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AUGUST 1944
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II~IICIIIIBII~I~C111~1~ -

DECLASSIFIED

TERMINAL BALLiSTIC DATA
Volume II Artillery Fire

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August 1944

DECLASS
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Maximum desired effect at the target is the objective followed by the Ordnance Department in designing weapons and ammunition. A proper balance of many factors involved is essential to acc9mplish this purpose. Most important among these factors are terminal velocities, shape, weight, and material used in the projectile, type and weight of explosive charge and the fuzing system. For example: A shaped charge used in the "Bazooka" is very effective against tanks, whereas against heavy concrete emplacements, it would do only a comparatively small amount of damage; A general purpose bomb is exceedingly efficient against certain types of buildings whereas a semi-armor-piercing bomb will be much more efficient than the general purpose bomb if penetration of more resistant materials is required for destruction of the target; The delay used in a fuze is extremely important since the position of the projectile with respect to the target at the instant of detonation determines the amount of damage. This is true against personnel and other targets where a certain fragment pattern is desired as well as against targets such as heavy concrete and armor where delay is vital to permit penetration before detonation for maximum damage. To obtain best results, ammunition, properly fuzed, must be carefully selected to fit the target. The great importance of accumulating and placing in the hands of troops data showing the effect of various kinds of ammunition on specific targets was recognized early in the emergency. This work has been intensively carried forward and much information of the character indicated has been provided by the Ordnance Department. Some recent publications giving data on terminal ballistics are the following:
a. "WEAPONS FOR JUNGLE WARFARE", dated 1November 1943. This brochure describes certain weapons for jungle warfare and methods for attacking bunkers and destroying Japanese infantry in the jungle.

ii~
ary 1944. This document gives information concerning the use of artillery weapons and the proper ammunition for attacking heavy reinforced concrete structures. It calls attention to the fact that H.E. ammunition with standard fuzes should not be used for this purpose as no satisfactory effects against sturdy concrete fortifications are attainable.
c. "STANDARD ARTILLERY AND AMMUNITION AGAINST REINFORCED CONCRETE PILLBOXES"-Second Progress Report dated 15

February 1944. This document reports results of additional artillery firings from 75-mm to 240-mm inclusive against heavy reinforced concrete structures, and the effects of G.P. and S.A.P. bombs of various weights against similar structures. In the course of these tests, a very important discovery was made. It was found that a special steel fuze into which were introduced standard fuze components in combination with standard H.E. ammunition gave a superior type of concrete-penetrating shell. With these special steel fuzes which can be used with standard H.E. ammunition from 75-mm to 240-mm inclusive without any modifications to the loaded shell, and which is interchangeable with any standard contour fuze, all calibers of H.E. shell become effective concrete-piercing ammunition.
d. "VULNERABILITY TESTS OF GERMAN TANKS PZ KW III, IV,

AND VI" dated 15 March 1944. This brochure gives data showing the ranges at which penetrations of the various plates found on German tanks can be achieved. The purpose of this book is to report additional data which have been accumulated on terminal ballistics, and to present all data available to date on terminal ballistics in such form as to be of greatest usefulness to all concerned. These data should be of great assistance in the selection and use of weapons and ammunition against specific targets. It has been issued in two volumes-one on artillery ammunition, and the other on bombs. This volume covers artillery fire. Comments, suggested changes, and data relating to field experience in the use of this book will be welcomed. Additions and revisions will be made in the future as may be deemed necessary.
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b. "STANDARD ARTILLERY AND AMMUNITION AGAINST REINFORCED CONCRETE PILLBOXES"-First Progress Report dated 5 Janu-

CONTENTS
VOLUME II-TERMINAL BALLISTIC DATA F
ARTILLERY FIRE PART 1-ARMOR PENETRATION ................... 1. General Text.
............... ......................

ILLUSTRATIONS

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4. Buliet, C.

A.P., M2-Face Hardened Plate ....... .50, A.P., M2-Homogeneous Plate.......
.30,

5 6 7 8 9

5. Bullet, Cal. .50, A.P., M2-Face Hardened Plate.......
6. Shot, A.P., 20-mm, M75-Homogeneous Plate........ 7. Shot, A.P., 20-mm, M75-Face-Hardened Plate....... 8. Shot, A.P., 20-mm, M95 (T9E5)-Homogeneous Plate....

2. Armor Penetration and Striking Velocity Curves...........
3. Illustrative Example on Use of Armor Penetration and Striking Velocity Curves.......... ........... ....... 4. Vulnerability of German Tanks.........................

i
2 31

10
11

9. Shot, A.P., 20-mm, M95 (T9E5)-Face-Hardened Plate.... 10. Shot, A.P.C., 37-mm, M5IBI-Homogeneous Plate....... 11. Shot, A.P.C., 37-mm, M5IB1-Face-Hardened Plate...... 12. Shot, A.P.C., 37-mm, M59A1-Homogeneous Plate......

12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

PART 2-ARTILLERY ATTACK ON CONCRETE.....
1. Penetration and Perforation............................. 2. Edge Effect....................................... 3. Charts and Tables-Discussion ......................... 4. Charts of Total Number of Rounds Necessary to Obtain 90% Probability oF at Least One PerForation in Grade A (5,000 p.s.i.) Concrete Targets of Height H, Width W, and Thick-

13. Shot, A.P.C., 37-mm, M59A1-Face-Hardened Plate.....
14. Shot, A.P., 37-mm, M80-Homogeneous Plate........ 15. Shot, A.P., 37-mm, M80-Face-Hardened Plate....... 16. Shot, A.P., 40-mm, M81Al -Homogeneous Plate........ 17. Shot, A.P., 40-mm, M81 Al-Face-Hardened Plate ..... 18. Shot, A.P., 57-mm, M70-Homogeneous Plate........ .19. Shot, A.P., 57-mm, M70-Face-Hardened Plate....... 20. Projectile, A.P.C., 57-mm, M86-Homogeneous Plate.... 21. Projectile, A.P.C., 57-mm, M86-Face-Hardened Plate....

ness T .......................................
5. Tables on PerForation oF Various Size Concrete Pillboxes.... 6. Tables on Breaching oF Concrete Walls ................. 92, 126 126 126

PART 3-SHELL FRAGMENT DAMAGE 1. Tables on Fragment Damage .......................... 2. Damage Patterns .................
3. Types oF Damage..... .. ...... 4. The Choice oF Shells ............................... 5. The Source of Data ..................................

...

:...........

22. Projectile, A.P.C., 75-mm, M61 or M61AI-Homogeneous Plate........ .......... ................ ....... 23. Projectile, A.P.C., 75-mm, M61 or M61AI-Face-Hard-

............... ..................

126
126 126

ened Plate..........................................
24. Projectile, A.P.C., 3-in., M62 or M62A1 -Homogeneous Plate................... ......................... 25. Projectile, A.P.C., 3-in., M62 ened Plate .......................................... or M62A1-Face-Hard-

ILLUSTRATONS
CHARTS ON STRIKING VELOCITY AND ARMOR PENETRATION 1. Illustrative Example on Use of Striking Velocity and Armor
Penetration Curves ............................

26. Projectile, A.P.C., 90-mm, M82-Homogeneous Plate..... 27. Projectile, A.P.C., 90-mm, M82-Face-Hardened Plate....

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Germannk P...

IMK VULNERABILITY

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..
of 1,000 .

32
33

2. Bullet, Cal. .30, A.P., M2-Homogeneous Plate....

-p29. A o Vulnerable at a Range 0 Yards at O Angle oF Attack.....................

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ILLUSTRATIONS
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4LLUSTRATIONS
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30. Areas of Pz Kpfw III Vulnerable at a Range Yards at 25°' Angle of Attack.. ......... 31. Areas of Pz Kpfw Iii Vulnerable at a Yards at 00 Angle of Attack....................... 32. Areas of Pz Kpfw Ill Vulnerable at a Range of 2,000

48 34 35

Pje

C., 3-in., M62 and M62A1
90-mm,

60

49. Shell, H.E., 90-mm, M71..........................
50. Projectile, A.P.C.,

M82...................

61 62

Range of 2,000

Yards at 250 Angle of Attack.
33. German:Tank Pz Kpfw IV...

............
......................

..

.....

36
39 40

51. Shell, H.E., 105-mm, Ml (M2A1 Howitzer)............ 63 52. Shell, H.E., 4.5-in., M65 (Normal Charge) . ..... .64
53. Shell, H.E., 4.5-in., M65 (Supercharge)................ 65

34. Areas of Pz Kpfw IV Vulnerable at a Range of 1,000 Yards at 0° Angle of Attack.......................

54. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, M102 (M1918 Howitzer)..........66
55. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, M107 (Ml Howitzer).............67

35. Areas of Pz Kpfw IV Vulnerable at a Range of 1,000
Yards at 250 Angle of Attack.....................41 36. Areas of Pz Kpfw- IV Vulnerable at a Range of 2,000 Yards at 00 Angle of Attack.......................... 37. Areas of Pz Kpfw IV Vulnerable at a Range of 2,000 Yards at 250 Angle of Attack........:..............43 42

56. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, M101 (M1917 Gun) Normal Charge.
57. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, M101 (M1917 Gun) Supercharge.. 58. Projectile, 155-mm, Gun) ........................................ A.P., M112 and M112BI (M1917

68
69 70

38. German Tank Pz Kpfw Vl ..............................
39. Areas of Pz Kpfw VI Vulnerable at a Range of 1,000 ....... Yards at 00 Angle of Attack............... 40. Areas of Pz Kpfw VI Vulnerable at a Range of 1,000 Yards at 250 Angle of Attack...................... 41. Areas of Pz Kpfw VI Vulnerable at a Range of 2,000 Yards at 00 Angle of Attack.......................49 42. Areas of Pz Kpfw VI Vulnerable at a Range of 2,000 Yards at 250 Angle of Attack...... ................

46
47 48

59. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, M101 (Ml Gun)................ 60; Projectile, A.P., 155-mm, M112 and MII2BI (Ml Gun).. 61. Shell, H.E., 8-in., M106 (Wall).................. .'. 62. Shell, H.E., 8-in., M06 (Roof) .................... 63. Shell, H.E., 8-in., M103 (Ml Gun) (Normal Charge M9)... 64. Shell, H.E., 8-in., M103 (Ml Gun) (Base Section M10
Charge)......:. ..............................

71 72 73 74 75
76

65. Shell, H.E., 8-in., M103 (Ml Gun) (Full Charge M10)..... 66. Shell, H.E., 240-mm, M114.'...........................
50

77 .78

CHARTS ON THE DAMAGE EFFECTS OF SHELL CHARTS ON TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS NECESSARY
67. 75-mm Shell, H.E., M48-Casualties.... . ........... ......... ....
1

........

. 140 . 140 . 141 141 142 142 143 144

FOR 90% PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST ONE PERFORATION
IN GRADE A (5,000 P.S.I.) CONCRETE OF HEIGHT H, WIDTH W, AND THICKNESS T.
43. Shell, H.E., 75-mm, M48-Supercharge .................. 55

68. 75-mm Shell, H.E., M48-Casualties ..
69. 75-mm Shell, H.E., M48-Casualties .....

70. 75-mm Shell, H.E., M48-Casualties..........

71. 75-mm Shell, H.E., M48-Perforation of / 8 -in. Mild Steel.. 72. 75-mm Shell, H.E., M48-Perforation of 1 /g-in. Mild Steel.. 73. 75-mm Shell, H.E., M48-Perforation of 1 /8-in. Mild Steel.. 74. 3-in. Shell, H.E., M42A1 -Casualties...............

44. Shell, H.E., 75-mm, M48-Normal Charge.............56
45. Projectile, A.P.C., 75-mm, M61 and M61 A1............57

46. Shell, H.E., 3-in., M42B1 (3-in. Guns).................58 47., Shell, H.E., 3-in., M42B1, (76-mm Guns)...............59

75. 3-in. Shell, H.E., M42A1-Casualties....
76. 3-in. Shell, H.E., M42A1 -Casualties

............

144 145

...................

ii

ILLUSTRATIONS
a '41

flCTDATIVOIJC
Page
164 164

77. 3-in. Shell, H.E., M42A1-Casualties ................
79. 3-in. Shell, H.E., M42A1 -Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel

145
146

109. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel.. 110. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel..

78. 3-in. Shell, H.E., M42A1 -Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel.. 146

111. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Perforation of 1A-in. Mild Steel.. 165 112. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel.. 165

80. 3-in. Shell, H.E., M42A1-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel
81. 81-mm Shell, H.E., M56-Casualties .................... 82. 81-mm Shell, H.E., M56-Casualties .................... 83. 81-mm Shell, H.E., M56-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel..

147
148 148 149

113. 120-mm Shell, H.E., M73-Casualties...................
114. 120-mm Shell, H.E., M73-Csualties ....................

166
166

84. 81-mm Shell, H.E., M56-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel.. 149 150 85. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Casualties. .................. 86. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Casualties................ 87. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Casualties ..............
88. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Casualties .................. 89. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel.. 90. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel.. 91. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Perforation of 'A-in. Mild Steel.. 92. 90-mm Shell, H.E., M71-Perforation of 'A$-in. Mild Steel.. 93. 105-mm Shell, H.E., MI-Casualties .................. 94. 105-mm Shell, H.E., MI-Casualties ..................

115. 120-mm Shell, H.E., M73-Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel. 167
116. 120-mm Shell, H.E., M73-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel. 167 117. 155-mm Shell, H.E., Ml07-Casualties...............168 118. 155-mm Shell, H.E., M107-Casualties .................. 119. 155-mm Shell, H.E., Ml07-Casualties................. 120. 155-mm Shell, HE., Ml 07-Casualties ................ 168 169 .169 170 171

150 151
151 152 152 153 153 154 154

:.....

121. 155-mm Shell, H.E., Ml07-Casualties...............
122. 155-mm Shell, H.E., Ml07-Casualties ..................

123. 155-mm Shell, H.E., M107-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel 172 124. 155-mm Shell, H.E., Ml 07-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel 172 125. 155-mm Shell, HE., M 07-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel 173

95. 105-mm Shell, H.E., MI-Casualties 96. 105-mm Shell, H.E.,

.................... MI-Casualties ....................

155 156
157

126. 155-mm Shell, H.E., Ml 07-Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel 173

97. 105-mm Shell, H.E., MI-Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel..

98. 105-mm Shell, H.E., MI-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel.. 157 99. 105-mm Shell, H.E., MI-Perforation of 'A8-in. Mild Steel.. 100. 105-mm Shell, H.E., MI-Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel.. 158 158

TABLES
TABLES ON GERMAN TANK VULNERABILITY
1. Vulnerability of German Tank Pz Kpfw III to U. S. Guns for 00 Angle of Attack ............ ............. 2. Vulnerability of German Tank Pz Kpfw III to 'U. S. Guns

101. 105-mm Shell, H.E., M38A1-Casualties
102. 105-mm Shell, H.E., M38A1-Casualties

............... ................
of 1/8-in. Mild

159
159 160

103. 105-mm Shell, H.E., M38A1-Perforation Steel..................... 104. 105-mm Shell, H.E., M38A1-Perforation

of

1/8-in.

Mild

Steel...............................................
105. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Casualties ....................

160
161

for

250

Angle of Attack...............................
to U. S. Guns

3. Vulnerability of German Tank Pz Kpfw IV

106. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Casualties ...................
107. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Casualties............ 108. 4.5-in. Shell, H.E., M65-Casualties ....................

71 xC

Sfi%0 0 Angle of Attack ...............
4.

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..........

Tank Pz Kpfw IV to U. S. Guns
.............................

Att~c

.

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TABLES

rF 77'
Page 51

~

L'TABLES
Page

5. Vulnerability oF German Tank Pz KpFw VI to U. S. Guns For 00 Angle of Attack........................... 6. Vulnerability oF German Tank Pz KpFw VI to U. S. Guns

For 90% Probability oF Enough Hits to Make a Breach Large Enough for a Medium Tank (4 yd. Wide).......96, 97 15. Wall 6 Ft. Thick and 10 Ft. High. Approximate Weight of
Complete Rounds (Lb.) of Various Ammunition at Various . Ranges For 90% Probability oF Enough Hits to Make a

For

250

Angle oF Attack............................... OF CONCRETE PILL-

52

TABLES ON SHELL PENETRATION

Breach Large Enough For a Medium Tank (4 yd. Wide)... 98, 99 16. Wall 10 Ft. Thick and 10 Ft. High. Approximate Necessary Number of Hits with Various Ammunition at Various

BOXES AND BREACHING OF CONCRETE WALLS
7. Concrete Pillbox Wall 3 Ft. Thick, 4.5 Ft. High, 7.5 Ft. WideApproximate Total Number of Rounds Which Must be Fired From Various Weapons at Various Ranges to Have

Ranges to Make a Breach Large Enough For a Medium
Tank (4 yd. Wide) .............................. 100, 101

90% Probability oF at Least One PerForation

........... 80, 81

17. Wall 10 Ft. Thick and 10 Ft. High. Approximate Total
Number of Rounds oF Various Ammunition at Various Ranges For 90%' Probability oF Enough Hits to Make a Breach Large Enough For a Medium Tank (4 yd. Wide). 102, 103

8. Concrete Pillbox Wall 3 Ft. Thick, 4.5 Ft. High, 7.5 Ft. Wide.
Approximate Total Weight of Complete Rounds (Lb.) Which Must be Fired From Various Weapons at Various Ranges to Have 90% Probability of at Least One PerForation.......82, 83

18. Wall 10 Ft. Thick and 10 Ft. High. Approximate Weight
of Complete Rounds (Lb.) oF Various Ammunition at Various Ranges For 90% Probability oF Enough Hits to Make a Breach Large Enough For a Medium Tank (4 yd. Wide).............. ..................... ........... 104, 105 106 19. Projectile, A.P.C., 57-mm, M86........

9. Concrete Pillbox-5 Ft. Thick. Approximate Total Number of
Rounds Which Must be Fired From Various Weapons at Various Ranges to Have 90% Probability oF at Least One

PerForation ......................

...........

84, 85

10. Concrete Pillbox 5 Ft. Thick. Approximate Total Weight of Complete Rounds (Lb.) Which Must be Fired From Various Weapons at Various Ranges to Have 90% Probability oF

20. Shell, H.E., 75-mm, M48.............................
21. Projectile, A.P.C., 75-mm, M61 and M61 Al............. 23. Shell, H.E., 3-in., M42B1 (76-mm Guns)..............110 24. Projectile, A.P.C., 3-in., M62 and M62A1

107
108

at Least One PerForation ............................

86, 87

22. Shell, H.E., 3-in., M42B1 (3-in. Guns).................. 109

11. Concrete Pillbox 7 Ft. Thick. Approximate Total Number of Rounds Which Must be Fired From Various Weapons at Various Ranges to Have 90% Probability oF at Least One PerForation..................... ............ 88, 89 12. Concrete Pillbox 7 Ft. Thick. Approximate Total Weight of Complete Rounds (Lb.) Which Must be Fired From Various Weapons at Various Ranges to Have 90% Probability oF

...............

111

25. Shell, H.E., 90-mm, M71.........................
26. Projectile, A.P.C., 90-mm, M82 ........................

112
113

27. Shell, H.E., 105-mm, Ml (M2A1 Howitzer)...........114 28. Shell, H.E.,,105-mm, Ml (M3 Howitzer)................. 29. Shell, H.E., 4.5-in., M65 ........... ............ 115 116
118

at Least One PerForation...

....................

90, 91

13. Wall 6 ft. Thick and 10 Ft. High. Approximate Necessary
Number of Hits with Various Ammunition at Various Ranges to Make a Breach Large Enough For a Medium

30. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, Ml 02 (Ml 918 Howitzer).........117
31. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, M107 (Ml Howitzer)............ 32. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, MIOI (M1917 Gun).............119

................ 94, 95 14. Wall 6 Ft. Thick and 10 Ft. High. Approximate Total Number of Rounds of Various Ammunition at Various Ranges

Tank (4 yd. Wide)...........

