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1.0 Introduction to Shipbuilding The process of shipbuilding is traditionally used, methodical and conservative.

In more cases it was and still slow, laborious and very expensive process. For custom-built or oneof-a-kind ships with complex systems, such as naval vessels, the construction process requires upwards of two or three years. Throughout its early history, shipbuilding was craft oriented. As such, it was almost exclusively dependent on the skills of the craftsmen doing the work. As the invention of steel in 1800s, the shipbuilding process more complex and efficient. All ships at this time were built using steel and rivet construction. In 1930s, the welding technique was invented and were established and refined in shipbuilding process in 1970s. The welded ship soon proved stronger and more economical. In today’s technology, this assumption of time, used of skilled labour, and employment of expensive facilities is nearly prohibitive. During the latter stages of the design process and after the building contracts have been signed, the shipyard begins the building process with the most fundamental elements of the design, the lines drawing and table of offsets. This beginning proceeds simultaneously with many contributing activities such as the structural plan study, equipment list, etc, together with the ordering of steel and other required materials. The lines of the ship are lofted full size in the mold loft, intermediate stations, bulkheads, and the frames are located on the lofting and patterns are made; a shell expansion plan is made (often with help of a large half model of the hull called a plating model), and the building and launching ways are prepared. It is literally some before the keel is actually laid, and the ship’s structure begins to be evident. Together with slow growth of this structure is the necessary construction and growth of this surrounding cradle and scaffolding which nearly hides the ship itself. After finished, the ship will be launch and internal fit-out will be done. As industrial process become more complex and efficient, shipbuilders kept pace with changing technology. Shipbuilding began to be subdivided into specialities such as hull construction, machinery, outfitting, and painting. Modular construction began. Shipbuilders continued to try to employ mass production or assembly line approaches. Since then, a different approach to shipbuilding has emerged and has proven to be better suited to the economic and technical condition of the industry. This approach is based on the application of group technology to shipbuilding.
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2.0 Modular Construction 2.1 Modular Construction Process The reason why modular construction process become popular in ship building industry is because there is no other method available that allows you to start and finish a project in a more-timely manner than modular. Modular construction process is one of the popular method uses in shipbuilding industry. Modular construction, or prefabricated construction, is a process that uses a prefabricated building process that is assembled on-site to produce a permanent or temporary prefab building. Mod Space takes full advantage of a controlled production environment combined with the design flexibility of traditional building methods to produce high-quality permanent or temporary prefabricated structures for any demand. The result is a prefabricated modular building product that is faster, more affordable and environmentally-friendly, with the all the same architectural aesthetics you would expect from traditional building methods.

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2.2 Why Implement Modular Construction

Traditional construction versus modular construction time 2.3 Advantages of modular construction process are: Short build times Typically 50-60% less than traditional on-site Construction, leading to an earlier return on Investment and saving in preliminaries. Superior quality Achieved by factory-based quality control and Pre-design of similar modules. Environmentally less sensitive Efficient factory production techniques are Much less wasteful and installation is less disruptive on site. Safer construction Modular construction sites have proved to be significantly safer than traditional onsite Building. Reduced professional fees Standardized design details for modular Buildings simplify and reduce the need for specialist design input.
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Low weight Compared to site construction, modular construction is about 30% of the weight of Conventional masonry construction. Economy of scale Repetition of prefabricated units leads to considerable economy of scale in production. Reduced site labor requirement The erection and finishing teams, which install and complete modular buildings, Involve fewer workers on site than traditional buildings. Services and bathrooms Service modules can be used, even in traditional formed buildings.

Less than 5% of the markets previously defined as conventional currently utilize modular construction concepts. Given these numerous advantages, it’s only a matter of time before modular becomes the convention method. Ship divided into segment

2.4 How To Implement Modular Construction Process In sequence: 1. Stockyard Plates and sections were stored in the shipyard stockyard, ideally undercover. 2. Preparation To prepare plates and section before being weld, cut, mark and other. 3. Sub assembly Sub assemblies include fitting, welding, fairing and many other sub assembly process

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4. Assembly This shop takes the products from the panel fabrication area and assembles them to fabricate the unit. 5. Fabrication Including marking, cutting, bending This shop is designed to fabricate the parts from the parts making area. These includes: Deep transverse frames Watertight bulkheads Longitudinal bulkheads Shellpanels Longitudinal double bottom panels Transverse double bottom panels Major and minor foundations. 6. Erection Berth (Modular Sectional Area) This shop takes units from the unit’s assembly area to fabricate into modules 7. Basin/Afloat By launching on a slipway to ensure whether the ship able to float correctly.

