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EMBARGO PICS

Healthcare PIC

1NC Shell
Lifting the entire embargo destroys medical diplomacy – collapses the Cuban healthcare system and causes a mass exodus of doctors Garrett 10
[Laurie Garrett, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations, ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No. 4, July/August 2010 http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] Cuba is a Third World country that aspires to First World medicine and health. Its healthcare system is not only a national public good but also a vital export commodity . Under the Castro brothers' rule, Cubans' average life expectancy has increased from 58 years (in 1950) to 77 years (in 2009), giving Cuba the world's 55th-highest life expectancy ranking, only six places behind the United States. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Cuba has the second-lowest child mortality rate in the Americas (the United States places third) and the lowest per capita HIV/AIDS prevalence. Fifty years ago, the major causes of disease and death in Cuba were tropical and mosquito-borne microbes. Today, Cuba's major health challenges mirror those of the United States: cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and other chronic ailments related to aging, tobacco use, and excessive fat consumption. By any measure, these achievements are laudable. But they have come at tremendous financial and social cost. The Cuban government's 2008 budget of $46.2 billion allotted $7.2 billion (about 16 percent) to direct health care spending. Only Cuba's expenditures for education exceeded those for health, and Cuba's health costs are soaring as its aging population requires increasingly expensive chronic care. Cuba's economic situation has been dire since 1989, when the country lost its Soviet benefactors and its economy experienced a 35 percent contraction. Today, Cuba's major industries-tourism, nickel mining, tobacco and rum production, and health care are fragile. Cubans blame the long-standing U.S. trade embargo for some of these strains and are wildly optimistic about the transformations that will come once the embargo is lifted. Overlooked in these dreamy discussions of lifestyle improvements, however, is that Cuba's health-care industry will likely be radically affected by any serious easing in trade and travel restrictions between the United States and Cuba . If policymakers on both sides of the Florida Straits do not take great care, the tiny Caribbean nation could swiftly be robbed of its greatest triumph. First, its public health network could be devastated by an exodus of thousands of well-trained Cuban physicians and nurses. Second, forprofit U.S. companies could transform the remaining health-care system into a prime destination for medical tourism from abroad. The very strategies that the Cuban government has employed to develop its system into a major success story have rendered it ripe for the plucking by the U.S. medical industry and by foreigners eager for affordable, elective surgeries in a sunny climate. In short, although the U.S. embargo strains Cuba's health-care system and its overall economy, it may be the better of two bad options.

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Palau and the Marshall Islands have supported the US position in recent years. conducted research on Cuban medical diplomacy since 1979‖ ―Changing Cuba/Changing World: Cuban Medical Diplomacy‖ 2008 http://web. And to make this effort more sustainable. at least 70 of which have been direct beneficiaries of Cuba’s largesse. tens of thousands of developing country medical personnel have received free education and training either in Cuba or by Cuban specialists engaged in on-the-job training courses and/or medical schools in their own countries.15 This is a remarkable use of soft power by a developing country and a civilian aid program more befitting a highly developed country. Recognizing the political and economic benefit to Cuba of its medical diplomacy program.S. Currently Cuban medical personnel are collaborating in 70 countries across the globe. Consequently. Cuba’s medical diplomacy has been bolstered by trade with and aid from Venezuela in a large-scale oil for doctors exchange that is reported to have transferred around US$2. Cuban medical aid has affected the lives of millions of people in developing countries each year. Today. The rise of medical diplomacy as a technical assistance or services export business is considered the real bright spot on Cuba‟s economic horizon . Walsh School of Foreign Service where she is writing a new book tentatively titled Medical Diplomacy: Fifty Years of Cuba’s Soft Power Politics. Feinsilver. Cuba’s influence over future generations of health officials will increase considerably.pdf] Over the past half century. In fact. without the promised fast-track visa approval and with little or no money.16 Since the rise of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela. only Israel. Furthermore. in August 2006 the U. It also has contributed to support for Cuba and rebuke of the United States in the United Nations General Assembly where for 16 consecutive years Members voted overwhelmingly in favor of lifting the US embargo of Cuba. Cuba has not missed a single opportunity to offer and supply disaster relief assistance irrespective of whether or not Cuba had good relations with that government. ―Visiting Researcher at Georgetown University’s Center for Latin American Studies in the Edmund A. many have found that they are held in limbo in Colombia or other points of arrival. The Cuban Medical Professional Parole Program has encouraged more defections and even has provided a reason for some Cuban doctors to go abroad in the first place. it should be emulated.gc.cuny. Cuba’s success in this endeavor has been recognized by the World Health Organization and other United Nations bodies.000 developing country scholarship students studying in Cuban medical schools. as well as by numerous governments. Cuba’s conduct of medical diplomacy has improved the health of the less privileged in developing countries while improving relations with their governments.Cuban Economy Scenario Medical diplomacy key to the Cuban economy – current US policy strains it now Feinsilver 08 [Julie M. government formalized efforts to thwart it by offering fast-track asylum to Cuban doctors providing medical aid in third countries.3 billion dollars to Cuba in 2007. . with over 10.edu/dept/bildn/publications/documents/Feinsilver15_002. Indeed.