33. Projectile, A.P., 155-mm, Ml 12 and M I 2B1 (Ml 917 Gun) 120 34. Shell, H.E., 155-mm, M1OI (Ml Gun).....
iaw OI~ L
'u

..........

121

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e

TABLES
Page 35. Projectile, A.P., 155-mm, Ml 12 and MI 36. Shell, H.E., 8-in., M106 ................... 37. Shell, H.E., 8-in., M103 (Ml Gun).

TABLES
Page 105-mm H.E. Shell, MI-Casualties.................133

(Ml 21B1
............ ............

Gun)

..

122 123 124 125

...........

105-mm H,E. Shell, M1-Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel
105-mm Steel.... H.E. Shell, M38A1-Perforation .......... of 1/8-in. Mild

133

......

105-mm H.E. Shell, M38A1--Casualties............. . 134
134

38. Shell, H.E., 240-mm, M114...............

TABLES ON SHELL FRAGMENT DAMAGE
39. Hand Grenade Mk. Il-Casualties .................
1 40. Hand Grenade Mk. Il-Perforation of /s-in. Mild Steel...

55. 4.5-in. H.E. Shell, M65--Casualties...............135 56. 4.5-in. 127 127 128 128 129 129 130' 130 131 131 132 57.

H.E. Shell, M65-Perforation of 1/8-in. Mild Steel. 135 120-mm H.E. Shell, M73-Casualties...............136
136

1 58. 120-mm H.E. Shell, M73-Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel.

41. 20-mm H.E. Shell, T16-Casualties ................... 42. 20-mm

H.E.I. Shell, M97 (T23)-Casualties............
1

137 59. 155-mm H.E. Shell, M107-Casualties ................ 1 60. 155-mm H.E. Shell, Ml 07-Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel 137
61. 8-in. H.E. Shell, MI03-Casualties ....................
1 62. 8-in. HE. Shell, Ml03-Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel...

43. 75-mm H.E. Shell, M48-Casualties................. 44. 75-mm H.E. Shell, M48-Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel..

138

138

45. 3-in. H.E. Shell, M42A1 -Casualties.

.............

63. 8-in. H.E. Shell, M103-Perforation of 1/4-in. Mild Steel... 138 64. 8-in. H.E. Shell, Ml03-Perforation of

1 46. 3-in. H.E. Shell, M42A1-Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel.

-in.

Mild Steel... 138

47. 81-mm H.E. Shell, M56--Casualties................
1 48. 81-mm H.E. Shell, M56-Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel..

139 65. 240-mm H.E. Shell, Ml14-Casualties ................. 1 66. 240-mm H.E. Shell, Ml14-Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel 139

49. 90-mm H.E. Shell, M71-Casualties............... 50. 90-mm H.E. Shell, M71--Perforation of /8-in. Mild Steel..
1

67. 240-mm H.E. Shell, Ml14-Perforation of 1/4-in. Mild Steel 139
68. 240-mm

132

H.E. Shell, MI 14-Perforation of 1/2-in. Mild Steel 139

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Volume II, Part 1 ARMOR PENETRATION
GENERAL TEXT
1. It is the purpose of this section to provide information pertaining to the performance of armor-piercing projectiles against homogeneous and face-hardened armor plate. The various theories and analyses of the mechanics of armor penetration will not be dealt with in this discussion, although such knowledge is necessary for better evaluation of results obtained from test firings of projectiles against armor plate. It also allows these findings to be interpreted more easily and accurately. It is from the test firings that data are obtained and compiled as a basis for determining penetrations.

ARMOR PENETRATION AND STRIKING VELOCITY CURVES
2. Penetration data have been compiled for all standard projectiles when fired against armor plate at various angles of impact. Striking velocity and penetration curves have been prepared for each projectile against homogeneous and face-hardened plate. From the charts, the thickness of armor plate which can be penetrated, together with corresponding range and striking velocity, can be determined for each projectile. It will be noted that certain portions of the penetration curves are shown by broken lines. These represent an estimated performance for which actual firing data have not been obtained. The penetration curves represent average values for an intact projectile completely penetrating the plate.

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Page 2

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES ON USE OF CURVES
3. The following examples and chart are given to \illustrate the use of the striking velocity and armor penetration curves. The range scale in yards and the penetration scale in inches are shown along the bottom of the chart and the striking velocity in feet per second is shown along the left-hand border. The striking velocity curve is designated by showing the muzzle velocity upon which it is based. The penetration curves are designated as to the obliquity upon which they are based.

EXAMPLE II:
Given-1,430 yd. range.

Required-The maximum thickness of armor plate which can be
penetrated at 200 obliquity and the corresponding striking velocity required.

Solution-(1) Enter the range scale at 1,430 yd. "D"
upward on a vertical line to point "C" intersected. (2) Proceed right from "C"

and proceed

where the striking velocity curve is along a horizontal line to "B"

EXAMPLE I:
Given-3-in. plate thickness. Required-The striking velocity and maximum range at which penetration at 200 obliquity can be achieved. Solution-(1) Enter the penetration represents 3-in, plate thickness. (2) scale at point "A" which

where the penetration curve for 200 obliquity is intersected. (3) Then prowhere a thickness of 3 in, is ceed downward along a vertical line to "A" read. (4) From point "C" proceed left along horizontal line to "E" where a striking velocity of 2,160 f/s is read.

Proceed upward along the vertical line until the intersection with the 200 obliquity penetration curve is reached

EXAMPLE III:
Given-2,160 f/s striking velocity.

at

"B." (3)

From

"B"

proceed left along a line until the intersection with
is reached. (4) From "C" continue left where the striking velocity of 2,160 f/s can along the vertical line to "D"

Required-The range and thickness of 200 obliquity armor plate
which can be penetrated. Solution-(1) Enter the striking velocity scale at point "E" which

the striking velocity curve at "C" along the horizontal line to "E"

be read; then proceed downward from "C"

represents 2,160 f/s. (2) Proceed right to point "C"
along the vertical line to "D"

and then downward

where the range of 1,430 yd. is found. Thus a striking velocity of 2,160 f/s is needed to penetrate 3-in, of plate and the maximum range at which the projectile will penetrate the plate is 1,430 yd.

where the range of 1,430 yd. can be read.

(3) From point "C"
vertical line to "A"

proceed right to "B"

and then downward along the

where the thickness of 3 in. can be read.

Page6 3

2,700-f

3

2,500

2,300

E 2,1 00

11900

.1,700

I,500

1,300

1,100

900

0

400

800

1,20

D

1600

23,00

2,400

2.800-0

3,200

3,600

4,000

4,400

4

B00 5,200

5,600

6000

FIGURE

1

Page 4

2900 270 0

2300 2100 I 900 1700 1500 1300 1100 900 700

FIGURE 2

Page 5

2900 2700

2300 2100 1900 1700 1500 1300 1100 900 700

200

4-00 FIGURE 3

Page 6

3000

70

0

600

2800

-----------2600

:T T V
TT240

THOW
2200

-

#

44 f
200

i

H
1800 -tt

1600

1400

r

_

1200

------# ---T ---

1000 0 200 400 600

FIGURE 4

Page 1

3000

2800

2600

2400

2200

200G0

1800

16001

'Quu

1200

1000 400 600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

FIGURE 5

Page 8

2100

1900

1700

P50o

1100

FIGURE 6

Page 9

2900

2700

2500

2300

2100

1900

1700

1500

11001

900

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

FIGURE 7

Page 10

2,900.

2600

14

2,400
PT-

4

2,200

-

2,000

1,800
T

IPP.

1,600

-hL

1,400
TIM AM $14 ATEE-

1,200

1,000 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800

FIGURE 8

Page 11

2,8.00f~

2,6

00

2,400

2,200

2,0

O O ~Ef~"s~i~i-;~

;tii;~

I ,8

o

o

1,600

1,400

IO

O O

0

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

1,40

O

1,600

1,800

2,000

2,200

2,400

FIGURE 9

Page 12

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

FIGURE 10

Page 13

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

FIGURE 11

Page 14

3300

2900

2500

2100

1700

1300

900

0

200

400

600

800

100
FIGURE 12

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

Page 15

3300

2900

2500

2100

1700

I 300

900

200

400

600
FIGURE 13

Page 16

3600 3400 3200 300,0

2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

FIGURE 14

Page

11

3600 3400 3200 3000 2800 2600

2200 2000 1800 1600 1400

1000

0

200

400

600

800

1000

FIGURE 15

Page 18

2900

------

------

2700

205000080

10

20

40

100

BO

20

FIGURE 16

Page 19

2900

4+44

4#~

L444

2700

________________________

___

______

__

_______

f--

-

p

tt±

---- - - -_

-- -tt-

--

_

------

_____

+444+4--t~

190JJ

W

0

200

409

800 out0

100

'cut,

"flit

lot,'

lo800

Ct,00

FIGURE 17

Page 20

3000

2600

1800

600

0

400

800

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

4000

4400

4800

5200

5600

6000

FIGURE

18

Page 21

3000

2600

1400

600 0 400 800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

4000

4400

4800

5200

5600

6000

FIGURE 19

Page 22

2700

2300

2100

1500

1300

900 0 400 800

1200

1600

3600

4000

'

4400

5200

5600

6000

FIGURE 20

Page 23

2700

2500

-

+

2300

2100

1900 1700
-

-F~.

±

1500

1300

'-'-

1100

1

900 0 400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

4000

4400

4800

5200

5600

6000

FIGURE 21

Page 24

0

400

800

1,200

1,600

2,000

2,400

2,800

3,200

3,600

4,000

4,400

4,800

5,200

5,600

6,000

FIGURE

22

Page 25

1-tt

2,600

2,400~

2,200

2,000
u:.u

1,800

1,600

1,400

1,200

,000

ILL 800

0

400

800

1,200

1,600

2,000

2,400

2800

3,200

3,600

4,000

4,400

4,800

5,200~ 5,600

6,000

FIGURE 23

Page 26

280

2200

2000

1800

1200

0

800

1600

2400

3200

4000

4800

5600

FIGURE

24

Page 21

800

1600

2400

3200

4000

4800

5200

FIGURE 25

Page 28

Ii

f$.

1y

+.

+

{

rtt j

r

l+

Frt -

BI

~

l

i -'

"

----

- '-

2800
t .

{ c,= l

Fr~~~I -F k-.r k

r

tfF

.

t-

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Kilti:
- -TT
I,-

S[m1rLw1#-i
:HIIHLf4

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[11
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2200

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t h

tiitttThTht 4

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HrhHIfl Aa.tibI tEEEIE{EM}} 4#7J d KH101t 4i1+
t~

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±"

I

ft

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Il

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LIT111-110, E-111-11 LITE
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''p7r

L~t{1hffflttT4I4~Th4f1 EM
:t.II .tI''t1l

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II ff HH. }J, Tffi l'

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iann
1400

------------

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all, j'4}:1 -

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1200-

k

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PhlI~hlthfrnll k

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4000

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FIGURE 26

Page 29

2600

1800

FIGURE 27

Page 31

VULNERABILITY OF GERMAN TANKS
4. A number of German tanks, made available from captured enemy S. projectiles against the various

fire upon an enemy tank when it is in a position where they can obtain this
impact. As the angle of obliquity increases, the range at which penetration by any individual projectile can be obtained becomes less. For this reason, the tables show the corresponding ranges for each weapon and projectile

materiel, have been tested by firing U.

armor-plate arrangements found on them. During the firing it was shown that when German tanks were hit with A.P.C. projectiles, the plates in many cases were completely defeated and whole sections dropped out of the tank. This was caused by failure of welds and cracking and spalling of

at which the various component parts of the tanks Pz Kpf'w III,
and Pz Kpfw VI, become vulnerable.

Pz Kpfw

IV,

the plate. Thus, many plates failed under the impact shock of the hit, as
well as from actual penetration. From the data obtained in these tests, charts and tables have been prepared showing at what ranges the different parts of the German tanks

(b) Both 00 and 250 angles of attack are compiled to enable the user of the data to interpolate for other angles of attack.
(c) The tabulations cover only those areas which are more apt to be hit. Hits on other vulnerable sections of a tank by armor-piercing projectiles and, in some cases, by high-explosive shells, will reduce the effectiveness of enemy fire, retard the movement of the tank, or set it ablaze. The additional areas upon which fire may be brought to bear include the track, bogies, vision slits, air louvers, the junction of the turret and hull, guns, telescopes or periscopes, and sponson floor plates.

tested are vulnerable to J. S. weapons.
The following considerations should be kept in these data: (a) Since maximum penetration is achieved by a projectile mind when using

when it strikes the target at 00 obliquity, gunners should attempt to open

Page 32

I

I
FLANK
250

ATTACK
250

250

250

REAR

ATTACK
250

FRONTAL
250

ATTACK

TURRET

FRONT

-

2"

THICK

250
TURRET-REAR 1-1/4" THICK AIR LOUVERS

25°

UPPER HULL-REAR 2" THICK LOWER HULL-REAR 2" THICK REAR FRONT

GERMAN TANK PzKpfw li
SHOWING PLATE DESIGNATION, PLATE THICKNESS AND 25° ANGLE OF ATTACK

FIGURE 28

Page 33

AREAS OF Pz Kptw III VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 1,000 YD. AND 00 ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE ON MEDIUM
l,AND AND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI.
2,670

M.V.(f/s)

VULNERABLE AT 1,000 YARDS

*r

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS M, Ml Ti TANKS, T25E1 AND T26E1, G.M.C.,'71 A

,

3-INCH A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1, 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3; GUN (FIELD), Ms. 75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61

2,600 30 M.P.H. I , 2,030 2,700

Al, IN

GUN, M4 AND MS (AIRCRAFT). ,

75-MM A.P.C. M61 AND M6IA1 M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND 1'24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, M1.
37-MM

ARMORED CAR, M8; AND IN ANTI1'ANK GUN, M3Al. IN 76-MM GUNS, MIAI AND MIA2, ON MEDIUM AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3. IANI, M4

A.P.C.,

M51B1

IN

GUN, M6

NL~n

An,

MAJ

~1
LKl~j

Y1

l

2,900
i,

2,600

Ago

II ii~ iilili

FIGURE 29

Page 34

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw III VULNERABLE AT A' RANGE OF 1,000 YB.
PROJECTILE
90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS, Ml, Ml Al, AND M2; TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS,T25E1 AND T26E1; G.M.C., TiI AND T71 El; AND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI.

AND

250 ANGLE OF ATTACK

M.V.(F/s)

VULNERABLE AT 1,000 YARDS

2,670 2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700
2,900__
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

* *

3-INCH A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1; 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3; GUN (FIELD), M5. 75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT). 75-MM A:P.C. M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES; GUN, M5 ON LIGHT' TANKS, T24 AND T24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, Ml.

~ARMORED

37-MM A.P.C., M5IBI, IN GUN, M6, ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5Al, T9EI; LIGHT CAR, M8; AND IN ANTITANK GUN, M3AI. IN 76-MM GUNS, MlAI AND MlA2, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES; G.M.C., M18, AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

2,600

MORRIS

FIGURE 30

Page 35

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw III VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 2,000 YD. AND 00 ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE M.V.(f/s) VULNERABLE AT 2,000 YARDS

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS, Ml, Ml Al, AND M2; TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS,T25E1 AND T26E1; G.M.C.,T71 ANDT7I ElAND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI. 3-INCH A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1; 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3; GUN (FIELD), M5.

2,670 2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700 2,900 2,600

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M4 AND MS (AIRCRAFT).

*t

75-MM A.P C M61 AND M61A1 IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHI TANKS, T24 AND 1'24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, M. 37-MM A.P.C., M51B1, IN GUN, M6 ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5AI, T9El, LIGHT ARMORED CAR, M8, AND IN ANTITANK GUN, M3A1. IN
AND

MIM

TAUNS, M T2 AND M1 TRI3E3..M.C., A, ON ME
T3E3.

I M TAN,

M4

M18,

MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND

FIGURE 31

----

--

Page 36

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw III VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 2,000 YD. AND 250 ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE M.V.(f/s)
VULNERABLE AT 2,000 YARDS

* *

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS, M1, Ml Al,AND M2; TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS, T25El AND T26E1, G.M.C., Ti71AND T71 ElAND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI.

2,670 2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700 2,900 2,600

3-INCH

A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1;

3-INCH

A.A. GUN, M3, GUN (FIELD), M5,

75-MM A.P.C., M6l AND M61A1, IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61AI, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND T24E1. 57-MM
A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, M.

37-MM A.P.C,; M5IBl, IN GUN, M6, ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5AI, T9E1; LIGHT ARMORED CAR, M8; AND IN ANTITANK GUN, M3AI. IN 76-MM GUNS, MIAl AND MIA2, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, G.M.C., M18, AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

.

I

/OEM
.

~i~t~i~

FIGURE

32

-----

Page 31
TABLE 1

VULNERABILITY OF GERMAN TANK PzKpfw III TO U.S. GUNS FOR 00 ANGLE OF ATTACK
Gun Caliber 90-mm 3-in. 76-mm 75-mm 57-mm 37-mm

Ammunition Gun Model
Gun Model
Gun Model
Gun Model

A.P.C., M82 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M61 Ml
Ml Al
M2
M3

A.P.C., M61 M3

A.P.C., M86 A.P.C., M51 Ml M3AI
M6

M3
M5
M6
M7

Ml Al
Ml A2

M4(Airc.)
M5(Airc.)

Muzzle Velocity

(/s)

2,670

2,600

2,600

2,5401

2,030

2,700

2,900

MAXIMUM VULNERABLE RANGE IN FRONTAL ATTACK
Turret Sides Turret Front Upper Hull Front Lower Hull Front 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,300 3,600 5,000+ 4,020 3,230 2,600 5,000+ 4,020 3,230 2,600

YARDS

5,000+ 4,100, 3,320 2,630

3,860 2,250 1,400, 720

4,720 3,600 1,540 1,220

2,590 1,200
2 2

FLANK ATTACK Upper and Lower Hull Sides Turret Rear
Turret Sides Turret Front

5,000+ 5,000+
5,000+ 5,000+

5,000+ 5,000+
5,000+ 4,020

5,000+ 5,000+
5,000+ 4,020

5,000+ 5,000+
5,000+ 4,100

5,000+ 5,000
3,860 2,250

5,000+5,000+
4,720 3,600

3,200

2,970,
2,590 1,200

REAR ATTACK
Turret Rear Turret Sides Lower Hull Rear
Turret Front

5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+
5,000_+

5,000+ 5,000+ 4,220
4,020

5,000+ 5,000+ 4,220
4,020

5,000+ 5,000+ 4,360
4,100

5,000 3,860 2,500
2,250

5,000+ 4,720 3,150
3,600

2,970 2,590 1,580
1,200

Upper Hull Rear

5,000+

3,900

3,900

3,960

2,110

3,050

1,460

'Muzzle velocity of gun +350 m.p.h. air speed. 2Proiectile will not pass through (not vulnerable).

Page 38
TABLE 2

VULNERABILITY OF GERMAN TANK Pz Kpfw III TO U.S. GUNS FOR 250 ANGLE OF AlTACK
Gun Caliber 90-mm 3-in. 76-mm 75-mm 57-mm 37-mm

Ammunition Gun Model
Gun Model
Gun Model Gun Model

A.P.C., M82 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M61 MI
MI Al
M2 M3

A.P.C., M61 A.P.C., M86 A.P.C., M51 M3 Ml M3AI
M6

M3'
M5
M6 M7

MIAl
Ml A2

M4(Airc.)
M5(Airc.)