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3.0 Oil tanker An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil. There are two basic types of oil tankers: the crude tanker and the product tanker. Crude tankers move large quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries. Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed to move petrochemicals from refineries to points near consuming markets. Oil tankers are often classified by their size as well as their occupation. The size classes range from inland or coastal tankers of a few thousand metric tons of deadweight (DWT) to the mammoth ultra large crude carriers (ULCCs) of 550,000 DWT. Tankers move approximately 2,000,000,000 metric tons (2.2×109 short tons) of oil every year. Second only to pipelines in terms of efficiency, the average cost of oil transport by tanker amounts to only two or three United States cents per 1 US gallon (3.8 L). Some specialized types of oil tankers have evolved. One of these is the naval replenishment oiler, a tanker which can fuel a moving vessel. Combination ore-bulk-oil carriers and permanently moored floating storage units are two other variations on the standard oil tanker design. Oil tankers have been involved in a number of damaging and high-profile oil spills. As a result, they are subject to stringent design and operational regulations.

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3.1 Types of oil tankers Tank vessel can be divided into the following types: Crude oil carrier are arrange for the carriage of crude oil from the production fields to refineries. Generally longer in length and these ship are therefore larger in size. Design to carry up to three grades of oil tanker. Product tanker move refine product from refineries to the consumer. Clean product carriers are designed for the carriage of clean products such as gasoline and lube oils. Lightering vessels and shuttle tankers have additional requirements unique to their specialized trades. The vessel to be lightered may be a floating storage unit that is permanently moored and connected to production facilities, or a vessel, that is too large or has too deep a draft to enter the port where the cargo is to be delivered. Coastal tankers, typically smaller tankers used for the coastwise movement of products and crude oils, as well as lightering service vessels are frequently subject to size and draft restrictions. These vessels often transit confined waterways, and therefore effective navigation systems and good maneuverability are critical to their safe operation. Tank barges have been effectively used in the U.S. coastal and inland trades, and are responsible for about 60% of the U.S. waterborne movement of residual products. These vessels include barges, designed to be towed or pushed, as well as integrated and articulated tug and barge systems.

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3.2 Characteristics of modern Tankers These vessels may be split into three groups, namely: the medium size tankers, the Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs) or Supertankers and the Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs). By definition, Oil Tankers are ships that carry liquid in bulk. They are slow-moving full-form vessels. Table 10.1 shows the Main Dimensions for these ships. Some characteristics of modern Oil Tankers
Typical dwt (tonnes) 50000–100000 100000–565000 Br. Mld (m) 25–40 40–70 Service Speed(kt) 15.00-15.75 13-15.75

Type Of Ship Medium Size VLCCs and ULCCs

LBP (m) 175–250 250–440

Typical CB fully loaded 0.800–0.820 0.820–0.850

Since 1994 new tankers having a dwt of greater than 5000 tonnes are required to have a double hull construction in way of the Main Cargo network of tanks. Some shipowners have gone further in that they have requested a double-bottom construction beneath the main network of cargo tanks. They are similar in effect to Container ships in way of their midship sections. They are now known as double-skin Tankers. It is hoped by having these tanker designs, the problems of oil pollution following collision or grounding are greatly decreased.

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Case Studies INTERTANKO’S STANDARD TANKER

Hull form of tanker by using maxsurf software

Body plan of tanker

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4.0 Modular Construction of Tanker On the slipway or in the dry dock blocks are connected together to create the final shape of hull ship(tanker), it consists of several hull blocks and blocks of superstructure and funnel. Refer to the picture below, we can see that on how a particular tanker are built by using the modular construction method. for the superstructure and funnel part, tagged as number 16 and 17. For the hull part is between 01 until number 15.

