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CIVIL PROCEDURE

PART ONE ORDINARY CIVIL ACTIONS
I. CASE BEGINS WITH THE FILING OF COMPLAINT 1. Preliminary 1. Definition of complaint A complaint is a pleading alleging a plaintiff’s cause o causes of action! T"e names and esidences of t"e plaintiff and defendant must #e stated in t"e complaint! $ 2. Requirements %!$ Ve ification A pleading is &e ified #' an affida&it t"at t"e affiant "as ead t"e pleading and t"at t"e allegations t"e ein a e t ue and co ect of "is pe sonal (no)ledge o #ased on aut"entic eco ds! A pleading e*ui ed to #e &e ified )"ic" contains a &e ification #ased on +info mation and #elief+ o upon +(no)ledge, info mation and #elief,+ o lac(s a p ope &e ification, s"all #e t eated as an unsigned pleading! % A#sence of &e ification )"en e*ui ed is not a -u isdictional defect! It is -ust a fo mal defect )"ic" can #e )ai&ed! . T"e &e ification #' a la)'e is sufficient!/ %!% Ce tificate against fo um0s"opping An impo tant component of a complaint o an' initiato ' pleading is t"e ce tificate of non0fo um s"opping! T"e ule e*ui es t"at t"e plaintiff o p incipal pa t' ce tifies unde oat" in t"e complaint o ot"e initiato ' pleading asse ting a claim fo elief, o in a s)o n ce tification anne1ed t"e eto and simultaneousl' filed t"e e)it"2 3a4 t"at "e "as not t"e etofo e commenced an' action o filed an' claim in&ol&ing t"e same issues in an' cou t, t i#unal o *uasi0-udicial agenc' and, to t"e #est of "is (no)ledge, no suc" ot"e action o claim is pending t"e ein5 3#4 if t"e e is suc" ot"e pending action o claim, a complete statement of t"e p esent status t"e eof5 and 3c4 if "e s"ould t"e eafte lea n t"at t"e same o simila action o claim "as #een filed o is pending, "e s"all epo t t"at fact )it"in fi&e 364 da's t"e ef om to t"e cou t )"e ein "is afo esaid complaint o initiato ' pleading "as #een filed!6 %!%!$ Natu e

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Rules of Court, Rule 6, Sec. 3.

Rules of Court, Rule 7, Sec. 4, as amended by A. M. No. 002 10 SC. !"#l#$$#ne %an& of Commerce '. Macadae(, 10) !"#l. )*1 +1)60,- %uena'entura '. .y, No. / 2*106, Marc" 31, 1)*7, 14) SCRA 22. 4 .y '. 1or&men2s Com$ensat#on Comm#ss#on, / 433*), A$r#l 2*, 1)*0, )7 SCRA 200. 0 Rules of Court, Rule 7, Sec. 0.

3a4 T"e e*ui ed ce tificate of non0fo um s"opping is mandato ' #ut not -u isdictional! 7 3#4 Initiato ' pleadings a e t"e complaint, pe missi&e counte claim, c oss0claim, t"i d0pa t' 3fou t"0pa t', etc!4, complaints and complaints0in0inte &ention! T"e ce tificate of non0fo um s"opping s"ould #e signed #' t"e plaintiff 3pe missi&e counte claimant, c oss0claimant, t"i d0pa t', etc! 8 plaintiff and plaintiff0in0inte &ention4 and not t"e counsel!9 3c4 T"e e is fo um s"opping )"en, as a esult of an ad&e se opinion in one fo um, a pa t' see(s a fa&o a#le opinion 3ot"e t"an #' appeal o certiorari4 in ot"e fo a, o )"en "e epetiti&el' a&ails "imself of +se&e al -udicial emedies in diffe ent cou ts, simultaneousl' o successi&el', all su#stantiall' founded on t"e same issue o t ansactions in&ol&ing t"e same essential facts and ci cumstances, and all aising su#stantiall' t"e same issues eit"e pending in o esol&ed ad&e sel' #' some ot"e cou t!+ : Else)ise stated, fo um s"opping e1ists )"e e t"e elements of litis pendentia a e p esent o )"e e a final -udgment in one case )ill amount to res judicata in t"e ot"e !; <"e e -udgment "as al ead' #ecome final and e1ecuto ', res judicata and not fo um s"opping s"ould #e pleaded as a defense! =o um s"opping applies onl' )"en t)o 3%4 o mo e cases a e still pending! $> 3d4 =ailu e to compl' )it" t"e e*ui ement of a ce tificate of non0fo um s"opping ma' not #e cu ed #' me e amendment of t"e complaint o ot"e initiato ' pleading! T"e initiato ' pleading s"ould #e dismissed )it"out p e-udice, unless ot"e )ise p o&ided, upon motion and afte "ea ing! ?o)e&e , e&en if t"e e is a ce tificate of non0fo um s"opping, if t"e acts of t"e pa t' o "is counsel clea l' constitute )illful and deli#e ate fo um s"opping, t"e same s"all #e g ound fo summa ' dismissal )it" p e-udice of t"e initiato ' pleading and s"all constitute di ect contempt, as )ell as a cause fo administ ati&e sanctions against t"e fo me ! $$ . Filin! "# C"m$lain% 1. Manner =iling of t"e complaint is t"e act of p esenting it to t"e Cle ( of Cou t! $% T"is ma' #e done #' p esenting t"e o iginal cop' plainl' indicated as suc", pe sonall' to t"e cle ( of cou t o #' sending it #' egiste ed mail to t"e cle ( of cou t! In pe sonal filing, t"e date and "ou of eceipt #' t"e cle ( of cou t as indicated on t"e face of t"e complaint is t"e date and "ou of filing! In filing #' egiste ed mail, t"e date of posting appea ing on t"e en&elope s"all #e conside ed t"e date of filing!$. =iling of a complaint #' mail ot"e t"an t" oug" egist ' se &ice of t"e go&e nment postal agenc' is not aut"o i@ed! T"us, if a complaint is mailed t" oug" an' p i&ate lette 0fo )a ding agenc', t"e date of eceipt #' t"e cle ( of cou t is t"e date of filing!$/ =iling of t"e complaint s"ould #e distinguis"ed f om se &ice of pleadings su#se*uent to t"e filing of t"e complaint!$6 In se &ice of pleadings, p io ities in modes of se &ice must #e st ictl' o#se &ed! $7 2. Payment of docket and other lawful fees
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Robern 3e'elo$ment Cor$. '. 4u#ta#n, 5.R. No. 130042, Se$tember 23, 1))), 310 SCRA 100. 6#'e Star %us Com$any '. Court of A$$eals, 5.R. No. 127064, Au(ust 31, 1))), 313 SCRA 367. * S$ouses 3#u '. 7ba8an, 5. R. No. 132607, 9anuary 1), 2000. ) %uan '. /o$e:, No. / 7034), ;ctober 13, 1)*0, 140 SCRA 34. 10 <m$loyees Com$ensat#on Comm#ss#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5.R. No. 110*0*, 9une 26, 1))6, 207 SCRA 717. 11 Rules of Court, Rule 7, Sec. 0. 12 Rules of Court, Rule 13, Sec. 2. 13 Ibid., Sec. 3. 14 %en(uet <lectr#c Coo$erat#'e, 7nc '. Nat#onal /abor Relat#ons Comm#ss#on, 5. R. No. *)070, May 1*, 1))2, 20) SCRA 00. 10 Rules of Court, Rule 13, Sec. 4. 16 Ibid., Sec. 11.

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Ballatan v. Court of Appeals,17 summa i@es t"e ules on pa'ment of doc(et fees2 3a4 T"e ule in t"is -u isdiction is t"at )"en an action is filed in cou t, t"e complaint must #e accompanied #' t"e pa'ment of t"e e*uisite doc(et and filing fees! 3#4 In eal actions, t"e doc(et and filing fees a e #ased on t"e &alue of t"e p ope t' and t"e amount of damages claimed, if an', )"ic" must #e specified in t"e #od' and p a'e of t"e complaint! Note t"at in Tacay v. RTC of Tagum Davao del Norte, t"e Sup eme Cou t opined t"at a eal action ma' #e commenced o p osecuted )it"out an accompan'ing claim fo damages!$: 3c4 If t"e complaint is filed #ut t"e fees a e not paid at t"e time of filing, t"e cou t ac*ui es -u isdiction upon full pa'ment of t"e fees )it"in a easona#le time as t"e cou t ma' g ant, #a ing p esc iption! 3d4 <"e e t"e fees p esc i#ed fo t"e eal action "a&e #een paid #ut t"e fees of ce tain elated damages a e not, t"e cou t, alt"oug" "a&ing -u isdiction o&e t"e eal action, ma' not "a&e ac*ui ed -u isdiction o&e t"e accompan'ing claim fo damages!$; 3e4 Acco dingl', t"e cou t ma' e1punge t"ose claims fo damages, o allo), on motion, a easona#le time fo amendment of complaint so as to allege t"e p ecise amount of damages and accept pa'ment of t"e e*uisite legal fees!%> 3f4 If t"e e a e unspecified claims, t"e dete mination of )"ic" ma' a ise afte t"e filing of t"e complaint o simila pleading, t"e additional filing fee t"e eon s"all constitute a lien on t"e -udgment a)a d! %$ 3g4 T"e same ule also applies to t"i d0pa t' claims and ot"e simila pleadings! %% Note2 E&en if t"e &alue of a p ope t' is immate ial in t"e dete mination of t"e cou t’s -u isdiction, it s"ould "o)e&e #e conside ed in t"e dete mination of t"e amount of doc(et fee! %. . COURT AC&UIRES 'URISDICTION OVER THE PARTIES <"ile t"e cou t ac*ui es -u isdiction o&e t"e plaintiff #' t"e latte ’s &olunta ' su#mission to said -u isdiction )it" t"e filing of t"e complaint, t"e cou t ac*ui es -u isdiction o&e t"e defendant #' "is &olunta ' su#mission to said -u isdiction o t"e se &ice of summons and a cop' of t"e complaint upon "im! 1. M"(e) "# Ser*i+e "# S,mm"n) T"e e a e fou 3/4 modes of se &ing summons2 3a4 pe sonal se &ice5 3#4 su#stituted se &ice5 3c4 const ucti&e 3#' pu#lication4 se &ice5 and
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5. R. No. 1206*3, Marc" 2, 1))) 304 SCRA 34. =acay '. Re(#onal =r#al Court of =a(um, 5. R. Nos. **070 77, 3ecember 20, 1)*), 1*0 SCRA 4*3. 1) ;r#(#nal 3e'elo$ment and Construct#on Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. )4677, ;ctober 10, 1))1, 202 SCRA 703. 20 Ibid. 21 Ibid. 22 Sun 7nsurance ;ff#ce /td. '. Asunc#on, 5. R. Nos. 7))37 3*, 6ebruary 13, 1)*), 170 SCRA 274. 23 =acay '. Re(#onal =r#al Court of =a(um, supra, note 1*.

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3d4 e1t ate ito ial se &ice! 1. Personal Service <"ene&e p actica#le, t"e summons s"all #e se &ed #' "anding a cop' t"e eof to t"e defendant in pe son, o , if "e efuses to ecei&e and sign fo it, #' tende ing it to "im! %/ If t"e e a e t)o 3%4 o mo e defendants, eac" one of t"em s"ould #e se &ed a cop' of t"e summons and t"e complaint! %6 2. Substituted Service If, fo -ustifia#le causes, t"e defendant cannot pe sonall' #e se &ed )it" summons )it"in a easona#le time, se &ice ma' #e effected2 3$4 #' lea&ing copies of t"e summons at t"e defendant’s esidence )it" some pe son of suita#le age and disc etion t"en esiding t"e ein, o 3%4 #' lea&ing t"e copies at t"e defendant’s office o egula place of #usiness )it" some competent pe son in c"a ge t"e eof! %7 In su#stituted se &ice, it is immate ial t"at t"e defendant does not in fact ecei&e actual notice! T"is )ill not affect t"e &alidit' of t"e se &ice! %9 T"e e must #e st ict compliance )it" t"e e*ui ements of su#stituted se &ice! %: =o su#stituted se &ice to #e &alid, t"e etu n must s"o)2 3$4 t"e effo ts e1e ted #' t"e s"e iff to effect pe sonal se &ice )it"in a easona#le pe iod of time5 impossi#ilit' of se &ice s"ould #e s"o)n #' stating t"e effo ts made to find t"e defendant5 3%4 t"at suc" pe sonal se &ice cannot #e effected fo -ustifia#le easons5 3.4 t"e se &ice of summons )as made at t"e defendant’s esidence o office o egula place of #usiness at t"e time of t"e se &ice, t"e add ess of t"e defendant to )"om summons )as supposed to "a&e #een se &ed must #e indicated in t"e etu n5 and 3/4 t"e se &ice )as made )it" some pe son of suita#le age and disc etion esiding t"e ein, if effected at defendant’s esidence, o )it" some competent pe son in c"a ge t"e eof, if effected at defendant’s office o egula place of #usiness, at t"e time of t"e se &ice! %; Impossi#ilit' of pe sonal se &ice fo -ustifia#le easons must #e s"o)n! .> Ot"e )ise, t"e se &ice is in&alid!.$ T"e s"e iff’s ce tification t"at "e dul' se &ed summons on a defendant does not necessa il' mean t"at "e &alidl' se &ed t"e summons! Impossi#ilit' of pe sonal se &ice must #e esta#lis"ed eit"e #' t"e etu n o #' e&idence to t"at effect!.%
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Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 6. %ello '. .bo, No. / 30303, Se$tember 30, 1)*2, 117 SCRA )1. 26 Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 7. 27 Montalban '. Ma>#mo, No. / 22))7, Marc" 10, 1)6*, 22 SCRA 1070. 2* 6#lmerco Commerc#al Co., 7nc. '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, No. / 70661, A$r#l ), 1)*7, 14) SCRA 1)4. 2) Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 7. 30 Adm#n#strat#'e C#rcular No. 0). 31 ?enturan:a '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 77760, 3ecember 11, 1)*7, 106 SCRA 300. 32 @e#ster '. Na'arro, No. / 2)067, May 31, 1)77, 77 SCRA 20), 6#lmerco Commec#al Co., 7nc. '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, supra, note 2*.