Muzzle Velocity (F/s)

2,670

2,600

2,600

2,5401

2,030

2,700

2,900

MAXIMUM FRONTAL ATTACK Turret Sides
Turret Front Upper Hull Front Lower Hull Front

VULNERABLE RANGE IN

YARDS

5,000+
4,660 3,250

5,000± 2,930
1,740 1,180

5,000± 2,930
1,740 1,180

5,000+ 2,800. 1,520
920

4,700 1,120
2 2

3,820,
1,86O
2

950
2

2 2

2,600

2

FLANK A1TACK
Upper and Lower Hull Sides Turret Rear Turret Sides Turret Front 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,660 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 2,930 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 2,930 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 2,800 4,960 4,500 4,700 1,120 4,500 4,340 3,820 1,860 1,730 1,500 950
2

REAR ATTACK
Turret Rear Turret Sides Lower Hull Rear Turret Front Upper Hull Rear 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,840 4,660 4,580 5,000+ 5,000+ 3,080 2,930 2,860 5,000+ 5,000+ 3,080 2,930 2,860 5,000+ 5,000+ 2,960 2,800 2,720 4,500 4,700 1',280 1,120 1,040 4,340 3,820 2,040 1,860 1,720 1,500 950 2 2
2

'Muzzle velocity of gum+350 m.p.h. air speed. 'Proictile will not pass through (not vulnerable).

Page 39
_ _
FLANK , ATTACK

REAR ATTACK 25

FRONTAL 25

ATTACK

TURRET
2"

FRONT
THICK

UPPER 2"' +I-

HULL-FRONT /4" THICK

LOWER HULL FRT.

2" +RON"THK,

REAR

FRONT

GERMAN
PLATE DESIGNATION, PLATE

TANK PzKpfwlV
AND 25° ANGLE OF ATTACK

SHOWING THICKNESS

FIGURE

33

Page 40

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw IV VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 1,000 YD. AND 00 ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE

M..(F/s)

VULNERABLE

AT 1,000 YARDS

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS, Ml, Ml Al,AND M2, TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM ND26E1 G.M.C.,T71 AND Tl El;AND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6A, I P.C.. M62 AND M62A1, 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3; GUN (FIELD), M5. M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

2,670
2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 ,700

wwwwwwww'd

*r

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND T24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, Ml.
-

EMISSION Sol:"t;i

M1.Nfr.A4sNEE

37-MM A.P.C., M51Bl, IN GUN, M6, ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5Al, T9E1

ARMORED CAR, M8, AND IN ANTITANK GUN, M3AI.

LIGHT

2,900 2,600

IN 76-MM GUNS, MIAI AND MIA2, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, G.M.C., MlS, AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

FIGURE. 34

Page 41

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw IV VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 1,000 YB. AND 250-ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE

M.V.(F/s)

VULNERABLE AT 1,000 YARDS

I

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS, Ml, Ml Al, AND M2; TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS,T25E1 AND T6EIG.M.C.,T71 ANDT71E1; ANDHEAVY TANKS, M6ANDM6AI. 3-INCH A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1, 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3, GUN (FIELD), M5. 75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61

2,670 2,600

Al,

IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

2,030 AND
350 M.P.H. 4,030 2,700

*r

75-MM A.P C M61 AND M61AI, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND T24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, Ml. 37-MM A.P.C., M5iBl, IN GUN, M6, ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5AI, T9El, LIGHT ARMORED CAR, M8, AND IN ANTITANK GUN, M3Al. IN 76-MM GUNS, MIAI AND MIA2, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, G.M.C., M18, AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

-

-

-

2,900

2,600

~i~i~=7

FIGURE

35

-

Page 42

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw

IV VULNERABLE

AT A RANGE OF 2,000 YBD AND
M.V /s)
2,670
2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700 2,900 2,600

,00 ANGLE

OF ATTACK
I

PROJECTILE

VULNERABLE AT 2,000 YARDS

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS Ml, Ml Al AND M2, TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS T25E1 ANDT26E1, G.M.C.,1'71 ANDT7I El, AND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI. 3-INCH A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1, 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3, GUN (FIELD), M5. 75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61Al, IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

yt

75-MM A.P.C. M61 AND M61 Al IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND 1'4E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, Ml. 37-MM A.P.C., M5IB1, IN GUN, M6 ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3t M5A1, T9E1I LIGHT ARMORED CAR, M8, AND IN ANTI1ANK GUN, M3AI. IN 76-MM GUNS, MIAI AND MIA!, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, G.M.C., M18, AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

FIGURE

36

Page 43

AREAS OF Pz Kptw IV VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 2,000 YD. AND 250 ANGLE OF ATTACK

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS Ml, Ml Al, AND M2, TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS,T25E1 AND T26E1, G.M.C.,71 AND T7I El,AND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI.

3-INCH

A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1, 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3; GUN (FIELD), M5.

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61

Al,

IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

75-MM A.P C. M61 AND M61 A1, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHT' TANKS, T24 AND T24E1.

*ARMORED
37-MM A.P.C.,

CAR, MS, AND IN ANTI1'ANK GUN, M3AI.

M5IBI1,

IN GUN, M6 ON LIGHT TANK

IN 76-MM GUNS, MIAI AND MIA2, ON MEDIUM Ti AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

FIGURE 37

- ---

---

'--

Page 44
TABLE 3

VULNERABILITY OF GERMAN TANK Pz Kpfw IV TO U.S. GUNS FOR 00 ANGLE OF ATTACK
Gun Caliber 90-mm 3-in. 76-mm 75-mm 57-mm 37-mm

Ammunition Gun Model
Gun Model
Gun Model
Gun

A.P.C., M82 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M61 MI
MI Al
M2 M3

A.P.C., M61 M3

A.P.C., M86 A.P.C., M51 Ml M3AI
M6

M3
M5
M6 M7

M1Al
Ml A2

M4(Airc.)
M5(Airc.)

Model

Muzzle Velocity (fWs)

2,670

2,600

2,600

2,5401

2,030

2,700

2,900

MAXIMUM VULNERABLE RANGE IN FRONTAL ATTACK
Turret Sides Turret Front Upper Hull Front Lower Hull Front 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,300 4,080 5,000+ 4,220 3,300 3,040 5,000+ 4,220 3,300

YARDS

5,000+ 4,360 3,400 3,120

3,860 2,500

4,720 3,680 1,580 1,460

2,590 1,170 2
2

1,470
1,200

3,040

FLANK ATTACK
Upper and Lower Hull Sides Turret Rear 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,700 5,000+ 5,000+ 3,200 2,970

Turret Sides
Turret Front

5,000+
5,000+

5,000+
4,220

5,000+
4,220

5,000+
4,360

3,860
2,500

4,720
3,680

2,590
1,170

REAR ATTACK
Upper and Lower Hull Rear Turret Rear Turret Sides Turret Front 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,220 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,220 5,000+ 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,360 5,000+ 4,700 3,860 2,500 5,000+ 5,000+ 4,720 3,680 3,800 2,970 2,590 1,170

'Muzzle velocity of gun +350 m.p.h. air speed. 2 Proiectile will not pass through (not vulnerable).

Page 45
TABLE 4

VULNERABILITY OF GERMAN TANK Pz Kpfw IVTO U.S. GUNS FOR 250 ANGLE OF ATTACK
Gun____ Caliber__________ 90-mm_

3-in.

76-mm MI AI

75-mm

57-mm M3 Ml
__ _____

37-mm

Ammunition
Gun_________ Model

A.P.C., M82 A.P.C., M62 A.PC., M62 A.PC., M61
M____
___

JA.P.C., M61
__ __________

A.P.C., M86 A.P.C.,
M6
___

M51

M3

M4(Airc.)

M3AI

Gun Model
Gun Model Gun Model
_____

Ml Al
M2 M3

M5
M7

Ml A2

M5(Airc.)

M6_________
____ _____

_____

____

Muzzle Velocity (Is)

2,670

2,600

260255

,3

,0

,0

FRONTAL ATTACK
Turret Sides Turret Front UpperHullFront
___5,000+

MAXIMUM VULNERABLE RANGE IN YARDS
4,840
__3,250

_______

5,000 3,080 1,740 1,600

5,000 3,080 1,740 1,600 ;

5,000± 2,960 1,520 -130222

4,700 1,280
2

3,820 2,040
2

950
2
2

Lower Hull Front FLANK ATTACK Upper and Lower Hull Sides Turret Rear
____ ____ ___

3,100

_-

5,000+ 5,000±

5,000+ 5,000+
5,000

5,000± 5,000+
5,000

5,000+ 5,000+

4,960 3,760
4,700

4,500 4,200
3,820

1,730 1,340
950
2

Turret Sides

___5,000+

5,000+
2,960

Turret Front _REAR ATTACK Upper and Lower Hull Rear Turret Rear Y _
Turret Sides
____-

-

-4,840

3,080

3,080

1,280

2,040

---

5,000+ 5,000+

5,000+ 5,000+
5,000

5,000+ 5,000+
5,000+

5,000

5,000
5,000

4,960 3,760
4,700

5,000+ 4,200

3,940 1,340
950
2

5,000+
4,840

3,820
2,040

Turret Front

3,080

3,080

2,960

1,280

'Muzzle velocity of gun +350 m.p.h. air speed. 21Projectile will not pass through (not vulnerable).

Page 40

FLANK

ATTACK

25°

250

250

250

REAR

ATTACK'
25°

FRONTAL ATTACK 250

FLANK ATTACK

TURRET- REAR 3-1/4" THICK

TURRET-

SIDE

3-1/4" 'THICK
90

HULL-REAR
3-1/4" THICK

UPPER
3-1/4"

HULL-SIDE
THICK

LOWER

HULL-SIDE

2-1/2"
REAR

THICK

25°
SIDE

FRONT

GERMAN
PLATE DESIGNATION,

TANK PzKpfwVI
SHOWING
THICKNESS AND

(TIGER)
250 ANGLE OF ATTACK

PLATE

FIGURE 38

Page 47

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw VI VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 1,000 YD. AND 0° ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE M.V.(f/s) VULNERABLE AT 1,000 YARDS

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS, Ml, Ml AI,AND M2; TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM NKS.T25E1 ANDT26E1,G.M.C. T71 AND T71 El ANDHEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI.

2.670: 2 2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700 2,900 2,600

-

3-INCH

A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1; 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3, GUN (FIELD), M5.

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

*S

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND T24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, M. 37-MM A.P.C., M51Bl, IN GUN, M6, ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5AI, T9EI, LIGHT ARMORED CAR, M8, AND IN ANTITANK GUN, M3AI. IN 76-MM GUNS, MIAI AND MIA2, ON MEDIUM TANK, MA SERIES, G.M.C., M18, AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

©

FIGURE

39

---

-

---

-c----

--

--

Page 40

AREAS OF Pz Kptw VI VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 1,000 YD. AND 250 ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE M.V.(f/s) VULNERABLE AT 1,000 YARDS

*r

90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS Ml, Ml AIAND M2; TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS,T25E1 ANDT26E1,G.M.C.,171 ANDT71 El, AND HEAVY TANKS, M6ANDM6AI, 3-INCH A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1; 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3; GUN (FIELD), M5.

2,670

2,600
2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700

75-MM

AP.C., M61 AND M61Al, IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61Al, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND T24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, Ml. 37-MM A.P.C., M51 BI, IN GUN, M6, ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5A1, T9E1; LIGHT ARMORED CAR, MB; AND IN ANTITANK GUN, M3A1. IN 76-MM GUNS, Ml Al AND Ml A2, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, G.M.C., Ml 8, AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3,

2,900
2,600

L_

FIGURE 40

-

Page 49

AREAS OF Pz Kptw VI VULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 2,000 YB. AND 00 ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE
90-MM A.P.C., M82, IN A.A. GUNS, Ml, Mt Al, AND M2, TANK GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANKS,T25E1 AND T26E1,G.M.C.,T71 AND T71E , NHEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6AI.

M.V.(F/s)

VULNERABLE AT 2,000 YARDS

2,670 2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700 2,900 2,600

* *

3-INCH 75-MM 75-MM
57-MM

A,P.C., M62 AND M62A1, A.P.C,, M61 AND M61

3-INCH

A.A. GUN, M3; GUN (FIELD),

M5.

Al,

IN GUN, M4 AND M5 (AIRCRAFT).

A.P.C., M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, GUN, M5 ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND T24E1,

A.P.C.,

M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, Ml.

A.P.C., M51B1, IN GUN, M6 ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5AI, T9EI, LIGHT ARMORED CAR, M8, AND IN ANTII'ANK GUN, M3Al. IN 76-MM GUNS, Mi AI AND MIA2, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES, G... AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3. M18,

37-MM

FIGURE 41

Page 50

AREAS OF Pz Kpfw IVVULNERABLE AT A RANGE OF 2,000 You AND 250 ANGLE OF ATTACK
PROJECTILE M.V.(f/s) VULNERABLE AT 2,000 YARDS

* *

TANKS, T25E1 AND T26E1, G.M.C.,T71 AND T7l El; AND HEAVY TANKS, M6 AND M6Al. 3-INCH A.P.C., M62 AND M62A1, 3-INCH A.A. GUN, M3, GUN (FIELD), M5. 75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND

2,670 2,600 2,030 AND 350 M.P.H. 2,030 2,700

M61 Al, IN

GUN, M4 AND MS (AIRCRAFT).

75-MM A.P.C., M61 AND M61 Al, IN GUN, M3, ON MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES; GUN, MS ON LIGHT TANKS, T24 AND T24E1. 57-MM A.P.C., M86 IN ANTITANK GUN, Ml. 37-MM A.P.C., M5lBl, IN GUN, M6 ON LIGHT TANKS, M3A3, M5AI, T9EI, LIGHT ARMORED CAR, M8, AND IN ANTII'ANK GUN, M3Al.
III

2,900
2,600

AND MEDIUM TANKS, T23 AND T23E3.

IO-MMEV

G.UP4,

IV1IF1

PAN'4

II

,

ONE' MEDIUMi

ITANK,

MV4 SEIE

(.M.C.,

M18,

FIGURE 42

Page 51
TABLE 5

VULNERABILITY OF GERMAN TANK Pz Kpfw VI TO U.S. GUNS FOR 00 ANGLE OF ATTACK
Gun Caliber 90-mm 3-in. 76-mm 75-mm 57-mm 37-mm

Ammunition Gun Model
Gun Model
Gun Model Gun Model

A.P.C., M82 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M62 A.P.C., M61 MI
MIA
M2 M3

A.P.C., M61 M3

A.P.C., M86 A.P.C., M51 Mi M3AI
M6

M3
M5
M6 M7

MI Al
MI A2

M4(Airc.)
M5(Airc.)

Muzzle Velocity (F/i)

2,670

2,600

2,600

2,5401

2,030

2,700

2,900

MAXIMUM FRONT ATTACK
Turret Sides and Rear Upper Hull Front Lower Hull Front
Turret Front

VULNERABLE RANGE IN

YARDS

4,800

2,880

2,880 1,020 2
2

2,830 820
2 2

1,000 2
2 2

1,480 320 2
2

110
2

2,900
1,880
2

1,020
2
2

2
2

FLANK ATTACK
Lower Hull Side Upper Hull Side Turret Sides and Rear Turret Front 5,000+ 4,800 4,800
2

3,980 2,880 2,880
2

3,980 2,880 2,880
2

4,050 2,830 2,830
2

2,200 1,000 1,000
2

2,490' 1,480 1,480
2

870 110 110
2

REAR ATTACK Turret Sides and Rear
Hull Rear
Turret Front

4,800
4,320
2

2,880
2,200
2

2,880
2,200
2

2,830
2,120
2

1,000
300
2

1,480
1,340
2

110
10
2

'Muzzle velocity of gun +350 m.p.h. air speed. 2Prolectile will not pass through (not vulnerable).

Page 52
TABLE 6

VULNERABILITY OF GERMAN TANK Pz Kpfw VI TO U.S. GUNS FOR
Gun Caliber 90-mm 3-in. 76-mm

250

ANGLE OF ATTACK
57-mm

75-mm

Ammuniion Gun Model
Gun Model
Gun Model

A.P.C., M82 M1
Ml Al
M2

A.P.C., M62 M3
Ms
M6

A.P.C., M62 MIA
Ml A2

A.P.C., M61 M4(Airc.)
M5(Airc.)

A.P.C., M61 M3

A.P.C., M86 Ml

Gun Model

M3

M7

Muzzle Velocity-F/s

2,670

2,600

2,600

2,540'

2,030

2,700

MAXIMUM FRONTAL ATTACK
Turret-Side and Rear Upper Hull Front
Lower Hull Front Turret Front

VULNERABLE RANGE

IN

YARDS

2,680
1,200
2
2

720 2
2
2

720 2
2

460
2
2

2 2
2

240
2

2

2

2

2

2

FLANK ATTACK
Lower Hull Side Upper Hull Side Turret-Side and Rear
Turret-Front

4,180

3,000 720 720
2

3,000 720 720
2

2,880 460 460
2

1,200
2

1,910

2,680
2,680
2

240
240
2

2
2

REAR ATTACK
Turret Side and Rear Hull Rear
Turret Front

2,680
2,600
2
'Muzzle velocity of gun +

720 550
2

720 550
2

460 300
2

2 2
2

240
170
2

350 m.p.h. air speed.

2Projectile will not pass through (not vulnerable).

Page 53

Volume II, Part 2 ARTILLERY ATTACK ON CONCRETE
1. PENETRATION AND PERFORATION
The following considerations, as used in discussion, tables, and charts, apply to attack on concrete targets. Perforationof a concrete target, wall or roof, means making a hole all the way through. Penetrationmeans making a crater which does not go all the way through. Depth of penetrationis measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. 2. (c) Heavier targets must, in general, be defeated by repeated fire, perforation finally being obtained by having several rounds hit in approximately the same small area. The number of hits necessary in the same crater for perforation increases with range, and the chance of obtaining multiple hits in the same small area decreases with range; therefore the total number of rounds which must be fired to have a high probability of perforation increases very rapidly with range to enormous values at the higher ranges. (d) Data in the charts and tables are calculated by estimating, at the given range, the number of consecutive hits in one small crater necessary to perforate and, from the range table probable errors, the number of rounds which must be fired to obtain this number of hits in this crater. The tables should be of value in determining approximately, at least, the ranges at which various weapons will be effective, and for obtaining some comparison between the different weapons. The absolute numbers must be accepted with some caution. (e) Especially when the table entry is large (100 or over) there should be a fair fraction of perforations from all subsequent hits. In short, the entries in the table should not be far below the number of rounds necessary to obtain complete destruction of the target, except in the case of the smaller calibers at close range. (f) The data for the H.E. shell with C.P., T105, Fuze is probably pessimistic, as the H.E. shell with this fuze removes greater volumes of concrete than the A.P. projectiles. For multiple hits, all other factors being equal, the destructive effect of the H.E. shell with this fuze are greater than that produced by A.P. projectiles.

EDGE EFFECT

In cases when the target is sufficiently close to have small dispersion of fire the artilleryman can make use of the edge effect under some conditions. Projectiles striking closer than 15 calibers from the edge of a wall (an embrasure usually) penetrate more deeply and remove more concrete than if striking in the center. The effect is marked at 10 calibers from the edge, and best at about 8 calibers. Up to double the normal volume of concrete may be removed by the use of edge effect.

3. CHARTS AND TABLES
The charts and tables in this section are based on the following hypotheses: (a) That data shown are based on firing against the center of a wall, without consideration of edge effect. (b) Although the penetration decreases with the obliquity of the target, the crater produced is wider than that produced by normal impact. The actual volume of concrete removed per round may even increase for oblique impact. For prolonged fire the obliquity probably does not greatly influence the number of rounds necessary to obtain perforation, up to obliquities of 200 to 300.

Page 54

CHARTS ON

TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS

NECESSARY TO OBTAIN

90% PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST ONE PERFORATION IN GRADE A (5000 P.S.I.) CONCRETE TARGETS OF (H) HEIGHT

(W) WIDTH
(T) THICKNESS

Page 55

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Page 79

5. TABLES FOR VARIOUS WEAPONS FIRED AT VARIOUS RANGES TO HAVE 90% PROBABILITY OF AT LEAST ONE PERFORATION OF THE FOLLOWING TARGETS:
(a) 5-Ft. thick concrete pillbox. (b). 7-Ft. thick concrete pillbox. (c) Concrete pilibox wall 3

Ft. thick,

4.5 Ft. high, and 7.5 Ft. wide.

FOR EACH OF THE TARGETS THE FOLLOWING IS GIVEN:
(a) Total number oF rounds. (b) Total weight oF complete rounds.