Division construction of ship hull Refer to the figure above, this report is only focusing on making the hold of the tanker which is located at number 06. 5.0 Hold In general, they are large empty rectangular space without visible stiffening (frames, floor, etc). Nevertheless, the hold is so important that the entire construction is aimed to enable the moving of the hold and its contents ( the cargo).The space for cargo is divided by watertight bulkhead into a large number of separate tank, each with its own entrance hatch, ladder to descend into the tank, sounding pipe, ventilation pipe, filling and discharge lines, or its own pump, depending on the kind of cargo. Every tank has possibilities for temperature measurement, heating possibilities to control the cargo temperature, independent high level alarm(95% full) and overfill alarm(98%full). Also mean for tank cleaning with fixed or hand operating washing machine. The tank are internally coated with paint which is resistant to the cargo the ship has been design for. Or the tank are constructed of stainless steel. Furthermore, and depending on the size of the ship, there are additional spaces in deck for transport of material, tools, or in case of an accident, for people. The tank have little stiffening inside as possible to avoid accumulation of dirt, and to minimize the area to be expensively coated. The stiffening of the bulkhead is the surrounding of the ballast tanks. Division bulkheads between cargo tanks therefore are often corrugated.

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6.0 Class Rules American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) 6.1 Naming Convention of the Hold

Mid Cargo Hold Transverse Section 6.2 Units The following units are used within these Rules. The units to be used within equations are given locally.
( a) Ge ne ral : di me nsi ons/di stance s pri mary spaci ngs se condary spaci ngs are a v o l u me mass ve l oci ty acce l e rati on m m mm m2 m3 t m/ s m/ s 2
( b) Hul l gi rde r prope rti e s: d i me n s i o n s m m2 m3 m4 m3

area s ection modulus
mome nt of i ne rti a mome nt of are a

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( c) Sti ffe ne r prope rti e s:

( d) Pl ati ng di me nsi ons:

dimens ions area s ection modulus inertia length/effective s pan

mm 2 cm 3 cm 4 cm m m

breadth length thicknes s

mm m mm

(e) Loads : pres s ures loads bending moment s hear force

kN/m kN kNm kN

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( f) Mi sce l l ane ous:

6.3 Corrosion Addition

yield s trength s tres s deflections modulus of elas ticity dens ity dis placemen angle calculated angle period frequency s hip s peed

N/mm 2 N/mm mm N/mm2 3 t/m t deg rad s Hz knots

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The required net thickness of steel structures is to be increased by the corrosion addition as specified in this Sub-Section. The corrosion additions given in this Sub-Section are applicable to carbon-manganese Steels. Application of corrosion additions for other materials, such as stainless steel, is to be in accordance with the requirements of the individual Classification Society. 6.3.1 Local Corrosion Additions The local corrosion additions, 𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 , for structural members are to be taken as: 𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝑡𝑤𝑎𝑠 + 0.5 mm Where: in mm 𝑡𝑤𝑎𝑠 total wastage allowance of the considered structural member, The local corrosion additions, 𝑡𝑤𝑎𝑠 , for typical structural elements in the cargo tank region are given in Table and figure below.

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Region

Corrosion Addition, 𝒕𝒄𝒐𝒓𝒓 , for Typical Structural Elements Within the Cargo Tank

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Corrosion Addition, 𝒕𝒄𝒐𝒓𝒓 , for Typical Structural Elements Within the Cargo Tank

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7.0 Cargo Hold Arrangements The types of cargoes the vessel is designed to carry drive the arrangement of the cargo tanks. The IBC code provides requirements for the location of cargo tanks that are to carry ST 1, 2, or 3 cargoes. The required locations are based on damage assumptions provided in the code. Figure 31.13 illustrates the required distances that a tank's boundaries must be from the ships shell plating to carry a given ship type cargo.

Figure 31.13: Ship Type Tank Boundaries There are no requirements for a double hull for ST 3 cargoes. Therefore, a ST 3 cargo can be carried in a cargo tank whose boundaries are common with the shell plating.

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A ST 2 cargo must be carried in a tank whose boundaries are a distance from the molded line of the shell plating at the centerline equal to or greater than the vessels beam divided by 15. The minimum permissible value for this distance is 760 mm and the maximum required value for this distance is 6 m. The transverse distance of the tank boundaries from the molded hull line of the shell plating must also be no less than 760 mm. In a ST 2 cargo tank the pump well is permitted to protrude below the minimum required distance between the shell plating and the bottom of the tank provided it does protrude more than 25% of the required distance.

