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Law enforcement CRJ201/ introduction to criminal justice Instructor: Robert Spinks December 16, 2013

LAW ENFORCEMENT The history of the police agencies can be trace back to the 1630s, during this time the


earliest colonists use the English style of policing. The civic duty for all citizens was “watch and ward” this offered no training or pay, it was the responsibility of the citizens to monitor the behavior of community members. Policing relied heavily on community consensus and the willingness of citizens to assist in capturing criminals (Wilbur, 2000). Sheriff’s Posses and constables were consist of able-bodied men, because their service was liable. The collection of taxes, and the supervision of election was the responsibility of the county sheriff. The night watchmen were in charge of looking out for suspicious activities and at times conducting weather reports (Wilbur, 2000). The heart of colonial policing was not policemen but punishment, hanging was for murders and more serious crimes, thieves were brand and stocks for petty criminals. The early policing punishments serve the purpose of shame in the community, which is use as an example for spectators. The jails were used as a holding place for criminals until their sentencing or trial, it was not for punishment or rehabilitation. The old reliance on community consensus broke down when cities started growing larger and a more diverse community begin forming. Large cities relied more on policing elected or appointed constables who were attached to the courts (Wilbur, 2000). When the American Revolution was over these individuals took the role of detectives who issued warrants and recover stole property. When the 19th century came around the watchmen sill patrolled the streets, but they were not shown respect and avoided dangerous confrontation. In cities such as Philadelphia the citizens settled their disputes with the help of the justice, these were petty disputes such as property damage, verbal abuse, and domestic violence. These conflict resolution soon became the duties of the police. As time passes cities like Boston



and New York start adopting the first modern police force. Police did day time patrols and in the 1850s started night time patrols. The new modern police force had the power to arrest without a warrant and walked a regular beat. Police officers did not start wearing uniforms until 1853; they did not start carrying a firearm until the end of the 1850s, and were only appointed for a limited time by a politician. With the new modern police force came new responsibilities and duties such as finding lost children, rescuing people from accidents, regulating markets, hauling drunks to the station house, moderating domestic quarrels, and untangling traffic jams (Wilbur, 2000). The 20th century of modern policing brought a new way of doing everything; technology was at the base of all these changes. Police went from policing small town and population to now managing large cities and millions in population The old community base policing did not work because population grew, public punishment was eliminated and prisons were now used to remove criminals from society. To try and rehabilitate them through hard work and reading of the bible. A demand for police improvement in community relations and efficiency came from the public. Crime control model conflict with social service models, efficiency and independence cause new problems in the stereotype of minority groups. The police technology made response time more rapidly, improve communication, and detection of crime was better. Technology transit from rapping a club on the pavement to twoway radios, motorcycles, automobiles, and bicycle patrols. Policing in the 20th century can finger print someone, ballistic, forensic pathology, DNA analysis, and a large computerize database that can track criminals.

LAW ENFORCEMENT Four general levels of law enforcement exist federal, state, local, and private each has its


own department, language, organization, jurisdiction, and priorities. Federal level is in charge of the entire nation, they consist of multi-dimensional, and many layered agencies that focus on federal crimes such as drug and human trafficking. Gun smuggling, immigration, telecommunication, safety of transportation, and cross country crimes that could have an effect and a heightened worry to the nation. Some of the agencies under the federal level are the Department of Justice, Department of Treasury, and Department of Homeland Security, which includes U.S customs and Border Patrol, U.S. Customs Services, Transportation Security Administration, and the U.S. Secret Service. At the state level the state is in charge of its own organizational structure, which is influenced by crime issues, population, history, and geography. All states have peace officers who patrol their highways somewhat of a state-police in charge of the oversight of responsibilities state-wide. Some states have wildlife protection departments, gaming commission, and special individuals who responsibility is to focus on corruption in politics. State law enforcement aide the federal agencies in the apprehension of criminals, emergency response, and investigation activities. Some of the departments that fall under the state level are the port authorities, state police, fish and wildlife agencies, motor vehicle police, and state park services. The local level of law enforcement is in charge of the local area in their jurisdiction such as small towns or cities to maintain the peace and investigate crimes. These individuals are the first responders of emergency situation in their local area, they also are in charge of road safety, animal control, serving legal papers, and providing court safety at all times. Some of the local law enforcement agencies are campus police, coroners/medical examiner, Sheriff Department, Housing Authority Agencies, and Marine Patrol Agencies.



The private level of law enforcement are usually employ through security companies and are in charge of shopping malls, parking lots, banks, and schools. These are usually funded by private investor, and businesses. The private level of law enforcement do not have no legal right to make an arrest except a citizen arrest. All of these agencies work with unify corporation with the Department of Homeland Security to help fight against terrorist acts. The Department of Homeland Security is based on participant-observation among firefighters, police officers, cargo screeners, city planners, emergency managers, and others charged with responding to disasters, accidents, and attacks against the nation (Gonzalez, 2009).



References: Miller, W (2000) The Good, The Bad & The Ugly: Policing America History Today 50:8:29 General Onefile Retrieved July 8th 2010 from Documents&type=retrieve&tab10=Too2&prodld=IPS&docld=A6398676&source=gale& srcprod=ITOF&userGroupName=uphoenix&version=1.0 Gonzalez, R. (2009) Under Construction: Making Homeland Security at the Local Level American Anthropologist, 111(4), 527-528 Retrieved July 8th 2010 from Research Library (Document 10:1954062591)