S. (Table 1)¶ The time has come to look realistically at the Cuban issue.5% of the population. then must deal with an unstable country 90 miles off its coast. Younger Cuban Americans do not necessarily subscribe to the hard-line approach. But this election strategy may be flawed. Cuba is along the axis of the drug-trafficking flow into the U. http://www. However. can little afford to be distracted by a failed state 90 miles off its coast.-Cuban relations. because recent polls of Cuban Americans reflect a decline for President Bush based on his policy crackdown. And there are remnants of the dissident community within Cuba who will attempt to exercise similar authority. There is justifiable concern that Africa and . under the current U. the U.S. Cuba‟s actions have shown that its stance on drugs is more tons in 1999. the opportunity for radical fundamentalist groups to operate in the region increases. During the Mariel boatlift in 1980 125.S. If these groups can export terrorist activity from Cuba to the U.¶ U. Such activity could increase direct attacks and disrupt the economies.S. diplomatic and economic resources. given the present state of world affairs. thousands will flee the island. may pass through Cuba. their influence has been a factor in determining the margin of victory in the past two presidential elections. maintains the “wait and see” approach. may be creating its next series of transnational criminal problems. In addition to Cubans on the island.S. 8. These changes signal an opportunity for a new approach to U.S. The U. the flow of drugs to the U.S. creating the conditions for another insurgency . may be forced to deploy military forces to Cuba. there will be those in exile who will return claiming authority.241. A power vacuum or absence of order will create the conditions for instability and civil war .S.27 While there may be individuals within the government and outside who engage in drug trafficking and a percentage of drugs entering the U.dtic.8 government is not the path of least resistance for the flow of drugs. threatening the stability of the fragile democracies that are budding throughout the region. The Cuban American population in the U. In the midst of this chaos. by adhering to a negative containment policy.000 fled the island. Lieutenant Colonel.26 Many were criminals. A proactive policy now can mitigate these potential future problems.5 tons in 1995. These warnings were sounded when the administration did not anticipate operations in Iraq consuming so many military. There is a clear softening in the CubanAmerican community with regard to sanctions. Whether Raul or another successor from within the current government can hold power is debatable. could be greatly facilitated by a Cuba base of operation and accelerate considerably. creating a refugee crisis.S. from Columbia. When Cuba finally collapses anarchy is a strong possibility if the U. which will only compound the Cuban situation. or throughout the hemisphere then the war against this extremism gets more complicated .685 or 3. In light of a failed state in the region.¶ In the midst of an unstable Cuba.S.S. that individual will nonetheless extend the current policies for an indefinite period. policy. ―Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?‖ March 18 2005.S. this time the number could be several hundred thousand flee ing to the U. totals 1. The only issue is what happens then? The U..28 Most of these exiles reside in Florida.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA433074] Regardless of the succession.S. the Cuban than hollow rhetoric as indicated by its increasing seizure of drugs – 7. the U. In fact. and 13 tons in 2000. The President and other government and military leaders have warned that the GWOT will be long and protracted. The ramifications of this action could very well fuel greater anti-American sentiment throughout the Americas. The Castro government as a matter of policy does not support the drug trade. does not have the luxury or the resources to pursue the traditional American model of crisis management. The administration.Cuban economic collapse causes Latin American instability and terror attacks Gorrell 05 [Tim Gorrell.S. If there were no Cuban restraints. Castro will rule until he dies.¶ Equally important. domestic political support is also turning against the current negative policy. Cuba‟s problems of a post Castro transformation only worsen.

so these areas should be secure. Iran could conceivably be the next target for U. afford to sustain the status quo and simply let the Cuban situation play out? The U. I n view of such global issues. What if China resorts to aggression to resolve the Taiwan situation? Will the U.the Caucasus region are potential hot spots for terrorist activity. pre-emptive action. is at a crossroads: should the policies of the past 40 years remain in effect with vigor? Or should the U. North Korea will continue to be an unpredictable crisis in waiting.S.S. can the U.S. These are known and potential situations that could easily require all or many of the elements of national power to resolve. We also cannot ignore China . pursue a new approach to Cuba in an effort to facilitate a manageable transition to post-Castro Cuba? .S.S. go to war over Taiwan? Additionally.

16 Since the rise of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela. In fact. many have found that they are held in limbo in Colombia or other points of arrival. Feinsilver. ―Visiting Researcher at Georgetown University’s Center for Latin American Studies in the Edmund A. Indeed. Cuba’s conduct of medical diplomacy has improved the health of the less privileged in developing countries while improving relations with their governments.15 This is a remarkable use of soft power by a developing country and a civilian aid program more befitting a highly developed country.3 billion dollars to Cuba in 2007. Cuba’s medical diplomacy has been bolstered by trade with and aid from Venezuela in a large-scale oil for doctors exchange that is reported to have transferred around US$2. The rise of medical diplomacy as a technical assistance or services export business is considered the real bright spot on Cuba‟s economic horizon . Palau and the Marshall Islands have supported the US position in recent years.pdf] Over the past half century. at least 70 of which have been direct beneficiaries of Cuba’s largesse. Cuba’s success in this endeavor has been recognized by the World Health Organization and other United Nations bodies.S. Cuba has not missed a single opportunity to offer and supply disaster relief assistance irrespective of whether or not Cuba had good relations with that government. Cuba’s influence over future generations of health officials will increase considerably. Cuban medical aid has affected the lives of millions of people in developing countries each year. without the promised fast-track visa approval and with little or no money. It also has contributed to support for Cuba and rebuke of the United States in the United Nations General Assembly where for 16 consecutive years Members voted overwhelmingly in favor of lifting the US embargo of Cuba. as well as by numerous governments. tens of thousands of developing country medical personnel have received free education and training either in Cuba or by Cuban specialists engaged in on-the-job training courses and/or medical schools in their own countries. The Cuban Medical Professional Parole Program has encouraged more defections and even has provided a reason for some Cuban doctors to go abroad in the first place.Cuba Soft Power Scenario Medical diplomacy key to Cuba soft power – current US policy strains it now Feinsilver 08 [Julie M. government formalized efforts to thwart it by offering fast-track asylum to Cuban doctors providing medical aid in third countries. conducted research on Cuban medical diplomacy since 1979‖ ―Changing Cuba/Changing World: Cuban Medical Diplomacy‖ 2008 http://web. Walsh School of Foreign Service where she is writing a new book tentatively titled Medical Diplomacy: Fifty Years of Cuba’s Soft Power Politics. in August 2006 the U. Currently Cuban medical personnel are collaborating in 70 countries across the globe.000 developing country scholarship students studying in Cuban medical schools. only Israel. .edu/dept/bildn/publications/documents/Feinsilver15_002. Today. Consequently. with over 10. And to make this effort more sustainable. it should be emulated.gc. Recognizing the political and economic benefit to Cuba of its medical diplomacy program. Furthermore.cuny.

