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SOCIOLOGY REVIEWER NAMES TERMS & IMPT DEFINITIONS 

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LECTURE#1 – SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Definition of Sociology:  The systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of different types of relationships ( Berger,2007)  Is the systematic study of human society ( Macionis,2003)  Is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups (Schaefer,2005) Sociology focuses on:  How social relationships influence people’s attitudes and behavior  How major social institutions affect us  How we affect other individuals, groups, and organizations Origins of Sociology:  The rise of a factory-based industrial economy.  The emergence of great cities in Europe.  Political changes, including a rising concern with individual liberty and rights. (The French Revolution symbolized this dramatic break with political and social tradition.) Founders of Sociology:  Aguste Comte

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System of Positive Polity, or Treatise on Sociology, Instituting the Religion of Humanity. Emile Durkheim - The Division of Labor in Society - The Elementary Forms of Religious Life - Suicide Karl Marx - Das Kapital Max Weber - The Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism - The Sociology of Religion - The theory of Social and Economic organization

Aguste Comte (1798-1857)  “The major goal of sociology was to understand society as it actually operates”  Positivism  Three-stage historical development: - The theological stage, in which thought was guided by religion. - The metaphysical stage, a transitional phase. - The scientific stage Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) - French  Studied the ties that bind the society together  Mechanical solidarity - Traditional societies are united by social similarities  Organic solidarity - Modern societies are united by interdependence  Anomie - Rapid social change leads to loss of social norms and produces many social problems

 It allows or forces us to look beyond the outer appearances of our social world and discover new levels of reality  It also encourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds — to see the strange in the familiar  Sociology also encourages us to see individuality in social context. which is shaped by our cultural biases (C.German  Studied impact of industrialization on people’s lives  Supports value free studies and objective research Rationalization  Traditional societies emphasize emotion and personal ties  Modern societies emphasize calculation.Karl Marx (1818-1883) . sets of assumptions that guide thinking and research. rather than relying only on our individual perspective. The goal of sociological theory is to explain social behavior in the real world.  Theories are based on theoretical paradigms. people become alienated  People lose control over their lives Max Weber (1864-1920) .German  Involved in social change  “Social scientists should help improve society”  Struggle between owners and workers  Capitalist owners will oppress ordinary people  Eventually. The Sociological Imagination  Provides the ability to see our private experiences and personal difficulties as entwined with the structural arrangements of our society and the times in which we live  Understand social marginality.  All of the parts of society are interdependent  He coined the term” the survival of the fittest” and became known for “social Darwinism”. efficiency. self control  Personal ties decline and people become “disenchanted” Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) – British  Society evolves over time in a similar fashion to biological evolution.”  “An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society. 3 Theoretical Perspectives  Structural-Functionalism perspective  Conflict perspective  Interactionist perspective . and …the ability to view our society as an outsider might. The Sociological Perspective  The sociological perspective helps us to see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals. the state of being excluded from social activity as an “outsider. Wright Mills) Theory  A statement of how and why specific facts are related.

Key figures in the development of this paradigm include Auguste Comte.Social life is possible only because humans can communicate through symbols . .All human communications take place through the perception and interpretation of symbols .Manifest functions are intended .Each social structure has social functions.  Sociologists attempt not only to understand society but also to reduce social inequality  Key figures in this tradition include Karl Marx.Because it is explicitly political. or consequences. it envisions society in terms of broad abstractions. it cannot claim scientific objectivity. Herbert Spencer.Power allows some to dominate others - Dominance leads to conflict Conflict and change are inevitable Conflict holds society together as new alliances are formed and others fail Social-Conflict Paradigm  A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.It ignores social unity based on mutual interdependence and shared values. Emile Durkheim. .Latent functions are unintended  A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.Structural-Functionalist Perspective  Parts of a social system work together to maintain a balance .Functions are actions that have positive consequences . B. Du Bois.It asserts that our lives are guided by social structures (relatively stable patterns of social behavior). The Conflict Perspective  Society is held together by who has power at a moment in time . the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern . largely unrecognized and unintended consequences and . .Dysfunctions are actions that have negative consequences . The Symbolic Interaction Perspective  Individuals construct the nature of their social world through social interaction .There is a general consensus on how situations are defined . .Manifest functions. and Wright Mills Weaknesses: . E. .How people define situations is important . and Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton  Robert Merton’s 3 concepts of social function: . W.Social dysfunctions. undesirable consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society.Like the structural-functional paradigm.Latent functions. for the operation of society as a whole.

