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Bi/CNS 150 Lecture 4 Monday, October 6, 2013 Action potentials p Henry Lester

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Electricity is also a Language of the Brain. Intracellular recording with sharp glass electrodes. 1. A current applied by the experimenter increases firing rates

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Prof. David McCormick’s data

increasing action potential Artificially applied acetylcholine acts on muscarinic receptors to change the membrane potential.avi (The spikes in these examples are about 100 mV in amplitude) .Intracellular recording with sharp glass electrodes.yale. V Prof. David McCormick’s data http://info.

htm See also Appendix A in Kandel 4 .edu/Projects/physicscourses/index.caltech.Monday’s lecture employs electrical circuits http://www.krl.

2012) Views from the extracellular solution electrically. open channel = conductor Views from the membrane plane 5 .Atomic-scale structure of (bacterial) Na+ channels (2011.

The miniature single-channel conductors add in parallel GNa = Na outside GK = K GNa GK = EK (.60 mV) cytosol = inside Na K ENa (+60 mV) Na K mostly Na+ mostly K+ 6 .

IC = CdV/dt = 0. 0 so outside Na+ N G K+ Cl- resting p potential: K+ channels open peak of action potential: p Na+ channels open too C E E K GK  E Na GNa  ECl GCl V  GK  GNa  GCl “after-hyperpolarization”: more K+ channels h l open 7 cytosol = inside .The membrane potential at steady state (not at equilibrium) At DC.

Simulation of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) Francisco Bezanilla's simulation program at the Univ of Chicago: 8 .bsd.uchicago.

pulse 3 = 30 A. total time 40 Now back to default (“reset parameters”) Note threshold. delay 10. Plot G(K). 9 .Simulation of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) Spatially homogeneous membrane (“membrane AP”). “Refractory” period 30 ms total time. Vary pulse amplitude (2 to 20 A). Note constant amplitude Note hyperpolarization. or patch. show passive properties of membrane Turn off conductances. duration 15. First. vary pulse 2 duration. Either spherical. Ampl ± 2. or wire in axon. G(Na) and note that hyperpolarization is caused by G(K). Plot G(K) simultaneously simultaneously.

Vary pulse amp from 2. (For robust frequency encoding. . Note the smaller AP’s—the squid axon is not specialized for repetitive fi i firing.) ) 10 . 5. 10. we require at least one additional type of f K+ channel. lengthen g pulse p 1 to 30 ms. total time to 40 ms.Simulation of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) Repetitive firing: the frequency code .

V vs T. Start Parameter edits are not Click on Voltage Plot.uchicago.Cable properties of the Axon Francisco Bezanilla's simulation program at the Univ of Chicago: http://nerve bsd uchicago edu/nerve1 html http://nerve. 11 .bsd.

42 ms = 21. Pretty fast! At 30o C.1 m/s.89 89 ms .1.html P Propagation ti (V vs. C 2 of the nerve impulse (“unclamped”) http://nerve. t) Measure propagation velocity: set blue electrode at 2 cm 6 18 ms – 3.3 ms = 11 mm/ms = 13 m/s. Faster 12 .3 2 3 ms 30 mm/2.47 1 47 ms = 1.18 3 88 ms = 2.bsd.42 1 42 ms 30 mm / 1.uchicago.88 6.

Causing the variety of action potential waveforms 13 .There are dozens of V-gated channels.

slide 1 The left ventricle pumps against the greatest resistance therefore it has thickest walls.An approximate explanation for the electrocardiogram. g . therefore it contributes most of the ECG. therefore its currents are the largest. 14 .

dt i i  Na. Cl An extracellular electrode pair records IR drops proportional to the (absolute value) of the 1st derivative of membrane potential. C E cytosol G extracellular Na+ K+ Vext  IRext Rext ClNa+ G C E K+ Cl- 15 . K .An approximate explanation for the electrocardiogram. slide 2 The capacitive currents are largest dV I C   (V  Ei ) g i .

slide 3 Vext  IRext Rext chest Only a small fraction of the current flows across the resistance between chest and a limb. This produces a V ~ times smaller than the transmembrane potential. 103 Th ECG records The d thi this signal i l C Vext  IRext Rext extracellular Na+K C + lG E intracellular C G E Na+K C + l- leg 16 .An approximate explanation for the electrocardiogram.

implying that additional current flows between sections of the heart during the “plateau” 17 .Action potentials and the electrocardiogram Na+ channels conduct Action Potential measured with intracellular electrode R K+ channels conduct ~ 100 mV ~ 1 sec Electrocardiogram measured on the skin ~ 100 V P QS T ST depression is a common anomaly.

-from sense organs to the brain -within ithi the th b brain i -from the brain to muscles -even in a muscle or in the heart -even even in the pancreas 18 .The frequency of impulses represents signaling among cells in the nervous system.

End of Lecture 4 19 .

med. Media p player y required q http://info. choice of urobio/mccormick/movies/rl (The spikes in these examples are about 100 mV in amplitude) 20 .Intracellular recording with sharp glass electrodes A cell is receiving stimuli from other cells.mpg Same data. not from the experimenter V p y robio/mccormick/movies/rly _exp.yale.