000 practicing doctors (half of whom work in primary care). ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No. Cuba led the socialist world-including its patron. soaring to 33 per 10. 4. Its achievement in this respect is unparalleled.000. mostly to the United States. more than one-third of Cuba's doctors fled. Cuba is the world's only poor country that can rightly say that basic health is no longer an existential problem for its people. and a total health-care work force of 566.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein.2 per 10.000. Cuba reduced its infant mortality by 90 percent. 107. with 59 physicians per 10. In the wake of the 1959 Cuban Revolution.761 nurses. according to the Cuban Ministry of Public Health.000 live births to 55 per 100. Cuba now boasts more than 73. the Cuban health system has focused-successfully-on prevention.000 people-more than twice the ratio of the United States. About 12 percent of Cuba's adult population is employed by the state in the health-care sector. Between 1959 and 1989.365. according to government figures. and health-care expenditures rose by 162 percent.300 physicians and a doctor-patient ratio of 9. the Soviet Union-in all health indicators.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] THE TWO keys to Cuba's medical and public health achievements are training provided by the state and a community-based approach that requires physicians to live in the neighborhoods they serve and be on call 24 hours a day.Disease Scenario Cuban health care key to stave off disease and fatal health complications – the impact is systemic and causes thousands of deaths per year Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett. July/August 2010 http://heinonline. Cuba's doctor-patient ratio more than tripled. Between 1959 and 2000.000. and the number of mothers who died from pregnancy-related complications dropped from 125 per 100. By the early 1980s. Because of economic exigencies that have limited Cuba's access to advanced technology for diagnosing and curing ailments. Cuba today has the highest doctor-patient ratio in the entire world. leaving the country with just 6. . Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations. Fidel Castro declared public health and doctor training to be paramount tasks for the new socialist state. In response.

4. and health administrators from other nations.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] But a lot may change if the United States alters its policies toward Cuba. such as basic children's health care. It takes little imagination to envision chains of private clinics.Ext.S.000 licensed-about 30. July/August 2010 http://heinonline. embargo is lifted.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein. technicians. July/August 2010 http://heinonline. the United States currently has approximately one doctor for every 2. Such a trend might bode well for Canadians seeking to avoid queues in Ottawa for hip replacements or for U. a group of 30 physicians from Florida toured Cira Garcia and concluded that once the U. pharmacists. Countries facing gross deficits in skilled medical talent are already scrambling to lure doctors. with only 304.S. The American Medical Association estimates that there is an especially grave deficit of primary-care physicians. and the figure can only have grown since then. Lifting the embargo collapses Cuban healthcare – the Castro regime can‟t afford the transition Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations. Healthcare I/L Lifting sanctions on the health sector overwhelms Cuban hospitals with foreigners and causes a massive exodus of doctors out of Cuba Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett. the WHO estimated that the global deficit of medical professionals was roughly 4. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations.000 doctors. the facility will be overwhelmed by its foreign patients. health insurance companies looking to cut costs on cataract surgery and pacemakers. 4.care reform law will put more than 30 million more Americans on insurance or public rolls. donor resources aimed at combating the disease often have the unintended consequence of further straining meager supplies of human medical resources by drawing talent away from less well-funded areas of medicine. located near five-star hotels and beach resorts. as Cuban doctors and nurses leave the country to seek incomes that cannot be matched at home. nurses. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No.3 million. In 2006. labor-intensive medical attention. thereby dramatically increasing the need for physicians. dentists.000 fewer than needed. catering to the elective needs of North Americans and Europeans. lab technicians. And any such brain drain within Cuba might be dwarfed by a brain drain out into the rest of the world.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein. But providing health care to wealthy foreigners would drain physicians. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No.500 patients and a critical shortage of nearly 17. millions more patients will need complex.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] . and nurses from Cuba's public system. According to the American College of Physicians. As the world's population ages and average life expectancies rise from the United States to China. And in countries with falling life expectancies and high rates of HIV/AIDs. And the recently enacted federal health. In 2009.

Agency for International Development. plugging just a few holes in the embargo wall would require vast additional spending by the Cuban government.100 percent literacy and quality universal health care depend on huge streams of government spending. such as the United Nations and the U.The Castro government. strengthen the country's deteriorating infrastructure. doctors. Cuba will have to find external support from donors. meanwhile. But few sources will support Havana with funding as long as the regime restricts the travel of its citizens. nurses. and technicians. The two greatest achievements of the Cuban Revolution . and improve working conditions for common workers. To bolster its health-care infrastructure and create incentives for Cuban doctors to stay in the system.S. is in a seemingly untenable position. . The government would have to pay higher salaries to teachers. If Washington does eventually start to normalize relations.

trade commodity for Cuba. The Cuban government benefits politically from this medical diplomacy. 600 comprehensive health clinics.5 million per day. joint investments in strategically important sectors for both countries. 100. These accords allow for preferential pricing for Cuba’s professional services exports vis-à-vis a steady supply of Venezuelan oil. In exchange. 600 rehabilitation and physical therapy centers.000 ophthalmologic surgeries. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations. conducted research on Cuban medical diplomacy since 1979‖ ―Changing Cuba/Changing World: Cuban Medical Diplomacy‖ 2008 http://web.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] The Castro government's largest and most extensive bilateral effort is with Hugo Chavez's leftist government in Venezuela. Cuba's medical diplomacy is taking a toll on the homeland. Walsh School of Foreign Service where she is writing a new book tentatively titled Medical Diplomacy: Fifty Years of Cuba’s Soft Power Politics.000 barrels of petroleum products to Cuba per day in exchange for three things: 31.gc. in Cuba. and 35 high technology diagnostic centers. or nearly $3 billion per year.pdf] Clearly. including by demonstrating the wisdom of its approach to public health. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein.edu/dept/bildn/publications/documents/Feinsilver15_002. An additional recent agreement includes the expansion of the Latin American and Caribbean region-wide ophthalmologic surgery program (Operation Miracle) to perform 600.000 medical professionals. It is widely believed that health-care workers have become a top. as the name implies. an initiative funded by Venezuela under which Cuban doctors provide eye surgery. ―Visiting Researcher at Georgetown University’s Center for Latin American Studies in the Edmund A.000 Cuban doctors and dentists. to thousands of poor Latin Americans annually. and the provision of credit. the Venezuelan oil exchange alone would have had a value of $7.cuny.12 . is an alternative to the United States’ backed free trade agreements. Feinsilver. The two countries signed an oil-for-doctors trade agreement in 2000 and renewed it in 2005. 4. Under an "oil-for-doctors" program initiated in 2000.000 Venezuelan physicians. Cuba’s largest and most far-reaching medical cooperation program ever is with Hugo Chávez’s Venezuela. Doctors key to the economy – Venezuelan oil proves Feinsilver 08 [Julie M. training by Cuban doctors for 40. if not the top.Ext.). Based on oil prices in February 2010. Venezuela provides 100. etc. but also provides similar medical services in Bolivia on a smaller scale at Venezuela’s expense as part of the Bolivarian Alternative for Latin America. July/August 2010 http://heinonline.000 eye operations over a ten-year period. and Operation Miracle. Whatever the exact benefits of these exchanges. a Venezuela originated trade and mutual aid grouping that. Cuba not only provides medical services to un-served and underserved communities within Venezuela (30. however. Cuban Economy I/L Medical diplomacy is key to Cuba‟s economy and securing the Venezuelan oil trade Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett.