norms. etc. it focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings. 2005)  Is a way of life. and that deserve as broad guidelines social living  Norms .Its micro-orientation sometimes results in the error of ignoring the influence of larger social structures.Peter Blau Symbolic Interactionism  Symbolic interactionism attempts to explain more clearly how individuals actually experience society.culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability.Folkways – norms that are not strictly enforced . values. material objects. gender.a rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members . socially transmitted customs.a strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and or forbidden based on moral judgment.1993)  Is the totality of learned.a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another  Values and Beliefs . and behavior.  Key figures in the development of this paradigm include . class.- We do not respond directly to reality but to the symbolic meanings we attach to the real world LECTURE #3 – CULTURE Culture  It is defined as the language. . it risks overlooking the effects of culture.By emphasizing what is unique. (Nyden. 2008) Components of Culture  Symbols .George Herbert Mead . (Giddens. it has two weaknesses: . hairstyles.George Homans . and race. beliefs. religious beliefs Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm  A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. (Tischler.  symbolic-interactionism has a microlevel orientation. and beauty. However. knowledge. .These are formalized norms enacted by people vested with legitimate authority Taboo .Erving Goffman . behaviors and even materials.anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who shared culture  Language . goodness.Mores – norms that are believed to be essential to core values and we insist on conformity  Laws .

love. conditioning Culture is shared and transmitted  transmission through ideas  passed on to generations using language and other symbolic means of com Culture is social  it’s a group product  it’s social due to man’s natural tendency to socialize Culture is ideational  Man forms ideas and uses them to assign meanings to his environment and experiences Culture gratifies human needs  Culture’s provision to satisfy biological and sociological needs of people i.refers to the behavior. .e. protection. security.    Dietary restrictions (Halal) Sex Nudity Profanity 2 kinds of Mores  Positive Mores . sex. food. shelter. etc. which must and ought to be done because they are ethically and morally good  Negative Mores .refers to societal prohibitions on certain acts which must not be done because they are not only illegal How is culture transmitted? Characteristics of culture  Organized  Transferable  Universal  Varied  Product of Human Creativity  Adaptive  Relative  Learned  Symbolic  Continuous  Borrowed  Stable yet dynamic Culture is learned and acquired  Culture is learned and acquired not instinctive  acquired through the senses and from experience  may be acquired through imitation. clothing.

laws. folkways and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society  Counterculture .meaning that every culture has the same customs but it varied how they execute and perform such customs Attitudes toward Cultural Variation  Enthnocentrism .a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture.  It provides social solidarity. The patterns of culture continue to persist if they continue to persist if they continue to satisfy man’s needs. the people of any given place are able to retain certain features of their culture that are significant in their relationship and interaction with their fellow humans. Types of Culture  Material Culture .  Culture shock . government. and interprets values of a society in a more or less systematic manner. ideas patterns of communication.segment of the society that shares a distinct pattern of mores. Culture is adaptive  culture is dynamic  Culture change over time  The culture of any society is the people’s adjustment to the various conditions of life which include their physical.refers to the concrete and tangible things that man creates and uses  Nonmaterial culture . beliefs.ways of using material objects as well as customs. and knowledge Functions of Culture  Serves as trademark or special feature that distinguishes one society from another.the feeling of surprise. and supernatural environment.the tendency to assume that one’s own culture are superior to all others .  It brings together. Culture tends toward integration  elements or traits that make up culture are (customs) mostly adjusted to or consistent with one another  Integration implies that the person equally embraces ethnic as well as dominant culture. Cultural Variation  Subculture . Assimilation . lifestyle. Culture is cumulative  Through the ages. disbelief and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices different Cultural Variability  Cultural Universal . contains.A process in which an individual entirely loses any awareness of his/her previous group identity and takes on the culture and attitudes of another group. social.  Serves as the dominant factor in establishing the social personality  It provides meaning and direction of his existence. techniques.

