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III The Russian Empire A.

The drive across northern Asia -The ruler Ivan IV took the title of “Tsar” in 15 ! • "o called the terri#le not necessar$ #ecause of his total po%er #ut also #ecause he %as formida#le -Even e&ecuted his o%n son -Russian e&pansion %as to the east • E&pansion in "i#eria %as led #$ 'roups of (ossacks -)easants-soldiers e&panded in "i#eria and south%ard to the caspain • *efeated the onl$ political po%er in the re'ion+ the ,hanate of si#ir and took land from the small huntin' and fishin' 'roups of native people • "i#eria %as valued first for its fur and tim#er+ after 1!-- for 'old+ coal and iron+ and as a penal colon$ .. The *river across northern Asia -1/5-+ the e&pandin' Russian empire met the e&pandin' 0in' empire in 1on'olia+ central Asia and alon' the Amur -Treaties #et%een the t%o po%er in 1/23 and 1!4! had the effect of %eakenin' the 1on'ols and of focusin' Russian e&pansion east%ard to%ards the pacific coast and across to 5orth America (. Russian societ$ and politics to 1!45 -Incorporated a diverse set of people+ cultures+ and reli'ion • 6ften produced internal tension • After 1on'ol rule man$ peasants fell into de#t then #ecame serfs on lar'e estates -(ossacks #elon'ed to close-knit #ands and made temporar$ alliances %ith %hoever could pa$ for their militar$ services -*espite the fact that the (ossacks of ten performed important services for the Russian empire+ the$ mana'e to maintain a hi'h de'ree of autonom$. -Treat$ and invasion #$ "%eden and )oland and internal disputes amon' the Russian aristocrac$ in the 1!th centur$ 7Time of trou#les8 -9ed to overthro% of 1uscorite rulers and the enthronement of 1ikail Romanor in 1/1: -Romanor rulers com#ined consolidation of their authorit$ %ith territorial e&pansion to the east • Rule Russia for the ne&t :-- $ears -In 1/ 3 Russian peasants %ere le'all$ transformed into serfs • .orn into status and could not escape it • "erfs could #e #rou'ht and sold+ 'am#led a%a$ and punished #$ their master (. )eter the ;reat -)eter the ;reat fou'ht the ottomans in an attempt to 'ain a %arm %ater port on the #lack sea and li#erate anstantinople 7Istan#ul8 from 1uslim rule #ut did not achieve either 'oal -"uccessful in the ;reat 5orthern <ar 1!---1!41 in %hich he #roke "%eden control over the .altic and est. direct contacts #et%een Russian and Europe -.uilt a ne% capital+ st. )eters#ur' %hich %as to contri#ute the %est coloni=ation • "have #eards and %ear %estern clothin'

(apital at st. )eters#ur'+ the %indo% to the %est )eter %anted to use Euro tech and culture in order to stren'then Russia and to stren'then the autocratic po%er of his 'ov. • 5ot interested in political li#erali=ation • Autocratic ruler • .rou'ht the Russian orthodo& church under his control • >ositile to%ards catholics and protestants • ?esuits %ere #anned • .uilt industrial plants to serve militar$ -militar$ %ith professional soldiers and #e'an to contruct a nav$ • Increased the #urdens of ta&es and la#or on the serfs+ %hom+ the Russian empire depended upon for the production of #asic foodstuff. *. (onsolidation of the empire -Russian e&pansion in Alaska and the American north%est %as driven #$ the search for furs+ %hich .rtish and American on entrepreneurs had also #een interested in -*urin' the rei'n of (atherine the 'reat 71!/4-1!348 Russia %as the %orlds lar'est land empire+ #uilt on an economic #asis of lar'e territor$+ a'riculture+ lo''in'+ fishin' and furs -Russia chan'ed drasticall$ #$ the late 12th centur$ -Russia %anted to en'a'e and emulate the %est (hina and ?apan -Acess throu'h the .altic and #lack seas.

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