―Visiting Researcher at Georgetown University’s Center for Latin American Studies in the Edmund A. Not only that.Ext. Soft Power I/L Medical diplomacy is key to Cuban soft power – regional influence is key in Latin America Feinsilver 08 [Julie M.gc. It was considered Cuba’s duty to help other nations less fortunate in an effort to repay a debt to humanity for the assistance they received. Three years later. One must ask why a country in the straits in which Cuba found itself would engage in such far-flung ventures? Why Do It? Because Cuba had received so much support from other countries and individuals during the early days of the revolution.edu/dept/bildn/publications/documents/Feinsilver15_002. Since then. and goodwill (symbolic capital) and therefore. and with the US embargo in place. conducted research on Cuban medical diplomacy since 1979‖ ―Changing Cuba/Changing World: Cuban Medical Diplomacy‖ 2008 http://web. Cuba also has utilized medical diplomacy as an instrument of soft diplomacy. The practice of medical diplomacy is a means of gaining prestige. a way of winning friends and influencing people. Cuba has provided free medical education for tens of thousands of foreign students in an effort to contribute to the sustainability of their assistance.cuny. It also is a way of projecting Cuba’s image abroad as increasingly more developed and technologically sophisticated and this is important in Cuba’s symbolic struggle as David versus the Goliath of the United States. the revolutionary government’s health ideology explicitly recognized this contribution. Walsh School of Foreign Service where she is writing a new book tentatively titled Medical Diplomacy: Fifty Years of Cuba’s Soft Power Politics. and of capturing the hearts and minds of aid recipients. material capital. Cuba began conducting medical diplomacy in 1960 by sending a medical team to Chile to provide disaster relief aid after an earthquake. . Cuba began its first long-term medical diplomacy initiative by sending a group of fifty-six doctors and other health workers to provide aid in Algeria on a fourteen-month assignment.pdf] Medical diplomacy has been the cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy and foreign aid since shortly after the triumph of the 1959 revolution. Cuba has provided medical assistance to scores of developing countries throughout the world both on a long-term basis and for short-term emergencies. This is particularly important for geopolitical reasons because Cuba lives in a hostile neighborhood. influence. Feinsilver. Despite Cuba’s own economic difficulties and the exodus of half of its doctors.

The community clinics report regularly to the district on how many patients they have in each risk category and on the number of patients with conditions such as hypertension (well controlled or not).Ext. Campion. D. along with their nurses and other health workers. When necessary. There are too many doctors. Cuba's literacy rate is 99%. though local health teams say it . totally free — and not after prior approval or some copay. Every patient is visited at home once a year. Cigarettes can no longer be obtained with monthly ration cards. time since last Pap smear. patients can be referred to a district polyclinic for specialty evaluation. rate. January 24 2013 http://www. for example. For example.S. for example. The life expectancy of 78 years from birth is virtually identical to that in the United States. American cars are everywhere. Everybody has a family physician.4 Without doubt. in Industrial Engineering– Ergonomics. The infant mortality rate in Cuba has fallen from more than 80 per 1000 live births in the 1950s to less than 5 per 1000 — lower than the U. In an effort to control mosquito-borne infections such as dengue.nejm. the local health team goes into homes to conduct inspections and teach people about getting rid of standing water. Everything is free. and health education is part of the mandatory school curriculum. diabetes. are responsible for delivering primary care and preventive services to their panel of patients — about 1000 patients per physician in urban areas. Internet access is virtually nonexistent. House calls and discussions with family members are common tactics for addressing problems with compliance or follow-up and even for failure to protect against unwanted pregnancy. from I to IV.. All patients are categorized according to level of health risk. M.org/doi/full/10. and Stephen Morrissey. The medical records in cardboard folders are simple and handwritten.3. chronic lung disease are in category III. Cuba is disorienting. as well as immunization status.1. A recent national program to promote acceptance of men who have sex with men was designed in part to reduce rates of sexually transmitted disease and improve acceptance of and adherence to treatment. but they return to the community team for ongoing treatment. The whole system seems turned upside down. and smoking rates have decreased. Our bank cards. are in risk category II.2 Family physicians. and patients with stable. but they all date from the 1950s at the latest. This highly structured. which address the social determinants of health. and the first priority is prevention. Although Cuba has limited economic resources. although the maternal mortality rate remains well above those in developed countries and is in the middle of the range for Caribbean countries. and smartphones don't work. Smokers. prevention-oriented system has produced positive results. credit cards. not unlike those we used in the United States 50 years ago. Vaccination rates in Cuba are among the highest in the world. the improved health outcomes are largely the result of improvements in nutrition and education. Ph. And the Cuban health care system also seems unreal. All care delivery is organized at the local level. But the system is surprisingly information-rich and focused on population health. and the patients and their caregivers generally live in the same community. It is tightly organized. the team is responsible for seeing that a patient with tuberculosis follows the assigned antimicrobial regimen and gets sputum checks. its health care system has solved some problems that ours has not yet managed to address. and asthma. and pregnancies necessitating prenatal care. and those with chronic conditions receive visits more frequently.D. ―A different model – medical care in Cuba‖ The New England Journal of Medicine.1056/NEJMp1215226] For a visitor from the United States. Disease I/L More evidence Campion and Morrissey 13 [Edward W.

Abortion is legal but is seen as a failure of prevention.remains difficult to get smokers to quit. . Contraception is free and strongly encouraged.