inability of a given society to adapt to a culture immediately  What is deviant in one group may not be in another What causes a person to be deviant?  Biological .refers to the popular ways.Extra nipples .e.refers to the individual or group attitude to keep silent response to authority LECTURE #4 – DEVIANCE Deviance – violation of norms. a vicious cycle of deprivation and want transmitted from one generation to another  Culture of Opulence .Extra toes and fingers .refers to the established patterns of illegally amassing wealth and obtaining power or concessions in the government or private office  Pop Culture .refers to the learned ways of life of the poor. stocky.Large jaws .the belief that the products.   Cultural Relativism . a physical illness  Psychological – personality disorder  Sociological .High cheekbones .the viewing of people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture Xenocentrism . or ideas of one’s society are inferior to those that originate elsewhere Culture Lag . that makes something deviant Relativity of Deviance  Deviance is defined within a group’s framework.socialization into deviance (social perspectives) Physiological/Biological Theories  Most physiological theories argue that particular individuals are more prone to deviance than others because of their genetic make-up  Genetically inherited characteristics either directly cause or predispose them towards deviance Cesare Lombroso  one of the first to link crime to human biology  argued that criminals were throwbacks to an earlier and more primitive form of human being  identified a number of genetically determined characteristics which were often found in criminals . styles. It is not the act itself. . practices and interests of contemporary society  Culture of Silence .Insensitivity to pain Mesomorphs (i.refers to the ways of life of the rich and the famous in their world of glitz and glamour  Culture of Corruption . rounded body type) tend to be more active and aggressive and are therefore more likely to commit crime (Sheldon & Glueck) Genetic Predispositions  Alcoholism  Suicide Other Symbolic Uses of Culture  Culture of Poverty .medicalization of deviance.Large ears . but the reactions to the act.

  Mental Illness Other deviant and criminal behavior  XYY Theory  Based on studies of inmates  “super-male”  Problems with XYY Theory  Violent and criminal behavior Problems with the physiological approach  Lomboso’s research was carried out amongst inmates in Italian prisons . a psychopathic personality could develop Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis has lead some psychologists to argue that crime can results from an imbalance between different parts of the mind. Promotes Solidarity  take for granted one another  meaning of their social interdependence  reawakens their group attachments  it represents a threat to the moral order of the group Affirms Cultural Values and Norms  focuses people’s attention on the value of the group  needed to define and support morality  without periodic violations of the norms .If a child was deprived of motherly love during the early years.unconscious consisting of irrational thoughts and feelings causes us to commit deviant acts Problems with Psychological Theories  Sociologists often dismiss available psychological explanations of deviance because psychological theories often neglect social and cultural factors Psychoanalytic theories are criticized for being unscientific Functions of Deviance:  promotes solidarity  affirms cultural values and norms  teaches normal behavior by providing examples of rule violation  Offers society’s members an opportunity to rededicate themselves to their social controls. not everyone who commits crime ends up in prison  Any association between physical characteristics and deviant behavior can be explained in other ways Psychological Theories  Psychological theories see the deviant's sickness as lying in mental processes  John Bowlby explained deviance in terms of a child’s upbringing . it would become less clear and thus less strongly held  The deviant act focuses people’s attention on the value of the group. Teaches Normal Behavior  It helps teach society’s rules by providing illustrations of violation  Knowing what is wrong is a step toward understanding what is right . poor nutrition etc. Deviance is needed to define and support morality.he was studying very poor people whose physical development had been affected by poverty.  Also.

the "correct" behaviors necessary to fulfill or at least pay lip service to that same cultural goal. A self-assured and successful investor would be a primary example of a conformist under Merton's theory.are generally considered to be persons whom believe both in the established cultural goals of any given society as well as the normative methods of attaining those goals.  Our outer controls consist of people who influence us not to deviate (e.  When these controls are weak deviance results  Argues deviance occurs when individuals lack the ties to conventional society that are necessary Labeling Theory  Labels become a part of our selfconcept. Deviance promotes social unity Deviance promotes social change Types of Strain Deviance Conformists . A middlemanagement worker who cares little for wealth or influence but continues to participate Innovators .  Labels open and close doors of opportunity.are persons whom accept the cultural goals of a society but reject the conventional methods of attaining those goals are known as. a . and abide by.are persons who do not believe in the established cultural goals of his contemporary society but yet believe in. Control Theory  Our inner controls involve morals. A drug dealer.g. Ritualists .. Functional Theory Perspective  Deviance is natural and functional for society.    Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms. a thief. they set us on paths that propel us into or divert us from deviance. parents).Symbolic Interaction Perspective  Differential Association Theory  Self-Esteem Theory  Control Theory  Labelling Theory Differential Association Theory (Edwin Sutherland)  argues that people learn to be deviant when their associates favour deviance more than they do conformity Self-Esteem Theory  Suggest that people choose deviance or conformity depending on which will do the most to enhance their self-esteem.