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%!$ Se &ice on Domestic P i&ate Au idical Entit' Se &ice on an agent of t"e co po ation is not pe mitted! T"e designation of pe sons o office s )"o a e aut"o i@ed to accept summons fo a domestic co po ation is limited and mo e clea l' specified! T"e ule states Bgene al manage B instead of onl' Bmanage ,B Bco po ate sec eta 'B instead of Bsec eta 'B and Bt easu e B instead of Bcas"ie !B Acco dingl', t"e Cou t uled t"at t"e se &ice of summons upon t"e C anc" Danage of petitione at its # anc" office in Caga'an de O o Cit' instead of upon t"e gene al manage at its p incipal office in Da&ao Cit' is imp ope ! Conse*uentl', t"e t ial cou t did not ac*ui e -u isdiction o&e t"e pe son of t"e petitione ! T"e Cou t st essed t"e pu pose of t"e st ict enfo cement of t"e ule on summons #' p o&iding t"at unde Section %> of Rule $/, t"e inclusion in a motion to dismiss of ot"e g ounds aside f om lac( of -u isdiction o&e t"e pe son of t"e defendant s"all not #e deemed a &olunta ' appea ance! An' p oceeding unde ta(en #' t"e t ial cou t )ill conse*uentl' #e null and &oid!.. %!% Se &ice on fo eign p i&ate -u idical entit' ma' #e allo)ed onl' if t"e e a e )ell0pleaded allegations of "a&ing t ansacted o doing #usiness in t"e P"ilippines!./ T"e fact of doing #usiness in t"e P"ilippines must #e esta#lis"ed #' app op iate allegations in t"e complaint! T"e cou t need not go #e'ond t"e allegations of t"e complaint in o de to dete mine )"et"e it "as -u isdiction! .6 A dete mination t"at t"e fo eign co po ation is doing #usiness is onl' tentati&e and is made onl' fo t"e pu pose of ena#ling t"e local cou t to ac*ui e -u isdiction o&e t"e fo eign co po ation t" oug" se &ice of summons pu suant to Rule $/, Section $%! Suc" dete mination does not fo eclose a cont a ' finding s"ould e&idence late s"o) t"at it is not t ansacting #usiness in t"e count '! .7 . !onstructive Service "#y Publication$ ervice upon defendant !"ose identity or !"erea#outs are un$no!n. E In an' action )"e e t"e defendant is designated as an un(no)n o)ne , o t"e li(e, o )"ene&e "is )"e ea#outs a e un(no)n and cannot #e asce tained #' diligent in*ui ', se &ice ma', #' lea&e of cou t, #e effected upon "im #' pu#lication in a ne)spape of gene al ci culation and in suc" places and fo suc" time as t"e cou t ma' o de ! .9 <"en t"e defendant is a esident of t"e P"ilippines, se &ice of summons #' pu#lication is allo)ed in an' action! %. &'traterritorial Service( )hen *llowed E1t ate ito ial se &ice of summons is allo)ed )"e e t"e action is against a non0 esident defendant )"o is not found in t"e P"ilippines and t"e action2 3$4 affects t"e pe sonal status of plaintiffs5 3%4 elates to o su#-ect of )"ic" is p ope t' in t"e P"ilippines 3 eal o pe sonal4, in )"ic" t"e defendant "as claim, lien o inte est, actual o contingent5 o 3.4 in )"ic" elief demanded consists )"oll', o in pa t, in e1cluding t"e defendant f om an' inte est t"e ein5 o

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<. %. ?#llarosa A !artner Co., /td. '. %en#to, 5. R. No. 136426, Au(ust 4, 1))), 312 SCRA 60. Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 12. 30 /#tton M#lls, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. )4)*0, May 10, 1))6, 206 SCRA 6)6- S#(net#cs Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 100141, Au(ust 31, 1))3, 220 SCRA 737. 36 Ibid. 37 Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 14.

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3/4 p ope t' of defendant "as #een attac"ed in t"e P"ilippines! .: T"us, e1t ate ito ial se &ice of summons is p ope onl' in actions in rem o %uasi&in&rem! T"e emed' against a non0 esident defendant )"o cannot #e se &ed )it" summons in t"e P"ilippines is to locate eal o pe sonal p ope t' and attac" t"e p ope t'! T"e action #ecomes in rem or %uasi&in&rem'( in )"ic" case, se &ice #' pu#lication is pe missi#le! <"e e, "o)e&e , t"e attac"ment is in&alid, t"e se &ice #' pu#lication is &oid! /> To #e effecti&e, e1t ate ito ial se &ice of summons must #e )it" lea&e of cou t and onl' t" oug" an' of t"e follo)ing means2 3$4 Pe sonal se &ice5 3%4 C' pu#lication 3and cop' of t"e summons and o de of t"e cou t must #e sent #' egiste ed mail to t"e last (no)n add ess45 3.4 C' pu#lication 3and cop' of summons and o de of t"e cou t4 must #e sent #' egiste ed mail at last (no)n add ess5 An' ot"e manne )"ic" t"e cou t ma' deem sufficient! /$ Notes2 Se &ice of summons on "us#and is not #inding on )ife )"o is a non0 esident! /% ?o)e&e , su#stituted se &ice/. o e1t ate ito ial se &ice of summons #' lea&e of cou t on a esident defendant )"o is tempo a il' outside of t"e P"ilippines is &alid! // . E##e+% "# La+- "# S,mm"n) T"e t ial cou t does not ac*ui e -u isdiction and ende s null and &oid all su#se*uent p oceedings and issuances in t"e actions f om t"e o de of default up to and including t"e -udgment #' default and t"e o de of e1ecution! /6 ?o)e&e , lac( of summons ma' #e )ai&ed as )"en t"e defendant fails to ma(e an' seasona#le o#-ection to t"e cou t’s lac( of -u isdiction o&e t"e pe son of t"e defendant!/7

.. INCIDENTS AFTER COURT HAS AC&UIRED 'URISDICTION OVER THE PARTIES 1. Preliminary Afte t"e cou t "as ac*ui ed -u isdiction o&e t"e pa ties, #ut #efo e t"e defendant files "is esponsi&e pleading, t"e pa ties ma' file t"e follo)ing notice, motions and pleadings2 1. Plaintiff $!$ notice of dismissal of t"e complaint unde Rule $9, Section $5 $!% amended complaint unde Rule $>, Section %5

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%anco <s$aBol 6#l#$#no '. !alanca, 37 !"#l )21 +1)1*,- !er&#ns '. 3#:on, 6) !"#l 1*6 +1)3),- Sa"a(um '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 7*32*, 9une 3, 1))1, 1)* SCRA 44. 3) 6#lmerco Commerc#al Co., 7nc. '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, supra, note 2*. 40 ;baBa '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. *7630, A$r#l 27, 1)*), 172 SCRA **6. 41 Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 17. 42 ?almonte '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 10*03*, 9anuary 22, 1))6, 202 SCRA )2. 43 Montalban '. Ma>#mo, supra, note 27. 44 Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 16. 40 =oyota Cubao, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 126321, ;ctober 23, 1))7, 2*1 SCRA 1)*. 46 %at#cano '. C"u, 9r., / 0*036, Marc" 16, 1)*7, 14* SCRA 041.

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$!. motion fo lea&e to file a supplemental complaint unde Rule $>, Section 75 $!/ motion fo lea&e of cou t to ta(e t"e deposition upon o al e1amination o ) itten inte ogato ies of an' pe son, )"et"e pa t' o not unde Rule %., Section $5 $!6 motion fo lea&e of cou t to se &e ) itten inte ogato ies upon defendant unde Rule %6, Section $5 $!7 motion fo p oduction o inspection of documents of t"ings unde Rule %9, Section $5 $!9 motion to decla e defendant in default unde Rule ;, Section .! 2. Defendant %!$ motion to set aside o de of default unde Rule ;, Section .5 %!% motion fo e1tension of time to file esponsi&e pleading unde Rule $$, Section $$5 and %!. motion fo #ill of pa ticula s unde Rule $%! %!/ notice of dismissal of t"e complaint unde Rule $9, Section $! . R,le) "n %/e S$e+i#i+ In+i(en%) 1. +otice of Dismissal of !omplaint
A complaint ma' #e dismissed #' t"e plaintiff #' filing a notice of dismissal at an' time #efo e se &ice of t"e ans)e o of a motion fo summa ' -udgment!/9

As a gene al ule, t"e dismissal of t"e complaint unde t"is ule is )it"out p e-udice! ?o)e&e , t"e follo)ing a e t"e ecogni@ed e1ceptions2 3a4 )"e e t"e notice of dismissal so p o&ides5 3#4 )"e e t"e plaintiff "as p e&iousl' dismissed t"e same case in a cou t of competent -u isdiction5 3c4 e&en )"e e t"e notice of dismissal does not p o&ide t"at it is )it" p e-udice #ut it is p emised on t"e fact of pa'ment #' t"e defendant of t"e claims in&ol&ed! /: =o t"e notice of dismissal to #e effecti&e, t"e e must #e an o de confi ming t"e dismissal!/; 2. *mended !omplaint
A pa t' ma' amend "is pleading once as a matte of ig"t at an' time #efo e a esponsi&e pleading is se &ed o , in t"e case of a epl', at an' time )it"in ten 3$>4 da's afte it is se &ed!6>

T"e filing #' t"e defendant of a motion to dismiss does not affect t"e plaintiff’s ig"t to amend "is complaint )it"out fi st secu ing lea&e of cou t #ecause a motion to dismiss is not a esponsi&e pleading! 6$ Lea&e of cou t is necessa ' afte t"e filing of a esponsi&e pleading! ?o)e&e , e&en su#stantial amendments ma' #e made unde
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Rules of Court, Rule 17, Sec. 1. Serrano '. Cabrera, )3 !"#l 774 +1)03,. 4) Rules of Court, Rule 17, Sec. 1- M#nute Resolut#on, 5ordon '. !ayumo, 5. R. No. 134071, 9uly 7, 1))*. 00 Rules of Court, Rule 10, Sec. 2. 01 !aeste '. 9ar#Cue, )4 !"#l 17) +1)03,.

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t"is Rule! Cut suc" lea&e ma' #e efused, if it appea s to t"e cou t t"at t"e motion )as made )it" intent to dela'!6% . Supplemental !omplaint
Fpon motion of a pa t' t"e cou t ma' upon easona#le notice and upon suc" te ms as a e -ust, pe mit "im to se &e a supplemental pleading setting fo t" t ansactions, occu ences o e&ents )"ic" "a&e "appened since t"e date of t"e pleading soug"t to #e supplemented! 6.

T"e ad&e se pa t' ma' plead t"e eto )it"in ten 3$>4 da's f om notice of t"e o de admitting t"e supplemental pleading!6/ T"e ans)e to t"e complaint s"all se &e as t"e ans)e to t"e supplemental complaint if no ne) o supplemental ans)e is filed!66 A supplemental pleading inco po ates matte s a ising afte t"e filing of t"e complaint! A supplemental pleading is al)a's filed )it" lea&e of cou t! It does not esult in t"e )it"d a)al of t"e o iginal complaint! %. Deposition "Rule 2 $ A deposition is not gene all' supposed to #e a su#stitute fo t"e actual testimon' in open cou t of a pa t' o )itness! If t"e )itness is a&aila#le to testif', "e s"ould #e p esented in cou t to testif'! If a&aila#le to testif', a pa t'’s o )itness’ deposition is inadmissi#le in e&idence fo #eing "ea sa'! 67 T"e e1ceptions "o)e&e to t"e inadmissi#ilit' of suc" deposition a e p o&ided fo in Rule %., Section /, as follo)s2
3a4 An' deposition ma' #e used #' an' pa t' fo t"e pu pose of cont adicting o impeac"ing t"e testimon' of deponent as a )itness5 3#4 T"e deposition of a pa t' o of an' one )"o at t"e time of ta(ing t"e deposition )as an office , di ecto , o managing agent of a pu#lic o p i&ate co po ation, pa tne s"ip, o association )"ic" is a pa t' ma' #e used #' an ad&e se pa t' fo an' pu pose5 3c4 T"e deposition of a )itness, )"et"e o not a pa t', ma' #e used #' an' pa t' fo an' pu pose if t"e cou t finds2 3$4 t"at t"e )itness is dead5 o 3%4 t"at t"e )itness esides at a distance mo e t"an one "und ed 3$>>4 (ilomete s f om t"e place of t ial o "ea ing, o is out of t"e P"ilippines, unless it appea s t"at "is a#sence )as p ocu ed #' t"e pa t' offe ing t"e deposition5 o 3.4 t"at t"e )itness is una#le to attend to testif' #ecause of age, sic(ness, infi mit', o imp isonment5 o 3/4 t"at t"e pa t' offe ing t"e deposition "as #een una#le to p ocu e t"e attendance of t"e )itness #' su#poena5 o 364 upon application and notice, t"at suc" e1ceptional ci cumstances e1ist as to ma(e it desi a#le, in t"e inte est of -ustice and )it" due ega d to t"e impo tance of p esenting t"e testimon' of )itnesses o all' in open cou t, to allo) t"e deposition to #e used5 and 3d4 If onl' pa t of a deposition is offe ed in e&idence #' a pa t', t"e ad&e se pa t' ma' e*ui e "im to int oduce all of it )"ic" is ele&ant to t"e pa t int oduced, and an' pa t' ma' int oduce an' ot"e pa ts!

,. )ritten -nterro.atories upon Defendant "Rule 2,( Section 1$ A -udgment #' default ma' #e ende ed against a pa t' )"o fails to se &e "is ans)e to ) itten inte ogato ies! 69 If a pa t' fails to a&ail of ) itten inte ogato ies as a mode of disco&e ', t"e effect is p o&ided fo in Rule %6, Section 7, to )it2

02 03

Rules of Court, Rule 10, Sec. 3. Rules of Court, Rule 11, Sec. 7. 04 Ibid. 00 Ibid. 06 3asmar#Bas 5arments, 7nc. '. Reyes, 5. R. No. 10*22), Au(ust 24, 1))3, 220 SCRA 622. 07 Rules of Court, Rule 2), Sec. 3 D3E.

Page 8 of 43

Fnless t"e eafte allo)ed #' t"e cou t fo good cause s"o)n and to p e&ent a failu e of -ustice, a pa t' not se &ed )it" ) itten inte ogato ies ma' not #e compelled #' t"e ad&e se pa t' to gi&e testimon' in open cou t, o to gi&e a deposition pending appeal!