Page 80
TABLE 7 CONCRETE PILLBOX WALL 3 FT. THICK, 4.5 FT. HIGH, 7.5

FT.

WIDE

Approximate TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS which must be fired from various weapons at various ranges to have 90%,7 probability of at least one perforation.
Range in Yards
M. V.

Weapon and Shell 75-mm Gun, M3 Proi., M61, A.P.C. 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, M48, H.E.' 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, M48, H.E.' 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 Prol., M62, A.P.C. 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 1 Shell, M42B1, H.E. 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Shell, M42B1, H.E.' 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Proj., M82, A.P.C. 90-mm Guns, MIAI, M2, M3 1 Shell, M71, H.E. 105-mm How., M2A1 Shell, Ml, H.E. 105-mm How., M3 1 Shell, Ml, H.E. 4.5-in. Gun, Ml 1 Shell, M65, H.E. 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M65, H.E.'

(s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,030

10

50

200

730

1,980

10

50

220

750

1,500

7

20

100

370

2,600

10

50

180

560

1,900

2,800

4

15

60

110

750

2,700

6

30

115

430

1,400

2,670

3

8

25

70

160

2,700

3

9

27

65

175

1,550

8

35

120

350

710

1,020

8

2,275

3

4

8

20

140

650

1,820

4

6

16

40

100

220

910

'With Fuze, C.P.,

T105.

(Continued)

Page 81 TABLE 7-Continued
CONCRETE PILLBOX WALL 3 FT. THICK, 4.5 FT.
Range in M. Weapon and Shell V. 50 o d e0500 100 W 1,00 Yards

HIGH, 7.5

FT. WIDE

(Fls)

2,00

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

155-mm How., 1918 1 Shell, M102, H.E. 155-mm How., Ml Shell, M1O, H.E. 155-mm Gun, Ml917 Shell, MIOI, H.E.' 155-mm Gun, Ml917 Shell, MIOI, H.E.' 155-mm Gun, Ml 917 Proj., Ml12, A.P. 155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, M10O, H.E.' 155-mm Gun, Ml Proj., M112, A.P. 8-in. How., Ml Shell, M106, H.E.' 8-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M103, H.E.' As above (white bag base charge Ml0) As above (Full M9 charge) 240-mm How., Ml Shell, MI 14, H.E.'

1,476

5

21

65

175

380

1,850

2

4

9

23

52

105

330

2,410

16

127
45

50

200

1,955

2

4

8

20

90

320

820

2,360

3

4

6

10

27

60

240

770

2,800

3

6

12

20

38

65

200

600

2,745

3

3

4

6

9

15

55

190

1,950

6

10

30

80

190

460

2,850

15

25

45

85

155

290

2,F600

10

20

40

85

185

410

2,600

5

9

17

40

90

220

2,300

. 60

120

200

320

530

'With Fuze, C.P., TI05.

Page 82
TABLE 8 CONCRETE PILLBOX WALL 3 FT. THICK, 4.5 FT. HIGHI, 7.5 FT. WIDE
Approximate TOTAL WEIGHT OF COMPLETE ROUNDS' (lb.) which must be fired from various weapons at various ranges to have 90%,1 probability of at least one perforation.
Range in Yards
M.V.

Weapon and Shell 75-mm Gun, M3 Proj., M61, A.P.C. 75-mm Gun, M3 2 Shell, M48, HE 75-mm Gun, M3 2 Shell, M48, H.E. 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 Proi., M62, A.P.C. 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 2 Shell, M42B1, H.E. 76-mm Guns, Ml Al,

(f/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,030

200

925

4,000

14,700

1,990

194

1,000

4,200

15,000

1,500

370

2,020

7,200

2,600

260

1,300

4,800

15,000

52,000

2,800

105

390

1,560

2,850

19,000

M1 A2
Shell, M42B1, H.E.
2

2,700

150

750

2,600

9,800

32,000

90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Proj., M82, A.P.C. 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 2 Shell, M71, H.E. 105-mm How., M2AI 2 Shell, Ml, H.E. 105-mm How., M3 2 Shell, Ml, H.E. 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M65, H.E.2

2,670

140

330

1,080

2,800

6,900

2,700

135

400

1,200

2,700

7,500

1,550

340

1,400

5,200

15,000

30,000

1,020

340

2,275

200

290

530

1,290

3,600

9,300

'Weight of unpacked complete rounds-in the case of separate-loading guns this is the weight of proiectile and charge.
2

(Continued)

With Fuze, C.P., TI05.

Page 83
TABLE

8-Continued

CONCRETE PILLBOX WALL 3 FT. THICK, 4.5 FT. HIGH, 7.5 FT. WIDE
Range in Yards
M. V.
------_ _ _ _ _ _ -_ _

Weapon and Shell 4.5-in. Gun, MI
Shell, M65,

(/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

H.E.2 H.E. 2

1,820 1,476 1,850 2,410 1,955 2,360 2,800 2,745 1,950 2,850 2,600 2,600 2,300

260 470 220

390 2,200 440

1,080 6,600 1,000

2,600 18,000 2,500 2,000

6,700 40,000 5,700 3,300 5,300 3,400 4,700 1,100 1,300

15,000

60,000

155-mm How., 1918
Shell, M102,

155-mm How., MI Shell, M107, H.E. 2 155-mm Gun, Ml 917 Shell, MIOI, H.E.2 155-mm Gun, M1917 Shell, MIOI, H.E. 2 155-mm.Gun, Ml 917 Proj., Ml 12, A.P. 155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, MIOI, H.E. 2 155-mm Gun, MI Proj., M112, A.P. 8-in. How., MI Shell, M106, H.E. 2 8-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M103, H.E.2 As above (white bag base charge Ml 0) As above (Full M9 charge)
4 4O-mm How., MI Shell, M114, H.E. 2

11,000 6,100 10,500 7,200 8,200 2,000 2,300 5,000 3,400 1,700

36,000 25,000 38,000 31,000 25,000 7,100 6,900 8,500 6,800 3,000 29,000 98,000 96,000 74,000 25,000 18,000 15,000 14,000 5,800 53,000 44,000 29,000 29,000 13,000 86,000 105,000 53,000 63,000 31,000 140,000 99,000 140,000 75,000 230,000

250 300 340 300

500 500 760 400

1,000 680 1,500 430

2,300 1,130 2,650 710

2With Fuze, C.P., TI 05.

Page 84
TABLE 9 CONCRETE PILLBOX 5 FT. THICK
Approximate TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS which must be fired from various weapons at various ranges to have 90% probability of at least one perforation. Unless otherwise noted, figures apply to all wall faces of area equal to or greater than that of one 10 ft. high x 15 ft. wide.
in
_Range

M. V. Weapon and Shell 75-mm Gun, M3 Proj., M61, A.P.C. 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, M48, H.E. 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, M48, H.E.' 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 Proj., M62, A.P.C. 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 1 Shell, M42B1, H.E. 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, M1 A2 Shell, M42B1, H.E.' 90-mm Guns, MI Al, M2, M3 Proi., M82, A.P.C. (ffs)

Yards

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,030

20

110,
115

480,

1,700

1,980

20

500

1,800

1,500

15

45

240

880

2,600

20

100

370

1,200

2,800

10

35

130

500

1,700

2,700

15

55

240

900

2,670

6

15

50

130

320

90-mm Guns, Ml Al,
M2, M3 1 Shell, M71, H.E. 105-mm How., M2A1 Shell, Ml, H.E.' 105-mm How., M3 Shell, Ml, H.E.' 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M65, H.E.' 2,700 5 15 50 140 350

1,550

15

70

270

750

1,020

350

2,275

5

10

20

45

110

270

1,300

'With

Fuze,

.P.,

T105.

(Continued)

Page;J5 TABLE 9-Continued CONCRETE PILLBOX 5 FT. THICK
Range in M. V. Yards
_

Weapon and Shell 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M65, H.E.' 155-mm How., 1918 Shell, M102, H.E.' 155-mm How., Ml Shell, MIo, H.E.' 155-mm Gun, M1917 Shell, M1oI, H.E.' 155-mm Gun, Ml917 Shell, MiOI, H.E.' 155-mm Gun, Ml917 Proj., M112, A.P. 155-mm Gun, Mi
Shell, MIo1, H.E.'

(f/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,820

15

30

70

200

530

1,900

1,476

35

120

320

700

1,850

4

10

20

45

100

200

600

2,410

5

10

20

40

80

300

1,100

1,955

7

15

35

75

150

500

1,500

2,360 2,800 2,800

5 5

10 10
152

25 20
252

50 40
502

100 80
902

400 300
3002

1,300 900

155-mm Gun, Ml Prol., M 12, A.P. 8-in. How., Ml Shell, M106, H.E.' 8-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M103, H.E.' As above (white bag base charge Ml 0) As above (full M9 charge) 240-mm How., Ml Shell, M114, H.E.'
1

2,745

4

7

15

30

100

300

800

1,950

10

15

45

110

300

600

2,850

10

25

50

150

2,600

15

35

100

220

2,600

20

50

140

2,300

40

100

230

430

With Fuze, C.P., TI 05. 2Target 10 It. high x 30 Ft. wide.

rp8's
TABLE 10 CONCRETE PILLBOX 5 FT. THICK
Approximate TOTAL WEIGHT OF COMPLETE ROUNDS' (lb.) which must be

fired from various weapons at various ranges to have 90% probability of at least one perforation.
Unless otherwise noted, figures apply to all wall faces of area equal to or greater than that of one 10 ft. high x 15 ft. wide.
M. V. Weapon and Shell 75-mm Gun, M3 Prol., M61, A.P.C. 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, M48, H.E.' 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, M48, H.E.' 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 Prol., M62, A.P.C. 3-In, Guns, M5, M6, M7 (/s)
-Range

in

Yards 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000

.500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

4,030

400

2,200

9,600

34,000

1,980

400

2,200

9,700

35,000

1,500

330

850

4,700

17,000

2,600

550

2,700

10,000

33,000

Shell, M42B1, H.E.2
76-mm Guns, M1 Al,

2,800

250

800

3,300

13,000

43,000

Ml A2
Shell, M42B1, H.E.
1

2,700

270

1,200

5,500

20,000

90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Prol., M82, A.P.C. 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Shell, M71, H.E.2 105-mm How., M2AI Shell, Ml, H.E.' 105-mm How., M3 2 Shell, Ml, H.E.

2,670

250

730

2,100

5,500

.14,000

2,700

200

730

2,200

6,000

15,000

1,550

730

3,000

12,000

32,000

1,020

8,300

'Weight of unpacked complete rounds--in the case of separate-loading guns this is the weight of projectile, and charge. 2With Fuze, C.P., T105.

(Continued)

Page 81
TABLE 10-Continued CONCRETE PILLBOX 5 FT. THICK
M. V. Weapon and Shell 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M65, H.E.2 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M65, H.E.' (/s)
_Range

in Yards

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,275

330

600,

1,200

3,000

7,300

19,000

87,000

1,820

800

1,800

4,700

13,000

35,000

127,000-

155-mm How., 1918
Shell, M 02, H.E.' 1,476 3,700 12,000 33,000 73,000

155-mm How., Ml Shell, M107, H.E.2 155-mm Gun, Ml 917 Shell, Ml01, H.E.2 155-mm Gun, Ml917 Shell, Ml01, H.E.2 155-mm Gun, Ml917

1,850

430

1,000

2,200

4,900

10,000

20,000

63,000

2,410

600

1,200

2,400

4,800

9,800

38,000

132,000

1,955

840

1,900

4,200

7,000

18,000

62,000

180,000

Proj., M112, A.P.
155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, Ml 01, H.E.2 155-mm Gun, Ml Proj., M112, A.P. 8-in. How., Ml 2 Shell, M106, H.E. 8-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M103, H.E.' As above (white bag base charge, Ml0) As above (lull M9 charge)

2,360
2,800 2,800

620
630

1,400
1,300 1,9009

2,900
2,500 3,2008

6,000
5,000 6,500'

12,000
10,000 11,0000

51,000
35,000 35,0003

162,000
108,000

2,745

520

900

1,600

3,500

12,000

39,000

100,000

1,950

2,300

3,400

10,000

26,000

69,000

140,000

2,850

3,500

8,000

18,000

41,000

2,600 2,600

5,000

12,000 6,800

34,000 17,000

75,000 48,000

240-mm How., Ml
Shell, Ml14, H.E.2 2,300 18,000 46,000 100,000 190,000

'With Fuze, C.P., TI05.
"Target 10 ft. high x 30 I. wide.

Page 88
TABLE 11 CONCRETE PILLBOX 7 FT. THICK
Approximate TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS which must be fired from various weapons at various ranges to have 90% probability of at least one perforation. Unless otherwise noted, figures apply to all wall faces of area equal to or greater than that of one 10 ft. high x 15 ft. wide.
Range in Yards
M. V.

Weapon and Shell 75-mm Gun, M3 Prol., M61, A.P.C. 75-mm Gun, M3 1 Shell, M48, H.E. 75-mm Gun, M3 1 Shell, M48, H.E. 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 Proj., M62, A.P.C. 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 1 Shell, M42B1, H.E. 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, M1 A2 Shell, M42B1, H.E.1 90-mm Guns, MIAI, M2, M3 Proi., M82, A.P.C. 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 1 Shell, M71, H.E. 105-mm How., M2A1 Shell, M1, H.E.' 105-mm How., M3 Shell, Ml, H.E.
4

(F/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,030

35

180

750

1,980

40

200

900

1,500

35

80

430

1,500

2,600

35

170

650

2,800

12

50

220

800

2,700

20

90

430

2,670

8

25

85

230

580

2,700

9

30

90

250

600

1,550

30

130

480

1,400

1,020

350

.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M65, H.E.1

2,275

8

15

30

70

200

500

2,300

'With Fuze, C.P.,

T105.

(Continued)

Page 89, TABLE 11-Continued CONCRETE PILLBOX 7 FT. THICK
Range in Yards
M. V.

Weapon and Shell 4.5-in. Gun, Mi 1 Shell, M65, H.E. 155-mm How., 1918 Shell, M102, H.E.' 155-mm How., Ml 1 Shell, M107, H.E. 155-mm Gun, M1917 1 Shell, MIoI, H.E. 155-mm Gun, M1917 Shell, MIOI, H.E. 155-mm Gun, M1917 Proj., M112, A.P. 155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, MIOI, H.E.' 155-mm Gun, Ml Proj., M112, A.P. 8-in. How., Ml Shell, M106, H.E.' 8-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M103, H.E.' As above (white bag base charge, Ml 0) As above (full M9 charge)

(s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,820

12

20

50

130

370

950

1,476

60

200

550

1,200

1,850

5

15

30

70

160

330

1,000,

2,410

5

8

20

35

75

150

600

1,955

5

10

25

60

130

280

1,000

2,360 2,800 2,800

5 4
42

10 10 102

20 25 202

40 50
452

80 95
852

170 180
1602

720 510
5202

1,800
1,6002

2,745

5

6

8

15

25

50

170

550

1,950

15

25

75

200

450

1,000

2,850

10

30

60

130

300

650

2,600 2,600

40 15

70 35

180 85 220 520

240-mm How., Ml
Shell, M 14, H.E.' 2,300 70 170 370 700

'With Fuze, C.P., T105.
2

Target 10 ft. high x 30 ft. wide.

Page 90
TABLE 12 CONCRETE PILLBOX 7 FT. THICK

fired from

Approximate TOTAL WEIGHT OF COMPLETE ROUNDS, (lb.) which must be various weapons at various ranges to have 90%,1o probability of at least one perforation.

Unless otherwise noted, figures apply to all wall faces of area equal to or greater than that of one 10 ft. high x 15 ft. wide.
Range in Yards
M. V.

Weapon and Shell 75-mm Gun, M3 Proi., M61, A.P.C. 75-mm Gun, M3 2 Shell, M48, H.E. 75-mm Gun, M3 2 Shell, M48, H.E.

(f/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,030

680

3,600

15,000

1,980

720

3,900

17,000

1,500

620

1,600

8,300

29,000

3-in.

Guns, M5, M6, M7
2,600 900 4,600 18,000

Proi., M62, A.P.C. 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 2 Shell, M42B1, H.E. 76-mm Guns, Ml Al,

2,800

300

1,300

5,600

20,000

Ml A2
Shell, M42B1, H.E.
2

2,700

460

2,000

9,800

90-mm Guns, MI Al, M4, M3 Proi., M82, A.P.C. 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Shell, M71, H.E.2 105-mm How., M2A Shell, Ml, H.E.2 105-mm How., M3 2 Shell, Ml, HE.

2,670

340

1,200

3,700

9,800

25,000

2,700

380

1,200

3,800

11,000

'26,000

1,550

1,200

5,400

20,000

60,000

1,020

15,000

2

,Weights of unpacked complete rounds-in the case of separote-loading guns this is the weight of projectile and charge. With Fuze, C.P., TI05.

(Continued)

Page 91
TABLE 12-Continued CONCRETE
M. V.

PILLBOX 7 FT. THICK
Range in Yards

Weapon and Shell 4.5-in. Gun, Ml 2 Shell, M65, H.E. 4.5-in. Gun, Ml 2 Shell, M65, H.E.

(Ifs)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

9,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,275

530

930

1,900

4,500

13,000

33,000

150,000

1,820

800

1,300

3,100

8,700

25,000

63,000

155-mm How., 1918
Shell, Ml 02, H.E.
2

1,476

6,200

22,000
3,400

58,000

130,000

155-mm How., Ml
Shell, Ml 07, H.E.
2

1,850

540

1,400

7,600

17,000

36,000

110,000

155-mm Gun, M1917 2 Shell, Ml 01, H.E. 155-mm Gun, M191 7 2 Shell, Ml 01, H.E. 155-mm Gun, M1917 Proj., Ml12, A.P. 155-mm Gun, Ml 2 Shell, Ml01, H.E. 155-mm Gun, Ml Proj., M1 12, A.P. 8-in. How., Ml 2 Shell, M106, H.E. 8-in. Gun, Ml Shell, M103, H.E.2 As above (white bag base charge M10) As above (full M9 charge) 240-mm How., Mi 2 Shell, M114, H.E.
2 3

2,410

600

960

2,200

4,300

8,900

18,000

.72,000

1,955

600

1,200

3,100

7,200

16,000

34,000

120,000

2,360 2,800 2,800

620 500 5003

1,100 1,100 1,1003

.2,400 2,700 3,0003

5,000 5,700 6,4003

10,000 11,000 12,0003

21,000 20,000 23,0003

90,000 66,000' 72,0003 200,000 230,0003,

2,745

660

790

1,000

1,800

3,500

6,600

22,000

73,000

1,950

3,400

5,700

17,000

46,000

100,000

230,000

2,850

3,800

9,600

21,000

44,000

100,000

220,000

2,600 2,600 2,300

14,000 4,800

25,000 12,000

62,000 29,000 75,000 180,000

32,000

75,000

160,000

300,000

With Fuze, C.P., T105. Target 10 It. high x 30 Ft. wide.

Page 92

6. TABLES FOR VARIOUS WEAPONS FIRED AT VARIOUS RANGES FOR 90% PROBABILITY OF MAKING A BREACH WIDE ENOUGH FOR A MEDIUM TANK (4 YD. WIDE) IN THE FOLLOWING TARGETS:
(a) Wall 6 ft. thick and 10 ft. high. (b) Wall 10 ft. thick and 10 ft. high.

FOR EACH OF THE TARGETS THE FOLLOWING IS GIVEN:
(a) (b) (c) Necessary number of hits. Total number of rounds. Weight of complete rounds.

7. THIS SECTION CONTAINS TABLES FOR VARIOUS PRO-

JECTILES GIVING:
(a) Projectile weight.
(b) (c) (d) Complete round weight. Muzzle velocity. Range and corresponding terminal velocity, penetration depth and perforation thickness.