Secret. Anomie (Durkheim)  A situation where the norms of a society are unclear or no longer applicable to current conditions. White Collar Crime . Organized Crime .The abuse of a government or political office of position Social control  Refers to social processes used to minimize deviance from social norms  is the forces and processes that encourage conformity. informal control and formal control . The powerful are more able to bypass the court system. conspiratorial activity that generally invades law enforcement.  Strain Theory (Robert Merton)  Suggests that deviance occurs when culturally-approved goals cannot be reached by culturally-approved means Conflict Theory Perspective (deviance = power struggle)  proposes that competition and class conflict within society create deviance  Those at top use power to create  laws to maintain social inequality   Laws are often instruments of oppression. 4. political activist or even a punk or extreme metal musician may fulfill the role of rebellion against the norm. Forms of Social Deviation  Crimes . “respectable” people. Political Crime . all of these typologies could in many ways be seen as innovative Retreatists . A true nihilist might be an example of a retreatist.Illegal acts committed in the course of business activities. Rebels . Street Crime .not only reject the established cultural goals as well as the normative means of attaining those goals.Acts that are subject to legal or civil penalties Types of Crime 1.typically reject both the established cultural goals as well as the traditional means of attaining that goal – a somewhat dark and somber attitude but one many persons are possessed of.control. but they also substitute a new schema of goals and acceptable means of attaining those goals individually.Murder -Rape -Robbery Assault 2. Professional Crime -Burglary -Safecracking -Hijacking of Cargo -Pick pocketing -Shoplifting 3. often by affluent. including self. 5.pornography artist. A revolutionary.  Durkheim believed that it was a major  Cause of suicide in industrialization.

Social Environment: The Impact of Isolation II. but added that play is critical to the development of a self. 2005)  Refers to the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture. (Macionis. Mead: He agreed with Cooley. Charles H. eventually the entire group . Feral Children B. Isolated Children C. as self develops. children internalize the expectations of other people.2003) The role of Socialization Nature vs Nature I.Selfrestraint exercised because of fear of what others will think  Formal Social Control Administrative sanctions such as: fines. expulsion. and imprisonment Conclusion  Sociologists have looked at the available physiological and psychological explanations for deviance and believe that they do not tell the whole story  Sociologists therefore want to look at broader explanations for crime & deviance  Sociological explanations are influenced by the different perspectives LECTURE 5v2 – SOCIALIZATION Socialization  The lifelong process in which people learn the attitude. A.Occurs because individuals internalize the norms and values of their group  Informal Social Control . we imagine how we look to others 2. and Emotions A. we learn to take the role of others: to understand and anticipate how others feel and think. The Steps: 1. and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture. values.Types of Social Control  Self Control . we develop a selfconcept A favorable reflection in the “social mirror” leads to a positive self-concept. while a negative reflection leads to a negative self-concept. George H. He coined the term “lookingglass self” to describe this process. In a play. Cooley: concluded that human development is socially created – that our sense of self develops from interaction with others. (Schaefer. 1. B. we interpret other’s reactions 3. Mind. Institutionalized Children The Social Development of the Self. children are first able to take only the role of significant others .

E. words) play (starts in age three Cinderella) games (involves in a team game and must learn the role of each member of the team) C. The preoperational stage ( 2-7):children develop the ability to use symbols which allow them to experience things w/o direct contact. Jean Piaget: The Four Stages a child goes through in learning 1. causation. safety. 4. 2. Erikson: 8 Stages of Development 1. Stage 1. The sensorimotor stage ( 02):understanding is limited to direct contact with the environment 2. 3. D. and feelings or pride and self-satisfaction when we follow them. children everywhere go through them in the same order. The Ego: ( in normal people) balances between the needs of the id and the demands of the society 3. and can use rules to solve abstract problems Children pass through these stages at different speeds. giving us feelings of guilt or shame when we break rules. Stages of self development imitation (mimic-gestures. The concrete operational stage (712): reasoning abilities become much more developedunderstand numbers. and speed but have difficulty with abstract concepts such as truth. food and sex. Sigmund Freud: The Three Elements of Personality 1.- 2. An individual’s cognitive development can be limited by social experiences. The formal operational stage ( 12 +): capable of abstract thinking. Erik H. The Id: (inherited drives for selfgratification) which demands fulfillment of basic needs such as attention. The Superego: (the social conscience) we have internalized from social groups.Infancy o the challenge of trust (vs mistrust) o from birth -18 months .