/. Request for *dmission
At an' time afte admission #' t"e e*uest o of t"e t deli&e ed )it" t"e issues "a&e #een -oined, a pa t' ma' file and se &e upon an' ot"e pa t' a ) itten e*uest fo t"e latte of t"e genuineness of an' mate ial and ele&ant document desc i#ed in and e1"i#ited )it" t"e ut" of an' mate ial and ele&ant matte of fact set fo t" in t"e e*uest! Copies of t"e documents s"all #e e*uest unless copies "a&e al ead' #een fu nis"ed!6:

Fnless t"e eafte allo)ed #' t"e cou t fo good cause s"o)n and to p e&ent a failu e of -ustice, a pa t' )"o fails to file and se &e a e*uest fo admission on t"e ad&e se pa t' of mate ial and ele&ant facts )"ic" a e, o oug"t to #e )it"in t"e pe sonal (no)ledge of t"e latte , s"all not #e pe mitted to p esent e&idence on suc" facts! 6; 0. Production or -nspection of Document or 1hin.s "Rule 20( Section 1$ T"is mode of disco&e ' does not mean t"at t"e pe son )"o is e*ui ed to p oduce t"e document o t"e t"ing )ill #e dep i&ed of its possession e&en tempo a il'! It is enoug" t"at t"e e*uesting pa t' #e gi&en t"e oppo tunit' to inspect o cop' o p"otog ap" t"e document o ta(e a loo( at t"e t"ing! 2. Physical and Mental &'amination of a Party "Rule 22( Section 1$ In an action in )"ic" t"e mental o p"'sical condition of a pa t' is in cont o&e s', t"e cou t in )"ic" t"e action is pending ma', in its disc etion, o de "im to su#mit to a p"'sical o mental e1amination #' a p"'sician! 3. !onsequences of Refusal "Rule 23$ A t ial cou t "as no disc etion to dete mine )"at t"e conse*uences of a pa t'’s efusal to allo) o ma(e disco&e ' s"ould #e5 it is t"e la) )"ic" ma(es t"at dete mination5 it is g a&e a#use of disc etion fo t"e cou t to efuse to ecogni@e and o#se &e t"e effects of t"at efusal as mandated #' la)! 7> 14. Default "Rule 3( Section $
If t"e defending pa t' fails to ans)e )it"in t"e time allo)ed t"e efo e, t"e cou t s"all, upon motion of t"e claiming pa t' )it" notice to t"e defending pa t', and p oof of suc" failu e, decla e t"e defending pa t' in default! T"e eupon, t"e cou t s"all p oceed to ende -udgment g anting t"e claimant suc" elief as "is pleading ma' )a ant, unless t"e cou t in its disc etion e*ui es t"e claimant to su#mit e&idence! Suc" eception of e&idence ma' #e delegated to t"e cle ( of cou t!7$

Anot"e g ound to decla e a defending pa t' in default is )"en "e fails to fu nis" a cop' of t"e ans)e to t"e claiming pa t'!7% A decla ation of default cannot #e made #' t"e cou t motu proprio5 t"e e must #e a motion to t"at effect! 7. If no motion to decla e defendant in default is filed, t"e complaint s"ould #e dismissed fo failu e to p osecute! $>!$ Rules on Default

0* 0)

Rules of Court, Rule 26, Sec. 1. Ibid, Sec. 0. 60 3#man '. Al#mbres 5. R. No. 131466 No'ember 27, 1))*, 2)) SCRA 40). 61 Rules of Court, Rule ). 62 5on:ale: '. 6ranc#sco, 4) !"#l 747 +1)26,- Ram#re: '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 76366, 9uly 3, 1))0, 1*7 SCRA 103. 63 ="e !"#l#$$#ne %r#t#s" Co., 7nc. '. 3e los An(eles, Nos. / 33720 1, Marc" 10, 1)70, 63 SCRA 00.

Page 9 of 43

$>!$!$ Effect of O de of Default 3a4 A pa t' in default loses "is standing in cou t! ?e cannot appea t"e ein, adduce e&idence and #e "ea d no ta(e pa t in t ial!7/ ?e cannot file a motion to dismiss )it"out fi st filing a motion to set aside t"e o de of default! 76 ?e loses "is ig"t to p esent e&idence, cont ol t"e p oceedings and e1amine t"e )itnesses o o#-ect to plaintiff’s e&idence!77 3#4 A motion to decla e t"e defending pa t' in default s"ould #e se &ed upon "im! A pa t' in default, "o)e&e , s"all #e entitled to notice of su#se*uent p oceedings #ut not to ta(e pa t in t"e t ial! 79 3c4 Ceing decla ed in default does not constitute a )ai&e of all ig"ts! <"at is )ai&ed is onl' t"e ig"t to #e "ea d and to p esent e&idence du ing t ial )"ile default p e&ails! A pa t' in default is still entitled to notice of final -udgments and o de s and p oceedings ta(en su#se*uent t"e eto! 7: ?e ma' #e cited and testif' as a )itness!7; $>!$!% Summa ' of t"e Remedies in Default9> 3a4 = om notice of t"e o de of default #ut #efo e -udgment, motion to set aside o de of default5 and, in a p ope case, petition fo certiorari unde Rule 76! 3#4 Afte -udgment #ut #efo e its finalit'2 3i4 motion fo econside ation unde Rule .9, Section $5 3ii4 motion fo ne) t ial unde Rule .9, Section $5 and 3iii4 appeal unde Rule /$, Section $! 3c4 Afte finalit' of -udgment2 <it"in t"e p esc i#ed pe iod, petition fo elief f om -udgment unde Rule .:, Section $5 in a p ope case and )it"in t"e p esc i#ed pe iod, petition fo certiorari unde Rule 765 and in a p ope case and )it"in t"e p esc i#ed pe iods, petition fo annulment of -udgment unde Rule /9! $>!$!. Actions )"e e Default is Not Allo)ed 3a4 Action fo decla ation of t"e nullit' of ma iage5 action fo annulment of ma iage5 and, action fo legal sepa ation!

64 60

Ca'#l# '. 6lorendo, No. / 7303), ;ctober ), 1)*7, 104 SCRA 610. Santos '. Samson, No. / 46371, 3ecember 14, 1)*1, 110 SCRA 210. 66 Ca'#l# '. 6lorendo, supra, note 64. 67 Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 3DaE. 6* 5arc#a '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. *3)2), 9une 11, 1))2, 20) SCRA 732. 6) Ca'#l# '. 6lorendo, supra, note 64. 70 Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 3 DbE, /#na '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 633)7, A$r#l ), 1)*0, 130 SCRA 637- C#rcle 6#nanc#n( Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 77310, A$r#l 22, 1))1, 1)6 SCRA 166- Malanyaon '. SuB(a, 5. R. No. 4)463, May 7, 1))2, 20* SCRA 436- ;m#co M#n#n( and 7ndustr#al Cor$orat#on '. ?alle8os, No. / 3*)74, Marc" 20, 1)70, 63 SCRA 2*0- Matute '. Court of A$$eals, / 26071, 9anuary 31, 1)6), 26 SCRA 76*- A&ut '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. / 40472, Au(ust 30, 1)*2, 116 SCRA 213.

Page 10 of 43

Note2 If t"e defending pa t' fails to ans)e , t"e cou t s"all o de t"e p osecuting atto ne' to in&estigate )"et"e o not a collusion e1ists #et)een t"e pa ties, and if t"e e is no collusion, to inte &ene fo t"e State in o de to see to it t"at t"e e&idence su#mitted is not fa# icated5 9$ 3#4 Cefo e e1pi ation of pe iod to ans)e as )"en t"e e is a pending motion fo e1tension5 9% 3c4 In actions go&e ned #' t"e Rule on Summa ' P ocedu e, a motion to decla e defendant in default is not allo)ed!9. $>!$!/ T)o 3%4 Ginds of P oceedings afte Decla ation of Default and t"e E1tent of Relief t"at ma' #e H anted 3a4 <it"out ?ea ing T"e Cou t ma' immediatel' ende -udgment g anting t"e claimant suc" elief as "is pleading ma' )a ant! Suc" elief "o)e&e s"all not e1ceed t"e amount o #e diffe ent in (ind f om t"at p a'ed fo no a)a d unli*uidated damages!9/ 3#4 <it" ?ea ing T"e cou t ma', in its disc etion, allo) o e*ui e t"e claimant to su#mit e&idence! Suc" eception of e&idence ma' #e delegated to t"e Cle ( of Cou t! Afte t"e eception of claimant’s e&idence, t"e cou t ma' ende -udgment g anting t"e eliefs p a'ed as esta#lis"ed #' t"e e&idence! It ma' also a)a d unli*uidated damages )it"out e1ceeding t"e amounts p a'ed fo !96 11. &'tension of 1ime to file Responsive Pleadin. "Rule 11$ T"e g anting of a motion to e1tend t"e time to plead is add essed to t"e sound disc etion of t"e cou t! 97 T"e cou t can e1tend #ut not s"o ten t"e pe iod to plead as fi1ed #' t"e Rules! 12. #ill of Particulars "Rule 12( Section 1$ Cefo e esponding to a pleading, a pa t' ma' mo&e fo a definite statement o fo a #ill of pa ticula s of an' matte )"ic" is not a&e ed )it" sufficient definiteness o pa ticula it' to ena#le "im p ope l' to p epa e "is esponsi&e pleading! If t"e pleading is a epl', t"e motion must #e filed )it"in ten 3$>4 da's f om se &ice t"e eof! Suc" motion s"all point out t"e defects complained of, t"e pa ag ap"s )"e ein t"e' a e contained, and t"e details desi ed! T"e Cou t need not )ait fo t"e date set fo "ea ing of t"e motion! Fpon t"e filing of t"e motion, t"e cle ( of cou t must immediatel' # ing it to t"e attention of t"e cou t )"ic" ma' eit"e g ant o den' it o "old a "ea ing t"e ein!99

71 72

Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 3 DeE. 9oesteel Conta#ner Cor$orat#on '. CommonFealt" 6#nanc#n( Cor$orat#on, No. / 2077*, Se$tember 30, 1)*2, 117 SCRA 43- 3enso D!"#ls.E, 7nc. '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, No. / 70000, 6ebruary 27, 1)*7, 14* SCRA 2*0- Cont#nental Cement Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. **0*6, A$r#l 27, 1))0, 1*4 SCRA 72*. 73 Rules of Court, Rule 70, Secs. 13 and 1). 74 Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 3 DdE. 70 Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 3 DdE. 76 Na(a 3e'elo$ment Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 2*173, Se$tember 30, 1)71, 41 SCRA 100. 77 Rules of Court, Rule 12, Sec. 2.

Page 11 of 43

If t"e o de di ecting t"e plaintiff to su#mit a #ill of pa ticula s is not complied )it", t"e cou t ma' o de t"e st i(ing out of t"e pleading o t"e po tion t"e eof to )"ic" t"e o de )as di ected o ma(e suc" o de s as it deems -ust!9: 1 . Motion to Dismiss $! H ounds 3Rule $7, Section $4 <it"in t"e time fo #ut #efo e filing t"e ans)e to t"e complaint o pleading asse ting a claim, a motion to dismiss ma' #e made on an' of t"e follo)ing g ounds2
3a4 T"at t"e cou t "as no -u isdiction o&e t"e pe son of t"e defending pa t'5 3#4 T"at t"e cou t "as no -u isdiction o&e t"e su#-ect matte of t"e claim5 3c4 T"at &enue is imp ope l' laid5 3d4 T"at t"e plaintiff "as no legal capacit' to sue5 3e4 T"at t"e e is anot"e action pending #et)een t"e same pa ties fo t"e same cause5 3f4 T"at t"e cause of action is #a ed #' a p io -udgment o #' t"e statute of limitations5 3g4 T"at t"e pleading asse ting t"e claim states no cause of action5 3"4 T"at t"e claim o demand set fo t" in t"e plaintiff’s pleading "as #een paid, )ai&ed, a#andoned, o ot"e )ise e1tinguis"ed5 3i4 T"at t"e claim on )"ic" t"e action is founded is unenfo cea#le unde t"e p o&isions of t"e Statute of = auds5 and 3-4 T"at a condition p ecedent fo filing t"e claim "as not #een complied )it"!

It is a decisional ule t"at in a motion to dismiss on t"e g ound t"at t"e complaint states no cause of action, t"e mo&ant "'pot"eticall' admits t"e t ut" of t"e allegations of t"e complaint )"ic" a e ele&ant and mate ial to plaintiff’s cause of action! T"is admission does not include infe ences o conclusions d a)n f om t"e alleged facts no to matte s of e&idence, su plasage o i ele&ant matte s no to allegations of fact t"e falsit' of )"ic" is su#-ect to -udicial natu e!9; =o mal Re*uisite2 T"e motion must compl' )it" Rule $6! T"e cou t is )it"out aut"o it' to act on t"e motion )it"out p oof of se &ice of t"e notice of "ea ing! :> %! Discussion of Indi&idual H ounds %!$ Cou t "as no -u isdiction o&e t"e pe son defending pa t'! %!% Cou t "as no -u isdiction o&e t"e su#-ect matte of t"e claim! :$ %!. Venue is imp ope l' laid!
7* 7)

Ibid., Sec. 4. 3e 3#os '. %r#stol /aborator#es D!"#l.E, 7nc., 5. R. No. 20030, 9anuary 2), 1)74, 00 SCRA 34). *0 Rules of Court, Rule 10, Sec. 6. *1 Ibid.

Page 12 of 43

3a4 Venue of an action depends upon t"e2 a!$ natu e of t"e action5 a!% esidence of t"e pa ties5 a!. stipulation of t"e pa ties5 and a!/ la)! 3#4 Test to Dete mine Natu e of Action T"e natu e of t"e action is dete mined f om t"e allegations of t"e complaint, t"e c"a acte of t"e elief, its pu pose and p ime o#-ecti&e! <"en t"e p ime o#-ecti&e is to eco&e eal p ope t', it is a eal action! :% 3c4 Rule t"at Stipulations as to Venue ma' Eit"e Ce Pe missi&e o Dandato ' < itten stipulations a e eit"e mandato ' o pe missi&e! In inte p eting stipulations as to &enue, in*ui ' must #e made as to )"et"e o not t"e ag eement is est icti&e in t"e sense t"at t"e suit ma' #e filed onl' in t"e place ag eed upon o me el' pe missi&e in t"at t"e pa ties ma' file t"ei suits not onl' in t"e place ag eed upon #ut also in t"e places fi1ed #' t"e ules!:. Iualif'ing o est icti&e )o ds a e Bmust,B Bonl',B and Be1clusi&el'B as cited in )"ilippine Ban$ing Corporation v. Tensuan,*+ Bsolel',B Bin no ot"e cou t,B Bpa ticula l',B no)"e e else #ut e1ceptB, etc! :6 3d4 <ai&e #' =ailu e to =ile Dotion to Dismiss Cased on Imp ope Venue2 Imp ope &enue ma' no) #e pleaded as an affi mati&e defense in t"e ans)e ! :7 Imp ope &enue ma' onl' #e deemed )ai&ed if it is not pleaded eit"e in a motion to dismiss o in t"e ans)e ! :9 %!/ Plaintiff ?as No Legal Capacit' to Sue 3a4 Deaning Legal capacit' to sue means t"at a pa t' is not suffe ing f om an' disa#ilit' suc" as mino it', insanit', co&e tu es, lac( of -u idical pe sonalit', incompetence, ci&il inte diction :: o does not "a&e t"e c"a acte o ep esentation )"ic" "e claims:; o )it" espect to fo eign co po ation, t"at it is doing #usiness in t"e P"ilippines )it" a license!;> 3#4 Decisional Rules
*2 *3

6ortune Motors, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 76431, ;ctober 1), 1)*), 17* SCRA 064. Rules of Court, Rule 4, Sec. 4 DbE, !olytrade '. %lanco, No. / 27033, ;ctober 31, 1)6), 30 SCRA 1*7- .n#masters Con(lomerat#on, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 11)607, 6ebruary 7, 1))7, 267 SCRA 70). *4 5. R. No. 106)20, 3ecember 10, 1))3, 22* SCRA 3*0- %aut#sta '. %or8a, 5. R. No. 20600, ;ctober 2*, 1)66, 1* SCRA 474. *0 .n#masters Con(lomerat#on, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, supra, note *3. *6 Rules of Court, Rule 1, Sec. 6. *7 Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 1. ** Calano '. Cru:, )1 !"#l. 247 +1)02,. *) 1 Moran 174 177 +1)7),. )0 Cor$orat#on Code, Sec. 133.