Nuclear Power PIC .

led to failure. ―Power to the People: Energy and the Cuban Nuclear Program.‖ Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation. There could. Over the last several decades the nation has lived with a drastic energy crisis. He went on to say that of the pipes that were originally approved. bad soldering. however. exposing the equipment to highly corrosive tropical salt air and inflicting critical damage." Vladimir Cervera. Nuclear collapse destroys Biodiversity in the entire western hemisphere Brand 98.1NC Shell The Plan Integrates Cuba into the global order. The stability of the equipment is essential to reactor safety because leakage or other structural failure could result in a meltdown. she acquired masters-level education in Business and Physics Sciences. In 1976 it signed an agreement with the Soviet Union to build two reactors of 440 MW in Juragua. http://npsglobal. ―The Future of Nuclear Power in Latin America. spurring nuclear power development Arguello „9 Founder and chair of NPSGlobal Foundation [Irma Arguello. Lawyer for CIPORE at American University [Chad X. including assistance from the IAEA. even with different external partners. 15 percent were later found to be flawed. and heat damage. Moreover. American University. August 2009.american. After leaving the oil industry. all attempts of restarting the project.pdf] The Cuban reactor was the first Soviet nuclear venture in the Western Hemisphere. stated that x-ray analysis showed that the welding pipes in the cooling system were weakened by air pockets. ―Cuba Nuclear Reactor and the Environment.latinamericanstudies. Brand.html] A very special case is the Cuban one.org/book/Cuban-Nuclear-Program. The challenges of building the reactor so far from home and in a completely different climate led to extensive delays in the construction schedule. She has written many papers and lectured on the topics of disarmament and nonproliferation. should Cuba’s energy needs persist and should Cuba become more globally integrated.org/eng/component/content/article/147-articles/712-nuclear-latam. as it mainly depends upon imported oil. Cuban nuclear power would experience meltdowns Benjamin-Alvarado 2k. Cienfuegos province. Moreover.‖ TED Case Studies. February 1998. an engineer working in quality control at the reactor. be a reactivation of its program in the future. the US is opposed to Cuba’s nuclear program for environmental and security reasons. defectors familiar with procedures and practices at the reactor construction site label Juragua a "technical disaster.‖ e-book. She used to work at ExxonMobil and Latin American Petrochemical Association. After that. http://www1.htm] .edu/TED/cubanuke. Another defector. http://www. geologist Jose Oro. University of Nebraska [Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado. or at least part of it. 2000. and that since December 1990 the steam system has been left outdoors. PhD of Political Science. Construction began in 1983 but was stopped in 1992 due to financial reasons. stated that the plant has numerous faulty seals and structural defects. where she held several managerial positions.

There is a strong possibility of radioactive materials being released from the Juragua plant in the event of an accident. The effects of such an incident occurring would reach far beyond Cuba's borders. the Caribbean and Latin America. Also. including the United States. permanently damaging the ecological life around Cuba's seacoast. Leakage of radioactive waste would contaminate waters in the Caribbean. a dispersion of radioactive materials would spread massive environmental destruction over a good portion of the Western Hemisphere. .

those of great concerns over possible safety problems.. nonpartisan think tank dedicated to providing rigorous.S. The founding mission was to prevent nuclear war. as per the Helms-Burton act FAS „12 a think tank of American scientists that has been working to stop nuclear war since 1945 [Federation of American Scientists. 2012. it was developed for the provision of information on renewable energy in the region. May 30. http://www. establishing a provision that requires U. As a result. The first article of the law declared a nuclear reactor in Cuba to be ―an act of aggression‖. The Helms-Burton Act of March 1996 unequivocally stated congressional opposition to Juragua.org/cuba-and-nuclearenergy-the-juragua-nuclear-power-plant-in-cienfuegos/] The construction of a nuclear power plant in Cuba has drawn staunch opposition from the United States.org/nuke/guide/cuba/] President Clinton stated in April 1993 that the United States opposed the construction of the Juragua nuclear power plant because of the concerns of the United States about Cuba's ability to ensure the safe operation of the facility and because of Cuba's refusal to sign the NPT or ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco. the possibility of an accident was likely.‖ January 19. adopted a policy that opposes the completion of both reactors.Ext. A 1992 GAO report addressing the current status of Juragua concluded that. if the reactors were completed.fas. More than 65 Nobel science laureates have endorsed FAS as members of the Board of Sponsors.S. evidence-based analysis and practical policy recommendations on security issues connected to applied science and technology. ―Cuba And Nuclear Energy: The Juragua Nuclear Power Plant In Cienfuegos. Cuba‟s nuclear ambitions have been suspended by fear of US aggression.. 2011. Embargo -> Nuclear As of now. ―Cuba Special Weapons.S. and discourages other countries from providing assistance except for safety purposes to Cuba’s nuclear program." The United States government's policy was that sales or assistance to the Cuban nuclear program should not be provided until Cuba has undertaken a legally binding non-proliferation commitment.S. "the completion and operation of any nuclear power facility . will be considered an act of aggression which will be met with an appropriate response in order to maintain the security of the national borders of the United States and the health and safety of the American people. US opposition has hindered the construction of nuclear power in Cuba – specific to the Helms Burton Act CIPORE ‟11 Caribbean information Platform on Renewable Energy [Caribbean information Platform on Renewable Energy. an independent. including a commitment to accept International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on all present and future nuclear facilities.‖ The Nuclear Information Project. policy towards a Cuban nuclear power plant reflects the same attitudes of Juragua’s critics. it will be integral to assist the local ministries responsible for energy build their capacity in this area. policy to prevent the completion of Juragua has led to increased pressure on Cuba. FAS staff comprise a highly skilled and dedicated team. objective. U. U. sanctions against any countries that attempt to assist . the U. http://cipore. Under the provisions of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad) Act of 1996.

.Cuba in finishing the Juragua reactors. Currently.7 million dollars for the 1997-1990 period. At the same time the U. Energy Department has refused to include Cuba in its 180 million nuclear safety program established with Russia and former Soviet Bloc states in Eastern Europe. Although this restriction has been rescinded. withheld its proportional funding to the technical cooperation fund of the IAEA for Cuba. between 1981 and 1995. Cuba was denied a total of 2 million dollars. 16 million dollars.S. Congress introduced legislation to cutoff U.S. totaling 59 reactors. unless the IAEA suppresses its funding of Juragua. Cuba was slated to receive 1. funding to the IAEA. From 1981 to 1996 the U.S.

