! <e .n tic6et an! ma!e it appear that the article is of greatl/ superior value.S.ith the un!erstan!ing that P##I .1( the accuse! presente! a !ocument of guarant/ purporte!l/ signe! b/ Ortigas <ermanos for the pa/ment of P-.ever.e fin! that the #ourt of )ppeals correctl/ hel! 0atulanon guilt/ be/on! reasonable !oubt of Falsification of Private Documents in #riminal #ase Nos $2-. that of the genuine originalB orB ( Intercalating an/ instrument or note relative to the issuance thereof in a protocol. Infante. succee!e! in obtaining the sac6s of sugar. v.hich he . #iriaco Sario. the penalt/ shoul! be impose! in its me!ium perio!.22% %% representing the aggregate amount of the $ loans . .hen no such original eAists.ithin the range of arresto mayor in its maAimum perio! to prision correccional in its minimum perio!. it is important to ascertain . petitioner 0atulanon !i! not falsif/ the signature of Dennis @hat she !i! ..as for $ counts of falsification of private !ocuments.ne! article on the face of the pa.hich must be . v. Chan Tiao.as settle! . in #riminal #ase No $2-3. registr/. the interest rate shall be &-J per annum until its satisfaction <o. an! b/ means of sai! falsifie! !ocuments.ne! the falsifie! tic6et in another pa.$ )rticle &3. &''1 until the finalit/ of this .ho have participate! in an act or procee!ing statements other than those in fact ma!e b/ themB Ma6ing untruthful statements in a narration of factsB )ltering true !atesB Ma6ing an/ alteration or intercalation in a genuine !ocument .hen the/ !i! not in fact so participateB )ttributing to persons . as maAimum.. the trial court convicte! petitioner 0atulanon for falsif/ing Dennis 0atulanonDs signature in the cash voucher base! on the Information charging her of signing the name of her $ /ear ol! son.ithout the necessit/ of falsif/ing a !ocument.e! imposable penalt/ Since 0atulanonDs conviction . 2 3 #ounterfeiting or imitating an/ han!..hich is three 7$8 /ears.ages of the laborer for -& !a/s The accuse! misappropriate! the . .ent/*one 7-&8 !a/s to four 718 /ears. in People v.

hich cause! !amage to P##I is a !ifferent matter . or both. men misappropriate trust fun!s . at first sight.as receive! b/ him for safe*6eeping or a!ministration.ith the intention of !efrau!ing the o. although in the afternoon of the same !a/. it . in ta6ing mone/ for his personal use.hich the appellantDs chec6s .nerB in most cases the offen!er hopes to be able to restore the fun!s before the !efalcation is !iscovere! A A A )ppl/ing the legal principles here state! to the facts of the case.S. to hol! that petitioner 0atulanon is also guilt/ of falsification of private !ocument .ere substitute! . he !eposite! in his account .hich . a treasurer of the Manila Rail Roa! #ompan/.ith the PN0 !isclose! that he ha! onl/ P&-.hen there is evi!ence of misappropriation of the goo!s b/ the !efen!ant8 .. in the eAercise of such control an! custo!/.n responsibilit/. might also have misappropriate! the same fun!s an! thus have become guilt/ of estafa Neither can there be an/ !oubt that. goo!s or other personal propert/ is receive! b/ the offen!er in trust.n a . 7&8 7b8 of the Revise! Penal #o!e are: 7&8 that mone/. or for a!ministration. the sameB 7-8 that there be misappropriation or conversion of such mone/ or propert/ b/ the offen!er or !enial on his part of such receiptB 7$8 that such misappropriation or conversion or !enial is to the pre. the appellant misappropriate! an! !iverte! the fun!s for that perio! The chec6s !i! not constitute cash an! as long as the/ .e are not !ispose! to eAten! this interpretation of the la.ere retaine! b/ the appellant or remaine! un!er his personal control the/ . .ill ma6e her liable for estafa. .as ai!e! b/ subor!inates cannot alter the case nor can the fact that one of the subor!inates.e have seen.& Thus in the case of U.% The elements of estafa through conversion or misappropriation un!er )rt $&.ell have 6ept them in his poc6et as to !eliver them to his subor!inate . . .ere to be retaine! b/ the cashier for a certain perio!.ith the PN0 sufficient sum to cover the chec6 In han!ing !o.ith his personal chec6 of the same amount !ra. from the fun!s entruste! to him for safe6eeping an! substituting his personal chec6s therefor . to cases . or to return. especiall/ .ith instructions that the chec6s .Page 7 of 8 Falsification of Public Documents mo!es of falsification un!er )rticle &3& because there in nothing untruthful about the fact that she use! the name of Dennis an! that as representative of the latter.u!ice of anotherB 718 that there is a !eman! ma!e b/ the offen!e! part/ on the offen!er 7Note: The 1th element is not necessar/ . the cashier.as con!ucte!. the #ourt eAplaine! that: Frau!ulent intent in committing the conversion or !iversion is ver/ evi!entl/ not a necessar/ element of the form of estafa here !iscusse!B the breach of confi!ence involve! in the conversion or !iversion of trust fun!s ta6es the place of frau!ulent intent an! is in itself sufficient The reason for this is obvious: +rave as the offense is. obtaine! the procee!s of the loan from P##I The essence of falsification is the act of ma6ing untruthful or false statements. or un!er an/ other obligation involving the !ut/ to ma6e !eliver/ of.the #ourt convicte! the appellant of estafa b/ misappropriation The latter. appear to hol! that misappropriation of trust fun!s for short perio!s !oes not al. 22 in his account. .hich is not atten!ant in this case )s to . such representation involves frau! .ho.ere of no value to the corporationB he might as .e have alrea!/ state!.here officers of corporations convert corporate fun!s to their o.e fin! all of the necessar/ elements of estafa A A A That the mone/ for . as .as charge! . can har!l/ be !ispute! <e . comparativel/ fe.. such intention rarel/ eAists in cases of this nature an!. it is not a necessar/ element of the crime Though authorities have been cite! .ith instructions to retain them AAAA 0ut it is argue! in the present case that it .ith instruction to his cashier not to !eposit the same in the current account of the Manila Rail Roa! #ompan/ until the en! of the month @hen an au!it . v.ith respect to #riminal #ase No $2-3 involving the cash voucher of Dennis . too6 the sum of P(. but not for falsification <ence.n on the Philippine National 0an6 7PN08.as an error for the courts belo.u!gment of conviction.ith the custo!/ of the same That he. .as the responsible financial officer of the corporation an! as such ha! imme!iate control of the current fun!s for the purposes of safe*6eeping an! .ho.as a bon!e! emplo/ee .hether.$$% %% out of the fun!s of the compan/ an! use! it for personal purposes <e replace! sai! cash .n use. Sevilla.as !iscovere! to have been carrie! in the accounts as part of the cash on han! )n inCuir/ .a/s amount to estafa.as not the intention of the accuse! to permanentl/ misappropriate the fun!s to himself )s . the chec6 of appellant . or on commission. if he ha! acte! on his o.