Page 13 of 43

In )ilipinas "ell )etroleum Corporation v. Dumlao, (1 t"e Sup eme Cou t "eld t"at a pe son )"o "as no inte est in t"e estate of a deceased pe son "as no legal capacit' to file a petition fo lette s of administ ation! <it" espect to fo eign co po ations, t"e *ualif'ing ci cumstances of plaintiff’s capacit' to sue #eing an essential element must #e affi mati&el' pleaded!;% T"e *ualif'ing ci cumstance is an essential pa t of t"e element of t"e plaintiff’s capacit' to sue!;. T"e complaint must eit"e allege t"at it is doing #usiness in t"e P"ilippines )it" a license o t"at it is a fo eign co po ation not engaged in #usiness and t"at it is suing in an isolated t ansaction! %!6 ,itis )endentia 3a4 Rationale of t"e Rule2 Li(e res judicata as a doct ine, litis pendentia is a sanction of pu#lic polic' against multiplicit' of suits!;/ T"e p inciple upon )"ic" a plea of anot"e action pending is sustained is t"at t"e latte action is deemed unnecessa ' and &e1atious!;6 3#4 Re*uisites of ,itis )endentia- To p e&ail as a g ound fo a motion to dismiss, t"e follo)ing elements must #e p esent2 #!$ Identit' of pa ties, o at least suc" as ep esenting t"e same inte est in #ot" actions5 #!% Identit' of ig"ts asse ted and p a'ed fo , t"e elief #eing founded on t"e same facts5 and #!. T"e identit' on t"e p eceding pa ticula s s"ould #e suc" t"at an' -udgment )"ic" ma' #e ende ed on t"e ot"e action )ill, ega dless of )"ic" pa t' is successful, amount to res judicata in t"e action unde conside ation!;7 3c4 <"ic" of t"e T)o Cases S"ould #e DismissedJ T"e Rules do not e*ui e as a g ound fo dismissal of a complaint t"at t"e e is a p io pending action! T"e' p o&ide t"at t"e e is a pending action, not a pending p io action! Hi&en, t"e efo e, t"e pendenc' of t)o actions, t"e follo)ing a e t"e ele&ant conside ations in dete mining )"ic" action s"ould #e dismissed2 c!$ t"e date of t"e filing, )it" p efe ence gene all' gi&en to t"e fi st action filed to #e etained5 c!% )"et"e t"e action soug"t to #e dismissed )as filed me el' to p eempt t"e late action o to anticipate its filing and la' t"e #asis fo its dismissal5 and c!. )"et"e t"e action is t"e app op iate &e"icle fo litigating t"e issues #et)een t"e pa ties! ;9 %!7 Res .udicata

)1 )2

5.R. No. 44***, 6ebruary 7, 1))2, 206 SCRA 40. /e'#ton 7ndustr#es '. Sal'adro, No. / 40163, 9une 1), 1)*2, 114 SCRA 420. )3 %ula&"#das '. Na'arro, No. / 4)6)0, A$r#l 7, 1)*6, 142 SCRA 4- Antam Consol#dated, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 61023, 9uly 31, 1)*6, 143 SCRA 2**. )4 7n'estors2 6#nance Cor$orat#on '. <barle, No. / 70640, 9une 2), 1)**, 163 SCRA 60. )0 ?#ctron#cs Com$uters, 7nc. '. /o(arta, 5. R. No. 10401), 9anuary 20, 1))3, 217 SCRA 017- Arceo '. ;l#'eros, No. / 3*207, 9anuary 31, 1)*0, 134 SCRA 30*- Andresons 5rou$s, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 114)2*, 9anuary 21, 1))7, 266 SCRA 423. )6 /am#n <nts. '. /a(amon, No. / 07200, ;ctober 30, 1)*1, 10* SCRA 740- 6<. 3r. N#canor Reyes Med#cal 6oundat#on '. =ra8ano, No. / 76273, 9uly 31, 1)*7, 102 SCRA 720- Suntay '. ACu#lu:, 5. R. No. / 2***3, 9une 3, 1))2, 20) SCRA 000- ?alenc#a '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 111401, ;ctober 17, 1))6, 263 SCRA 270- Co&al#on( S"#$$#n( /#nes, 7nc. '. Am#n, 5. R. No. 112233, 9uly 31, 1))6, 260 SCRA 122. )7 All#ed %an&#n( Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. )0223, 9uly 26, 1))6, 20) SCRA 371.

Page 14 of 43

3a4 Statement of t"e Doct ine T"e doct ine of es judicata is a ule )"ic" pe &ades e&e ' )ell0 egulated s'stem of -u isp udence and is founded upon t)o g ounds em#odied in &a ious ma1ims of t"e common la), namel'2 a!$ pu#lic polic' and necessit' )"ic" ma(e it to t"e inte est of t"e state t"at t"e e s"ould #e an end to litigation 8 interest reipu#licae ut sit finis litium, and a!% t"e "a ds"ip on t"e indi&idual t"at "e s"ould #e &e1ed t)ice fo t"e same caus e / nemo de#et #is ve0ari et eadem causa. (* 3#4 T"e e*uisites of res judicata a e t"e follo)ing#!$ t"e fo me -udgment o o de must #e final5 #!% it must #e a -udgment o o de on t"e me its5 #!. t"e cou t )"ic" ende ed it "ad -u isdiction o&e t"e su#-ect matte and t"e pa ties5 and #!/ t"e e must #e, #et)een t"e fi st and second actions, identit' of pa ties, of su#-ect matte and of cause of action!;; 3c4 T)o Aspects of Res .udicata c!$ Ca #' =o me Audgment 8 )"en, #et)een t"e fi st case )"e e t"e -udgment )as ende ed, and t"e second case )"e e t"e -udgment is in&o(ed, t"e e is identit' of pa ties, su#-ect matte and cause of action! c!% Conclusi&eness of Audgment 8 )"en t"e e is an identit' of pa ties #ut not cause of action, t"e -udgment #eing conclusi&e in t"e second case onl' as to t"ose matte s actuall' and di ectl' cont o&e ted and dete mined, and not as to matte s in&o(ed t"e eon!$>> 3d4 Decisional Rules A -udicial comp omise "as t"e effect of res judicata and is immediatel' e1ecuto ' and not appeala#le! $>$ T"e ultimate test in asce taining t"e identit' of causes of action is said to #e to loo( into )"et"e o not t"e same e&idence full' suppo ts and esta#lis"es #ot" t"e p esent cause of action and t"e fo me cause of action! $>% Onl' su#stantial, and not a#solute, identit' of pa ties is e*ui ed fo res judicata.11' %!7 Statute of Limitation 3P esc iption of Action4 An action p esc i#es #' t"e lapse of time fi1ed in t"e Ci&il Code 3A ticles $$.; to $$664!
ART! $$.;! Actions p esc i#e #' t"e me e lapse of time fi1ed #' la)!

)* ))

/#n:a( '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 1221*1, 9une 26, 1))*, 2)1 SCRA 304. Cas#l '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 121034, 9anuary 2*, 1))*, 2*0 SCRA 204. 100 7slam#c 3#rectorate of t"e !"#l#$$#nes '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 117*)7, May 14, 1))7, 272 SCRA 404. 101 Re$ubl#c '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 110020, Se$tember 20, 1))*, 2)6 SCRA 171. 102 %ac"rac" Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 12*34), Se$tember 20, 1))*, 2)6 SCRA 4*7. 103 Sem$#o '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 124326, 9anuary 22, 1))*, 2*4 SCRA 0*0.

Page 15 of 43

ART! $$/>! Actions to eco&e mo&a#les s"all p esc i#e eig"t 'ea s f om t"e time t"e possession t"e eof is lost, unless t"e possesso "as ac*ui ed t"e o)ne s"ip #' p esc iption fo a less pe iod, acco ding to a ticle $$.%, and )it"out p e-udice to t"e p o&isions of a ticles 66;, $6>6, and $$..! ART! $$/$! Real actions o&e immo&a#les p esc i#e afte t"i t' 'ea s! T"is p o&ision is )it"out p e-udice to )"at is esta#lis"ed fo t"e ac*uisition of o)ne s"ip and ot"e p esc iption! ART $$/%! A mo tgage action p esc i#es afte ten 'ea s! ART $$/.! T"e follo)ing ig"ts, among ot"e s specified else)"e e in t"is Code, a e not e1tinguis"ed #' p esc iption2 $! To demand a ig"t of )a', egulated in a ticle 7/;5 %! To # ing an action to a#ate a pu#lic o p i&ate nuisance! ART! $$//! T"e follo)ing actions must #e # oug"t )it"in ten 'ea s f om t"e time t"e ig"t of action acc ues2 $! Fpon a ) itten cont act5 %! Fpon an o#ligation c eated #' la)5 .! Fpon a -udgment! ART! $$/6! T"e follo)ing actions must #e commenced )it"in si1 'ea s2 $! Fpon an o al cont act5 %! Fpon a *uasi0cont act! ART! $$/7! T"e follo)ing actions must #e instituted )it"in fou 'ea s2 $! Fpon an in-u ' to t"e ig"ts of t"e plaintiff5 %! Fpon *uasi0delict! ?o)e&e , )"en t"e action a ises f om o out of an' act, acti&it', o conduct of an' pu#lic office in&ol&ing t"e e1e cise of po)e s o aut"o it' a ising f om Da tial La) including t"e a est, detention andKo t ial of t"e plaintiff, t"e same must #e # oug"t )it"in one 3$4 'ea !$>/ A t! $$/9! T"e follo)ing actions must #e filed )it"in one 'ea 2 $! =o fo ci#le ent ' and detaine 5 %! =o defamation! ART! $$/:! T"e limitations of action mentioned in a ticles $$/> to $$/%, and $$// to $$/9 a e )it"out p e-udice to t"ose specified in ot"e pa ts of t"is Code, in t"e Code of Comme ce and in special la)s! ART! $$/;! All ot"e actions )"ose pe iods a e not fi1ed in t"is Code o in ot"e la)s must #e # oug"t )it"in fi&e 'ea s f om t"e time t"e ig"t of action acc ues!
104

eal ig"ts #'

As amended by !3 No. 1700, 3ecember 24, 1)*0.

Page 16 of 43

ART! $$6>! T"e time fo p esc iption fo all (inds of actions, )"en t"e e is no special p o&ision )"ic" o dains ot"e )ise, s"all #e counted f om t"e da' t"e' ma' #e # oug"t! ART! $$6$! T"e time fo t"e p esc iption of actions )"ic" "a&e fo t"ei o#-ect t"e enfo cement of o#ligations to pa' p incipal )it" inte est o annuit' uns f om t"e last pa'ment of t"e annuit' o of t"e inte est! ART! $$6%! T"e pe iod fo p esc iption of actions to demand t"e fulfillment of o#ligation decla ed #' a -udgment commences f om t"e time t"e -udgment #ecame final! ART! $$6.! T"e pe iod fo p esc iption of actions to demand accounting uns f om t"e da' t"e pe sons )"o s"ould ende t"e same cease in t"ei functions! T"e pe iod fo t"e action a ising f om t"e esult of t"e accounting uns f om t"e date )"en said esult )as ecogni@ed #' ag eement of t"e inte ested pa ties! ART! $$6/! T"e pe iod du ing )"ic" t"e o#ligee )as p e&ented #' a fo tuitous e&ent f om enfo cing "is ig"t is not ec(oned against "im! ART! $$66! T"e p esc iption of actions is inte upted )"en t"e' a e filed #efo e t"e cou t, )"en t"e e is a ) itten e1t a-udicial demand #' t"e c edito s, and )"en t"e e is an' ) itten ac(no)ledgment of t"e de#t #' t"e de#to !

3a4 Decisional Rules P esc iption and estoppel cannot #e in&o(ed against t"e State! $>6 If t"e defense of p esc iption "as not #een aised in a motion to dismiss o an ans)e , if t"e plaintiff’s complaint o e&idence s"o)s t"at t"e action "ad p esc i#ed, t"e action s"all #e dismissed!$>7 P esc iption cannot #e in&o(ed as a g ound if t"e cont act is alleged to #e void a# initio117 #ut )"e e p esc iption depends on )"et"e t"e cont act is &oid o &oida#le, t"e e must #e a "ea ing!$>: %!9 Pleading Asse ting Claim States No Cause of Action 3a4 Elements of a Cause of Action A cause of action e1ists if t"e follo)ing elements a e p esent, namel'2 a!$ a ig"t in fa&o of t"e plaintiff #' )"ate&e means and unde )"ate&e la) it a ises o is c eated5 a!% an o#ligation on t"e pa t of t"e named defendant to espect o not to &iolate suc" ig"t5 and a!. an act o omission on t"e pa t of suc" defendant &iolati&e of t"e ig"t of t"e plaintiff o constituting a # eac" of t"e o#ligation of t"e defendant to t"e plaintiff fo )"ic" t"e latte ma' maintain an action fo eco&e ' of damages!$>; 3#4 ?'pot"etical Admission of Allegations of =act in t"e Complaint

100 106

3elos Reyes '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 12146*, 9anuary 27, 1))*, 2*0 SCRA *1. Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 1- 6errer '. <r#cta, No / 41767, Au(ust 23, 1)7*, *4 SCRA 700- A:nar '. %ernad, No. / *11)0, May ), 1)**, 161 SCRA 276. 107 Ru#: '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 2)213, ;ctober 21, 1)77, 7) SCRA 020- Cast#llo '. Ge#rs of ?#cente Madr#(al, 5. R. No. 62600, 9une 27, 1))1, 1)* SCRA 006. 10* /andayan '. %acan#, No. / 30400, Se$tember 30, 1)*2, 117 SCRA 117. 10) 3ulay '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 10*017, A$r#l 3, 1))0, 243 SCRA 220 c#ted #n !araBaCue @#n(s <nter$r#ses, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 1103*, 6ebruary 16, 1))7.

