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Alexis Hampton English 002-50 Dennis Winston December 5, 2013 Black !

Bl"e #he iss"e o$ %black ers"s bl"e,& the o er'helming an( consistent restraint o$ black ci ilians especiall) $rom black comm"nities b) 'hite police o$$icers, has been 'i(esprea( thro"gho"t American histor)! #here is a $eeling o$ (istr"st to'ar(s a"thorit) an( a stigmatism that is attache( to the %t)pical& black in(i i("al in pre(ominantl) black comm"nities! *t"(ies ha e been con("cte( an( s"r e)s ha e been gi en+ the res"lts sho' that there is in $act a correlation bet'een police actions in ol ing A$rican Americans an( the "n(erl)ing racial tensions that man) belie e pro oke them! ,t is 'i(el) kno'n that to man) A$rican Americans base( on the co"ntless arrests o$ A$rican American males b) 'hite o$$icers $or minor o$$enses police ha e come to represent 'hite racism, po'er an( repression! *tephen .einen $oc"ses on the patterns o$ (iscrimination (irecte( to'ar(s A$rican Americans 'hile /eta 0arstarphen $oc"ses on the histor) o$ this relationship an( actions taken to (emolish it! 1olice o$$icers are s"ppose( to s)mboli2e tr"st, sec"rit), an( sa$et) to all citi2ens, b"t that s)mboli2ation is not as pop"lar in the 3nite( *tates as one might belie e! *o 'hen (i( police o$$icers become s)mbols o$ mistr"st an( hatre( instea( o$ representati es o$ goo( an( o$ the people in the black comm"nit)4 ,t is 5"ite "nclear 'hether or not there has e er been a time o$ harmon) bet'een the t'o+ an( i$ there 'as not man) kno' o$ it! #his iss"e is the $ocal point o$ /eta 0arstarphen6s article entitle( %Black s! Bl"e7 #ime $or a 0ease-8ire4& ,n 19::, t'o maga2ine sta$$ers 'rote %Black an( White7 A *t"() o$ 3!*! ;acial Attit"(es #o(a),& 'hich 'as

einen 1:A! *t"(ies presente( in %Black 1olice. 5<= o$ the 'hites pole( $elt local a"thorities 'ere %more help$"l& than not an( onl) 35= o$ the blacks pole( $elt this 'a)! #h"s.n 0hicago. black o$$icers 'ere rarel) assigne( to patrol cars @.a compilation o$ s"r e)s taken b) 1000 A$rican Americans an( 1200 'hites! #he s"r e)s sho'e( a con$licting opinion bet'een blacks an( 'hites o er ho' bene$icial or harm$"l local a"thorities 'ere to blacks! Accor(ing to the s"r e). an( the) 'ere stricter 'ith blacks than 'ere 'hite police! #his t)pe o$ segregation existe( in not onl) *o"thern cities. b"t Corthern cities as 'ell! . the 1resi(ent6s 0rime 0ommission (isco ere( that in some cities the legal a"thorit) to arrest a 'hite s"spect . White *ociet)!& .n 19:>.einen sa)s that s"ch (iscrimination is legitimate( b) tra(itional police norms an( s"pporte( b) a per asi e racial i(eolog) @.einen goes on to present a chronicle timeline o$ iss"es an( st"(ies that pro e( racial (iscrimination in the police (epartment as 'ell as in ci ilian enco"nters! .einen intro("ces the sit"ation seen 'ithin police (epartments in the mi(-nineteenth cent"r) in his book %Black 1olice. White *ociet). >?= o$ the blacks 'ere either not s"re or con ince( that the police 'ere %more harm$"l& to blacks @0arstarphen 1<:A! *"ch attit"(es to'ar(s local a"thorities 'ere roote( in 'i(esprea( patterns o$ $r"strating experiences 'ith police! *egregation an( (iscrimination bet'een blacks an( 'hites (i( not simpl) stop at the cop an( ci ilian relationship+ it 'ent as $ar as 'ithin the police (epartment bet'een peers! *te en . black o$$icers 'ere concentrate( in precincts pop"late( hea il) b) members o$ their o'n race an( excl"(e( $rom 'hite precincts altogether @.einen 1>A! An( i$ no 'hite o$$icers 'ere a ailable $or an assignment. "ntil at least 19:0.einen 1:A! #he rationale behin( this practice 'as that black police kne' their o'n people better that the) co"l( comman( greater respect $rom them. some cars 'ere not (ispatche(! .& sho' that in nearl) all maBor cities prior to the mi(19:0s.