A ST 1 cargo must be carried in a tank whose bottom is at a distance from the molded line of the shell plating at the centerline equal to or greater than the vessels beam divided by 15. The minimum permissible value for this distance is 760 mm and the maximum required value for this distance is 6 m. The transverse distance of the tank boundaries from the molded hull line of the shell plating must be equal to or greater than the vessel's beam divided by 6 or 10 m, whichever is greater. Unlike the ST 2 tank, the pump well of a ST 1 tank may not protrude below the minimum required distance between the shell plating and the bottom of the tank.

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Ship A has a double bottom and port, starboard, and center cargo tanks. The outboard boundaries of the port and starboard tanks are common with the shell plating; therefore, only ST 3 cargoes can be carried in these tanks. The width of the port and starboard cargo tanks and the height of the double bottom permit the center tanks to carry both ST 2 and ST 3 cargoes. The port and starboard cargo tanks of this vessel do not meet the regulations of OPA 90 and MARPOL Annex I, which requires petroleum products to be carried in double hull tankers. This type of cargo tank layout is no longer used on new chemical tankers. The vessel's inability to carry petroleum products in the port and starboard tanks severely limits the operational flexibility of the vessel. If Ship A is to carry petroleum products, they would be required to be carried in the center tanks, where they would compete for space with higher paying ST 2 cargoes.

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Ship B has a full double hull, and has port and starboard cargo tanks. The width of the double sides and the height of the double bottom permit all the cargo tanks to carry both ST 2 and ST 3 cargoes.

Ship C has a full double hull, as well as port, starboard, and center cargo tanks. The width of the double sides and the height of the double bottom permit the port and starboard cargo tanks to carry both ST 2 and ST 3 cargoes. 8.0 Ballast Tank Arrangement Typical double hull tanker ballast tank configurations are shown in Figure 29.7. L tanks, which are fitted on more than 90% of today's double hull tankers, are the most common arrangement for ballast tanks. U tanks reduce asymmetrical flooding, and are generally used when L tank arrangements fail to satisfy damage stability requirements. However, there are a number of drawbacks to U tanks. Increased scantlings are frequently required in way of U tanks, as higher internal pressures are imposed during rolling. Also, much larger free surface effects are introduced. S or side tanks are located in the wing tanks above the double bottom level. These tanks improve the vessel's survivability when subject to raking bottom damage.

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Figure 29.7: Typical Ballast Tank Configurations The cargo tank arrangements shown in Figure 29.8 are representative of tankers built during the early and mid 1990s.

Figure 29.8: Typical Cargo Tank Configurations
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The number and sizes of cargo tanks in coastal tankers and product carriers are generally governed by segregation requirements and expected parcel sizes, rather than the IMO design regulations such as hypothetical outflow and damage stability requirements. To control construction costs and facilitate tank cleaning, it is desirable to minimize the number of tanks in larger crude oil carriers. Crude oil carriers under 120 000 DWT generally have single-tankacross or two-tanks-across cargo tank configurations. Most Suezmax tankers have two-tanksacross arrangements, and most VLCC's have three-across cargo tanks, the intact stability regulation adopted in 1997 and accidental oil outflow regulations under development at IMO will likely restrict the use of single-tank-across arrangements in the future. 8.1 Protection of cargo tanks Every tanker is to be provided with double bottom tanks and spaces, and double side tanks and spaces. The double bottom and double side tanks and spaces, protect the cargo tanks or spaces, and are not to be used for the carriage of oil cargoes. 8.2 Capacity of ballast tanks The capacity of the segregated ballast tanks shall be so determined that the ship may operate safely on ballast voyages without recourses to the use of cargo tanks for water ballast. The capacity of ballast shall be at least such that, in any ballast condition at any part of the voyage, including the conditions consisting of lightweight plus segregated ballast only, the ships draught and trim can meet the requirements. The moulded draught amidships, Tmid, excluding any hogging or sagging correction, is not to be less than: Tmid = 2.0 + 0.02L m Where: L rule length in m The draughts at the F.P. and A.P. are to correspond to those determined by the draught amidships and in association with a trim by the stern not greater than 0.015L (m). The draught at the A.P. is not to be less than that required to obtain full immersion of the propeller(s).