Page 17 of 43

It is a1iomatic t"at a defendant mo&ing to dismiss a complaint on t"is g ound is ega ded as "a&ing admitted all t"e a&e ments t"e eof, at least "'pot"eticall', t"e test of t"e sufficienc' of t"e facts found in a petition, as constituting a cause of action, #eing )"et"e o not, admitting t"e facts alleged, t"e cou t could ende a &alid -udgment upon t"e same in acco dance )it" t"e p a'e t"e eof! In dete mining t"e sufficienc' of t"e statements in t"e complaint as setting fo t" a cause of action, onl' t"ose statements in t"e complaint, to epeat, ma' p ope l' #e conside ed, and it is e o fo t"e Cou t to ta(e cogni@ance of e1te nal facts, o "old a p elimina ' "ea ing to dete mine t"ei e1istence!$$> 3c4 T"e follo)ing Allegations a e not Deemed ?'pot"eticall' Admitted2 c!$ allegations of )"ic" t"e cou t )ill ta(e -udicial notice a e not t ue5 neit"e allegations of conclusions no allegations of fact t"e falsit' of )"ic" t"e cou t ma' ta(e -udicial notice a e deemed admitted5 $$$ c!% legall' impossi#le facts5 c!. facts inadmissi#le in e&idence5 and c!/ facts )"ic" appea #' eco d o document included in t"e pleadings to #e unfounded5 $$% c!6 <"en ot"e facts ma' #e conside ed5 c!7 <"e e t"e motion to dismiss )as "ea d )it" t"e su#mission of e&idence o if documenta ' e&idence admitted #' stipulation discloses facts sufficient to defeat t"e claim $$. o admitted du ing "ea ing on p elimina ' in-unction,$$/ t"e facts t"e ein adduced ma' #e conside ed5 c!9 All documents attac"ed to a complaint, t"e due e1ecution and genuineness of )"ic" a e not denied unde oat" #' t"e defendant, must #e conside ed as pa t of t"e complaint )it"out need of int oducing e&idence t"e eon5$$6 c!: In esol&ing a motion to dismiss, e&e ' cou t must ta(e cogni@ance of decisions t"e Sup eme Cou t "as ende ed #ecause t"e' a e p ope su#-ects of mandato ' -udicial notice as p o&ided #' Section $ of Rule $%; of t"e Rules of Cou t! T"e said decisions, mo e impo tantl', Bfo m pa t of t"e legal s'stem,B and failu e of an' cou t to appl' t"em s"all constitute an a#dication of its dut' to esol&e a dispute in acco dance )it" la), and s"all #e a g ound fo administ ati&e action against an infe io cou t magist ate5 $$7 c!; E1"austion of Administ ati&e Remedies! <"e e plaintiff "as not e1"austed all administ ati&e emedies, t"e complaint not "a&ing alleged t"e fact of suc" e1"austion, t"e same ma' #e dismissed fo lac( of cause of action!$$9

110

3. C. Crystal, 7nc. '. /aya, 5.R. No. 030)7, 6ebruary 2*, 1)*), 170 SCRA 734- 3el %ros. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. *767*, 9une 16, 1))2, 210 SCRA 33- Ra'a 3e'elo$ment Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. )6*20, 9uly 3, 1))2, 211 SCRA 144- Mer#ll /ync" 6utures, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. )7*16, 9uly 24, 1))2, 211 SCRA *24. 111 Mat"ay '. Consol#dated %an& and =rust Com$any, No. / 23136, Au(ust 26, 1)74, 0* SCRA 060- .. %aBe: <lectr#c /#("t Com$any '. Abra <lectr#c Coo$erat#'e, 7nc., No. / 0)4*0, 3ecember *, 1)*2, 11) SCRA )0- 3alandan '. 9ul#o, No. / 1)101, 6ebruary 2), 1)64, 10 SCRA 400- Marco$$er M#n#n( Cor$orat#on '. 5arc#a, No. / 00)30, 9uly 30, 1)*6, 143 SCRA 17*. 112 =an '. 3#rector of 6orestry, No. / 2404*, ;ctober 27, 1)*3, 120 SCRA 302. 113 Ibid. 114 Sant#a(o '. !#oneer Sa'#n(s and /oan %an&, 5. R. No. 77002, 9anuary 10, 1)**, 107 SCRA 100. 110 As#a %an&#n( Cor$orat#on '. 1alter <. ;lsen and Co., 4* !"#l. 02) +1)20,. 116 !eltan 3e'elo$ment, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 11702), Marc" 2), 1))7, 270 SCRA *2. 117 !#neda '. Court of 6#rst 7nstance of 3a'ao, 111 !"#l. 643 +1)61,

Page 18 of 43

3d4 Claim o Demand Set =o t" in t"e Plaintiff’s Pleading ?as Ceen Paid, <ai&ed, A#andoned o Ot"e )ise E1tinguis"ed
ART! $%.$! O#ligations a e e1tinguis"ed2 3i4 #' pa'ment o pe fo mance5 3ii4 #' t"e loss of t"e t"ing due5 3iii4 #' t"e condonation o emission of t"e de#t5 3i&4 #' t"e confusion o me ge of ig"ts of de#to and c edito 5 3&4 #' compensation5 and 3&i4 #' no&ation! Ot"e causes of e1tinguis"ment of o#ligations, suc" as annulment, escission, fulfillment of a esoluto ' condition, and p esc iption, a e go&e ned else)"e e in t"is Code!

3e4 Statute of = auds 3f4 T"e Ci&il Code enume ates in A t! $/>. t"e cont acts falling unde t"e Statute of = auds!
ART! $/>.! T"e follo)ing cont acts a e unenfo cea#le, unless t"e' a e atified2 $! T"ose ente ed into in t"e name of anot"e pe son #' one )"o "as #een gi&en no aut"o it' o legal ep esentation, o )"o "as acted #e'ond "is po)e s5 %! T"ose t"at do not compl' )it" t"e Statute of = auds as set fo t" in t"is num#e ! In t"e follo)ing cases, an ag eement "e eafte made s"all #e unenfo cea#le #' action, unless t"e same, o some note o memo andum t"e eof, #e in ) iting, and su#sc i#ed #' t"e pa t' c"a ged, o #' "is agent5 e&idence, t"e efo e, of t"e ag eement cannot #e ecei&ed )it"out t"e ) iting, o seconda ' e&idence of its contents2 a! An ag eement t"at #' its te ms is not to #e pe fo med )it"in a 'ea f om t"e ma(ing t"e eof5 #! An ag eement fo t"e sale of goods, c"attels o t"ings in action, at a p ice not less t"an fi&e "und ed pesos, unless t"e #u'e accept and ecei&e pa t of suc" goods and c"attels, o t"e e&idences, o some of t"em, of suc" t"ings in action, o pa' at t"e time some pa t of t"e pu c"ase mone'5 #ut )"en a sale is made #' auction and ent ' is made #' t"e auctionee in "is sales #oo(, at t"e time of t"e sale, of t"e amount and (ind of p ope t' sold, te ms of sale, p ice, names of t"e pu c"ase s and pe son on )"ose account t"e sale is made, it is a sufficient memo andum5 c! An ag eement fo t"e leasing fo a longe pe iod t"an one 'ea , o fo t"e sale of eal p ope t' o of an inte est t"e ein5 d! A ep esentation as to t"e c edit of a t"i d pe son! .! T"ose )"e e #ot" pa ties a e incapa#le of gi&ing consent to a cont act!

3g4 Some Decisional Rules A#sence of compliance )it" t"e Statute of = auds ma' #e p o&ed in a motion to dismiss! $$: Plaintiff must p oduce all notes o memo andum du ing t"e "ea ing of t"e motion to dismiss! A motion in&o(ing t"e Statute of
11*

Hu'#enco '. 3acuycuy, No. / 0004*, May 27, 1)*1, 104 SCRA 66*.

Page 19 of 43

= auds ma' #e filed e&en if t"e same does not appea on t"e face of t"e complaint! T"at t"e claim is unenfo cea#le unde t"e Statute of = auds ma' #e s"o)n and dete mined du ing t"e "ea ing of t"e motion to dismiss on said g ound!$$; Fnde Sec! %, C"apte 7 of RA :9;% 3E0Comme ce La)4 )"e e t"e la) e*ui es a ) iting o document, t"at e*ui ement is met #' an elect onic document )"ic" maintains its integ it' and elia#ilit' and can #e aut"enticated so as to #e usea#le fo su#se*uent efe ence! T"e Ci&il Code on cases )"e e comp omise is not allo)ed2
A t! %>.6! No comp omise upon t"e follo)ing *uestions s"all #e &alid2 3$4 T"e ci&il status of pe sons5 3%4 T"e &alidit' of a ma iage o a legal sepa ation5 3.4 An' g ound fo legal sepa ation5 3/4 =utu e suppo t5 364 T"e -u isdiction of cou ts5 374 =utu e legitime!

.! Resolution of t"e Dotion Afte t"e "ea ing, t"e cou t ma' dismiss t"e action o claim, den' t"e motion, o o de t"e amendment of t"e pleading! T"e cou t s"all not defe t"e esolution of t"e motion fo t"e eason t"at t"e g ound elied upon is not indu#ita#le! In e&e ' case, t"e esolution s"all state clea l' and distinctl' t"e easons t"e efo ! $%>

0. 'OINDER OF ISSUES 1. Filin! "# An)1er 1. 1ime to Plead $!$ Ans)e to Complaint and T"i d0Pa t' 3=ou t"0Pa t', etc!4 Complaint 8 fifteen 3$64 da's afte se &ice of summons, unless a diffe ent pe iod is fi1ed #' t"e cou t! $%$ ?o)e&e , unde Rule $7, Section /, if a motion to dismiss is denied, t"e mo&ant s"all file "is ans)e )it"in t"e #alance of t"e pe iod p o&ided #' Rule $$ to )"ic" "e )as entitled at t"e time of se &ing "is motion, #ut not less t"an fi&e 364 da's in an' e&ent, computed f om "is eceipt of t"e notice of t"e denial! If t"e pleading is o de ed to #e amended, "e s"all file "is ans)e )it"in t"e pe iod p esc i#ed #' Rule $$ counted f om se &ice of t"e amended pleading, unless t"e cou t p o&ides a longe pe iod!
11) 120 121

Ibid.
Rules of Court, Rule 16, Sec. 3.

Rules of Court, Rule 11, Secs. 1 and 0.

Page 20 of 43

$!% Ans)e of a defendant fo eign p i&ate -u idical entit' $!%!$ )"en summons is se &ed upon a esident agent 8 fifteen 3$64 da's afte se &ice of summons! $%% $!%!% )"en summons is se &ed on t"e go&e nment official designated to ecei&e t"e same 8 t"i t' 3.>4 da's f om eceipt #' t"e latte of t"e summons!$%. $!. Ans)e to Amended Complaint, Amended Counte claim, Amended C oss0claim and Amended T"i d0Pa t' 3=ou t"0Pa t', etc!4 Complaint2 $!.!$ amended complaint )as filed as a matte of ig"t 3Rule $>, Section %4 8 fifteen 3$64 da's afte #eing se &ed )it" a cop' t"e eof5$%/ and $!.!% amended complaint )as filed )it" lea&e of cou t 3Rule $>, Section .4 8 ten 3$>4 da's f om notice of o de admitting t"e amended complaint!$%6 $!/ Ans)e to counte claim o c oss0claim 0 )it"in ten 3$>4 da's f om se &ice! $%7 $!6 Repl' 0 )it"in ten 3$>4 da's f om se &ice of t"e pleading esponded to! $%9 $!7 Ans)e to supplemental complaint 0 )it"in ten 3$>4 da's f om notice of t"e o de admitting t"e same, unless a diffe ent pe iod is fi1ed #' t"e cou t!$%: $!9 Ans)e to Complaint0in0Inte &ention 0 )it"in fifteen 3$64 da's f om notice of t"e o de admitting t"e same unless a diffe ent pe iod is fi1ed #' t"e cou t!$%; 2. Strict 5bservance of the Period <"ile t"e ules a e li#e all' const ued, t"e p o&isions on eglementa ' pe iods a e st ictl' applied fo t"e' a e deemed indispensa#le to t"e p e&ention of needless dela's and necessa ' to t"e o de l' and speed' disc"a ge of -udicial #usiness!$.> St ict compliance )it" said pe iods is mandato ' and impe ati&e! $.$ . &ffect of 6ailure to Plead "Rule 3$
Sec! $! Defenses and o#jections not pleaded./Defenses and o#-ections not pleaded eit"e in a motion to dismiss o in t"e ans)e a e deemed )ai&ed! ?o)e&e , )"en it appea s f om t"e pleadings o t"e e&idence on eco d t"at t"e cou t "as no -u isdiction o&e t"e su#-ect matte , t"at t"e e is anot"e action pending #et)een t"e same pa ties fo t"e same cause, o t"at t"e action is #a ed #' a p io -udgment o #' Statute of Limitations, t"e cou t s"all dismiss t"e claim!
122 123

Rules of Court, Rule 14, Sec. 12. Rules of Court, Rule 11, Sec. 2. 124 Rules of Court, Rule 11, Sec. 3. 120 7b#d. 126 Rules of Court, Rule 11, Sec. 4. 127 7b#d., Sec. 6. 12* 7b#d., Sec. 7. 12) Rules of Court, Rule 1), Sec. 7. 130 Al'ero '. 3e /a Rosa, 76 !"#l. 42* +1)46,- ?alde: '. ;cumen, 106 !"#l. )2) +1)60,- Man(al# '. Court of A$$eals, / 472)6, Au(ust 21, 1)*0, )) SCRA 236- /e(as$# Santos '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 60077, ;ctober 11, 1)*3, 120 SCRA 22. 131 69R 5arments 7ndustr#es '. Court of A$$eals, / 4)320, 9une 2), 1)*4, 130 SCRA 216.

Page 21 of 43

. C",n%er+laim 1. Definition A counte claim is an' claim )"ic" a defending pa t' ma' "a&e against an opposing pa t'! $.% T"e e a e t)o 3%4 (inds, t"e compulso ' and t"e pe missi&e! A compulso ' counte claim is one )"ic", #eing cogni@a#le #' t"e egula cou ts of -ustice, a ises out of o is connected )it" t"e t ansaction o occu ence constituting t"e su#-ect matte of t"e opposing pa t'’s claim and does not e*ui e fo its ad-udication t"e p esence of t"i d pa ties of )"om t"e cou t cannot ac*ui e -u isdiction! Suc" a counte claim must #e )it"in t"e -u isdiction of t"e cou t #ot" as to t"e amount and t"e natu e t"e eof, e1cept t"at in an o iginal action #efo e t"e Regional T ial Cou t, t"e counte claim ma' #e conside ed compulso ' ega dless of t"e amount! $.. A counte claim )"ic" is not compulso ' is a pe missi&e counte claim! 2. Difference #etween Permissive and !ompulsory !ounterclaim In a pe missi&e counte claim, t"e doc(et and ot"e la)ful fees s"ould #e paid and t"e same s"ould #e accompanied #' a ce tificate against fo um s"opping and ce tificate to file action issued #' t"e p ope ,upon Tagapamayapa. It s"ould also #e ans)e ed #' t"e claiming pa t'! It is not #a ed e&en if not set up in t"e action! In a compulso ' counte claim, no doc(et fee is paid and t"e ce tificates mentioned a#o&e a e not e*ui ed! $./ If it is not aised in t"e ans)e , it s"all #e #a ed!$.6 A compulso ' counte claim t"at me el' eite ates special defenses )"ic" a e deemed cont o&e ted e&en )it"out a epl', o aises issues )"ic" a e deemed automaticall' -oined #' t"e allegations of t"e complaint need not #e ans)e ed!$.7 ?o)e&e , a compulso ' counte claim )"ic" aises issues not co&e ed #' t"e complaint s"ould #e ans)e ed!$.9 If t"e counte claim is #ased on an actiona#le document attac"ed to o copied in t"e counte claim, t"e genuineness and due e1ecution of t"e inst ument s"all #e deemed admitted unless t"e ad&e se pa t' specificall' denies unde oat" its genuineness and due e1ecution! $.: . !o.nate Rules .!$ A c oss0claim )"ic" is not set up in t"e action is #a ed! $.; .!% T"e dismissal of t"e complaint ca ies )it" it t"e dismissal of t"e c oss0claim )"ic" is pu el' defensi&e, #ut not a c oss0claim see(ing affi mati&e elief! $/> It does not also ca ' )it" it a dismissal of t"e counte claim t"at

132 133

Rules of Court, Rule 6, Sec. 6. Ibid., Sec. 7. 134 Santo =omas .n#'ers#ty '. Surla, 5. R. No. 12)71*, Au(ust 17, 1))*, 2)4 SCRA 3*2. 130 Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 2. 136 /ama '. A$ac#ble 7) !"#l. 6* +1)47,- Na'arro '. %ello, 102 !"#l. 101) +1)0*,- 5o8o ' 5oyala, 5. R. No. 2676*, ;ctober 30, 1)70, 30 SCRA 007. 137 6er#a, Annotated 1))7 Rules of Court, 41. 13* Rules of Court, Rule *, Sec. *. 13) Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 2. 140 =orres '. Court of A$$eals, / 20**), 9anuary 12, 1)73, 4) SCRA 67.