2000. A major incident would create a radioactive cloud capable of creating serious ecological damage as far north as Tampa. approve shoddy workmanship. and pockets of high contamination could drift as far as 300 miles away. ―Power to the People: Energy and the Cuban Nuclear Program. A 1988 assessment estimated that the Cienfuegos area could produce an earthquake with a probable maximum magnitude of 5. The prevailing ocean currents would carry the radioactive fallout westward through the Jagua Trough.pdf] Even with these reassurances from Cuban officials.. Cuban Nuclear Unsafe Cuban nuclear stations are poorly constructed – that causes a Cuban Chernobyl Benjamin-Alvarado 2k.‖ e-book. Kenneth O. and a radioactive release could occur. Earthquakes and severe accidents guarantee meltdown Benjamin-Alvarado 2k. In fact. in 1992 this fault produced a quake that registered 7. with secondary fallout extending to a 900-mile radius (depending on prevailing weather conditions).org/book/Cuban-Nuclear-Program.S. Florida. the assessments of risks from earthquakes and dispersion of radioactive pollutants suggest that an active seismic fault could produce large to moderate earthquakes.latinamericanstudies. If Cuba obtains the assistance needed to complete its nuclear power reactors.. There would also be a 200-mile area where there would be serious health risks.Ext. In testimony before the House Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere.‖ e-book. http://www. PhD of Political Science. the doubts persist.latinamericanstudies. U. officials will need assurances that all safety concerns are resolved and that the reactors are built and operated in a manner that does not pose a risk to the United States. Community. and compromise safety considerations. and Economic Development Division of the U.S. large amounts of radioactive discharge could spew into the atmosphere and surrounding waters. ―Power to the People: Energy and the Cuban Nuclear Program. University of Nebraska [Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado. including the Isla de Pinos.org/book/Cuban-Nuclear-Program. .0 on the Richter scale. possibly spreading the contamination to the southern Cuban archipelago.pdf] Critics assert that the prevailing economic difficulties have forced the Castro regime to cut corners. The radioactive fallout would create a "dead-zone" with an 18-mile radius where nothing could survive. University of Nebraska [Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado. the containment structure-the ultimate barrier to the release of radioactive material in the event of an accident-could be breached. food production would be impossible. PhD of Political Science. General Accounting Office stated: It is possible that in the event of a severe accident. 2000. Fultz of the Resources. The debate over safety at Juragua raises the possibility of a "Cuban Chernobyl." Critics contend that if a theoretical "major" or "serious" incident were to take place.. http://www.0 on the Richter scale. Moreover.

air bags and overheating.htm] In the event of an accident. American University. over seven times the pressure of the Cuban system. This probability should be less than one percent. Even the negative perception of a minor nuclear accident would create great reluctance by foreign markets to consume Cuban sugar or choose Cuba as a tourist destination. The possibility of an accident occurring at Juragua. thus increasing the risk of severe damage. is fifteen percent. http://www1.‖ TED Case Studies. It is estimated that up to 15% of the welds of the auxiliary piping of the containment dome are defective. This is insufficient to support the pressure of a meltdown. The environmental damage and ecological risks involved would be disastrous because of the poor construction of the power plant. The standard in the United States is 50 pounds per square inch. tourism and agriculture. the possibility of radioactive fallout blanketing northwestern Cuba. .Ext. Cuba lacks a comprehensive system to perform systematic readings that monitor radioactivity to prevent potential accidents. Currently.edu/TED/cubanuke. Environment Impact Impact destroys the environment over the entire US Brand 98. the Caribbean. According to air weather patterns around Cienfuegos. The first reactor's containment dome was designed to stand the pressure of only seven pounds per square inch. was exposed for over 18 months to highly corrosive salt air. This problem is further highlighted by allegations made by Cuban engineers who formally worked at Juragua stating the power plant suffers from serious construction flaws. Brand. Lawyer for CIPORE at American University [Chad X. reducing the ability of the structure to prevent leakage. Experts believe in the final analysis that if the Cuban government be able to complete the plant. Juragua does not have testing facilities to measure radioactive leaks. it would take only 24 hours for radioactive materials to reach southern Florida and approximately 48 hours before they reached the eastern United States. Latin America and the United States is a major concern. February 1998. ―Cuba Nuclear Reactor and the Environment. Instead.american. X-ray testing demonstrated that many of the pipe unions were weakened as a result of poor welding. including the steam supply system. creating many cold joints. Monolithic concrete pours required to eliminate leak creating joints pursuant to international safety standards did not occur due to lack of materials. A large nuclear accident could easily have devastating effects on Cuba's two main sources of income. A large amount of the equipment. the possibility of a major disaster is extremely high. pours occurred when materials were available. upon its operation according to experts.

Aff Ans to Healthcare PIC .

