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Unit 6: DNA, RNA, Genetic Engineering

Essential Concepts and Skills - SOL 2 & 6 1. The genetic code is contained in DNA. a) DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a macromolecule (polymer) made up of repeating subunits called nucleotides (monomers). b) The genetic code is the se uence o! DNA nucleotides in the nucleus of a cell. c) The DNA code cont"ols cell acti#ities by telling the cell $hich p"oteins to %ake (especially enzymes). d) There are !ou" DNA nucleotides: adenine (A), guanine (&), thymine (T), cytosine (C). e) DNA is a dou'le-st"anded molecule. The strands are connected by complementary base pairs: A T and ! ", li#e rungs on a ladder. f) The ladder t$ists to form a dou'le heli(. g) Nitrogen bases that ha%e a double ring of carbon & )u"ines (A ' "). h) Nitrogen bases that ha%e a single ring of carbon & )*"i%idines (! ' T). p. 2+,2-.

2. Cells pass on the genetic code '* "eplicating /cop*ing0 thei" DNA. /DNA "eplicates du"ing 1nte"phase0. a) En2*%es un$ind and un2ip the double helix. b) (ach strand ser%es as a te%plate for building a ne$ DNA molecule. c) )ree nucleotides bond to the template (A T and ! "), forming a co%ple%enta"* st"and. d) The final product is t$o identical DNA molecules.

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4. 5NA /"i'onucleic acid0 is a %ac"o%olecule %ade up o! "epeating su'units called nucleotides /%ono%e"s0. a) *NA is a single stranded polymer of four nucleotide monomers. b) A *NA nucleotide is identified by the base it contains: adenine (A), guanine ("), and cytosine (!) or uracil (+). .. 5NA co%es in 4 !o"%s7 a) %5NA , carries the message from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm (%essenge" 5NA). b0 t5NA carries amino acids to the m*NA (t"ans!e" 5NA) c) "5NA found in the ribosomes ("i'oso%al 5NA). 3. )"oteins a"e s*nthesi2ed using the genetic code /se uence o! DNA nucleotides0 - )"oteins /en2*%es0 cont"ol the acti#ities o! each cell. a) The genetic code is the se-uence of DNA nucleotides in the nucleus of each cell. b) The DNA code controls cell acti%ities by telling the cell $hich proteins to ma#e (especially enzymes). c) There are . steps in p"otein s*nthesis: T"ansc"iption and T"anslation d) T"ansc"iption: The DNA code is t"ansc"i'ed (copied) to messenger *NA (m*NA) inside the nucleus. e) The m*NA carries the code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. f) T"anslation: /n the cytoplasm, at the ribosomes, the m*NA code is translated to a se-uence of a%ino acids. The amino acids are carried by t*NA). g) The amino acids are lin#ed together to form specific proteins. 6. 1nse"ting8 deleting8 o" su'stituting DNA seg%ents can alte" genes and %ake a ne$ phenot*pe /%utations0. a) 0utations are changes in the DNA se-uence

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b) A changed (mutated) gene may be passed on to e%ery cell that de%elops from it, causing changes. c) An altered gene (mutation) may be beneficial, detrimental, or ha%e no effect. d) 1ometimes entire chromosomes can be added or deleted, resulting in genetic disorders such as Trisomy 21 (Do$n syndrome), Turner 1yndrome (23), or 4linefelter5s 1yndrome (226) ,. DNA technolog*7 &enetic Enginee"ing and DNA 9inge"p"inting a) The tools o! genetic enginee"ing7 7. (xtract DNA8 .. !ut DNA $ith "est"iction en2*%es8 9. 1eparate the pieces of DNA using gel elect"opho"esis8 :. 0a#e copies of the DNA using )C5 (;olymerase !hain *eaction). b) DNA 9inge"p"inting: DNA is cut and separated using gel electrophoresis. The pattern of bands is uni-ue for each indi%idual. +sed in forensics, criminal, and paternity cases. c) T"ansgenic O"ganis%s: /nsert a piece of foreign DNA into the DNA of an organism. The piece of DNA inserted carries a gene $ith a desirable trait. !ommon application: /nsert gene for %itamins or production of insecticide in plants8 insert gene for insulin or, human gro$th hormone, into bacteria or other easily raised organisms. d) 5eco%'inant DNA: DNA made from combining the DNA of . different organisms (different species) +. The :u%an &eno%e )"o;ect $as a colla'o"ati#e e!!o"t to %ap the enti"e gene se uence o! o"ganis%s. The goals of the "enome ;ro<ect $ere to: 7. 1e-uence the DNA .. /dentify the genes that cause diseases 9. 0ap the location of e%ery gene in the chromosomes This information $ill be useful in detection, pre%ention, and treatment of many genetic diseases, but it raises practical and ethical -uestions too. -. Cloning is the production of genetically identical cells and=or organisms starting $ith a single cell. 1heep, co$s, dogs, cats, mice ha%e already been cloned experimentally. !loned cattle are a%ailable for farming purposes.

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<ust =no$ >oca'ula"*
DNA *NA nucleotide genetic code complementary bases= strands Nitrogen bases Adenine Thymine +racil !ytosine "uanine double helix messenger *NA transfer *NA ribosomal *NA amino acids proteins gene translation transcription replication anticodon codon chromosome *osalind )ran#lin >atson ' !ric# ;rotein synthesis "enetic (ngineering ?uman "enome ;ro<ect DNA fingerprinting !lone=!loning Transgenic @rganism ;olymerase !hain *eaction (;!*) ;lasmid *estriction (nzymes "el electrophoresis (xons /ntrons