(e) For a 10-ft. high x 6-ft. thick wall and for a 10-ft. high x 10-ft.
thick wall the following data for making a breach 4 yd. wide in 5,000 p.s.i. concrete:

I.
II. III. IV. V.

Necessary number of hits.
Total number of rounds. Total complete round weight. No. of rds. fired at each point of aim. Deflection feet. difference between successive aiming points in

VI. No. of different aiming points.

Page 93

The following consideration should be kept in mind when attempting to breach a concrete wall: (a) Various factors such as amount of reinforcing, compressive strength of concrete, size of aggregate, and use of "plums" (boulders set in the concrete to save material) will affect the number of hits necessary to breach a wall. Such factors as age of gun, stability of carriage emplacement, and experience of the gunner in this type of fire will also affect the number of rounds. (b) The same cautions about the use of the entries when the probable errors are not those of the range table apply, but with less emphasis, as in the discussion of single perforations. (c) It is recommended that the target be taken initially about 3 ft. below the top of the wall (perhaps 2 ft. for projectiles of caliber 90-mm or less) and lowered as successive rounds are fired and the breach deepens. (d) It is necessary to cut a breach about 6 ft. deep from the top in a wall 10 ft. thick; and 7 ft. deep in a wall 6 ft. thick. There should then be a ramp of rubble in front of the breach. (If fire is continued too long, the material of the ramp will be of too fine mesh to give good traction.) The breach will tend to be narrower and not so deep toward the back and there will be a drop of several feet to the rubble behind the wall. Tests have shown that such a breach will pass at medium tank. (e) A.P. (or A.P.C.) ammunition alone will not make a satisfactory breach in reinforced concrete. The concrete will be removed but twisted reinforcing rods will remain standing. If it is deemed advisable to use A.P. rounds against reinforced concrete, a portion (say a fifth) of the number of A.P. rounds listed should be replaced with H.E. shell, superquick fuzed, perhaps of larger caliber and lower velocity. A few rounds of A.P. projectile should be followed by one or two of H.E. shell. The fragments from the H.E. shell cut the rods. (It may be assumed that most concrete is reinforced.)

NOTE:

Page 94
TABLE 13 WALL 6 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Approximate NECESSARY NUMBER OF HITS with various ammunition at various ranges to make a breach large enough, for a medium tank (4 yd. wide).
M. V.
-________-Range

in Yards

Gun and Ammunition 57-mm Gun, Ml Proj., A.P.C., M86' 75-mm Gun, M3 Proj., A.P.C., M611 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, H-.E., M48 2 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, M1 AI, Ml A2 Proj., A.P.C., M621 -in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Shell, H.E., M42B1 2 9O-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Shell, H.E., M712 90 -mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Proj., A.P.C., M82' 105-mm How., M2AI Shell, H.E., MI 2 105-mm How., M3 Shell, H.E., MI 2 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., M652
1

(f/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,700 2,030 1,980

175 200 200 240 240

2,600 2,800

110

3

100 2,700

2,700

60

75

90

115

2,670 1,550 1,020 2,275

60 90 240 35

75 110 260 40

90 120

115

45

50

60 (Continued)

About one-fifth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. 'With Fuze, C.P., T105.

TABLE 13-Continued WALL 6 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
in Yards

M.

V.

_Range

Gun and Ammunition
155-mm How., Ml918 Shell, H.E., M1 022 155-mm How., M1918 2 Shell, H.E., M107 155-mm Gun, M1917 Shell, H.E., M1012 155-mm Gun, MI917 Proj., A.P., M112B1' 155-mm Gun, Mi 2 Shell, H.E., M101 155-mm Gun, Ml Proj., A.P., Mii2BI' 8-in. How., Mi 2 Shell, H.E., M106 8-in. Gun, Ml 2 Shell, H.E., M103

(us)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,476

50

60

70

1,850

30

35

40

50

60

2,410

18

21

24

27

30

35

2,360

18

21

24

28'

33

42

2,800

12

14

16

19

21

24

2,745

12

15

17

19

22

27

36

1,950

12

15

16

18

21

25

30

35

2,850

5

6

6

7

8

10

13

240-mm How., Ml
Shell, H.E., Mi142 2,300 10 12.

'About one-fifth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. 2 With Fuze, C.P., TI05.

Page 96
TABLE 14 WALL 6 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HiGH
Approximate TOTAL NUMBER OF ROUNDS of various ammunition at various ranges for 90% probability of enough hits to make a breach large enough for a medium tank (4 yd. wide).
________Range

in Yards

Gu muiin n

(/)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

57-mm Gun, Ml Proj., A.P.C., M861 75-mm Gun, M3 Prol., A.P.C., M611

2,700 2,030 1,980

370 210 210

260 260

75-mm Gun", M3

Shell, H.E., M482 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Proj., A.P.C., M621 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Shell, H.E., M42B12 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2,. M3 2 Shell, H.E., M71 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Proj., A.P.C., M821 105-mm How., M2AI Shell, H.E., M12 lO5-mm How., M3 Shell, H.E., M12 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., M652

2,600 2,800

210 210

2,700

2,700

72

130

240

520

2,670 1,550 1,020 2,275

72 120 510 42

130 220 1,800 70

240 540

520

140

260

520 (Continued)
(Continued)

superquick Fuzed. 'About one-fifth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with ammunition, with H.E. HE. ammunition, superquick Fuzed. 2 With Fuze, C.P., TI 05.

Page 91
TABLE 14-Continued WALL 6 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH

Range in Yards,
M.V.
_ -

Gun and Ammunition 155-mm How., Ml918 2 Shell, H.E., M102 155-mm How., Ml918 Shell, H.E., Ml072 155-mm Gun, MI917 2 Shell, H.E., M101 155-mm Gun, Ml 917 Proj., A.P., MII2BI1 155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., M1 012 155-mm Gun, Mi Proj., A.P., MI 121B' 8-in. How., Mi Shell, H.E., Ml 062 8-in. Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., Ml 032 240-mm, Mi Shell, H.E., Ml142

(Ifs)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

.6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,476

84

220

540

1,850

36

54

100

220

420

.

2,410

21

32

56

100

170

350

2,360

24

33

60

110

210

420

2,800

16

32

70

130

240

400

2,745

18

20

26

46

66

120

360

1,950

15

18

24

30

50

90

250

440

2,850

9

20

45

130

290

625

2,300

255

530

'About one-Aith of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. 2 With Fuze, C.P., T105.

Page 98
TABLE 15 WALL 6 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Approximate WEIGHT OF COMPLETE ROUNDS' (lb.) of various ammunition at various ranges necessary for 90% probability of making a breach wide enough for a medium tank (4 yd. wide)
Range in Yards
M.V.

Weapon and Shell 57-mm Gun, Ml 2 Proi., A.P.C., M86 75-mm Gun, M3 2 Proi., A.P.C., M61 75-mm Gun, M3 3 Shell, H.E., M48 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al,

(f/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,700

5,100

2,030

4,200

5,200

1,980

4,100 5,7004

5,100

Ml A2
Proi., A.P.C., M62
2

2,600 2,800 5,300'

3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Shell, H.E., M42B1 3 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 3 Shell, H.E., M71 90-mm Guns, Mi Al, M2, M3 2 Proj., A.P.C., M82 105-mm How., M2AI 3 Shell, H.E., Mi 105-mm How., M3 3 Shell, H.E., MI 4.5-in. Gun, Ml 3 Shell, H.E., M65

2,700

2,700

3,100

5,600

10,300

22,200

2,670

3,100

5,600

10,300

22,200

1,550

5,100

9,400

23,100

1,020

21,000

73,000

2,275

2,800

4,700

9,300

17,300

34,700

'Weight of unpacked complete rounds-in the case oF separate-loading guns this is the weight oF proiectile and charge. About one-fifth oF the A.P. proiectile must be replaced with the H.E. ammunition, superquick Fuzed. 'With Fuze, C.P., TI05. 'Weight given is For 3-in, gun. Weight For 76-mm gun is slightly less.
2

(Continued)

Page 99
TABLE 15-Continued
WALL 6 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Range in Yards
M. V.

Weapon and Shell 155-mm How., Ml918 3 Shell, H.E., M102 155-mm How., Ml918 Shell, H.E., Ml073 155-mm Gun, Ml 917 Shell, H.E., Ml 013 155-mm Gun, Ml917 2 Proj., A.P., MI 2B1 155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., M101 155-mm Gun, Ml 2 Proj., A.P., M I2B1 8-in. How., Ml Shell, H.E., Ml063 8-in. Gun, MI Shell, H.E., Mi 033

(/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,476

8,800

22,900

56,300

1,850

3,900

5,900

10,900

23,900

45,700

2,410

2,500

3,900

6,700

12,100

20,500

42,200

2,360

3,000

4,100

7,500

13,700

26,200

52,400

2,800

2,000

4,000

8,900

16,400

30,400

50,600

2,745

2,400

2,600

3,400

6,000

8,700

15,800

47,300

1,950

3,400

4,100

5,500

6,900

11,400

20,600

57,200

100,700

2,850

3,100

6,800

15,400

44,400

99,100

214,000

240-mm How., Ml
Shell, H.E., M114
3

2,300

112,000

232,000

'About one-fifth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with the H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. 3With Fuze, C.P., TI05.

Page 100
TABLE 16 WALL 10 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Approximate NECESSARY NUMBER OF HITS with various ammunition at various ranges to make a breach large enough for a medium tank (4 yd, wide)

Range in

Yards

M.

V.

Gun and Ammunition 57-mm Gun, Ml

(Vs)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

Proj., A.P.C., M86

1

2,700

300

75-mm Gun, M3 1 Prol., A.P.C., M61 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, H.E., M482 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al,

2,030

320

400

1,980

320

400

MI A2
Proi., A.P.C., M62' 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Gun, M1 Al, M1 A2 2 Shell, H.E., M42B1 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, 2,600 2,800 170 2,700 180

M2, M3
Shell, H.E., M71
2

2,700

100

120

150

185

90-mm Guns, Ml Al,

M2, M3
Proj., A.P.C., M821 105-mm How., M2AI 2 Shell, H.E., MI 105-mm How., M3 2 Shell, H.E., MI 4.5-in. Gun, Ml 2 Shell, H.E., M65 2,670 100 125 150 190

1,550

150

175

200

1,020

400

2,275

55

65

75

85

100

'About one-Afith of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. 'With Fuze, C.P., T105.

(Continued)

Page 101
TABLE 16-Continued 'WALL 10 FT. THICK AND
_
500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000

10 FT. HIGH

M. V. Gun and Ammunition 155-mm How. Ml918 Shell, H.E., M 022 155-mm How., Ml918 Shell, H.E., Ml072 155-mm Gun, M1917 Shell, H.E., M1I012 155-mm Gun, Ml 917 2 Proj., A.P., M112B1 155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., M1012 155-mm Gun, Ml Proj., A.P., MII2BI' 8-in. How., Mi Shell, H.E., Ml 062 8-in. Gun, Mi 2 Shell, H.E., M103 240-mm How., Ml 2 Shell, H.E., M114 (f/s)

Range in Yards

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,476

80

95

110

1,850

50

60

70

80

95

2,410

30

35

40

45

50

60

2,360

30

35

40

45

55

70

2,800

21

24

27

31

35

40

2,745

21

24

28

32

37

45

60

1,950

21

24

27

30

35

40

50

55

2,850

8

9

10

12

14

16

2,300

16

20

'About
2

one-fifth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. With Fuze, C.P., T105.

Page 102
TABLE 17 WALL 10 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Approximate TOTAL NUMBER' OF ROUNDS of various ammunition at various ranges for 90% probability of enough hits to make a breach large enough for a medium tank (4 yd. wide)
M. V Gun and Ammunition 57-mm Gun, Ml Proj., A.P.C., M86' 75-mm Gun, M3 Proj., A.P.C., M61' 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, H.E., M482 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Proj., A.P.C., M62 1 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Shell, H.E., M42B1 2 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, M2, M3 Shell, H.E., M712 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, (f/s) 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 Range in Yards 5,000 6,000 8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,700 2,030 1,980

620 360 360 420 420

2,600 2,800 2,700

360

360

2,700

132

180

380

840

M2,

M3

Proj., A.P.C., M821 105-mm How., M2AI Shell, H.E., MI 2 105-mm How., M3 Shell, H.E., MI 2 4.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., M65 2

2,670 1,550 1,020 2,275

132 180 720 66

180 360

380 880

840

130

230

430

800 (Continued)

2

'About one-fifth of the A.P. projectile must

be replaced

with H.E. ammunition, superquick Fuzed.

With Fuze, C.P., T105.

Page 103
'TABLE 17-Continued WALL 10 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Range in Yards
M. V.

Gun and Ammunition 155-mm How., M1918 Shell, H.E., M1022 155-mm How., M1918 Shell, H.E., Ml072 155-mm Gun, M1917 Shell, H.E., M1012

(F/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,476

162

340

780

1,850

60

90

160

330

620

2,410

33

50

80

140

260

540

155-mm Gun, M1917
Proj., A.P., MlI1' 155-mm-Gun, MI 2 Shell, H.E., M1 01 155-mm Gun, Ml Proj., A.P., M1BI1 8-in. How., Ml 2 Shell, H.E., M106 8-in. Gun, Ml 2 Shell, H.E., M103 2,360 36 54 90 180, 340 680

2,800

28

55

110

200

380

640

2,745 2

24

28

42

70

100

190

600

1,950

24

30

39

48

80

140

390

650

2,850

12

30,

75

200

475

1,0008

240-mm How., Ml
Shell, H.E., M 1142

2,300

385

880,

'About one-fiFth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. 2 With Fuze, C.P., TI05. 3 Probably an accidental breach will occur for some smaller number of rounds.

Page 104
TABLE 18 WALL 10 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Approximate WEIGHT OF COMPLETE ROUNDS' (lb.) of various ammunition at various ranges necessary for 90% probability of making a breach wide enough for a medium tank (4 yd. wide)
M. V. Gun and Ammunition 57-mm Gun, Ml Proj., A.P.C., M862 75-mm Gun, M3 Proj., A.P.C., M612 75-mm Gun, M3 Shell, HE., M483 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Proj., A.P.C., M622 3-in. Guns, M5, M6, M7 76-mm Guns, Ml Al, Ml A2 Shell, H.E., M42B18 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, (s) 500 1,000 2,000 3,000

_
4,000

Range in Yards

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

2,700

8,600

2,030

7,200

8,400

1,980

7,000 9,8004

8,200

2,600 2,800 9,1004

2,700

M2, M3
Shell, H.E., M713 90-mm Guns, Ml Al, 2,700 5,600 7,700 16,200 35,900

M2, M3
Proj., A.P.C., M822 105-mm How., M2A1 Shell, H.E., M13 105-mm How., M3 Shell, H.E., Ml'
4

2,670

5,600

7,700

16,200

35,900

1,550

7,700

15,400

37,700

1,020

29,000

.5-in. Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., M65'

2,275

4,400

8,700

15,300

28,700

53,400

'Weight of unpacked complete rounds-in the case of separate-loading guns this is the weight of projectile and charge. 2 About one-fifth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick fuzed. 'With Fuze, C.P., TI05. 'Weight given is for 3-in, gun. Weight for 76-mm gun is slightly less.

(Continued)

Page 105
TABLE 18-Continued WALL 10 FT. THICK AND 10 FT. HIGH
Range in Yards

M. Gun and Ammunition 155-mm How., Ml918 3 Shell, H.E., M104 155-mm How., M1918 3 Shell, H.E., M107 155-mm Gun, Ml 917 3 Shell, H.E., M101 155-mm Gun, Ml917 2 Proj., A.P., MI 1211 . 155-mm Gun, Ml Shell, H.E., Ml 013 155-mm Gan, Mi 2 Proj., A.P., Ml 1 2B1 8-in. How., Ml Shell, H.E., Ml 063 8-in. Gun, Mi 3 Shell, H.E., M103 240-mm How., MI Shell, H.E., M1143

V.

-_

(f/s)

500

1,000

2,000

3,000

4,000

5,000

6,000

8,000

10,000

12,000

14,000

16,000

1,476

16,900

35,500

81,400

1,850

6,500

9,800

17,400

35,900

67,500

2,410

4,000

6,000

9,600

16,900

31,300

65,100

4;360

4,500

6,700

11,200

22,500
25,300

42,400

84,800

2,800

3,500

7,000

13,900

48,100

81,000

2,745

3,200

3,700

5,500

9,200

13,100

24,900

78,800

1,950

5,500

6,900

8,900

11,000

18,300

32,000

89,300

148,800

2,850

4,100

10,200

25,600

68,300

162,000

341,000

2,300

169,000

386,000

2 3

About one-filth of the A.P. projectile must be replaced with H.E. ammunition, superquick With Fuze, C.P., TI05.

fuzed.

Page 106

TABLE 19

57-MM GUN, MI, FIRiNG PROJECTILE, A.P.C.,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 7.27 lb.
Rne(d)0 Triaveoiy(s)2,700 foerudit et Peerto S Thickness of concrete perforated
0.Face

M86
MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,700 F/S
1,000 2,320 1.8
1.8

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 13.73 L.B.

500 2,510 ocee Face normal to angle of fall (ft.)
Fac_____

2,000 1,950 1,4
1.4

3,000 1,620 1.2
1.2

hc

2.3 3.2
______

2.0
_ertca_(____._2.

Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (t)32,72.6 vertical 3 ft. thick ft. thick ft. thick

2.7
3
_____

2.6

2.1 2.1
______

1.7 1.7

9. Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) In Number of rounds falling in circle of -- yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete5 concrete7
10 ft._high,_6 ft. thick__________________________
*00

o -om f 5CO .
2 ak
U

Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds
Total complete round weight (lb.)
_____

175 370
5,100
____ ________ ____

2Deflection

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim difference between successive aiming points (ft.)
No. of different aiming points______I______

370
______ _____

l0 ft. high, 10 ft. thick_____ Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds
Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming point (ft.)______________________________
______

__

_____________

300 620
8,500
____________

°'0'

"~

6-00
%r

620______

No. of different aiming points

I

Page 101

TABLE 20

75-MM GUN, M3, FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
SHELL WEIGHT: 15.04 LB.
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity
(f/s)

M48,
500 0.85

WITH c.r.,
2,000 1,490 0.19 1.3 1.3 1.7 1.7 3 3 8 21

T105
3,000 1,290 0.057 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.5

FUZE
1,980, F/S
4,000 1,130 0.022 0.8 0.8 1.3 1,3 5,000 1,020

COMPLETE

ROUND WEIGHT: 19.93 L.B.
0 1,980 1,000 1,720

MUZZLE VELOCITY:

-1,850
1.6 1.7 2,1 2,1

Probability of hitting target

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (Ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) 1.7 1.7 2,4 2.4

0.010
0.7 0.6 1,2 1.2

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete efrtd Thickness ofcnrt ofc conree priratdl

1,6 1.6 1.9 1.9

Volume of concrete excavated by first round

(cu.

ft.) 3 ft. thick Ft.thick 7 ft. thick
______

f .3y:daee Nubro onsfaln iceo .3y.daee Nubro5onsfligi ncrl necessary to perforate concrete
10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick

5 14

27

41

13 36

72

17 48

20 63

Necessary number of hits
o '

200
210
______ _____ _____

240
260
_____ _________________ ____

.2 c
£ ';

Total number

of rounds

wegh (l.
wegt(b)4,200

Total complete round

5,200

C

D eflection o fr s difference ir d a betw a h een pi t successive f a m3 aiming points (ft.)
No. of different aiming points
oE
______6

2

35
4,_
____

10 ft. high, 10 ft. thick______

yso

c
a

^

Necessary number of hits otlnubeooud oa ubrof rons360
aa Total complete round weight (lb.)

