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Bi/CNS 150 Lecture 4 Monday, October 6, 2013 Action potentials p Henry Lester

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Electricity is also a Language of the Brain. Intracellular recording with sharp glass electrodes. 1. A current applied by the experimenter increases firing rates

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Prof. David McCormick’s data http://info.med.yale.edu/neurobio/mccormick/movies/rly_exp.avi

increasing action potential frequency.edu/neurobio/mccormick/movies/ach_fin. Artificially applied acetylcholine acts on muscarinic receptors to change the membrane potential.avi (The spikes in these examples are about 100 mV in amplitude) .Intracellular recording with sharp glass electrodes.yale. V Prof. 2.med. David McCormick’s data http://info.

htm See also Appendix A in Kandel 4 .edu/Projects/physicscourses/index.caltech.Monday’s lecture employs electrical circuits http://www.krl.

2012) Views from the extracellular solution electrically. open channel = conductor Views from the membrane plane 5 .Atomic-scale structure of (bacterial) Na+ channels (2011.

The miniature single-channel conductors add in parallel GNa = Na outside GK = K GNa GK = EK (.60 mV) cytosol = inside Na K ENa (+60 mV) Na K mostly Na+ mostly K+ 6 .

IC = CdV/dt = 0. 0 so outside Na+ N G K+ Cl- resting p potential: K+ channels open peak of action potential: p Na+ channels open too C E E K GK  E Na GNa  ECl GCl V  GK  GNa  GCl “after-hyperpolarization”: more K+ channels h l open 7 cytosol = inside .The membrane potential at steady state (not at equilibrium) At DC.

Simulation of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) Francisco Bezanilla's simulation program at the Univ of Chicago: http://nerve.edu/ 8 .bsd.uchicago.

pulse 3 = 30 A. total time 40 Now back to default (“reset parameters”) Note threshold. delay 10. Plot G(K). 9 .Simulation of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) Spatially homogeneous membrane (“membrane AP”). “Refractory” period 30 ms total time. Vary pulse amplitude (2 to 20 A). Note constant amplitude Note hyperpolarization. or patch. show passive properties of membrane Turn off conductances. duration 15. First. vary pulse 2 duration. Either spherical. Ampl ± 2. or wire in axon. G(Na) and note that hyperpolarization is caused by G(K). Plot G(K) simultaneously simultaneously.

Vary pulse amp from 2. (For robust frequency encoding. . Note the smaller AP’s—the squid axon is not specialized for repetitive fi i firing.) ) 10 . 5. 10. we require at least one additional type of f K+ channel. lengthen g pulse p 1 to 30 ms. total time to 40 ms.Simulation of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) Repetitive firing: the frequency code .

V vs T. Start Parameter edits are not useful.edu/nerve1.html Click on Voltage Plot.uchicago.Cable properties of the Axon Francisco Bezanilla's simulation program at the Univ of Chicago: http://nerve bsd uchicago edu/nerve1 html http://nerve. 11 .bsd.

42 ms = 21. Pretty fast! At 30o C.1 m/s.89 89 ms .1.html P Propagation ti (V vs. C 2 2.edu/nerve1.Simulation of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) http://nerve. t) Measure propagation velocity: set blue electrode at 2 cm 6 18 ms – 3.3 ms = 11 mm/ms = 13 m/s. Faster 12 .3 2 3 ms 30 mm/2.47 1 47 ms = 1.18 3 88 ms = 2.bsd.42 1 42 ms 30 mm / 1.uchicago.88 6.

Causing the variety of action potential waveforms 13 .There are dozens of V-gated channels.

slide 1 The left ventricle pumps against the greatest resistance therefore it has thickest walls.An approximate explanation for the electrocardiogram. g . therefore it contributes most of the ECG. therefore its currents are the largest. 14 .

dt i i  Na. Cl An extracellular electrode pair records IR drops proportional to the (absolute value) of the 1st derivative of membrane potential. C E cytosol G extracellular Na+ K+ Vext  IRext Rext ClNa+ G C E K+ Cl- 15 . K .An approximate explanation for the electrocardiogram. slide 2 The capacitive currents are largest dV I C   (V  Ei ) g i .

slide 3 Vext  IRext Rext chest Only a small fraction of the current flows across the resistance between chest and a limb. This produces a V ~ times smaller than the transmembrane potential. 103 Th ECG records The d thi this signal i l C Vext  IRext Rext extracellular Na+K C + lG E intracellular C G E Na+K C + l- leg 16 .An approximate explanation for the electrocardiogram.

implying that additional current flows between sections of the heart during the “plateau” 17 .Action potentials and the electrocardiogram Na+ channels conduct Action Potential measured with intracellular electrode R K+ channels conduct ~ 100 mV ~ 1 sec Electrocardiogram measured on the skin ~ 100 V P QS T ST depression is a common anomaly.

-from sense organs to the brain -within ithi the th b brain i -from the brain to muscles -even in a muscle or in the heart -even even in the pancreas 18 .The frequency of impulses represents signaling among cells in the nervous system.

End of Lecture 4 19 .

med. Media p player y required q http://info. choice of formats.yale.edu/ne urobio/mccormick/movies/rl y_exp.med.avi (The spikes in these examples are about 100 mV in amplitude) 20 .Intracellular recording with sharp glass electrodes A cell is receiving stimuli from other cells.mpg Same data. not from the experimenter V http://info.edu/neu p y robio/mccormick/movies/rly _exp.yale.