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"as #een pleaded #' t"e defendant p io to se &ice to "im of t"e notice of dismissal, $/$ o to a dismissal due to t"e fault of t"e plaintiff!$/% .!. A pa t' cannot, in "is epl', amend "is cause of action no int oduce t"e ein ne) o additional causes of action!$/. .!/ A t"i d0pa t' complaint need not a ise out of o #e enti el' dependent on t"e main action as it suffices t"at t"e fo me #e onl' +in espect+ of t"e claim of t"e t"i d0pa t' plaintiff’s opponent! $//

2. PRE3TRIAL 1. C"n+e$% "# Pre3Trial 1. !oncept of Pre71rial P e0t ial is a p ocedu al de&ice #' )"ic" t"e Cou t is called upon afte t"e filing of t"e last pleading, to compel t"e pa ties and t"ei la)'e s to appea #efo e it, and negotiate an amica#le settlement o ot"e )ise ma(e a fo mal statement and em#od' in a single document t"e issues of fact and la) in&ol&ed in t"e action, and suc" ot"e matte s as ma' aid in t"e p ompt disposition of t"e action, suc" as t"e num#e of )itnesses t"e pa ties intend to p esent, t"e teno o c"a acte of t"ei testimonies, t"ei documenta ' e&idence, t"e natu e and pu pose of eac" of t"em, and t"e num#e of t ial dates t"at eac" )ill need to put on "is case! One of t"e o#-ecti&es of p e0t ial p ocedu e is to ta(e t"e t ial of cases out of t"e ealm of su p ise and maneu&e ing! $/6 P e0 t ial also la's do)n t"e foundation and st uctu al f ame)o ( of anot"e concept, t"at is t"e continuous t ial s'stem!$/7 P e0t ial is mandato ' #ut not -u isdictional!$/9 2. Purpose of Pre71rial T"e pu pose of t"e p e0t ial is fo t"e cou t to conside 2 3a4 t"e possi#ilit' of an amica#le settlement o of a su#mission to alte nati&e modes of dispute esolution5 3#4 t"e simplification of t"e issues5 3c4 t"e necessit' o desi a#ilit' of amendments to t"e pleadings5 3d4 t"e possi#ilit' of o#taining stipulations o admissions of facts and of documents to a&oid unnecessa ' p oof5 3e4 t"e limitation of t"e num#e of )itnesses5 3f4 t"e ad&isa#ilit' of a p elimina ' efe ence of issues to a commissione 5
141 142

Rules of Court, Rule 17, Sec. 2. Ibid., Sec. 3. 143 Anaya '. !alaroan, / 27)30, No'ember 26, 1)70, 36 SCRA )7. 144 !ascual '. %aut#sta, / 21644, May 2), 1)70, 33 SCRA 301. 140 !ermanent Concrete !roducts, 7nc. '. =eodoro, 5. R. No. 2)776, No'ember 2), 1)6*, 26 SCRA 332. 146 C#rcular No. 1 *)- Adm#n#strat#'e C#rcular No. 4, Se$tember 4, 1)**. 147 Mart#ne: '. de la Merced, 5. R. No. *230), 9une 20, 1)*), 174 SCRA 1*2.

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3g4 t"e p op iet' of ende ing -udgment on t"e pleadings, o summa ' -udgment, o of dismissing t"e action s"ould a &alid g ound t"e efo e #e found to e1ist! 3"4 t"e ad&isa#ilit' o necessit' of suspending t"e p oceedings5 and 3i4 suc" ot"e matte s as ma' aid in t"e p ompt disposition of t"e action! $/: . *dministrative !ircular +o. 733 "8anuary 1,( 1333$ on Pre71rial A. )re&Trial $! <it"in fi&e 364 da's afte t"e last pleading -oining t"e issues "as #een filed and se &ed, t"e plaintiff must mo&e e0 parte t"at t"e case #e set fo p e0t ial confe ence! %! T"e pa ties s"all su#mit, at least t" ee 3.4 da's #efo e t"e confe ence, p e0t ial # iefs containing t"e follo)ing2 a! A statement of t"ei )illingness to ente into an amica#le settlement indicating t"e desi ed te ms t"e eof, o to su#mit t"e case to an' of t"e alte nati&e modes of dispute esolution5 #! A summa ' of admitted facts and p oposed stipulation of facts5 c! T"e issues to #e t ied o esol&ed5 d! T"e num#e and names of t"e )itnesses to #e p esented, and a#st act of t"ei testimonies, and t"e app o1imate num#e of "ou s t"at )ill #e e*ui ed #' t"e pa ties fo t"e p esentation of t"ei especti&e e&idence5 e! Copies of all documents intended to #e p esented )it" a statement of t"e pu poses of t"ei offe 5 f! A manifestation of t"ei "a&ing a&ailed o t"ei intention to a&ail t"emsel&es of an' disco&e ' p ocedu e, o of t"e need of efe al of an' issues to commissione s5 g! Applica#le la)s and -u isp udence5 "! T"e a&aila#le t ial dates of counsel fo complete p esentation of e&idence, )"ic" must #e )it"in a pe iod of t" ee mont"s f om t"e fi st da' of t ial! .! Cefo e t"e p e0t ial confe ence, t"e -udge must stud' t"e pleadings of e&e ' case, and dete mine t"e issues t"e eof and t"e especti&e positions of t"e pa ties t"e eon to ena#le "im to intelligentl' stee t"e pa ties to)a d a possi#le amica#le settlement of t"e case, o , at t"e &e ' least, to "elp educe and limit t"e issues! T"e -udge s"ould a&oid t"e undesi a#le p actice of te minating t"e p e0t ial as soon as t"e pa ties "a&e indicated t"at t"e' cannot settle t"e cont o&e s'! ?e must #e mindful t"at t"e e a e ot"e impo tant aspects of t"e p e0t ial t"at oug"t to #e ta(en up to e1pedite t"e disposition of t"e case! /! At t"e p e0t ial confe ence, t"e follo)ing s"all #e done2 a! T"e -udge )it" all tact, patience and impa tialit' s"all endea&o to pe suade t"e pa ties to a i&e at a settlement of t"e dispute5 if no amica#le settlement is eac"ed, t"en "e must effecti&el' di ect t"e pa ties to)a d
14*

Rules of Court, Rule 1*, Sec. 2.

Page 24 of 43

t"e ac"ie&ement of t"e ot"e o#-ecti&es o goals of p e0t ial set fo t" in Section %, Rule $:, $;;9 Rules of Ci&il P ocedu e! #! If )a anted #' t"e disclosu es at t"e p e0t ial, t"e -udge ma' eit"e fo t")it" dismiss t"e action, o dete mine t"e p op iet' of ende ing a -udgment on t"e pleadings o a summa ' -udgment! c! T"e -udge s"all define t"e factual issues a ising f om t"e pleadings and endea&o to cull t"e mate ial issues! d! If onl' legal issues a e p esented, t"e -udge s"all e*ui e t"e pa ties to su#mit t"ei and t"e eafte ende -udgment! especti&e memo anda

e! If t ial is necessa ', t"e -udge s"all fi1 t"e t ial dates e*ui ed to complete p esentation of e&idence #' #ot" pa ties )it"in ninet' 3;>4 da's f om t"e date of initial "ea ing! 6! Afte t"e p e0t ial confe ence, t"e -udge s"ould not fail to p epa e and issue t"e e*uisite p e0t ial o de , )"ic" s"all em#od' t"e matte s mentioned in Section 9, Rule $: of t"e $;;9 Rules of Ci&il P ocedu e! 7! =ailu e of t"e plaintiff to appea at t"e p e0t ial s"all #e a cause fo dismissal of t"e action! A simila failu e of t"e defendant s"all #e a cause to allo) t"e plaintiff to p esent "is e&idence e0&parte and t"e cou t to ende -udgment on t"e #asis t"e eof! 9! =ailu e to file p e0t ial # iefs s"all "a&e t"e same effect as failu e to appea at t"e p e0t ial! T"e -udge s"ould encou age t"e effecti&e use of p e0t ial disco&e ' p ocedu es! $/; %. 1he Pre71rial 5rder <"e e t"e case p oceeded to t ial )it" t"e petitione s acti&el' pa ticipating t"e ein )it"out aising t"ei o#-ections to t"e p e0t ial, t"e' a e #ound #' t"e stipulations at t"e p e0t ial! $6> P e0t ial is p ima il' intended to ma(e ce tain t"at all issues necessa ' to t"e disposition of a case a e p ope l' aised, and t"e dete mination of issues at a p e0t ial confe ence #a s t"e conside ation of ot"e *uestions on appeal!$6$ /!$ E1ceptions /!$!$ To p e&ent manifest in-ustice5$6% /!$!% Issues t"at a e impliedl' included o necessa il' connected to t"e e1p essl' defined issues and dense pa ts of t"e p e0t ial o de !$6. /!$!. Issues not included in t"e p e0t ial o de #ut )e e t ied e1p essl' o impliedl' #' t"e pa ties! $6/

14) 100

Adm#n#strat#'e C#rcular No. 1 dated 2* 9anuary 1)**. Macarae( '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 4*00*, 9anuary 20, 1)*), 16) SCRA 20) c#t#n( /ucenta '. Court of 6#rst 7nstance of %u&#dnon, 5. R. No. / 3)7*), 9une 20, 1)**, 162 SCRA 1)7. 101 Son '. Son, 5. R. No. 73077, 3ecember 2), 1))6, 201 SCRA 006. 102 Sese '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, No. / 661*6, 9uly 31, 1)*7, 102 SCRA 0*0. 103 ?elasco '. A$ostol, 5. R. No. 440**, May ), 1)*), 173 SCRA 22* c#ted #n Son '. Son, supra, note 101. 104 Son '. Son, supra, note 101.

Page 25 of 43

4. TRIAL 5R,le .67 *. *dministrative !ircular +o. 733( 8an. 1,( 1333 To insu e speed' disposition of cases, t"e follo)ing guidelines must #e fait"full' o#se &ed2 I! T"e session "ou s of all Regional T ial Cou ts, Det opolitan T ial Cou ts, Dunicipal T ial Cou ts in Cities, Dunicipal T ial Cou ts and Dunicipal Ci cuit T ial Cou ts s"all #e f om :2.> A! D! to noon and f om %2>> P! D! to /2.> P! D! f om Donda' to = ida'! T"e "ou s in t"e mo ning s"all #e de&oted to t"e conduct of t ial, )"ile t"e "ou s in t"e afte noon s"all #e utili@ed fo 3$4 t"e conduct of p e0t ial confe ences5 3%4 ) iting of decisions, esolutions, o o de s5 o 3.4 t"e continuation of t ial on t"e me its, )"ene&e ende ed necessa ', as ma' #e e*ui ed #' t"e Rules of Cou t, statutes, o ci cula s in specified cases! ?o)e&e , in multi&sala cou ts in places )"e e t"e e a e fe) p acticing la)'e s, t"e sc"edule ma' #e modified upon e*uest of t"e Integ ated Ca of t"e P"ilippines suc" t"at one0"alf of t"e # anc"es ma' "old t"ei t ial in t"e mo ning and t"e ot"e "alf in t"e afte noon! E1cept t"ose e*ui ing immediate action, all motions s"ould #e sc"eduled fo "ea ing on = ida' afte noons, o if = ida' is a non0)o (ing da', in t"e afte noon of t"e ne1t #usiness da'! T"e unaut"o i@ed p actice of some -udges of ente taining motions o setting t"em fo "ea ing on an' ot"e da' o time must #e immediatel' stopped! II! Audges must #e punctual at all times! III! T"e Cle ( of Cou t, unde t"e di ect supe &ision of t"e Audge, must compl' )it" Rule %> of t"e $;;9 Rules of Ci&il P ocedu e ega ding t"e calenda of cases! IV! T"e e s"ould #e st ict ad"e ence to t"e polic' on a&oiding postponements and needless dela'! Sections %, . and / of Rule .>, $;;9 Rules on Ci&il P ocedu e on ad-ou nments and postponements and on t"e e*uisites of a motion to postpone t ial fo a#sence of e&idence o fo illness of a pa t' o counsel s"ould #e fait"full' o#se &ed! La)'e s as office s of t"e cou t, a e en-oined to coope ate )it" -udges to ensu e s)ift disposition of cases! V! T"e mandato ' continuous t ial s'stem in ci&il cases contemplated in Administ ati&e Ci cula No! / dated %% Septem#e $;::, and t"e guidelines p o&ided fo in Ci cula No! $0:;, dated $; Aanua ' $;:;, must #e effecti&el' implemented! =o e1pedienc', t"ese guidelines in ci&il cases a e "e eunde estated )it" modifications, ta(ing into account t"e ele&ant p o&isions of t"e $;;9 Rules of Ci&il P ocedu e2 B. 1rial $! Fnless t"e doc(et of t"e cou t e*ui es ot"e )ise, not mo e t"an fou 3/4 cases s"all #e sc"eduled fo t ial dail'! %! T"e P esiding Audge s"all ma(e a angements )it" t"e p osecuto and t"e Pu#lic Atto ne'’s Office 3PAO4 so t"at a elief p osecuto and a PAO atto ne' a e al)a's a&aila#le in case t"e egula p osecuto o PAO atto ne's a e a#sent!