320 7,200 60 2 6

400 420 8,400_____ 105 3 4
____________

No. of rds, fired at each point of aim d a 0 z38______ Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

Pige 108

TABLE

21

75-MM GUN,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT:
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

M3, FIRING PROJECTILE, A.P.C., M61 OR M61A1
COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 20.08 LB.
0 500 1,900 1,000 1,770 0.85 1.9 1.9 2.5 2.5 1.7 1.7 2.3 2.3 1.6 1.6 2.1 2.1 3 t. thick 5 Ft. thick 7 ft. thick 5 13 25

14.90 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,030 F/S
2,000 1,520 0.19 1.3 1.3 1.8 1.8 3 7 19 27 10 03 30 60 17 47 21 3,000 1,300 0.057 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 4,000 1,120 0.022 0.8 0.8 1.3 1.3 5,000 1,020 0.0096 0.7 0.7 1.2 1.2

2,030 I
yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (Ft.) Face vertical (Ft.) Face normal to angle of fall (Ft.) Face vertical (Ft.)

Penetration depth oF one round into thick concrete Thickness of concrete perForated

§
o

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. Ft.) Number oF rounds Falling in circle oF 0.83 yd. diameter necessary to perForate concrete 10 ft. high, 6 Ft. thick Necessary number oF hits

200 210 4,200 35

240 360 7,200 65 3 4

.,.

Total number, of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point oF aim

2o o

Deflection difference between successive aiming points (Ft.) No. oF different aiming points

2
6

E
.e

e c
g

10 Ft. high, 10

ft.

thick 320 400

Necessary number oF hits

Total number of rounds
0 ° Total complete round weight (lb.)

360
7,200

420
8,400

m

Z

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (Ft.) No. oF different aiming points

60 2 6

105 3 4

'Replace

about one-fiFth oF rounds with H.E. shell, superquick fuzed, against reinforced concrete.

Page i14

TABLE 22

3-INCH GUNS, M5, M6, M7, FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 13.21 LB.
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (F/s) Probability oF hitting target 0 2,800 500 2,620
I I

M42B1,
1,000 2,450
I

WITH

c.P., T105 fUZE
4,000 1,480 0.046
I I

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 24.95 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,800 F/S
2,000 2,100 0.35
I

3,000 1,780 0.11 1.4 1.4 2.1 2.1

5,000 .1,230 0.020 0.8 0.8 1.4 1.4

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (Ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of Fall (ft.) (Ft.) Face vertical

Penetration depth oF one round into thick concrete Thickness oF concrete perForated

2.6
2.6 3.6 3.6

2.3 2.3 3.2 3.2

2.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 6

1.7 1.7 2.5 2.5

1.0 1.0 1.6 1.6

Volume oF concrete excavated by Anrt round (cu. Ft.) N umber of rounds falling in circle of 0.83 yd.-diameter necessary to perforate concrete 3 t. thick 5 Ft. thick 7 Ft. thick
______________________

I

*I' J~

LI

III~I

10

Ft. high,

6

Ft. thick 100 210
5,200

Necessary number of hits
ao
9eg

Total number of rounds

S
Total complete round weight (lb.)_

-o oe

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.)
No. of different aiming points

35

2
6

U

=t

C

10

ft.

high, 10 Ft. thick

~ou
0=

Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds

170 360
9,000

S~ .~ Z3

Total complete round weight (lb.)

.

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (Ft.)
No. of different aiming points

60

2
6 i

Page 110

TABLE

23

76-MM GUNS,
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity.(f/s)

MiAl, M1A2, FIRING

SHELL, N.E.,
0 2,700 500 2,520

M42B1,
1,000 2,345 0.85 0.19 1.7 1.7 245 2.5 6

WITH c.r.,
3,000 1,695 0.056 1.4 1.4 2.1 2.1

T105 FUZE
4,000 1,411 0.023 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.6 5,000 1,169 0.010 0.9 0.8 1.4 1.4

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 13.21 L.B.

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 22.39 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,700 F/S
2,000 2,007

Probability of hitting target I yd. square in any one round Penetration depth of one round' into thick concrete Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) 2.6 2.6 3.6 3.6 2.3 2.3 3.2 3.2

2.0 2.0
3.0 3.0

~i
o

Thickness of concrete perforated Volume of concrete excavated by

first

round (cu. ft.) 3 ft. thick 5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick

Number of rounds falling in circle of 0.83 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete
10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick____________

1 5 10
______

3 8 16
______

5 14 27

10 30

15 43

____________

w° .2 c
o

Necessary number of hits
Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.)

100
210_____ 4,700
_________

V

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim

35

ogDeflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) a- .5
o~

2
6__________________
__________ _______ _____

j-

No. 'of different aiming points

A _^ =
Uo v

l0 ft, high, 10 ft. thick___________ Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds
Total complete round weight (lb.) a ch po int of a im N o o f rds. fired a t e

170 360
8,100
6 0_
_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ ___________ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _

~o

Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

2
6

Page 111 TABLE 24

76-MM GUNS, MIAl, M1A2, OR 3-INCH GUNS, M5, FIRING PROJECTILE, A.P.C., M62 OR M62A1
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 15.40 LB.
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s)
Probability of hitting target 1 yd. square in any one round Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete Thickness of concrete perforated a O Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical 2.6 2.6 3.6 3.6 2.5 2.5 3.3 3.3

M6, M7,
GUN: 27.23 LB,
4,000 1,466
0.015 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.8

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT IN 76-MM: 24.67 LB.; IN 3-IN. MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,600 F/S
0 2,600 500 2,450 1,000 2,290
0.49 2.3 2.3 3.1 3.1 6

2,000 2,000
0.10 1.9 1.9 2.6 2.6

3,000 1,720
0.034 .1.5 1.5 2.2 2.2

5,000 1,240
0.0063 1.0 0.9 1.5 1.5

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of 0.83 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete

3 ft. thick

3 ft. thick 5 ft. thick

13
6

9

14

5

21

8

12
35

12

18

26

40

10

ft. high, 6 ft. thick 110

co

Necessary number of hits

.2
-o P

2

Total number of rounds
Total complete round weight (lb.)

210
5,7002 35 2 6

-o

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.)

2 o2:2
S=

No. of different aiming points

E
F-

E u u

v u

10

ft. high, 10

ft.

thick

Necessary number of hits = Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

180 360 9,8003 60

^
0 v

"

Z

o

E2

2
6

'Replace about one-fifth of rounds with H.E. shell, superquick fuzed, against reinforced concrete. 'Weight given is for 3-in, gun. Weight for 76-mm gun is 5,200 lb. 'Weight given is for 3-in, gun. Weight for 76-mm gun is 8,900 lb.

Page 112
TABLE 25

90-MM GUNS,
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s)'

MIAl, M2, M3, FIRING
0 2,700

SHELL, H.E.,
1,000 2,460

M71,

WITH ci'.,
4,000 1,800 0.047

T105
6,000 1,400

FUZE
8,000 1,100

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 23.74 LB.

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 42.38 LB.
2,000 2,230

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,700 F/S
3,000 2,010

Probability of hitting target I yd. square in any one round Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete Thickness of concrete perforated Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical 3.0 3.0 4.2 4.2 2.7 2.7 3.8 3.8 11 3 ft. thick 5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick 1 3 7 2.4 2.4 3.4 3.4 9 1 5 10 2.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 8 3 8 14

1.7 1.7 2.6 2.6 7 3 10 20

1.1 1.1 1.9 1.9 6

0.8 0.7 1.6 1.6

C.
$

Volume of concrete excavated by Ant round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of I yd. diameter to perforate concrete necessary 10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits 2 Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.)

60 72 3,100 12

75 130 5,500 65 6 2

90 240 10,200 120 6 2

115 520 22,000 260 6 2

v c v 0C

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.)

2
6

o
E ro

=

No. of different aiming points

'cE . j

10 ft. high, 10 ft. thick

_

_

_

_

_

,
.caveb

Necessary number of hits 22 Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. Fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

100 132 5,600 22 2 6

125 180 7,600 90 6 2

150 380 16,100 190 6 2

190 840 35,600 420 6 2

^' a.... m, a a

Page 113

TABLE 26

90-MM GUNS
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

MIAl, M2, M3,
0

FIRING PROJECTILE, A.P.C.,
1,000 2,440 2,000 2,200 0.36 3,000 2,015 4,000 1,770 0.052 1.8 1.8 2.7 2.7 9 8 1.6 1.6 2.4 2.4 7

M82
6,000 1,380 0.013 1.2 1.1 1.9 1.9 6 0.8 0.7 1.4 1.4 8,000 1,100

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 24.10 LB.

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 42.75 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,670 F/S

2,670 I
yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical 3.0 3.0 4.2 4.2

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete Thickness of concrete perforated

2.7 2.7 3.7 3.7 11

2.2 2.2 3.2 3.2

a

3

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.)

3futic
Number of rounds falling in circle of I yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete 5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick 3 7

1
5 10

3
7 14

4
9 18

6

10

ft. high, 6

ft. thick

Necessary number of hits

60 72
3,1 00

75 130
5,600

90 240
10,300

115 520

2
C
-c 2
0 .

U

Total number of rounds
Total complete round weight (lb.)

~0
a

22,200
260 6 2

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points
a

12 2 6

65 6 2

120 6 2

~
*_** v,

o00

E Q.

j

10

t.

high,lOft.

thick

-C C
v 2-

Necessary number of hits
Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

100 132 5,600

120
180 7,700 90 6 2

150 380 16,200 190 6 2

185 840 35,900 420 6 2

22
2 6

'Replace about one-fifth of rounds with H.E. shell, superquick fuzed, against reinforced concrete.

Page 114
TABLE 27

105-MM HOWITZER,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 33.82 LB.
Range (yd.)
Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

M2A1, FIRING SHELL, H.E., MI, WITH
COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 42.89 LB.
0
1,550

C.P.,

T105
4,000
1,020

FUZE
5,000
980 0.012

MUZZLE VELOCITY:
2,000 1,210 3,000
1,080 0.065

1,550 F/S
8,000
900

500
1,460

1,000
1,370

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) 1.5 1.4 1.3

Penetration depth of one round

Face vertical

(ft.)

1.5
2.4

1.3,
2.3

1.2
2.1

1.1

1.0
1.8

0.9

0.9
1.6

0.8

0.8

0.9

Face horizontal'

(ft.) 1.5

0.7 0.5
1.5

0.6

a
c

Face normal to angle of fall (ft.)

Thickness of concrete perforated

Face vertical
Face horizontal'

(ft.)
(ft.)

2.4

2.3

2.1
7

1.8
6

1.6
5

1.5

1.4
1.1 1.1

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu.

Ft.)
thick
5 ft. thick
7 ft. thick

Nubro onsbln ncrl
Number of rounds falling in circle of
necessary to perforateconcrete

l3ft.

I

5
14
27

10
27
53

12
33
64

yd. diameter

10 ft. high,

6

ft. thick

o

°

Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds

90 120 5,100

110

120 540 23,200

>. c
c U
0

220
9,400

_

Total complete round weight (lb.)

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim

20 2 6

110 6 2

270 6

Deflection
o

difference between successive aiming points (ft.)

No. of different aiming points

2

E
E

.

10 ft. high, 10 ft. thick

i.--5o
'~

Necessary number of hits
Total number of rounds

150
180

175
360

200
880

m

0

Total complete round weight (lb.)
No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

7,700
30 2 6

15,400
180 6 2

37,700
440 6 2

zr

d E~2

'High-angle fire to be used against horizontal targets. Zone 6 charge for 8,000-yd. range; Zone 4, for 5,000-yd. range.

Page 115

TABLE 28

105-MM HOWITZER,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 33.82 LB.
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

M3,

FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
0 1,020 500 990

Ml,
1,000 970 0.11

WITH C.P.,
2,000
930

T105 FUZE
1,020 F/S
4,000 860 5,000 830 3,000 890

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: '41.18 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY:

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of Fall '(Ft.) (Ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of fall (Ft.) (Ft.) Face vertical 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.6 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.5

Penetration depth oF one round into thick concrete Thickness of concrete perforated

0.8 0.8 1.4 1.4 3

0.7 0.7 1.4 1.3 3

0.7 0.6 1'.4 1.3

0.7 0.5 1.3 1.2

0.7 0.5 1.3 1.2

8o

Volume oF concrete excavated by first round (cu. Ft.) Number of rounds Falling in circle of necessary to perforate concrete

I

yd. diameter

3 ft. thick 5 ft. thick 7 Ft. thick

12 33 65

10 Ft. high, 6 Ft. thick Necessary number oF hits 240 510 21 000

o

U

Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.)

.
L 0m

°

No. oF rds. fired at each point of aim
DeFlection difference between successive aiming points (Ft.)

170
4
3

X-

No. of different aiming points

SEv U U Nis o L.-

~

10 ft. high, 10 ft. thick Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds 400 720

%.
°O

Total complete round weight (lb.)
No. of rds. fired at each point of aim

29,600
240 4 3

Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. oF different aiming points

Page 110
TABLE 29

4.5-INCH GUN,
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (fs) Probability of hitting target

M1,

FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
0 2,275 1,000 2,130

M65,
3,000 1,870 0.38

WITH C.P.,
5,000 1,610 0.055 2.1 2.0 3.2 3.2 7,500 1,320 0.010 1.6 1.5 2.5 2.4 11

TOS FUZE
10,000 1,110 0.0029 1.2 1.0 2.1 1.9 1.2 0.9 1.0 2.0 1.7 12,500 1,040 13,000 1,100

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 55.65 LB.

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 66.71 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,275 F/S

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) 3.8 3.8 4.8 4.8 3.5 3.5 4.6 4.6 19

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete

2.7 2.6 3.8 3.8 15

Face horizontal'
d o u; Thickness of concrete perforated Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical

Face horizontal'
Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of necessary to perforate concrete

1.9

I

yd. diameter

3 ft. thick

5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick

1

1-2 5

1
4 10

1
8 15

4
16 32

6
22 44

10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick

owm

Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds Total complete round we2ht (lb.)

35 42

45 140 9,300 70 6

60 520 34,700 260 6

.2

.
S °

w__

2,800
7

M o o

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference betweep successive aiming points (ft.)

2
6

f

No. of different aiming points

2

2

E CL 0 E >- U
u u

lOft, high,

10 ft thick

o Z^
0

Necessary number of hits
Total number of rounds

55
60

75 230 15,300 115 6 2

ioo
800

Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

4,400 11 2 6

53,400 400 6 2

E0 00

'High-angle fire to be used against horizontal targets at normal charge.

Page 111 TABLE 30

15-MM HOWITZER,
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

M1918,

FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
0 1,476 11000 1,340 0.89 2.1 2.1 3.2 3.2 1.8 1.8 3.0 3.0 14

M102,
2,000 1,210 0.13 1.6 1.6 2.8 2.7 11 9 17

WITH C.P.,
4,000 1,0400.016 1.4 1.2 2.4 2.3 6,000 980 0.0040 1.3 1.0 2.3 2.1

T105
8,000 940

FUZE
10,000 930

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 95.64 LB.

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 103.92 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 1,476 F/S

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete y d. In Thickness of concrete perforated

1.2 0.9 2.2 1.8

1.2 0.6 2.1

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.33 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete 5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick

3ft. thick

-2

6 12

2

13 25

4

15 29

5

10 ft high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits 2
C

50 84 8,700 14 2 6

60 220 22,900 110 6 2

0
'A ° °
rC

Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.)
3

o ; o

No. of different aiming points

E0.>.
'E

10 ft. high, 10 ft. thick

% eo
0

Necessary number of hits
Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

80
162 16,800 27 2 6

95
340 35,300 170 6 2

Soc

E.-

3t

Page 118
TABLE 31

155-MM HOWITZER,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 95.35 LB.
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s)

Ml,

FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
0 1,850 11000 1,710

M107,
3,000 1,570 0.19

WITH

c., T105
10,000 990 0.0035 1.2 0.9 0.9

FUZE
15,000 1,010 0.00040 1.3

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 108.48 LB.
5,000 1,210 0.044 1.6 1.5

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 1,850 F/S
7,500 1,030 0.014 1.3 1.1 12,500 980 0.0015 1.2 0.7 1.1

Probability of hitting target i yd. square in any one round Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) Face horizontal' Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.6

2.0 2.0

4.2

3.9

3.2

Thickness of concrete perforated

Face vertical Face horizontal'

(ft.) (ft.)

4.2

3.9 22

3.2 16 5 11

2.7 2.6 11 9 18

2.4 2.2

2.2 1.8 1.9

2.2 2.2

2.3

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.33 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete

3 Ft. thick

5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick

1
3 7

1

2

13 25

5

14 28

5

14 28

5

13 25

5

10 ft, high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits 30
36 3,900

40
100 10,800

60
420 45,600

.2
c
-

c '

Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.)

°
0C o

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

6 2 6

50 6 2

210 6 2

c Ev d
u

10 ft. high, 10ft. thick Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds 50 60 70 160 95 620

u

o ..- ^ '..

°

Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds.

6,500 10
2

17,400 80
6

67,300 310
6

Ev o°

fired

at each point of aim

Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.)

No. of different aiming points

6

2

2

'High-angle fire to be used against horizontal targets. Zone 6 charge for 12,500-yd. range; Zone 5, for 10,000-yd. range.

Page 119

TABLE 32

155-MM GUN,
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

M1917

(G.P.F.), FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
0 2,410 1,000 3,000 1,970 0.18 4.3 4.3 5.7 5.7 3.8 3.8 5.2 5.2 37 3.0 3.0 4.5 4.5 30

MiOl, WITH
5,000 1,690 0.042 2.5 2.4 3.8 3.6 21 1-2 7,500 1,380 0.010 1.9 1.8 3.1

c..,
10,000 1,140 0.0032 1.5 1.3 2.5 2.4

T1OS
12,500 1,030 0.0015 1.5 0.9 2.4 1.9

FUZE
15,000 990

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 95.14 LB.

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 119.82 LB-.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,410 F/S

2,260'

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.)

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete Thickness of concrete perforated CL o

1.2 0.7 2.3

2.9 1
4 7

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.33 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete

3 ft.thick

5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick

1
3

1
5

-2

6

9 19

4

10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits . o o o00 o
Earg
D~ C

18 21 ,500 7 4 3

24 56 6,700 28 6

30 170

o

Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) e No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

20,400

3

2

1

10 ft. high,'10 ft, thick Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds me ai; Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points 30 33 4,000 11 4 3 40 80 9,600 40 6 2 1 50 260 31,200

4Wu

Page 120

TABLE 33

155-MM GUN,
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

M1917

(G.P.F.), FIRING PROJECTILE, A.P.,
COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 124.75 LB.
0 2,360 1,000 2,210 3,000 1,900 0.18 4.3 4.3 5.7 5.7 3.8 3.8 5.2 5.2 37 3.0 2.9 4.3 4.3 27 5,000 1,600 0.042 2.3 2.3 .3.6 3.4 19

M112 OR M112B1
MUZZLE VELOCITY:
7,500 1,280 0.010 1.8 1.6 2.9 2.7 10,000 1,070 0.0032 1.4 1.2 2.5 2.2

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 100.00 LB.

2,360 F/S
12,500 1,010 0.0015 1.3 0.8 2.3 1.8 1.3 0.6 2.2 15,000 1,000

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.)

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete

6.
0

Thickness of concrete perforated

o

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.33 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete 10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits

3 ft. thick
3 ft. thick 7 ft. thick

1-2 3

1

1 3
5

1 4
8

7 13

2

12 3

3

18 24 3,000 4 2 6

24 60 7,500 30 6 2

33 210 26,200 105 6 2

a u

c

Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

4
2

a

0-o

w

E
u

.

10 ft high, 10 ft. thick
uE

ir5 -E
a 0v

o

Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. JO of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

30 36 4,500 6 2 6

40 90 11,200 45 6 2

55 340 42,400 170 6 2

E me p

'Replace about one-fifth of rounds with H.E. shell, superquick fuzed, against reinforced concrete.