S. "In general." The Amnesty report also cites United Nations data that says Cuba's inability to import nutritional products for schools. I would say the people most affected have been cancer and HIV-AIDS patients. Gerardo Ducos.S. In 2007.S. the U. hospitals and day care centers is contributing to a high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia. exported $710 million of food and agricultural products to Cuba in 2008. State Department spokeswoman would not comment on the report because she hadn't read it.2AC Cards Embargo hurts Cuban healthcare – blocks access to medical supplies Tutton 09 [Mark Tutton.. According to the report.health/] The U. and sending them remittances. In April this year President Obama lifted restrictions that had prevented U.S. "It's preventing millions of Cubans from benefiting from vital medicines and medical equipment essential for their health. a human rights organization that pulled research on Cuban healthcare for years in creating the report. reporter for CNN citing a report by Amnesty International. embargo immoral and said it should be lifted. told CNN that although medicines and medical supplies can be licensed for export to Cuba. "The president believes it makes strategic sense to hold on to some inducements we can use in dealing with a Cuban government if it shows any signs of seeking a normalized relationship with us and begins to respect basic human rights. she said. Over the past decades.S. the embargo has a sweeping effect on Cuban healthcare.5 percent of Cuba's children under three years old. but only $1. leaving medical equipment without replacement parts and patients without continuity of medications. Amnesty said that while not renewing the Act would not in itself end the embargo against Cuba. the condition affected 37. which have been in place since 1962. She told CNN. Cuba can import these products from other countries. An Amnesty report examines the effects of the sanctions. human rights group Amnesty International alleged Wednesday.S. which is due for renewal on September 14. an Amnesty researcher for the Caribbean region. "Doctors in Cuba always worry that an international supplier will be bought out by a U." Reed said. Gail Reed is international director of MEDICC (Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba). Cuban and global health communities.-owned company abroad.com/2009/HEALTH/09/01/amnesty. Amnesty also called on President Obama to not renew the Trading with the Enemy Act.S. is adopting a new policy toward Cuba." Khan said. The Act has been reviewed by U. company. ―Report: US Sanctions put Cubans’ health at risk‖ September 2 2009 http://edition.S.cnn.S. . it would send a clear message that the U. according to UNICEF." She also said the embargo affects the way doctors think about the future. and from any U. Amnesty International Secretary-General Irene Khan called the U. a non-profit organization that encourages cooperation among U. the conditions governing the process make their export virtually impossible. trade embargo on Cuba is endangering the health of millions by limiting Cubans' access to medicines and medical technology.S. citizens from visiting relatives in Cuba.S. The embargo restricts the export of medicines and medical equipment from the U. However. presidents on an annual basis since 1978.2 million of medical equipment and products. but there are major shipping costs and logistical challenges to contend with. A U.cuba.

largely due to their poor English-language skills and the stark differences between Cuban and U.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] These changes in employment.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein. Cubans consume 3.250 calories a day on average. July/August 2010 http://heinonline. many now work as nurses in Florida hospitals. to be used in domestic production of the drug on the island.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein. Ducos told CNN that this particularly affects HIV/AIDS treatments.S.000 physicians have taken advantage of the program. used to treat breast cancer. In 2006. patents. policy currently in place. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations. She gave the example of methotrexate. Although few have managed to gain accreditation as U. 4. telling CNN that an export license was denied to a firm wanting to sell the U. medical training. so that Cuban importers were not forced to purchase the finished product on the international pharmaceutical market. medical licensing examinations." he said. "Four times as many women may be treated with methotrexate if the drug could be produced domestically.S. Khan added. And UNICEF has found that vitamin and mineral deficiencies. "The latest medicines are usually covered by U. doctors.S.S.S. First. which means Cuba must wait several years for the patent to run out before they can buy generic products. the affordability of food. Obesity and diabetes are the fastest-growing causes of patient visits to government clinics and hospitals.S. although Cubans' average caloric intake is very high. An estimated 2. are covered by the embargo. the U. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No. most of it in the form of starch and fatty pork. "Although responsibility for providing adequate health care lies primarily with the Cuban authorities. According to one recent Cuban government survey. 4. however.-produced active ingredient to Cuba. encourages Cuban physicians to immigrate to the United States. July/August 2010 http://heinonline. the nutritional value of their diets is very low. In the statement.S.S. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations. and agricultural productivity have had two profound implications for the health of Cubans. And the impact is inevitable – Cuba is a dietary and nutrition disaster Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett. The report says that products patented in the U." she said. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No. . governments imposing sanctions such as embargoes need to pay special attention to the impact they can have on the targeted country's population.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] The only U. Department of Homeland Security created a special parole program under which health-care workers who defect from Cuba are granted legal residence in the United States while they prepare for U.Reed said the embargo does not permit the sale of active ingredients or raw materials to the Cuban pharmaceutical industry." Net benefit is not-unique: current US policy has caused Cuban doctors to leave for years Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett.

July/August 2010 http://heinonline. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No. according to the country's 2008 Annual Health Statistics report. . are widespread among Cuban children. Cuban health care fails now – 3 warrants: 1) Equipment shortages and failed cancer treatments Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations. July/August 2010 http://heinonline.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] Another problem in Cuba's health picture is maternal mortality. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations. now ranks as the fourth leading cause of death for Cuban women. Some women told me last November that they no longer undergo routine gynecological exams and prevent their young daughters from doing so because they fear infection from unhygienic equipment and practices. Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council of Foreign Relations.which stunt growth and contribute to learning deficiencies.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein. Some say they fear getting infections while visiting clinics because of shortages of soap. yet mothers often are forgotten after childbirth. Cuban hospital patients have needed to provide their own syringes. however. Most deaths occur during delivery or within the next 48 hours and are caused by uterine hemorrhage or postpartum sepsis. cervical carcinoma. 4. "If a child coughs.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein. 4. bed sheets. disinfectants. Cuba also has unusually high rates of death among women with histories of induced abortion. A preventable form of cancer. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No. ―Castrocare in crisis: Will lifting the embargo make things worse‖ Foreign Affairs Volume 89 No.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] For years. In Cuba. 3) Doctor strain and mistreatment Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett. and towels. Cervical cancer is the number one malignancy for Cuban women aged 15-44. In most of the world. and sterile equipment. the state has placed great emphasis on infant care and survival. the number of routine Pap tests performed has fallen by more than 30 percent and the number of diagnosed cervical cancer cases has doubled since 1985. But this effort has meant paying insufficient attention to postpartum maternal care. 2) Maternal mortality Garrett 10 [Laurie Garrett. Because the country's birthrate is low and its population is aging. they go to the doctor. a very common procedure there. cervical cancer is on the decline thanks to annual gynecological screenings (with the Pap test) and the use of the human papillomavirus vaccine. 4." one senior doctor at the University of Havana told me.

meanwhile. a Havana slum. taking jobs as taxi drivers or in hotels. charging that the mandatory service they had performed in Venezuela in exchange for oil shipments to the Cuban government constituted "modern slavery" and "conditions of servilism for debt.times years of service in a remote village. including some. such as South Africa. have caused the Cuban regime to cut back on physician placements to some countries. Physicians return from years abroad because they must. both contractually and to avoid repercussions for their relatives in Cuba. Many doctors and nurses leave the health-care system altogether. In February 2010.July/August 2010 http://heinonline. . or a sparsely populated tobacco-growing area.journals/fora89&type=Ima ge&id=583] Cuba's doctors are increasingly strained. where they can earn cucs. seven Cuban doctors sued the Cuban and Venezuelan governments. They then must accept whatever assignments the government gives them.org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&handle=hein." Large numbers of defections among doctors.