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8.3 Limitation of size and arrangement of cargo tanks Cargo tanks are to be of a size and arrangement that hypothetical oil outflow from side and bottom damage, anywhere in the length of the ship, is limited. 8.4 Double Bottom Double bottom depth The minimum double bottom depth, ddb, is to be taken as the lesser of: 𝑑𝑑𝑏 = 𝐵 𝑑𝑑𝑏

= 2.0 m Where: B moulded breadth, in m 8.5 Double Side Double side width The minimum double side width, wds, is to be taken as the lesser of: ω𝑑𝑠 � 0.5 � ω𝑑𝑠 =2.0 m Where:
20000 𝐷𝑊𝑇

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m, but not less than 1.0m

m, but not less than 1.0 m,

DWT: Deadweight of the ship, in tonnes 8.6 Separation Of Spaces 8.6.1 Separation of Cargo Tanks General The cargo pump room, cargo tanks, slop tanks and cofferdams are to be positioned forward of machinery spaces. Main cargo control stations, control stations, accommodation and service spaces are to be positioned aft of cargo tanks, slop tanks, and spaces which isolate cargo or slop tanks from machinery spaces, but not necessarily aft of the oil fuel bunker tanks and ballast tanks.

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9.0 Steel Grades 9.1 Hull Structural Steel Scope Materials used during construction are to comply with the Rules for Materials of the individual Classification Society. Use of other materials and the corresponding scantlings will be specially considered. Strength Steel having a specified minimum yield stress of 235N/mm2 is regarded as normal strength hull structural steel. Steel having a higher specified minimum yield stress is regarded as higher strength hull structural steel. Material grades Material grades of hull structural steels are referred to as follows: A, B, D and E denote normal strength steel grades AH, DH and EH denote higher strength steel grades.

Higher strength steel factor For the determination of hull girder section modulus, where higher strength hull structural steel is used, a higher strength steel factor, k is given in Table.

V al ue of k spe ci fi e d mi ni mum yi e l d stre ss, N/mm2 235 265 315 340 355 390 k 1.00 0.93 0.78 0.74 0.72 0.68

Note : Inte rme di ate val ue are to be cal cul ate d by l i ne ar i nte rpol ati on

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10.0 General Arrangements Tanker Hold At Amidships M/T BRITISH HARRIER

M/T BRITISH HARRIER Section Amidships

General Arrangement of M/T BRITISH HARRIER

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11.0 Construction of the Hold The hull block this is the steel spatial construction of part hull ship, which is assembled with many spatial sections consist together in one larger part as shown in figure below. Every spatial section is made from steel sheet joint together. The frames, brackets and pillars stiffened the. to build the block steel shipping usual and special are used. Block is protected against influence of corrosion and (or) paint. The size of block is limited by shipyard transport possibilities and endurance of block construction (during transport).

Process building of block hull from section

Hull block during transportation and in the dock

Hull block assembly on the slipway
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12.0 Conclusion As the conclusion from this report, modular construction has been use widely among the ship builder in the shipbuilding industry. This is because the modular construction’s method have much more advantages if we compare to the old ship construction method. It helps in term of build the ship by follow the steps based on the rules. By using modular construction method, the processes of the construction will take lesser time. Modular construction also can minimize the workers packed at once place at a time. Besides that, the process of building the tank hold is much more organize and well prepared. Through that, its helps to reduce the ship build times typically 50-60% less than traditional on-site. Hence, much more time can be used in other aspect in shipbuilding construction process. It will lead to an earlier return on investment and saving in preliminaries. According to my vessels that I had chosen this modular construction method is suitable and effective to use. Modular construction also suitable needs in small shipyards because it will follow the time line that the owner of the ships wants because the parts of the ship can divided in several parts.

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13.0 Reference Chapter 31 - Chemical Tankers Ship Design and Construction, Volume II by Thomas Lamb The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers © 2004 Citation Ship Knowledge A Modern Encyclopedia by K. Van Dokkum. www://hellespont steamship corporation.php.htm MODULARIZATION IN SHIP EQUIPMENT, Intermodul s/03/G Task No. 1 Opinion of modularization degree in existing naval constructions.( Based on Polish and Northern Europe shipyard experiences.) by Krzysztof Gockowski. R UL E S F OR B UI L DI N G A N D C L A SSI N G S T E E L VE SSE L S 2 0 0 7 , P AR T 5 A, S PE C I FI C VE S SE L T YPE S ( C H A PT E R 1 ) , C o m m o n St r u c t u ra l R u l e s f o r Do u b l e Hu l l Oi l T a n k e r s.

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