Page 121
TABLE

34

155-MM GUNS, Ml,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 95.14 L.B.
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

MiAl, FIRING

SHELL, H.E.,
0 1,000 2,640

MiOl, WITH. ci.. T105
3,000 2,330 0.075 5,000 2,030 0.021 3.2 3.2 4.6 4.6 40 I 1 3 30 1 2 4 1 3 6 1-2 5 10 7,500, 1,680 0.0065 2.4 2.3 3.6 3.5 101000 1,370 0.0026 1.9 1.7 3.0

FUZE
15,000 1,050

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 125.82 L.B.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,800 F/S
12,500 1,130 0.0012 1.4 1.2 2.6 2.3 1.2 .0.9 1.1 2.3 1.9
2.2

2,800

I

yd, square in any one round Face normal to angle of Fall (Ft.) (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) Face horizontal' Face normal to angle of Fall Face vertical 1
Face horizontal

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete

5.0 5.0 7.0 7.0

4.6 4.6 6.6 6.6 51

4.0 4.0 5.6 5.6

o 0 e'

a

Thickness of concrete perforated
________

(Ft.)

(Ft.) (ft.)

2.9

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.33 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete 3 Ft. thick 5 Ft. thick 7 ft. thick

I

1 2

3 9 17

10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits .2~ av _° o °3
°0

12 16

16 70,

21 240

Total number of rounds
Ttlcmlt on egt(b)200

890
8

3,0

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive No. oF different aiming points211

aiming

points (ft.)

6

= o =~aa

10 Ft. high, 10 ft. thick .. Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds
0.

21 28 3,500
____

27 110 13,800

.. 35 380 47,800
____ ____

^~
v

Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point oF aim ______________________________ Deflection difference between successive aiming points (Ft.) No. of different aiming points

E .9-p aa
Z

14 6 2

____________________

1

1

'High-angle

fire to be used against horizontal targets at normal charge.

Page 122

TABLE 35

155-MM GUNS,
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

M1, MIAl,

FIRING PROJECTILE, A.P.,
0 2,745 1,000 2,580 3,000 2,260 0.5 5.2 5.2 7.1 7.1 4.8 4.8 6.5 6.5 51 4.0 4.0 5.4 5.4 45 1 1 3 5,000 1,940 0.10 3.2 3.1 4.5 4.5 29 1 3 5

M112
7,500 1,570 0.028 2.4 2.2 3.6 3.5 20 1 4 8

OR

M112Bl
12,500 1,080 0.0045 1.4 1.1 2.4 2.2 1.3 0.8 2.3 1.8 15,000 1,010

PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 100.00 LB.

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 131.28 LB.

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,745 F/S
10,000 1,270 0.0095 1.8 1.6 2.9 2.7

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete
-

Thickness of concrete perforated d

S

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.) Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.33 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete 3 ft. thick 5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick

1 1

2

1-2 7 13

4 11

10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits
O U

12 18 2,400 3 2 6

17 26 3,400 13 6 2

22
65 8,500 33 6

33 300 39,400

Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (2b.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.)

C d
U

v

C us
2

= a

g,
O *

No. of different aiming points 10 ft, high, 10 ft. thick Necessary number of hits ^ Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.)

2

1

E } c u

a

21 24 3,200 4 2 6

28 42 5,500 21 6'

37 100 13,100 50 6

55 550 72,200

r

LU
W

No. of different aiming points
'Replace about one-fifth of rounds with H.E. shell, superquick fuzed, against reinforced concrete.

2

2

1

Page 123
TABLE 36

8-iNCH HOWITZER,
PROJECTILE *EIGHT: 200.34
Range (yd.) Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target I

M1,

FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT:
0. 1,950 1,000 1,820

M106,
228.52 LB.
3,000 1,580

WITH c.r.,
MUZZLE
5,000 1,370 7,500 1,160 0.060

T105
VELOCITY:
10,000 1,060 0.018 1.8 1.4 1.3 3.2

FUZE
1,950 F/S
12,500 1,030 0.0056 1.8 1.1 1.4 3.1 15,000 1,030

LB.

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) Face horizontal' (ft.) Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.) Face horizontal' (Ft.) Ft.) 3 ft. thick 5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick 4.0 40 3.7 3.7 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.4

0.0021
1.8 1.5 3.1 2.9

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete

2.1 1.9

FA

Thickness of concrete perforated

6.0 6.0

5.5 5.5

4.7 4.7

4.0 4.0

3.5 3.3

2.8
2.7

2.4
2.7

Volume of concrete excavated by first round j(cu.

50 1 1 3

40, 1 2 5

30 1 4 8

22 1 6 11 1 7 14 1 8 15 1 8 15

Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.67 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete

10

Ft. high,

6 ft. thick 12 15 (.) 3,400 5 4 3 16 24 5,500 8 4 3 21 50 11,400 30 250 57,100 125 6 2 1 35 440 100,500

Necessary number of hits -- 2g .2 Total number of rounds Total a

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

25
6 2

0 C
o

E
w

~
o

10

Ft. high, 10

ft. thick

Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds

21
24 5,500 8

27
39 8,900 13

35 80 18,300 40

50 390 89,100 145

55 650 148,500

m 0.

Total complete round weight (lb.)

_
No. of rds. fired at each point of aim

Z3. E.

mo °

Deflection difference between successive aiming points (Ft.)
No. of different aiming points

4
3

4
3

6
2

6

2

1

'High-angle Are to be used against horizontal targets. Zone 7 charge at i 5,000-yd.

range;

Zone 6 at 12,500-yd. ranged Zone 5 at 1O,000-yd. range.

Page-124

TABLE 37

8-INCH GUN, Ml, FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 240.34 LB.
Rang. (yd.)
Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target I yd, square in any one round Penetration depth of one round Into thick concrete *
4

M103,
12,000
1,750 0.0088 1,920

WITH
15,000
1,520 0.0035 3.5 3.0 5.2 4.9

c.r., Tos FUZE
MUZZLE VELOCITY: 19,000
1,290 0.0010

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 338.34 LB.
0
2,850

2,850 F/S
27,000
1,120

10,000

23,000
1,160 0.00024 2.5 1.4 3.8

31,000
1,150

Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face normal to angleof fall (ft.) Face vertical (ft.)

8.0 8.0 11.6

2.7
2.0 4.5 3.7 55 3 5

2.3

2.4
3.8

Thickness of concrete perforated

11.6

2.9

3.7

O

Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.)

75

65 2 3

Number of rounds falling in circle of 1.67 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete

3 ft.thick

3 ft. thick 7 f. thick

1 2

1

1

1
4 8

6 11

7 12

10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick Necessary number of hits 8 10 625

2

>.
a
Sa

Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.)
No. of rds. fired at each point of aim between successive aiming points (ft.)
points

290
98 000

21,000

o

000
owo p
=

Deflection difference No.
of different aiming

1

1

a r.0V
*." .c = a"
;.;

10 ft. high, 10 ft. thick
Necessary number of

o

hits

14

16

o

Total number of rounds
d a' c. Total complete round weight (lb.)

475
1i61,000

1,000
338,000

}

zu

O -0 -X
Et

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim
Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

i

i

Page 125
TABLE 38

240-MM HOWITZER,
PROJECTILE WEIGHT: 360.34 LB.
Range (yd.)
Terminal velocity (f/s) Probability of hitting target

MI,

FIRING SHELL, H.E.,
0
2,300

M114,
10,000

WITH C.P.,
12,500
1,240

T105

FUZE
23,000
1,110

COMPLETE ROUND WEIGHT: 438.59 LB.
8,000

MUZZLE VELOCITY: 2,300 F/S
15,000
1,120 0.0019 2.7 1.9 2.3 4.4 3.7 3.6

19,000
1,080 0.0009 2.6 1.2 2.7 4.1 4.1

I

yd. square in any one round Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) (ft.) Face vertical Face horizontal' (ft.) Face normal to angle of fall (ft.) 7.0 7.0

0.0068

0.0034 3.1 2.5

Penetration depth of one round into thick concrete

2.7

9.7 9.7

a

Thickness of concrete perforated

Face vertical Face horizontal'

(ft.) (ft.)

4.9 4.2

4.4

0 Volume of concrete excavated by first round (cu. ft.)
Number of rounds falling in circle of 2 yd. diameter necessary to perforate concrete 5 ft. thick 7 ft. thick 1 2 2 3

45
3 5 5 9 5 10 5 10

10 ft. high, 6 ft. thick o } v Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds 10 255 112,000 12 530

U

W0 c o

Total complete round weight (lb.) No. of rds. fired at each point of aim Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points

232,000

o ;
S-:2_

1

1

1

10 ft. high, 10
u 4
....

ft.

thick
16 385 169,000

u

C
0 0iSN

Necessary number of hits Total number of rounds Total complete round weight (lb.)

20
880 386,000

-002
E 0Y 0o

Z 3

No. of rds. fired at each point of aim
Deflection difference between successive aiming points (ft.) No. of different aiming points I

'High angle fire to be used against horizontal targets. Zone 3 charge for 19,000-yd. range; Zone 2, for 15,000-yd. range.

Page 126

Volume II, Part 3 SHELL FRAGMENT DAMAGE
1. TABLES OF FRAGMENT DAMAGE
These tables give the number B of effective hits per sq. ft. of target area at a given distance r from the burst. The numbers B are averages for different directions from the burst. They are properly applied only to a considerable number of bursts with random orientation of the projectile axis relative to the target.

4. THE CHOICE OF SHELLS
The artilleryman should first decide upon the type of perforation which his target requires for effective damage. The tables will then show him the average number of effective hits to be expected for ground bursts at a given distance from the target provided the target is unshielded and a sufficient number of shots are used. If the target is shielded, as when men are in medium foxholes, air bursts will increase the chance of effective damage, particularly if the target area is extended. The fragment patterns will indicate how the damage done by an individual shell varies with the height of burst and angle of fall. For the shells considered, the optimum height of burst against shielded personnel is approximately 30 ft. This optimum is for a controlled height of burst without dispersion in height. In actual practice, the height of burst of a shell in time fire suffers considerable dispersion and when the mechanical time fuze, M67 or M43, is used, the projectile fails in general on ground impact. In such cases, the optimum mean height of burst is generally higher than 30 ft. For the fuze, M67 or M43, there may be used the following practical rule which assures fragment damage near the optimum against enemy personnel in medium foxholes.

2. DAMAGE PATTERNS
As distinguished from damage tables, the damage patterns represent typical individual cases and vary with the remaining velocity of the projectile, the angle of fall, and the height of burst. Both damage tables and damage patterns presuppose a graze or air burst with no shielding of target. The user of the data given here must make due allowance for target shielding and the penetration of the projectile into the ground before burst. The amount of this penetration will depend upon the remaining velocity, angle of fall of the projectile, the nature of the soil, and the projectile and fuze. In the fragment damage patterns, shadings of different types indicate regions of decreasing density of hits. The regions distinguished are those where there is at least one hit per 1, 4, 10, or 25 sq. ft. of area. These units of area are understood as normal to the fragment trajectories. Unshaded regions entering near the burst do not indicate that there are no effective hits in these regions, but merely that the density of effective hits is less than that belonging to the nearest shaded area. The white centers of the fragment patterns are used to indicate the origin of the polar system above which the missile bursts. In general, these areas suffer the highest type of fragment damage as well as blast damage.

ADJUST THE MEAN HEIGHT H OF BURST TO A VALUE WHICH IS TWICE THE PROBABLE ERROR IN THE HEIGHT OF BURST AS LISTED IN THE FIRING TABLES, RESTRICTING H, HOWEVER, TO VALUES BETWEEN 30 FT. AND 120 FT.
The patterns indicate how the fragment damage falls off with height of burst above 30 ft. This accounts for the upper limit of 120 ft. On the other hand, the failure of shells with the fuzes, M67 and M43, to detonate on ground impact, makes it necessary to raise the height of burst as far as is consistent with the maximum damage effect. The above rule is designed for this end.

3. TYPES OF DAMAGE
The types of damage considered are casualties, and normal perforations of mild steel of Y 2-in. thickness. A casualty is supposed 8-in., Y4-in., and Y by a hit with at least 58 ft.-lb. of energy. It is incapacitation and not caused necessarily death. Damage occasioned by perforation of 8-in. mild steel is considered effective against airplanes on the ground. In antiaircraft fire against modern bombers, the most effective damage varies from that with -in. perforation to 3 8-in. perforation of mild steel. Damage in which there are perforations of u-in. or -in. mild steel is effective against trucks, light armored vehicles, railway rolling stock, and targets of similar resistant nature.

5. THE SOURCES OF DATA
The data from which the damage tables and patterns have been derived is taken from measurements of fragment velocity, retardation, shape, and penetration, and the mass and angular distribution of fragments as made at the various Army and Navy proving grounds and laboratories.

Page 121

HAND GRENADE,
TNT Loading TABLE 39 CASUALTIES
Average Distance from burst (ft.) r Total number of effective Fragments N number of effective fragper sq. ft. B For the lightest eFfective Fragment Weight (oz.) m Velocity (f/s) v

Mk. II
TABLE 40 PERFORATION OF l/ 8 -IN.
Average Distance from burst Total number of effective Fragments N number of effective Fragments per sq. ft. B

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,900 F/S

MILD STEEL
For the lightest effective fragment Weight (oz.) m Velocity (fs) v

ments

(ft.)
,r

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 120 140

295 233 188 147 111 86 64 47 30 19 13

.234 .0463 .0166 .0073 .0035 .0019 .0010 .0006 .0002 .0001 .0001

.012 .017 .022

2,230 1,870 1,640 1,460 1,310 1,210 1,120 1,040 943 870 817

10 20 30 40 50 60 70

86 43 22 11 7 4 3

.0686 .0086 .0020 .0005 .0002 .0001 .0001

.041 .057 .075 .095 .120 .147 .176

2,550 2,270 2,080 1,920 1,810 1,710 1,610

.028
.035 .041 .048 .055 .067 .079 .089

Page 128

20-MM H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 41 CASUALTIES
Average

T16

20-MM H.E.I. SHELL,
TABLE 42

M97 (T23)

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,160 F/S

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 1,960 F/S

CASUALTIES
For the lightest Average For the lightest

Distance from burst (ft.) r 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Total number of effective fragments N 38 27 18 12 7. 6 5 5

number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B .0304 .0054 .0016 .0006 .0002 .0001 .0001 .0001

effective fragment Weight Velocity (oz.) (f/s)

Distance from burst (ft.)

. Total number of effective fragments N

number of effective Fragments per sq. ft. B .0239 .0042 .0013 .0005 .0003 .0002 .0001 .0001

effective fragment Weight Velocity (oz.) (F/s)
m

m
.018 .025 .033 .040, .050 .056 .062 .068

v

v
1,570 1,340 1,190 1,090 1,020 972 929 891

1,820 1,540 1,340 1,220 1,090 1,030 980 935

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

30 21 15 11 10 9 8 7

.024 .033 .042 .050 .057 .063 .069 .075

Page 120

75-MM H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 43 CASUALTIES
Average number oF efFective fragments per sq. Ft.
ment

M48
TABLE 44 PERFORATION OF 1/8 -IN.
Average number oF effective Frag

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,120 F/S

MILD STEEL
For the lightest effective Fragment

Distance From burst (Ft.) r

Total number oF eFfective Fragments N

For the lightest effective fragment

Distance From burst

Total number oF effective

Weight (oz.)
m

Velocit (fs) v
2,390 2,180 2,010 1,790 1,580 1,430 1,270 1,160 1,080 1,020

~t

()
(oz.)

Velocity
(f/s)

(Ft.) r
20 30 40 60 80 100 130 160 190 225

Fragments N
534 442 386 300 242 197 132 86 57 39

ments per sq. B
.106 .0391 .0192 .0066 .0030 .0016 .0006 .0003 .0001 .0001

Ft.

B

m

v

20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 400

1,070 920 750 640 510 450 370 320 250 200

.213 .0809 .0375 .0141 .0064 .0036 .0013 .0006 .0002 .0001

.014 .018 .024 .037 .051 .063 .090 .116 .173 .244

2,060 1,820 1,570 1,270 1,080 972 813 716 587 494

.049 .065 .082 .127 .185 .253 .375 .508 .655 .820

Page 130

3-IN. H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 45 CASUALTIES
Average number oF eFfective Fragments per sq. Ft.

M42A1
TABLE 46 PERFORATION OF 1/8 -IN. MILD STEEL
For the lightest effective Fragment Weight
(oz.) m

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,260 F/S

Distance From burst
(Ft.)

Total number oF efective
Fragments

For the lightest effective Fragment Weight
(oz.)

Distance From burst

Velocity

Total number of effective
Fragments

Average number oF effective fragments per sq. Ft.

Velocity

(F/s)
v

(Ft.)

(F/s) v
1,860 1,740 1,600 1,400 1,270 1,180 1,080 1,020

r

N

B

m

N

B

20 30

547 498

.109 .0440

.026 .033

1,510 1,340 1,220 1,040 943 862 742 660 549 466

20 30 40 60 80 100 130 160 190

284 242 205 151 113 90 64 43 28

.0565 .0214 .0102 .0033 .0014 .0007 .0003 .0001 .0001

.106 .139 .177 .270 .375 .480 .648 .825 1.01

40
60 80 100 150 200 300 400

465
409 370 331 282 244 191 149

.0231
.0090 .0046 .0026 .0010 .0005 .0002 .0001

.040
.055 .067 .080 .108 .137 .197 .275

963

Page 131

81-MM H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 47 CASUALTIES
Average Distance from burst (ft.) r Total number of effective fragments N number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B For the lightest effective fragment Weight (oz.) m Velocity

M56
TABLE 48 PERFORATION OF 1/8 -1N. MILD STEEL
For the lightest
effective fragment

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 6,180 F/S

Distance from burst
(ft.)

Total number of effective

N(/s)
v 3,860 2,920

fragments N

Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B

Weight
(oz.) m

Velocity (f/s)

20

1,256

.250 .100

.004

20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 170

920 751 593, 335 198 144 107

.183 .0664 .0295 .0074 .0025 .0011 .0006 .0003 .0001

.012 .017 .022 .035 .051 .071 .097 .128 .188

4,060 3,580 3,200 2,700 2,360 2,110 1,900 1,780 1,560

30 40
60 80 100 150 200 300

1,133
1,010
847 605 436 180 129 80

.007 .009
.014 .021 .029 .056 .080 .128

.0502
.0187 .0075 .0035 .0006 .0003 .0001

2,570
2,060 1,680 1,430 1,030 862 682

80,
48

Page 132

90-MM N.E. SHELL,
TABLE 49 CASUALTIES
Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft. For the lightest effective fragment Weight (oz.) m Velocity (F/s)

M71
TABLE 50 PERFORATION OF lA-IN. MILD STEEL
Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft. For the lightest effective Fragment Weight (oz.) Velocity (f/s)

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,900 F/S

Distance from burst (ft.)

Total number of effective fragments

Distance from burst (ft.)