the Decision appeale! from is !## RME/ . supra 7F S vs +o/enechea.$ERE#ORE. &''1 until finalit/ of this .here the amount !efrau!e! is over P-%% %% but !oes not eAcee! P2.ithin the meaning of )rticle $&. there is no !oubt that as #ashier9Manager.ho is li6e. as minimum.ith . as minimum.hich imposes the penalt/ of arresto mayor in its maAimum perio! toprision correccional in its minimum perio!.. to one 7&8 /ear an! eight 7(8 months of prision correccional. as in this case. as maAimum She is li6e.ing that she is no longer Cualifie! to obtain a loan.ur/ in this case is the loss of interest suffere! b/ the Railroa! #ompan/ !uring the perio! the fun!s . &''1 until finalit/ of this .as P.$. for each count.u!ications of this court that the !isturbance in propert/ rights cause! b/ the misappropriation.$ In the instant case. is in itself sufficient to constitute in. &&3 F S vs Malong.ise or!ere! to in!emnif/ Polomolo6 #re!it #ooperative Incorporate! the sum of P. !amage .h/ it shoul! not be applie! in its literal sense The thir! element of the crime .u!gment The interest rate of &-J per annum shall be impose! from finalit/ of this . an! to in!emnif/ complainant Polomolo6 #re!it #ooperative Incorporate! the amount of P&&.. $2 Phil . as maAimum.ith interest at the rate of 2J per annum from November -(. 4eonila 0atulanon is foun! +FI4T? of three counts of falsification of private !ocuments an! is sentence! to suffer the penalt/ of siA 728 months of arresto mayor.u!gment until its satisfactionB an! 7-8 In #riminal #ase No $2-3.Page 8 of 8 Falsification of Public Documents . ho.u!gment The interest rate of &-J per annum shall be impose! from finalit/ of this .ur/ to another The appellantDs counsel argues that the onl/ in.. as maAimum .een permanent misappropriations an! temporar/ ones @e can see no reason in the present case .as still cause! to the latter because the sum misappropriate! b/ her coul! have been loane! b/ P##I to Cualifie! members. of the Revise! Penal #o!e. though onl/ temporar/. the penalt/ shall be impose! in its me!ium perio! @ith the application of the In!eterminate Sentence 4a.ithin the meaning of paragraph .%%% %% .ise !isCualifie! to secure a loan from P##I <er misappropriation of the amount she obtaine! from the loan is also not !ispute! as she even a!mitte! receiving the same for personal use )lthough the amount receive! b/ 0atulanon is reflecte! in the recor!s as part of the receivables of P##I. . 0atulaon is entitle! to an in!eterminate penalt/ of three 7$8 months of arresto mayor. (-& 8 . the corporation is of a Cuasi*public character The statute is clear an! ma6es no !istinction bet. as minimum.ur/ .ing MO/ # C!T ONS: 7&8 In #riminal #ase Nos $2-.22% %% . ( Phil .u!gment until its satisfaction SO OR/ERE/.ever. 0atulanon hol!s the mone/ for a!ministration an! in trust for P##I Kno.%%% %%.. the !isturbance in propert/ rights cause! b/ 0atulaonoDs misappropriation is in itself sufficient to constitute in. .ithhel! b/ the appellant It is..ell settle! b/ former a!.ur/ .ith interest at the rate of 2J per annum from November -(. to four 718 /ears an! t.ith the follo. $2-2 an! $1.o 7-8 months of prision correccional. the applicable provision is paragraph 7$8 of )rticle $&. to one 7&8 /ear an! eight 7(8 months of prision correccional. she frau!ulentl/ use! the name of her son .here. 4eonila 0atulanon is foun! +FI4T? of estafa an! is sentence! to suffer the penalt/ of three 7$8 months of arresto mayor. #onsi!ering that the amount misappropriate! b/ 0atulanon .ere . .%%% %% There being no mo!if/ing circumstances. or use! in other pro!uctive un!erta6ings )t an/ rate. .hich the appellant is charge! is in.