Page 26 of 43

.! Contingenc' measu es must li(e)ise #e ta(en fo an' une1pected a#sence of t"e stenog ap"e and ot"e suppo t staff assisting in t"e t ial! /! T"e issuance and se &ice of su#poena s"all #e done in acco dance )it" Administ ati&e Ci cula No! / dated %% Septem#e $;::! 6! T"e -udge s"all conduct t ial )it" utmost dispatc", )it" -udicious e1e cise of t"e cou t’s po)e to cont ol t ial p oceedings to a&oid dela'! 7! T"e -udge must ta(e notes of t"e mate ial and ele&ant testimonies of )itnesses to facilitate "is decision0 ma(ing! 9! T"e t ial s"all #e te minated )it"in ninet' 3;>4 da's f om initial "ea ing! App op iate disciplina ' sanctions ma' #e imposed on t"e -udge and t"e la)'e s fo failu e to compl' )it" t"e e*ui ement due to causes att i#uta#le to t"em! :! Eac" pa t' is #ound to complete t"e p esentation of "is e&idence )it"in t"e t ial dates assigned to "im! Afte t"e lapse of said dates, t"e pa t' is deemed to "a&e completed t"e p esentation of e&idence! ?o)e&e , upon &e ified motion #ased on compelling easons, t"e -udge ma' allo) a pa t' additional t ial dates in t"e afte noon5 p o&ided t"at said e1tension )ill not go #e'ond t"e t" ee0mont" limit computed f om t"e fi st t ial date e1cept )"en aut"o i@ed in ) iting #' t"e Cou t Administ ato , Sup eme Cou t! I! All t ial -udges must st ictl' compl' )it" Ci cula No! .:0;:, entitled BImplementing t"e P o&isions of Repu#lic Act No! :/;.B 3BAn Act to Ensu e a Speed' T ial of All Cases Cefo e t"e andigan#ayan, Regional T ial Cou t, Det opolitan T ial Cou t, Dunicipal T ial Cou t in Cities, Dunicipal T ial Cou t, and Dunicipal Ci cuit T ial Cou t, App op iating =unds T"e efo e, and fo Ot"e Pu posesB4 issued #' t"e ?ono a#le C"ief Austice And es R! Na &asa on $6 Septem#e $;;:! II! $! As a constant eminde of )"at cases must #e decided o esol&ed, t"e -udge must (eep a calenda of cases su#mitted fo decision, noting t"e ein t"e e1act da', mont" and 'ea )"en t"e ;>0da' pe iod is to e1pi e! As soon as a case is su#mitted fo decision, it must #e noted in t"e calenda of t"e -udge5 mo eo&e , t"e eco ds s"all #e dul' collated )it" t"e e1"i#its and t ansc ipts of stenog ap"ic notes, as )ell as t"e t ial notes of t"e -udge, and placed in t"e -udge’s c"am#e ! %! In c iminal cases, t"e -udge )ill do )ell to announce in open cou t at t"e te mination of t"e t ial t"e date of t"e p omulgation of t"e decision, )"ic" s"ould #e set )it"in ;> da's f om t"e su#mission of t"e case fo decision! .! All Audges must sc upulousl' o#se &e t"e pe iod p esc i#ed in Section $6, A ticle VIII of t"e Constitution! T"is Ci cula s"all ta(e effect on =e# ua ' $,$;;;, and t"e Office of t"e Cou t Administ ato s"all ensu e fait"ful compliance t"e e)it"! C#ty of Man#la, 10 9anuary 1))). . S"me R,le) $! T"e o de of t ial stated a#o&e is follo)ed in o dina il' contested cases! ?o)e&e , if t"e defendant in "is ans)e admits t"e o#ligation alleged in t"e complaint #ut aises special defenses, t"en t"e plaintiff is elie&ed of

Page 27 of 43

t"e dut' to p esent e&idence in c"ief and so t"e defendant s"ould sta t t"e p oceeding #' p esenting "is e&idence to suppo t "is special defenses!$66 %! <"en Case Deemed Su#mitted fo Decision in T ial Cou t Fnde Administ ati&e Ci cula No! %: dated Aul' .,$;:;2 111 3.4 A case is conside ed su#mitted fo decision upon t"e admission of t"e e&idence of t"e pa ties at t"e te mination of t"e t ial! T"e ninet' 3;>4 da' pe iod fo deciding t"e case s"all commence to un f om su#mission of t"e case fo decision )it"out memo anda5 in case t"e Cou t e*ui es o allo)s its filing, t"e case s"all #e conside ed su#mitted fo decision upon t"e filing of t"e last memo andum o t"e e1pi ation of t"e pe iod to do so, )"ic"e&e is ea lie ! Lac( of t ansc ipt of stenog ap"ic notes s"all not #e a &alid eason to inte upt o suspend t"e pe iod fo deciding t"e case unless t"e case )as p e&iousl' "ea d #' anot"e -udge not t"e deciding -udge in )"ic" case t"e latte s"all "a&e t"e full pe iod of ninet' 3;>4 da's f om t"e completion of t"e t ansc ipts )it"in )"ic" to decide t"e same! 3/4 T"e cou t ma' g ant e1tension of time to file memo anda, #ut t"e ninet' 3;>4 da's pe iod fo deciding t"e case s"all not #e inte upted t"e e#'! 364 T"e fo egoing ules s"all not appl' to Special C iminal Cou ts unde Ci cula %> dated August 9, $;:9, and to cases co&e ed #' t"e Rule on Summa ' P ocedu e in )"ic" memo anda a e p o"i#ited! 111 Fnde Rule .>, Section 63g4, upon admission of t"e e&idence, t"e case s"all #e deemed su#mitted fo decision, unless t"e cou t di ects t"e pa ties to a gue o to su#mit t"ei especti&e memo anda o an' fu t"e pleadings! As a gene al ule, no additional e&idence ma' #e p esented at t"e e#uttal stage! Su#-ect to t"e disc etion of t"e cou t, additional e&idence ma' #e su#mitted2 3$4 if it is me el' disco&e ed5 3%4 omitted t" oug" mista(e o inad&e tence5 o 3.4 )"en t"e pu pose is to co ect e&idence p e&iousl' offe ed! $67 Fnde Administ ati&e Datte No! >>0%0>$0SC amending t"e Rule $/$ of t"e Rules of Cou t on Legal =ees, it is p o&ided in Sec! %3#4 t"at a fee s"all #e paid fo motions fo postponements, to )it2
=o motions fo postponement afte completion of t"e p e0t ial stage, one "und ed 3P"p$>>4 pesos fo t"e fi st, and an additional fift' 3P"p6>4 pesos fo e&e ' postponement t"e eafte #ased on t"at fo t"e immediatel' p eceding motion2 P o&ided, "o)e&e , t"at no fee s"all #e imposed )"en t"e motion is found to #e #ased on -ustifia#le and compelling eason!

8. AD'UDICATION 5R,le .47
100 106

Hu '. Ma$ayo, No. / 2)742, Marc" 2), 1)72, 44 SCRA 163. /o$e: '. /#boro, *1 !"#l. 42) +1)4*,.

Page 28 of 43

1. C"n+e$% an( Re9,iremen%) Ad-udication is t"e endition of a -udgment o final o de )"ic" disposes of t"e case on t"e me its! Fnde t"e Rules of Ci&il P ocedu e, -udgment is used in its gene ic te m and t"e efo e s'non'mous to decision! A -udgment o final o de dete mining t"e me its of t"e case s"all #e in ) iting pe sonall' and di ectl' p epa ed #' t"e -udge, stating clea l' and distinctl' t"e facts and t"e la) on )"ic" it is #ased, signed #' "im, and filed )it" t"e cle ( of cou t!$69 . :in() "# ',(!men% an( De#ini%i"n) 1. )ithout Reception of &vidence $!$ Audgment on t"e Pleading <"e e an ans)e fails to tende an issue, o ot"e )ise admits t"e mate ial allegations of t"e ad&e se pa t'’s pleading, t"e cou t ma', on motion of t"at pa t', di ect -udgment on suc" pleading! ?o)e&e , in actions fo decla ation of nullit' o annulment of ma iage o fo legal sepa ation, t"e mate ial facts alleged in t"e complaint s"all al)a's #e p o&ed!$6: $!% Summa ' Audgment A pa t' see(ing to eco&e upon a claim, counte claim, o c oss0claim o to o#tain a decla ato ' elief ma', at an' time afte t"e pleading in ans)e t"e eto "as #een se &ed, mo&e )it" suppo ting affida&its, depositions o admissions fo a summa ' -udgment in "is fa&o upon all o an' pa t t"e eof! $6; A pa t' against )"om a claim, counte claim, o c oss0claim is asse ted o a decla ato ' elief is soug"t ma', at an' time, mo&e )it" suppo ting affida&its, depositions o admissions fo a summa ' -udgment in "is fa&o as to all o an' pa t t"e eof!$7> 2. )ith Partial Reception of &vidence %!$ Audgment #' Default
If t"e defending pa t' fails to ans)e )it"in t"e time allo)ed t"e efo e, t"e cou t s"all, upon motion of t"e claiming pa t' )it" notice to t"e defending pa t', and p oof of suc" failu e, decla e t"e defending pa t' in default! T"e eupon, t"e cou t s"all p oceed to ende -udgment g anting t"e claimant suc" elief as "is pleading ma' )a ant, unless t"e cou t in its disc etion e*ui es t"e claimant to su#mit e&idence! Suc" eception of e&idence ma' #e delegated to t"e cle ( of cou t!$7$

%!% Audgment on Demu e to E&idence2
Afte t"e plaintiff "as completed t"e p esentation of "is e&idence, t"e defendant ma' mo&e fo dismissal on t"e g ound t"at upon t"e facts and t"e la) t"e plaintiff "as s"o)n no ig"t to elief! If "is motion is denied, "e s"all "a&e t"e ig"t to p esent e&idence! If t"e motion is g anted #ut on appeal t"e o de of dismissal is e&e sed, "e s"all #e deemed to "a&e )ai&ed t"e ig"t to p esent e&idence!$7%

107 10*

Rules of Court, Rule 36, Sec. 1. Rules of Court, Rule 34, Sec. 1. 10) Rules of Court, Rule 30, Sec. 1. 160 Ibid., Sec. 2. 161 Rules of Court, Rule ), Sec. 3. 162 Rules of Court, Rule 33, Sec. 1.

Page 29 of 43

Notes2 A demu e to e&idence is diffe entiated f om a motion to dismiss in t"at t"e fo me can #e a&ailed of onl' afte t"e p esentation of plaintiff’s e&idence )"ile t"e latte is instituted as a gene al ule #efo e a esponsi&e pleading is filed! <"en t"e motion fo a demu e to e&idence is g anted, t"e -udgment of t"e cou t is conside ed on t"e me its and so it "as to compl' )it" Rule .7, Section $, ega ding t"e e*ui ement t"at -udgment s"ould clea l' and distinctl' state t"e facts and t"e la) on )"ic" it is #ased! If t"e motion is denied, t"e o de is me el' inte locuto '!$7. .. Ca)e) "n S,mmary ',(!men% $! T"e test fo t"e p op iet' of a motion fo summa ' -udgment is )"et"e t"e pleadings, affida&its and e1"i#its in suppo t of t"e motion a e sufficient to o&e come t"e opposing pape s and to -ustif' t"e findings t"at, as a matte of la), t"e e is no defense to t"e action o t"e claim is clea l' me ito ious! $7/ %! Summa ' -udgment ma' include a dete mination of t"e ig"t to damages #ut not t"e amount of damages! $76 T"e cou t cannot also impose atto ne'’s fees in a summa ' -udgment in t"e a#sence of p oof as to t"e amount t"e eof!$77 .! De e denials, unaccompanied #' an' fact )"ic" )ould #e admissi#le in e&idence at a "ea ing, a e not sufficient to aise a genuine issue of fact sufficient to dest o' a motion fo summa ' -udgment e&en t"oug" suc" issue )as fo mall' aised #' t"e pleadings! $79 <"e e all t"e facts a e )it"in t"e -udicial (no)ledge of t"e cou t, summa ' -udgment ma' #e g anted as a matte of la)! $7: /! Cou ts a e )it"out disc etion to den' a motion fo summa ' -udgment )"e e t"e e is no genuine issue as to a mate ial fact! Summa ' -udgment is a&aila#le e&en if t"e pleadings ostensi#l' s"o) genuine issue )"ic" #' depositions o affida&its a e s"o)n not to #e genuine! $7; 6! Distinction #et)een summa ' p oceedings unde Rule ./ 3Audgment on t"e pleadings4 and t"e summa ' p oceedings unde Rule .6 3Summa ' Audgment4 A diffe ent ationale ope ates in t"e latte fo it a ises out of facts al ead' esta#lis"ed o admitted du ing t"e p e0 t ial "eld #efo e"and, unli(e t"e fo me )"e e t"e -udgment me el' elies on t"e me its of t"e mo&ant’s allegations!$9> 7! Disc etion of Cou t To Rende Audgment on t"e Pleadings Fnde t"e Rules, if t"e e is no cont o&e ted matte in t"e case afte t"e ans)e is filed, t"e t ial cou t "as t"e disc etion to g ant a motion fo -udgment on t"e pleadings filed #' a pa t'! <"e e t"e e a e actual issues aised in t"e ans)e , suc" as one in&ol&ing damages, )"ic" e*ui e t"e p esentation of e&idence and assessment t"e eof #' t"e t ial cou t, it is imp ope fo a -udge to ende -udgment #ased on t"e pleadings alone! $9$

163 164

Ne$omuceno '. Comm#ss#on on <lect#ons, 5. R. No. 60601, 3ecember 2), 1)*3, 126 SCRA 472. <strada '. Consolac#on, No. / 40)4*, 9une 2), 1)76, 71 SCRA 023. 160 9u(ador '. de ?era, )4 !"#l. 704 +1)04,. 166 1arner, %arnes A Co., /td. '. /u:on Surety Co., 7nc., )0 !"#l. )24 +1)04,. 167 6letc"er '. @r#se, 4 6ed. Rules Ser'#ce, 760, Marc" 3, 1)41. 16* 6letc"er '. <'en#n( NeFs$a$er Co., 3 6ed. Rules Ser'#ce, 03), 9une 2*, 1)40- M#randa '. Malate 5ara(e A =a>#cab, 7nc., )) !"#l. 670 +1)06,. 16) 3#man '. Alumbres, 5. R. No. 131466, No'ember 27, 1))*, 2)) SCRA 40). 170 ?elasCue: '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 12404), 9une 30, 1))), 30) SCRA 03). 171 S$ouses Gont#'eros '. Re(#onal =r#al Court of 7lo#lo, %r. 20, 5. R. No. 120460, 9une 2), 1))), 30) SCRA 340.

