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Works Cited Primary Sources

100 best songs of the 20's and 30's. New York: Harmony Books, 1973. Print. A song is the voice of its time. This primary source helps me because it tells me what happened in the 20's and 30's through song.

Anderson, Marian. My Lord, what a morning; an autobiography.. New York: Viking Press, 1956. Print. Marian Anderson could sing soprano, alto, tenor, and bass. Very few people are able to sing all these parts. This primary source helps me because Marian Anderson is writing about her life.

"Biography: Marian Anderson." PBS, N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/>. Voice master, Giuseppe Boghetti, was so overwhelmed by Marian Anderson's voice that it made him cry. This primary source helped me because Giuseppe helps to tell the story of Anderson's life.

Fenner, Louise. “Music Inspired Courage During Civil Rights Era.” IIP Digital. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/article/2012/03/2012030732.htm/#axz Z2j9iYjRhQ>. When 200,000 people gathered at the Lincoln Memorial for the March on Washington, they joined gospel singer Mahalia Jackson in inspirational songs. This primary source helps me because E. Ethelbert Miller tells his story.

"How the power of music rallied the civil rights movement." CBSNews. CBS Interactive, 24 Aug. 2013. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18563_162-57599988/how-the-power-of-music-ralli ed-the-civil-rights-movement/>. Music was also a battle cry to African-Americans. This primary helps me because Bernice Reagon, a famous protester, explains civil rights songs.

Keiler. "Marian Anderson documentary illuminates major chapter of civil rights history." N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. <http://www.brandeis.edu/now>. I learned that Marian Anderson was "not a fighter" even though she wasn't always treated nicely. This primary source helps me learn more about Marian Anderson's life from someone who knew her.

"The Civil Rights Era ." African American Odyssey. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://memory.loc.gov/ammemlaaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html>. Daisy Bates worked as a crusading newspaper owner-journalist, becoming president of the Arkansas NAACP. This primary source helps me because the document from the time period that tell me what happened.

Travers, Will . "The YWCA and “We Shall Not Be Moved”•." Protest Music Notes of Conscience and Dissent. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <www.protestmusic.org/tag/civilrights/>. In the early 1900's people changed the word I to we in protest songs. This primary source helps me because it is a song book of civil rights music.

Secondary Sources
Carawan, Guy, Candie Carawan, and Julian Bond. Sing for freedom: the story of the Civil Rights Movement through its songs. Montgomery, Ala.: NewSouth Books, 2007. Print. "I'm on my way, Great God, I'm on my way." This secondary source helps me because it tells me what some African American spirituals said about the civil rights movement.

"Civil Rights." Flocabulary -. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://www.flocabulary.com/civil-rights/>. The fight for civil rights was the fight for equality. This secondary source helps me because it talks about the civil rights movement.

"Civil Rights Era Protest Songs." BET.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://www.bet.com/music/photos/2011/08/civil-rights-era-protest-songs.html#!082 411-music-protest>. Just as the civil rights era was bubbling, Henry Belafonte released "Day, O!" in 1956. This secondary source helps me because it tells me what inspired the songwriters of protest songs.

"Civil Rights Music: Music In The World." Longwood Blogs. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://blogs.longwood.edu/musicintheworld/2012/03/27/civil-rights-music/>. Music played a key role in the civil rights movement. This secondary source helps me because it tells me how people used music in the civil rights movement.

Cosgrove, Ben. "The Concert That Sparked the Civil Rights Movement." Time, N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. <http//www.life.time.com/history>. Marian Anderson preformed a free concert on Easter Sunday on the Lincoln Memorial. This secondary article helped me because it told me when and where she preformed her legendary concert.

"Documentary: Civil Rights Songs." KEXP90.3FM/University of Washington, N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 1 Oct. 2013. <http://kexp.org>. Billie Holiday sang "Strange Fruit". This secondary source helps me because it has songs about the Civil Rights Movement.

Dunkelberger, Henry. "Music of the Civil Rights Movement." Teachers Come First. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/music-civil-rghts-movement>. The freedom singers traveled more than 50000 miles to perform at civil rights campaigns. This secondary source helps me because it talks about the freedom singers.