and basic medical supplies. the highest doctor-patient ratio in the world. public health in Cuba and the country’s health care have fared less well. Visitors to Cuba. Even if doctors stay in Cuba. ―Does the US Embargo Affect Cuban Healthcare?‖ June 21 2000 http://jnci.000 newborns—down from 70 at the outset of the Castro regime 41 years ago— the country’s infant mortality rate is impressively low. Washington’s chief of mission at the U.full] The average life expectancy in Cuba is almost 76. committee for the World Health Organization. The American government has a ―Who. embargo as the Cuban government often alleges. Variations on the above themes are not hard to find. Journal for the National Cancer Institute at Oxford University. students working toward health sciences degrees in the United States and Canada spend 4 to 8 weeks in Cuba taking courses in their fields and doing clinical rotations mentored by local physicians.‖ he said. ―Medicines are in short supply not because of the U. me?‖ response to such observations. The other is that water purification chemicals are exorbitantly expensive and often unobtainable.org/content/92/12/963.S. things like anesthesia and x-ray machines are.S.-made water treatment system are unavailable.D.000 physicians. too. equipment. One is that replacement parts for the aging U. of Stanford University Medical School. the precious few rubber gloves available are reserved for surgical procedures. But he also found that. that Cuban health care. . A ―Dear Visitor‖ paper that she hands out to fellow Americans says. A hematologist. M. and.oxfordjournals. ―These hospitals were all well staffed with very qualified physicians. about the same as in the United States. ..medicc. because of the embargo. They often return from the experience to report that universal precautions are not observed in Cuba. ―the management of patients can be difficult‖ due to a lack of such items as bonemarrow aspiration needles and high-dose formulations of cytosine-arabinoside and shortages of antibiotics. the U. the embargo means healthcare is ineffective – blocks equipment Randal 00 [Judith Randal. is free and available for everyone.S.1AR Ext. highly committed and knowledgeable in their fields.‖ . Moreover. Or consider the experience of Peter Greenberg. trade embargo with reasonable success. The embargo is to blame in two ways. for example. And at 9 deaths per 1. Vicki Huddleston. Cuba now boasts more than 30.S. are told to buy bottled water—something few Cubans can afford— because the local water is unfit to drink. for example. Interests Section at the Swiss Embassy in Havana. tertiary care included.org). too.S. Greenberg has twice been to Cuba—in 1998 and again in 1999—to lecture about his specialty and to spend time with counterparts at hospitals in Havana and Santa Clara. just as cars in Cuba are likely to be vintage models. denies that the embargo is to blame for Cuba’s health woes. illness due to waterborne causes in Cuba has soared as a result and some hospital-acquired infections have been traced to tainted water. But though Cuban biotechnology has met the challenge of the loss of Soviet subsidies and the squeeze of the U. current textbooks. but simply because the Cuban government has . Under a program called MEDICC (http://www. He was pleased to find. not allocated the money to buy medicines. According to the American Association for World Health. too.

Aff Ans to Nuclear PIC .

6 miles) and would pose no threat to other countries.pdf] At a 1996 seminar in Washington.‖ e-book. D. stating that upgrading the power generation capability of the island's 156 sugar mills using cogeneration of bagasse would be far less expensive and could provide up to one-quarter of Cuba's energy needs. 2000. however. construction.Cuban Nuclear Safe Cubans are following safe building practices and the impact is limited Benjamin-Alvarado 2k."78 Dr. a leading Cuban official stated that "Cubans would never build a nuclear plant that isn't safe.latinamericanstudies. University of Nebraska [Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado. 2000. http://www. ―Power to the People: Energy and the Cuban Nuclear Program. and quality control defensively and flatly deny that Juragua's safety is a legitimate concern. Furthermore. They do acknowledge that a nuclear incident is possible but contend that the area of fallout would be limited to an area of no more than 30 km (18. most of the environmental degradation and radiation discharged would be limited to Cuba.pdf] Russian and Cuban officials responsible for safety. a senior scientist with the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). Unlike the Chernobyl RBMK-type reactor. Cuban specialists who had worked at the Juragua site are quoted as saying that the Juragua facility is virtually earthquake. the VVER reactor design incorporates a second containment structure for preventing the release of radiation in case of an accident. contends that even with the prevailing economic difficulties. .and tornado-proof. President of the Agenda de Energia Nuclear (AEN). PhD of Political Science. we are the ones the most concerned with it. He concluded that rather than being based on scientific findings.C. Thomas Cochran.‖ e-book. Daniel Codorniu Pujals. Juragua is safe Russian technology and wouldn‟t have a large impact anyway.org/book/Cuban-Nuclear-Program. One could not expect a Chernobyl-type accident in Cuba.. Their „experts‟ are biased Benjamin-Alvarado 2k. In response to the criticism of Cuba's nuclear policy. discussed the safety concerns regarding the Juragua project. these concerns were fueled by anti-Castro sentiments that have prevented pursuit of a policy that could ensure safe operation of the plant. They also say that the humid climate and the possibility of a direct air crash have been taken into consideration in the construction of the containment structure. He was. Juragua is a "one-of-akind" reactor that is similar in design to twenty-seven other Russian-designed reactors currently operating in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. These reactors have operated for four hundred reactor years without a major accident. ―Power to the People: Energy and the Cuban Nuclear Program. University of Nebraska [Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado. Cuba has been able to reorient its focus on maintenance and conservation. They point to Finland's Loviisa Soviet-designed VVER nuclear reactor as evidence of a safely operating Soviet-designed nuclear power facility. http://www. critical of the Cuban expenditure on nuclear energy. Cochran dismissed the potential of danger that the power plant might pose to the United States. we are the ones who have to live here. they argue that the probabilities for Juragua are in line with those of other pressurized water-cooled reactors (PWR). PhD of Political Science. Even US experts agree. Cochran emphasizes that if a nuclear accident were to occur.org/book/Cuban-Nuclear-Program.latinamericanstudies.