Toddlerhood o the challenge of autonomy( vs doubt and shame) o learn new skills to cope with the world in a confident way o failing to gain selfcontrol leads children to doubt their abilities Stage 3. 5. and beliefs .Middle Adulthood o the challenge of making a difference (vs selfabsorption) o middle age o focus is to contribute to the lives of others( family. o establishes a sense of trust that the world is a safe place Stage 2. Stage 6. Stage 8.Young Adult o the challenge of intimacy (vs isolation) o to form and maintain intimate relationships 7. motivation. 3. values.Adolescence o the challenge of gaining identity ( vs confusion)) o during teens years o struggle to establish their own identity o want to be unique 6. 4.experiences with the family have a life-long impact on us laying down a basic sense of self. Family . at work and larger world) 8.Old Age o The challenge of integrity ( vs despair) o Near the end of our lives o people hope to look back on what they have accomplished with a sense of integrity and satisfaction Agents of Socialization 1.Preschool o the challenge of initiative ( vs guilt) o 4-5 years old o experience guilt at failing to meet the expectations of parents and others Stage 4Preadolescence o the challenge of industriousness (vs inferiority) o 6-13 years old o children enter school o make friends o they feel proud of their accomplishment Stage 5.2. Stage 7.

defined as a system by which society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy Class System . education.influence our attitude values.is a major agent socialization agent among adult.  and privileges attached to a status  Groups consists of people who regularly and consciously interact with  one another and typically share similar values. Levels of Sociological Analysis A.  Social Institutions are society’s standard ways or meeting its basic needs (family. or involve at least some effort or activity on the individual ‘s part.2. institutions. Social Structure: refers to the patterned relationships between people that persist over time.  Social Class is based on income. law. Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction in Everyday Life 1. religion.is a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence mobility Social mobility . and expectations. norms. accomplished. science. 2. and groups  Culture refers to a group’s language. beliefs. and occupational prestige  Social Status refers to the positions that an individual occupies  Ascribed Status are positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntary later in life  Achieved status are positions that are earned. School . Peer Groups . politics. Workplace . and military) II. interested in symbols 3. education. Macrosociological Perspective: 1. peer group is the most powerful socializing force in the society 4. social status.serves many manifest / latent functions like teaching skills and values 3.  Roles are the behaviors.influences morality but also about dress. Religion . Dramaturgy is an analysis of how we present ourselves in everyday life (drama or stage) LECTURE #6v2 – SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Social Stratification . and other orientations of life 6. economics. Mass Media . medicine. speech. focus on face-to-face social interaction or what people do when they are in the presence of one another.Is the movement up or down in the social class ladder . values. matching of values and attitude Social Interaction I. social class. and manners 5. behaviors.next to the family . roles. obligations. and gestures. Major components: culture.

Power . Marxian Theory of Stratification  Developed by Karl Marx  In which social stratification was explained primarily in economic terms. people in position of power use their positions to bring greater rewards to themselves. Estate System  feudalism  Required peasants to work on land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection and other services.people who have a similar level of wealth and income. b) politics results in inequalities of power because some people take leadership positions and others follow. c) it is human nature to be selfcentered.is the ability to exercise one’s will over others. 3 Ps  property  prestige . Status group . b) some positions are more important than others. power Class . d) to motivate the more qualified people to fill these positions. there must be politics to get the work of society done. Max Weber view of Stratification  He identified three analytically distinct components of stratification. Gaetano Mosca argued that every society will be stratified by power for 3 reasons a) society cannot exist unless it is organized. society must offer them greater rewards. thus. independent of their class positions. c) the more important positions must be filled by the more qualified people. thus.refers to people who have the same prestige or lifestyle. Social stratification is universal Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore claimed that stratification is inevitable a) society must make certain that its position are filled.

b) The dominant group takes control of the social institutions.Conflict theorists stress that conflict is the basis of social stratification a) Every society has only limited resources to go around. . and in every society group struggles with one another for those resources. resulting in conflict between many groups. c) Groups “within” the same class compete for scarce resources.