Faulhaber, Brad. “Civil Rights, Music and the Constitution.” Blues Highway. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://www.blueshighway.org/nehfaulhaber.pdf>. A freedom song is a political song sung by people who are opposing a cruel or unfair government or society. This secondary source helps me because it tells me about freedom and protest songs.

Finlayson, Reggie. We Shall Overcome: the history of the American civil rights movement. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co., 2003. Print. Rosa Parks was arrested for defying segregation laws in Montgomery, Alabama. This secondary source helps me because it tells me the history of the civil rights movement.

Freedman, Russell. The voice that challenged a nation: Marian Anderson and the struggle for equal rights. New York: Clarion Books, 2004. Print. Orpheus Fisher wanted to marry Marian Anderson, but she was too busy with her singing career to have a serious romantic involvement. This secondary account helps me because it tells me about Anderson's life and her singing career.

Hentoff, Nat . "How Jazz Helped Hasten the Civil Rights Movement." WSJ, 15 Jan. 2010, 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. <http://www.fordlawfirm.org>. The blacks and whites were not allowed to perform together in public. They could only play together after hours. This secondary primary source helped me see that black and white musician didn't have a problem with race.

"In Performance At The White House: A Celebration Of Music From The Civil Rights Movement | KPBS.org." KPBS San Diego: Public Radio, TV and Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://www.kpbs.org/photos/galleries/performance-white-house-celebration-musiccivil-ri/>. In honor of Black History Month, President and Mrs. Obama hosted a concert in the White House East Room. This secondary source helps me because it tells me more about the concert in the White House.

"Jazz and the Civil Rights Movement." N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. <http://jazz.about.com>. If you played jazz, you were judged only by your ability to play, not by your race. This secondary source helps me because it tells me how jazz helped in the civil rights movement.

"Marian Anderson." Kennedy Center, N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. <http://www.kennedy-center.org>. When Anderson was six, she became known as baby contralto. This secondary source helps me because it talks about Anderson's beginnings.

"Music of the Civil Rights Era, 1954-1968." Learning to Give. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://learningtogive.org/lessons/unit53>. Music played a very important role during the Civil Rights Era. This secondary source helps me because it tells me about freedom songs.

Paul, Richard. "Music Played Key Role in US Civil Rights Movement." 28 August 2013, 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 1 Oct. 2013. <http://www.voanews.com/content/music-played-key-role-in-us-civil-rights-mov ement/1738614.html>. Music played a key role in the civil rights movement. The tunes were often hymns and songs of comfort. This secondary source helps me to explain the reasons and lyric of the songs.

Raum Flexman, Merritt . "Freedom songs of the civil rights movement." Learn NC. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://www.learnnc.org/lp/page/1848>. Freedom songs were a keyhole in the civil rights movement. This secondary source helps me because it tells me the key elements of African American singing.

Scruggs, Afi-Odelia. "Music of the Civil Rights Movement | Teaching Tolerance." Teaching Tolerance. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://www.tolerance.org/blog/music-civil-rights-movement>. "Ain't Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me 'Round," was a freedom song. This secondary source helps me because it tells me about a civil rights concert that happened in 2010.

Shawcross, Nancy. "Marian Anderson: A Life in Song." N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. <http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/anderson/index.html>. Marian Anderson traveled to many other countries to perform. This secondary source was very helpful because of all the information in the different areas of Marian Anderson's life.

"Sweet Chariot: the story of the spirituals." Sweet Chariot: the story of the spirituals. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://ctl.du.edu/spirituals/freedom/civil.cfm>. During the civil rights movement protesters sang old slave spirituals. This secondary source helps me because it talks about how protesters used old slave spirituals in the civil rights movement.

"The Freedom Riders and the Popular Music of the Civil Rights Movement." EDSITEment! The Best of Humanities on the Web.. N.p., 5 Apr. 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. <http://edsitement.nen.gov/lesson-plan/freedom-rides-and-role-popular-music-civil-rig hts-movement>. The participants of the civil rights movement recognized the power of song and performance and utilized this form of cultural communication in their quest for equal justice under law. This secondary source helps me because it gives me background information on civil rights music.

Ward, Brian. "People Get Ready: Music and the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s." N.p., 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. <http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era>. I learned that the most popular freedom song was "We Shall Overcome". It was a type of unofficial anthem for the civil rights movement. This secondary source helps me to understand the purpose of the songs.