Total number of effective fragments

N
20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 500 720 668 631 539 476 428 358 323 277 207

B
.143 .0591 .0314 .0119 .0059 .0034 .001.3 .0006 .0002 .0001

v
1,870 1,640 1,460 1,210 1,040 943 796 705 575 418 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 170 200 300

N
469 402 358 299 260 226 195 171 145 124 75

B
.0933 .0355 .0178 .0066 .0032 .0018 .0011 .0007 .0004 .0003 .0001

m
.057 .075 .095 .147 .210 .287 .377 .472 .617 .772 1.31

v
2,270 2,080 1,920 1,710

.017 .022 .028 .041 .055 .067 .094 .120 .180 .340

1,500
1,370 1,260 1,190 1,110 1,040 906

Page 133

105-MM H.E. SHELL,'Ml
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,500 F/S TABLE 51 CASUALTIES
Distance
from burst

TABLE 52 PERFORATION OF l/ 8 -IN. MILD STEEL
For the lightest effective fragment
Weight Velocity Distance Total number Average number of For the lightest effective fragment

Total number
of effective

Average number of
effective frag-

(ft.)

fragments N 1,160 1,115 1,072 996932 875 745 642 513 433 358

ments per sq. ft. B .231 .0986 .0533 .0220 .0116 .0070 .0026 .0013 .0004 .0002 .0001

(oz.) m .010 .014 .019 .030 .043 .055 .083 .109 .166 .232 .312

(f/s) v 2,440 2,060 1,770 1,410 1,180 1,040 846 738 598 507 438

from burst (ft.)

of effective fragments N 975923 853 700 570
470

effective fragments per sq. ft. B .194 .0816 .0424 .0155 .0071
.0037

Weight (oz.) m .035 .047 .061 .095 .137
.192

Velocity (f/s)

r
20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 500

r
20

v
2,700

30 40 60 80
100

2,430 2,220 1,920 1,750
1,550

120 140 170 200 300

403 341 262 210 88

.0022 .0014 .0007 .0004 .0001

.255 .326 .448 .580 1.05

1,420 1,320 1,200 1,120 955

Page 134

105-MM H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 53

M38A1
TABLE 54

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,320 F/S

CASUALTIES
Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B For the lightest effective Fragment Weight (oz.) m Velocity

PERFORATION OF

1/8 .IN.

MILD STEEL
For the lightest effective fragment Weight (oz.) m Velocity (f/s) v

Distance from burst (ft.) r

Total number of effective fragments N

(f/s)
v

Distance from burst (ft.) r

Total number of effective fragments N

Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B

20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 600

1,120 1,090 917 807 735 680 592 529 431 360 256

.222 .0967, .0456 .0178 .0091 .0054 .0021 .0011 .0004 .0002 .0001

.012 .017 .023 .034 .047 .060 .088 .112 .170 .237 .412

2,230 1,870 1,620 1,320 1,130 1,000 822 .729 592 501 380

20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 170 200 300

751 707 652 538 448 372 326 282 223 175 85

.149 .0625 .0324 .0119 .0056 .0030 .0018 .0011 .0006 .0003 .0001

.043 .053 .069 .107 .159 .222 .290 .367 .495 .632 1.13

2,510 2,330 2,130 1,860 1,670 1,480 1,360 1,280 1,170 1,090 940

Page 135

4.5-IN. H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 55 CASUALTIES
Average number of eFfective Fragments per sq. Ft. B For the lightest eFfective Fragment Weight. Velocity (oz.) m (F/s) v

M65
TABLE 56

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,810 F/S

PERFORATION OF l/ 8-IN. MILD STEEL
Average Distance From burst Total number of effective number oF effective FragFor the lightest effective Fragment Weight (oz.) m Velocity (fs) v

Distance From burst (Ft.) r

Total number oF eFfective Fragments N

(Ft.)
r

Fragments.
N

ments per sq.
B

Ft.

20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300

1,310 1,220 1,180 1,080 1,030 966 879 802 661

.261 .108 .0588 .0240 .0128 .0077 .0031 .0016 .0006

.017 .023 .028 .043 .057 .069 .095 .122 .183

1,870 1,620 1,460 1,180 1,020 928 792 698 570

20 30 40 60 80 100 120

993 940 864 735 606 ) 515 443

.198 .0831 .0430 .0162 .0075 .0041 .0024

.061 .079 .100 .153 .222 .303 .400

2,220 2,040 1,890 1,690 1,480 1,340 1,240

140
170 200 300

399
337 282 155

.0016
.0009 .0006 .0001

.493
.642 .802 1.36

1,170
1,090 1,020 896

500
700

482
371

.0002
.0001

.342
.550

417
329

Page 130

120-MM HE. SHELL,
TABLE 57 CASUALTIES
Average Distance from burst (ft.) r Total number of effective number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B For the lightest effective fragment Weight (oz.) Velocity

M73
TABLE 58 PERFORATION OF 1/8-IN. MILD STEEL
Average number of For the lightest effective fragment

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,410 F/S

Distance

Total number

from burst
(ft.)

of effective

fragments
N

(f/s) v
1,640 1,460 1,280 1,080 958 880 760 669 547 465 403

fragments
N

effective fragments per sq. ft.
B

Weight
(oz.) m

Velocity (f/s)
v

m
.022 .028 .036 .051 .065 .077 .103 .133 .199 .275 .366

20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 500

484 467 458 435 413 398 367 333 290 263 239

.0963 .0413 .0228 .0096 .0051 .0032 .0013 .0007 .0003 .0001 .0001

20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 170 200 300

376 350 319 278 246 228 212 198 178 160 118

.0748 .0309 .0159 .0061 .0031 .0018 .0012 .0008 .0005 .0003 .0001

.089 .117 .149 .230 .333 .427 .531 .640 .809 .987 1.58

1,960 1,820 1,710 1,470 1,310 1,220 1,150 1,090 1,020 968 859 '

Page 131

155-MM N.E. SHELL,
TABLE 59 CASUALTIES
Average For the lightest

M107
TABLE 60 PERFORATION OF 1/8 -IN. MILD STEEL

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,500 F/S

Distance From burst (Ft.)
r

Total number oF effective Fragments N 1,460 1,400 1,360 1,280 1,190 1,130 990 900 767 669 540

number oF effective Fragments per sq. Ft. B .291 .124 .0676 .0283 ..0148 .0090 .0034 .0018 .0007 .0003 .0001

effective Fragment Weight Velocity (oz.) (F/s) m .010 .014 .019 .030 .043 .055 .083 .109 .161 .233 .402 v 2,440 2,060 1,770 1,410 1,180 1,040 846 738 598 505 383

Distance From burst (ft.) r 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 170 200 300 400

Total number oF effective Fragments N 1,240 1,170 1,100 945 820 717 648 592 513 440 265 111

Average number oF effective Fragments per sq. Ft. B .247 .104 .0547 .0209 .0102 .0057 .0036 .0024 .0014 .0009 .0002 .0001

For the lightest effective Fragment Weight Velocity (oz.) (F/s) m .035 .047 .061 .095 .137 .192 .255 .326 .448 .580 1.05 1.61 v 2,700 2,430 2,220 1,920 1,750 1,550 1,420 1,320 1,200 1,120 955 856

20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 400 600

Page 138

8-IN. H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 61 CASUALTIES
Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft.

M103
TABLE 62 PERFORATION OF 1/8 -IN.
Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B .286 .118 .0622 .0233 .0115 .0066 ,0024 .0011 .0004 .0001

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,500 F/S

MILD STEEL
For the lightest effective fragment Weight (oz.) m .082 .107 .136 .207 .293 .390 .655 .934 1.52 2.98 Velocity (f/s) v 2,010 1,860 1,750 1,510 1,360 1,250 1,080 983 867 733

Distance from burst
(ft.)

Total number of effective
fragments

For the lightest effective fragment Weight
(oz.)

Velocity
(f/s)

Distance from burst (ft.) r 20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 500

Total number of effective fragments N 1,440 1,330 1,250 1,060 922 835 670 567 418 257

r 20 30 50 70 100 150 200 300 500 800

N 1,860 1,770 1,680 1,560 1,470 1,360 1,260 1,080 865 647

B .370 .156 .0533 .0253 .0117 .0048 .0025 .0010 .0003 .0001

m .020 .027 .040 .055 .074 .101 .130 .195 .359 .715

v 1,730 1,480 1,220 1,040 897 768 676 553 407 289

TABLE 63

TABLE 64

PERFORATION OF
r 20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 275 400 N 762 711 670 590 514 447 323 252 179 106°

4-IN.
B .152 .0629 .0333 .0130 .0064 .0036 .0011 .0005 .0002 .0001

MILD STEEL
m .485 .566 .655 .855 1.10 1.37 2.16 3.15 4.70 7.45 v 2,230 2,110 2,020 1,850 1,710 1,600 1,390 1,240 1,110 983 r 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 170 225

PERFORATION
N 245 232 225
.188

OF

1

2-IN. MILD STEEL
B m 3.27 3.55 3.86 4.53 5.23 5.97 6.81 7.72 9.20 13.3 v 2,360 2,290 2,230 2,110 2,010 1,930 1,850 1,780 1,680 1,470

.0487 .0205 .0112 .0042 .0019 .0011 .0007 .0004 .0002 .0001

156 133 119 100 80 40

Page 130

240-MM H.E. SHELL,
TABLE 65 CASUALTIES
Average For the lightest

M114
TABLE 66 PERFORATION OF 1/ 8-IN.
Average number of effective fragments per sq. ft. B

INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,300 F/S

MILD STEEL
For the lightest effective fragment Weight Velocity (oz.) m (f/s) v 2,530 2,300 1,970 1,770 1,480 1,230 1,090 970 841 735

Distance
from burst (ft.)

Total number
of effective fragments

number of
effective fragments per sq. ft.

effective fragment
(ozg) (s)

Distance from burst (ft.) r 20

Total number of effective fragments

r
'20 30 50 70 100 150 250 400 700 1,000

N
4,160 4,080 3,660 3,310 3,000 2,720 2,360 1,990 1,520 1,050

B
.825 .360 .117 .0538 .0239 .0096 .0030 .0010 .0002 .0001

m
.013 .017 .028 .040 .060 .087 .140 .240 .521 .928

v
2,140 1,870 1,460 1,220 1,000 827 652 498 338 253

N 3,250 3,070
2,720 2,420 2,040 1,670 1,360 1,010 638 379

30
50 70 100 150 200 275 400 600

.647 .271
.0865 .0393 .0162 .0059 .0027 .0011 .0003 .0001

.042 .055
.087 .132 .220 .412 .639 .980 1.70 3.05

TABLE 67 PERFORATION r
20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 300 500 N 2,000 1,910 1,820 1,640 1,460 1,280 885 622 362 177

TABLE 68 PERFORATION
v 2,880 2,720 2,560 2,310 2,120 1,970 1,680 1,480 1,230 997 r 20 30 40 60 80 N 700 ° 638 597 498 432

OF 1/4-IN. MILD STEEL
B .399 .169 .0903 .0362 .0182 .0102 .0031 .0012 .0003 .0001 m .235 .276 .325 .436 .560 .700 1.17 1.75 3.28 7.05

OF

/-IN.
B .139 .0564 .0297 .0110 .0054

MILD STEEL
m 1.54 1.70 1.85 2.23 2.60 v 3,070 2,980 2,880 2,700 2,550

100
150 200 250 300

383
333 251 165 82

.0030
.0012 .0005 .0002 .0001

3.01
4.22 5.60 7.27 9.15

2,420
2,160 1,970 1,810 1,680

Page 140

75-MM SHELL, HE., M48
CASUALTIES

I-900

.90°

1~~30°

00

GROUND 0 GROUND

-s0.

FIGURE
Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

67
Ground Burst

FIGURE

68

Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 8,500 yd. (normal charge)-75-mm Gun, M3

!,a

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 141

75-MM SHELL, H.E., M48
CASUALTIES-

j-9Oo

FIGURE

69

FIGURE 70 Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 8,500 yd. (normal charge)-75-mm Gun, M3

Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 8,500 yd. (normal charge)-75-mm Gun, M3

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

0

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 142

75-MM SHELL, H.E., M48
PERFORATION OF 1/ 8-IN. MILD STEEL

~~30°
GROUND

FIGURE 71 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 72
Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 800 Range 8,500 yd. (normal charge)-75-mm Gun, M3

U/s

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 143

75-MM SHELL, H.E., M48
PERFORATION OF
1

/8 -IN.

MILD STEEL

FIGURE 73
I/1~1((Il ii At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft. Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 800 F/s Range 8,500 yd. (normal charge)-75-mm
Gun, M3

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 144

3-IN. SHELL, H.E., M42A1
CASUALTIES

GROUND

339°
-O

00
0

GUND

FIGURE 74 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 75 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 815 f/s Range 10,500 yd.-3-in. Gun, M5

At

least

1lhit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 145

3-IN. SHELL, H.E., M42A1
CASUALTIES

FIGURE 76
Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 815 f/s Range 10,500 yd.-3-in. Gun, M5

a Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 815 f/s Range 10,500 yd.-3-in. Gun, M5

At least 1 hit per 4 sq., ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

0

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 146

3-IN. SHELL, H.E., M42A1
PERFORATION OF
1

/ 8-IN.

MILD STEEL

00

GROUND

M

FIGURE 78 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 79 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 815 f/s

Range 10,500 yd.-3-in. Gun, M5

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 141

3-IN.

SHELL,

H.E., M42A1

PERFORATION OF 1/8-IN. MILD STEEL

O1I1111111ThiAt least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.
At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

FIGURE 80
Height of Burst 30 It.
Remaining Velocity 815 f/s Range 10,500 yd.-3-in. Gun, M5

Page 14

81-MM SHELL, H.E., M56
CASUALTIES

j-9O-

GROUND 0

FIGURE 81 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 82 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 459 f/s Range 1,000 yd.-(charge 4)

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq.

ft.

Page 149

81-MM SHELL, H.E., M56
PERFORATION OF
1

/$-IN. MILD STEEL

1-90°

FIGURE 83 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 84 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 459 F/s Range 1,000 yd. (charge 4)

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft

Page 150

90-MM SHELL, H.E., M71
CASUALTIES

0
000

30°0

FIGURE 85
Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 86
Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 947 f/s
Range 13,000

yd.-90-mm

Gun, M3

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 151

'90-MM SHELL,

H.E., M71

CASUALTIES

-60

600

RE

-90

90°

-

FIGURE 87 Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 947 f/s Range 13,000 yd.-90-mm Gun, M3

FIGURE

88

Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 947 f/s Range 13,000 yd.-90-mm Gun, M3

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

0

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 152,

90-MM SHELL, H.E., M71
PERFORATION OF
1

/8-IN. MILD STEEL

1-90°

GROUND
-r

0300 0

FIGURE Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

89

FIGURE 90 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 947 f/s Range 13,000 yd.-90-mm Gun, M3

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 153

90-MM SHELL, H.E., M71
PERFORATION OF
1

g-IN. MILD STEEL

FIGURE 91
Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 947 f/s Range 13,000 yd.-90-mm Gun, M3 Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 947 f/s Range 13,000 yd.-90-mm Gun, M3

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.
""~"""~""~"~~"" """""'~"~""'""' "~'~"'~"""""'""' """"""""~"'""" """""""""' """"""""" """"""~"" """""""' """"""" '~""""" """"~""" """"""" ~"""'~ """""~""""'"'~' "'~"""""""""~" """"""'~"""""" """"'~""~""'""" "~""""""""'

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 154

105-MM SHELL, H.E., Ml
CASUALTIES

.300
GROUND 0

FIGURE 93 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 94 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 7,000 yd. (charge 5)-105-mm How., M2A

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 155

105-MM SHELL, H.E., Ml
CASUALTIES

FIGURE

95

Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 7,000 yd. (charge 5)-I105-mm How., M2A1

6

90

E

At least I hit per 4 sq. ft.

I

At least

Ihit per 10 sq. ft.

LIII

At least I hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 156

105-MM SHELL, H.E., Ml
CASUALTIES

FIGURE 96
Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 7,000 yd. (charge 5)-I 05-mm How., M2Al

At least

I

hit per 10 sq. ft.

LIZ

At least

I hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 151

105-MM SHELL,

HE,MI

PERFORATION OF l/ 8 -IN. MILD STEEL

~-~300
00

FIGURE 97 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 98 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 7,000 yd. (charge 5)-1 05-mm How., M2A1

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq.

ft.

Page 158

105-MM SHELL, H.E., M1
PERFORATION OF 1/8 -IN. MILD STEEL

FIGURE 100
Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 7,000 yd. (charge 5)-1 How., M2AI
0

5-mm

Height of Burst 60 Ft. Remaining Velocity 800 f/s Range 7,000 yd. (charge 5)-I105-mm How., M2Al

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

0

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 159

105-MM SHELL, H.E., M38A1
CASUALTIES

00GROUND
000

-

GROUND 0

FIGURE 101
Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 102
Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 960 F/s

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 160

105-MM SHELL,, H.E.,
PERFORATION OF
1

M38A1
STEEL

/8-IN. MILD

300 GROUND
S30°

_
0

00

GROUND
0

FIGURE
Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

103
Ground Burst

FIGURE

104

Remaining Velocity 960 f/s

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page

161

4.5-IN. SHELL, H.E., M65
CASUALTIES

30 GROUND 0

FIGURE 105
Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 106
Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 1,000 f/s Range 12,000 yd. (normal charge)-4.5in. Gun, Ml

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 162

4.5-IN. SHELL, H.E., M65
CASUALTIES

FIGURE

107

Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 1,000 f/s Range 12,000 yd. (normal charge) -4.5-in. Gun, M1

-900

At least

I

hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least

I

hit per 10 sq. ft.

At least

I

hit per 25 sq. ft.

4.5-IN. SHELL, H.E., M65
CASUALTIES

Page 163

FIGURE 108
Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 1,000 F/s Range 12,000 yd. (normal charge)-4.5-in. Gun, M1

60*

900

-90°

60

1

At least

I hit per 10 sq. Ft.

At least I hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 164

4.5-IN. SHELL, H.E., M65
PERFORATION OF 1/ 8-IN. MILD STEEL

0

GON

0

FIGURE 109
Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 110
Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 1,000 f/s Range 12,000 yd. (normal charge)-4.5-in. Gun, Ml

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 165

4.5-IN. SHELL, H.E., M65
PERFORATION OF
1

/ 8 -IN.

MILD STEEL

-60°

60

FIRE

900

FIGURE

111

C

Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 1,000 f/s Range 12,000 yd. (normal charge)-4.5-in.
Gun, M1

Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 1,000 f/s Range 12,000 yd. (normal charge)-4.5-in. Gun, M1

~111
"""""""""""""

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 160

120-MM SHELL, H.E., M73
CASUALTIES

FIGURE. 113 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 114 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 960 F/s

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 107

120-MM SHELL, H.E., M73
PERFORATION OF
1

/8-IN. MILD STEEL

3Q00

000 0

FIGURE 115 Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 116 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity

960 f/s

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 168

155-MM SHELL, H.E., M107
CASUALTIES

00GROUND
0

FIGURE 117
Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

FIGURE 118 Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 900 f/s Range 9,000 yd. (charge 5)-I 55-mm How., Ml

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 169

155-MM SHELL, H.E., M107
CASUALTIES

.900

FIGURE 119
Height of Burst 30 ft.
Remaining Velocity 900 F/s Range 9,000 yd. (charge 5)-1 55-mm

FIGURE 120Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 900 f/s Range 9,000 yd. (charge 5)-l 55-mm

How., Ml

How., Ml

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 170

155-MM SHELL, H.E., M107
CASUALTIES

FIGURE

121

Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 950 f/s Range 9,500 yd. (charge 5)-155-mm How., Ml

60

90

60'

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

I

At least

I

hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page 171

155-MM SHELL, H.E., M107
CASUALTIES

FIGURE
Height of Burst 60 It.

122

Remaining Velocity 950 F/s At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft. Range 5,000 yd. (charge 5)-I How., MI 55-mm

Page 112

155-MM

SHELL, I.E., M107
OF
1

PERFORATION

/ 8 -IN. -MILD STEEL

90°I

-30" 00
GROUND 0
GROUND

30°
0

FIGURE Ground Burst Shell Horizontal at rest

123

FIGURE

124

Ground Burst Remaining Velocity 900 /s Range 9,000 yd. (charge 5)-I How., MI

55-mm

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

Page 113

155-MM SHELL, H.E., M107
PERFORATION OF 1/8 -IN. MILD STEEL

FIGURE 125
Height of Burst 30 ft. Remaining Velocity 900 f/s Range 9,000 yd. (charge 5)-I55-mm How., M1 Height of Burst 60 ft. Remaining Velocity 900 How., Ml

f/s

Range 9,000 yd. (charge 5)-i55-mm

'Ivzxl 0/1111/i
""~"""""""'~'i' """""""""" ~"'~"""""""'""" '~"""""""""""~ """""'~""'~""" """""""'~""""' '~""""""i" ~'"""

At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.

At least 1 hit per 25 sq. ft.

Page

114

NOTES

Page 175

NOTES

Page 176
4NOT

__