)n(on B! Dohnson to initiate The Kerner Project @0arstarphen 1<:A! #his st"() 'as iss"e( b) the Cational A( isor) 0ommission on 0i il Disor(ers an( it came to the concl"sion that straine( relations bet'een the police an( the comm"nit) contrib"te( to the series o$ racial riots that occ"rre( ("ring the mi(-sixties @0arstarphen 1<:A! 8or blacks.n the mi(-nineteenth cent"r). it seeme( that no matter ho' m"ch mone) the) ha( ma(e or ho' m"ch the) ha( sa e(. eight)-$o"r percent o$ black o$$icers state( that 'hite o$$icers 'ere less likel) to recei e (isciplinar) charges than black o$$icers @. D!0! area! . 'hile 0arstarphen $eels that progress is being ma(e b"t (oes not present proo$ clari$)ing it! .n the ten other police (epartments.(epen(e( hea il) "pon 'hether the o$$icer 'as black or 'hite! #he commission note( that in eighteen o$ the t'ent)-eight police (epartments s"r e)e(.einen 23A! . an( relate( to po'er! . the) 'ere pre ente( $rom b")ing . black o$$icers co"l( not apprehen( a 'hite s"spect "n(er an) circ"mstances @.einen 2?A! . black o$$icers 'ere $o"n( to be ictims o$ biase( e al"ations! A maBorit) o$ black o$$icers attrib"te( the (i$$erence in Bob per$ormance ratings to racial (iscrimination! E"gene Bear( reporte( on iss"es (irectl) in ol ing black o$$icers in the Washington. black o$$icers co"l( onl) hol( a 'hite s"spect "ntil a 'hite o$$icer arri e( to the scene "nless none 'ere a ailable! . the sharp increase in hostile interactions bet'een a"thorities an( comm"nities ca"se( s"ch an "phea al in the 3nite( *tates that high ranking o$$icials (eci(e( to take action! 0arstarphen recogni2es the similarities bet'een the hostile interactions o$ blacks an( local a"thorities across a ariet) o$ black comm"nities thro"gho"t the co"ntr)! #his high le el o$ mistr"st an( the gro'ing n"mber o$ enco"nters 'ith a"thorities le( 1resi(ent .n recent st"(ies.einen presents his in$ormation to the a"(ience to sho' that iable progress has been ma(e.einen sa' that racial (iscrimination 'as 'i(esprea(.n his reports. "ni ersal.acial (iscrimination 'as belie e( to be pre alent in the area o$ per$ormance e al"ations as 'ell! .

0ali$ornia! He state( in one o$ his books. became notorio"s $or his (escription abo"t his perception o$ police-comm"nit) relations in Eaklan(. Post-Prison Writings & in neighborhoo(s that 'ere not pre(ominantl) black an( careers 'ere close( to them beca"se o$ the color o$ their skin! #he) soon began to belie e that the) ha( to lash o"t an( ph)sicall) $ight $or the things the) belie e( the) (eser e( an( 'ere entitle( to! When a maBorit) o$ people $eel a (islike or e en hatre( to'ar(s a speci$ic instit"tion or organi2ation.& @0arstarphen 1<:A! #hese 'hites represente( to blacks a s)stem that seeme( (etermine( to separate the t'o into their respecti e places! . El(eri(ge 0lea er. or in han(c"$$s. oppressi e. %#he notorio"s. 'ho "s"all) onl) sa' black people in times o$ crisis. the) 'ill attempt retrib"tion an( e en (estr"ction against sai( instit"tion 'hich 'as seen ("ring the time o$ %black s! bl"e!& 0arstarphen brings in historical e i(ence o$ retrib"tion that $orme( as a 'a) to (emolish the mistr"st an( separation bet'een races! He belie e( that 'hat increase( the mistr"st bet'een the t'o parties co"l( be linke( to this e rpresent an( e en promote( enco"nter7 %0rimes committe( in black neighborhoo(s b) black criminals 'ere to be stoppe( b) 'hite police in bl"e "ni$orms.n$ormation. racist. an( br"tal Eaklan( 1olice Department is at the heart o$ the matter! #he Festapo $orce openl) an( $lagrantl) terrori2es the black people o$ Eaklan(G#he E1D has increase( its patrols o$ the black comm"nit) to the sat"ration point an( become like a s'or( b"rie( in the heart o$ the people! #he Black 1anther 1art) inten(e( to remo e that s'or(& @0arstarphen 1<>A! Black 1anther a$$iliates 'ere not the onl) ones that $elt this 'a)+ repeate( experiences o$ br"talit) an( corr"ption b) .n an e$$ort to (ismantle this belie$ an( s)stem. the Black 1anther 1art) rose to po'er ("ring the sixties an( a( ocate( aggressi e (e$ense o$ black li$e an( propert) against 'hite a"thorities! #he Black 1anther6s /inister o$ .

in partic"lar A$rican American males! #here is no B"sti$ication behin( s"ch actions except pre alent tho"ght o$ past generations an( 0arstarphen belie es it is not 'i(esprea(! #hro"gho"t the co"ntr). an( i(eolog) in a constantl) e ol ing 'orl( an( nation. racism.einen (oes a better Bob o$ (isc"ssing ar)ing iss"es o$ (iscrimination s"ch as the black o$$icers 'hereas 0arstarphen onl) a((resses black ci ilian enco"nters incl"(ing one o$ his o'n! #o both a"thors. 'hile /eta 0arstarphen $oc"ses on the histor) o$ this relationship an( actions taken to (emolish it in his essa) entitle( %Black s! Bl"e7 #ime $or a 0ease-8ire4& . separate an( "ne5"al treatment! . *tephen . not B"st police-comm"nit) enco"nters ca"sing man) to s"cc"mb to stereot)pes an( accept (e$eat! .n his book. local a"thorities signi$) an( represent 'hite po'er. racial tensions pro oke the o$ten ()s$"nctional interactions bet'een blacks an( 'hite a"thorities in all $iel(s o$ li$e. White Society. Black People.einen e en a((resse( the iss"es o$ (iscrimination o$ black o$$icers b) their peers! Both a"thors a((ress the high percentage o$ arrests o$ blacks b) 'hite o$$icers an( 'hat local a"thorities represent to the black comm"nit)! .'hite police o$$icers con ince( most blacks that la' en$orcement meant simpl) another $orm o$ segregation. the 3nite( *tates o$ America! #he (iscrimination (isc"sse( pla)s an important role in the (e eloping o$ statistics abo"t the A$rican American race.einen $oc"ses on the patterns o$ (iscrimination (irecte( to'ar(s A$rican Americans.

19<?! 1rint! . *tephen H! Black Police. /eta! %Black s! Bl"e7 #ime $or a 0ease-8ire4& Revelations: An Anthology of !pository ssays "y an# A"o$t Blacks! 5th E(ition @19<9A7 1<5-<<! 1rint! . White Society! Ce' Hork7 Ce' Hork 31.einen.Bibliograph) 0arstarphen.