Page 30 of 43

9! A pa tial summa ' -udgment ma' #e ende ed,$9% #ut t"e same is inte locuto ' and not appeala#le! $9. 0. Or(inary ',(!men% $! No -udge s"ould decline to ende -udgment #' eason of t"e silence, o#scu it', o insufficienc' of t"e la)! $9/ %! T"e cou t is not e*ui ed to state in its decision all t"e facts found in t"e eco ds! It is enoug" t"at t"e cou t states t"e facts and la) on )"ic" its decision is #ased!$96 T ial cou ts s"ould not, "o)e&e , me el' ep oduce e&e 't"ing testified to #' t"e )itnesses no matte "o) unimpo tant and immate ial it ma' #e, e&en if t"is mig"t lig"ten t"ei )o (! C' suc" indolent p ocess, t"e' onl' complicate and lengt"en t"ei decisions, #eclouding and possi#l' mis eading t"e eal issues in t"ei ti esome na ation of t"e facts, including e&en t"ose )it"out #ea ing in t"e case! Audges s"ould ma(e an effo t to sift t"e eco d and elie&e it of all inconse*uential matte s, to gi&e t"em a clea e &ie) of "o) t"e eal *uestion is to #e esol&ed and a #ette idea of "o) t"is esolution s"ould #e done! $97 %!$ Need to Pa ticula i@e =acts <it"out t"e conc ete elation o statement in t"e -udgment of t"e facts alleged and p o&ed at t"e t ial, it is not possi#le to pass upon and dete mine t"e issue aised in litigation, inasmuc" as )"en t"e facts "eld to #e p o&ed a e not set fo t" in a -udicial cont o&e s', it is impossi#le to administe -ustice, to appl' t"e la) to t"e points a gued, o to up"old t"e ig"ts of t"e litigant )"o "as t"e la) on "is side! It is not sufficient t"at t"e cou t o t ial -udge ta(e into account t"e facts # oug"t out in an action t"e ci cumstances of eac" *uestion aised, and t"e natu e and conditions of t"e p oofs fu nis"ed #' t"e pa ties! ?e must also set out in "is decision t"e facts alleged #' t"e contending pa ties )"ic" "e finds to "a&e #een p o&en, t"e conclusions deduced t"e ef om and t"e opinion "e "as fo med on t"e issues aised! Onl' t"en can "e intelligentl' set fo t" t"e legal g ounds and conside ations p ope in "is opinion fo t"e due dete mination of t"e case!$99 %!% Reason fo A)a d of Atto ne'Bs =ees Dust #e Stated in t"e Cod' of t"e Decision T"e e1e cise of -udicial disc etion in t"e a)a d of atto ne'Bs fee unde A ticle %%>: 3ii4 of t"e Ne) Ci&il Code demands a factual, legal, and e*uita#le -ustification! <it"out suc" -ustification, t"e a)a d is a conclusion )it"out a p emise, its #asis #eing imp ope l' left to speculation and con-ectu e! $9: .! T"e case s"ould #e decided in its totalit', esol&ing all inte locuto ' issues in o de to ende -ustice to all conce ned and to end litigation once and fo all! $9; /! To #e #inding, a -udgment must #e dul' signed and p omulgated du ing t"e incum#enc' of t"e -udge )"o signed it!$:> ?o)e&e , it is not unusual fo a -udge )"o did not t ' a case to decide on t"e #asis of t"e eco ds fo t"e t ial -udge mig"t "a&e died, esigned, eti ed, o t ansfe ed! $:$
172 173

Rules of Court, Rule 30, Sec. 4. 5ue'arra '. Court of A$$eals, Nos. / 4)017 and / 4)024, Au(ust 30, 1)*3, 124 SCRA 2)7. 174 C#'#l Code, Art. ). 170 !eo$le '. 3er$o, Nos. / 41040 and 43)0* 10, 3ecember 14, 1)**, 16* SCRA 447. 176 !eo$le '. Mol#na, 5. R. No. 7000*, A$r#l 26, 1))0, 1*4 SCRA 0)7. 177 !eo$le '. <scober, No. / 6)064, 9anuary 2), 1)**, 107 SCRA 041. 17* M#rasol '. dela Cru:, No. / 32002, 9uly 31, 1)7*, *4 SCRA 337. 17) Nat#onal Gous#n( Aut"or#ty '. Court of A$$eals, / 00*77, A$r#l 2*, 1)*3, 121 SCRA 777. 1*0 /ao '. =o C"#$, No. / 760)7, 6ebruary 26, 1)**, 10* SCRA 243. 1*1 !eo$le '. <scalante, No. / 37147, Au(ust 22, 1)*4, 131 SCRA 237.

Page 31 of 43

6! T"e ;>0da' pe iod to decide a case s"all #e ec(oned )it" f om t"e date said case is su#mitted fo decision despite t"e non0a&aila#ilit' of t"e stenog ap"ic notes! $:% In t"e same manne , t"e -udge s"ould decide t"e case e&en if t"e pa ties failed to su#mit memo anda )it"in t"e gi&en pe iods! $:.

;. REMEDIES AGAINST 'UDGMENT AND FINAL ORDERS 1. :in() "# Reme(ie) $! Cefo e =inalit' of Audgments o =inal O de s2 3a4 Dotion fo Reconside ation5 3#4 Dotion fo Ne) T ial5 and 3c4 Appeal! %! Afte =inalit' of Audgments o =inal O de s2 3a4 Relief fo Audgments o =inal O de s5 3#4 Petition fo Certiorari5 and 3c4 Annulment of Audgment! . M"%i"n #"r Re+"n)i(era%i"n an( Ne1 Trial 1. !ommon Rules $!$ Time to =ile A motion fo econside ation o ne) t ial ma' #e filed )it"in t"e pe iod fo ta(ing appeal! Note t"at a pro forma motion fo ne) t ial o econside ation s"all not toll t"e eglementa ' pe iod! A pro forma motion fo econside ation o ne) t ial is one )"ic" does not compl' )it" t"e e*ui ements of Rule .9 and does not toll t"e eglementa ' pe iod to appeal!$:/ $!% No motion fo e1tension of time to file motion fo econside ation o ne) t ial is allo)ed! $:6 $!. A motion fo econside ation o ne) t ial suspends t"e unning of t"e pe iod to appeal #ut if denied, t"e mo&ant "as onl' t"e #alance of t"e eglementa ' pe iod )it"in )"ic" to ta(e "is appeal! $:7 $!/ Resolution of motion
1*2 1*3

/aFan '. Moleta, A. M. No. 16)6 M9, 9une 1), 1)7), )0 SCRA 07). Sal'ador '. Salamanca, A. M. No. R 177 M=9, Se$tember 24, 1)*6, 144 SCRA 276. 1*4 Cledera '. Sarm#ento, Nos. / 32400 01, 9une 10, 1)71, 3) SCRA 002- 6#rme '. Reyes, No. / 30*0*, Au(ust 21, 1)7), )2 SCRA 713. 1*0 Gabaluyas <nter$r#ses, 7nc. '. 9a$son, No. / 70*)0, May 30, 1)*6, 142 SCRA 20*. 1*6 Rules of Court, Rule 41, Sec. 3.

Page 32 of 43

A motion fo ne) t ial o econside ation s"all #e esol&ed )it"in t"i t' 3.>4 da's f om t"e time it is su#mitted fo esolution! An o de den'ing a motion fo ne) t ial o econside ation is not appeala#le, t"e emed' #eing an appeal f om t"e -udgment o final o de !$:9 2. Motion for Reconsideration H ounds2 3$4 damages a)a ded a e e1cessi&e5 3%4 e&idence is insufficient to -ustif' t"e decision o final o de 5 and 3.4 decision o final o de is cont a ' to la)! $:: %!$ A motion fo econside ation s"all point out specificall' t"e findings o conclusions of t"e -udgment o final o de )"ic" a e not suppo ted #' t"e e&idence o )"ic" a e cont a ' to la), ma(ing e1p ess efe ence to t"e testimonial o documenta ' e&idence o to t"e p o&isions of la) alleged to #e cont a ' to suc" findings o conclusions!$:; %!% No pa t' s"all #e allo)ed a second motion fo econside ation! $;> . Motion for +ew 1rial .!$ H ounds An' of t"e follo)ing causes mate iall' affecting t"e su#stantial ig"ts of an agg ie&ed pa t'2 .!$!$ = aud, accident, mista(e o e1cusa#le negligence )"ic" o dina ' p udence could not "a&e gua ded against and #' eason of )"ic" suc" agg ie&ed pa t' "as p o#a#l' #een impai ed in "is ig"ts5 o .!$!% Ne)l' disco&e ed e&idence, )"ic" "e could not, )it" easona#le diligence, "a&e disco&e ed and p oduced at t"e t ial, and )"ic" if p esented )ould p o#a#l' alte t"e esult! $;$ .!% = aud, as a g ound fo ne) t ial, must #e e1t insic o collate al, t"at is, it is t"e (ind of f aud )"ic" p e&ented t"e agg ie&ed pa t' f om "a&ing a t ial o p esenting "is case to t"e cou t, o )as used to p ocu e t"e -udgment )it"out fai su#mission of t"e cont o&e s'! Instances of collate al f aud a e acts intended to (eep t"e unsuccessful pa t' a)a' f om t"e cou t #' a false p omise of comp omise, o pu posel' (eeps "im in igno ance of t"e suit, o )"e e t"e atto ne' f audulentl' p etends to ep esent a pa t' and conni&es at "is defeat, o co uptl' sells out "is client’s inte est! $;% It is to #e distinguis"ed f om int insic f aud )"ic" efe s to t"e acts of a pa t' at t"e t ial )"ic" p e&ented a fai and -ust dete mination of t"e case $;. and )"ic" could "a&e #een litigated and dete mined at t"e t ial o ad-udication of t"e cases, suc" as falsification, false testimon' and so fo t", and does not constitute a g ound fo ne) t ial!$;/

1*7 1**

Ibid, Sec. 4. Rules of Court, Rule 37, Sec. 1. 1*) Ibid, Sec. 2. 1)0 Rules of Court, Rule 37, Sec. 0. 1)1 Ibid, Sec. 2. 1)2 Ma(no '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 2*4*6, Se$tember 10, 1)*1, 107 SCRA 2*0. 1)3 !alanca '. Amer#can 6ood Manufactur#n( Co., 7nc., No. / 22*22, Au(ust 30, 1)6*, 24 SCRA *1). 1)4 =arca '. ?da. 3e Carretero, )) !"#l. 41) +1)06,- Conde '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, No. / 70443, Se$tember 10, 1)*6, 144 SCRA 144.

Page 33 of 43

.!. Dista(e gene all' efe s to mista(es of fact #ut ma' also include mista(es of la) )"e e, in good fait", t"e defendant )as misled in t"e case! T"us, a mista(e as to t"e scope and e1tent of t"e co&e age of an o dinance,$;6 o a mista(e as to t"e effect of a comp omise ag eement upon t"e need fo ans)e ing a complaint,$;7 alt"oug" actuall' constituting mista(es of la), "a&e #een conside ed sufficient to )a ant a ne) t ial! .!/ Negligence must #e e1cusa#le and gene all' imputa#le to t"e pa t' #ut t"e negligence of counsel is #inding on t"e client -ust as t"e latte is #ound #' t"e mista(es of "is la)'e ! $;9 ?o)e&e , negligence of t"e counsel ma' also #e a g ound fo ne) t ial if it )as so g eat suc" t"at t"e pa t' )as p e-udiced and p e&ented f om fai l' p esenting "is case!$;: .!6 To )a ant a ne) t ial, ne)l' disco&e ed e&idence2 3$4 must "a&e #een disco&e ed afte t ial5 3%4 could not "a&e #een disco&e ed and p oduced at t"e t ial despite easona#le diligence5 and 3.4 if p esented, )ould p o#a#l' alte t"e esult of t"e action! $;; De e initial "ostilit' of a )itness at t"e t ial does not constitute "is testimon' into ne)l' disco&e ed e&idence! %>> .!7 A motion fo ne) t ial s"all #e suppo ted #' affida&its of me its )"ic" ma' #e e#utted #' affida&its! An affida&it of me its is one )"ic" states2 3$4 t"e natu e o c"a acte of t"e f aud, accident, mista(e o e1cusa#le negligence on )"ic" t"e motion fo ne) t ial is #ased5 3%4 t"e facts constituting t"e mo&ant’s good and su#stantial defenses o &alid causes of action5 %>$ and 3.4 t"e e&idence )"ic" "e intends to p esent if "is motion is g anted! An affida&it of me its s"ould state facts and not me e opinions o conclusions of la)! %>% An affida&it of me its is e*ui ed onl' if t"e g ounds elied upon a e f aud, accident, mista(e o e1cusa#le negligence! %>. Affida&its of me its ma' #e dispensed )it" )"en t"e -udgment is null and &oid as )"e e t"e cou t "as no -u isdiction o&e t"e defendant o t"e su#-ect matte ,%>/ o is p ocedu all' defecti&e as )"e e -udgment #' default )as ende ed #efo e t"e eglementa ' pe iod to ans)e "ad e1pi ed, %>6 o )"e e t"e defendant )as un easona#l' dep i&ed of "is da' in cou t%>7 as )"en no notice of "ea ing )as fu nis"ed "im in ad&ance! %>9 Affida&its of me its a e not e*ui ed in motions fo econside ation!%>:
1)0 1)6

C#ty of 7lo#lo '. !#n:on, )7 !"#l )6* +.nre$orted, +1)00,. Sala:ar '. Sala:ar, * !"#l. 1*3 +1)07,. 1)7 5aba '. Castro, No. / 06171, 9anuary 31, 1)*3, 120 SCRA 000- Ayllon '. Se'#lla, No. / 7)244, 3ecember 10, 1)*7, 106 SCRA 207. 1)* !eo$le '. Man:an#lla, 43 !"#l. 167 +1)22,- cf. Re$ubl#c '. Arro, No. / 4*241, 9une 11, 1)*7, 100 SCRA 620. 1)) Nat#onal S"$#yards and Steel Cor$orat#on '. Asunc#on, 103 !"#l. 67 +1)0*,. 200 Arce '. Arce, 106 !"#l. 630 +1)0),. 201 6errer '. Ha$ Se$en(, No. / 3)373, Se$tember 30, 1)74, 60 SCRA 14). 202 Mal#$ol '. =an, No. / 27730, 9anuary 2, 1)74, 00 SCRA 202- 6errer '. Ha$ Se$en(, supra, note 201. 203 5anaban '. %ayle, No. / 2**04, No'ember 27, 1)6), 30 SCRA 360. 204 Re$ubl#c '. 3e /eon, 101 !"#l. 773 +1)07,. 200 5on:ale: '. 6ranc#sco, supra, note 62. 206 ?aler#o '. =an, )) !"#l. 41) +1)06,. 207 Solor#a '. Cru:, 5. R. No. 2073*, 9anuary 31, 1)66, 16 SCRA 114- 5attoc '. Sarrenas, 104 !"#l. 221 +1)0*,. 20* Mendo:a '. %aut#sta, No. / 40**0, A$r#l 2*, 1)*3, 121 SCRA 760.

Page 34 of 43

.!9 Effect of H anting of Dotion =o Ne) T ial If a ne) t ial is g anted in acco dance )it" t"e p o&isions of t"is Rule, t"e o iginal -udgment o final o de s"all #e &acated, and t"e action s"all stand fo t ial de novo2 #ut t"e eco ded e&idence ta(en upon t"e fo me t ial, in so fa as t"e same is mate ial and competent to esta#lis" t"e issues, s"all #e used at t"e ne) t ial )it"out eta(ing t"e same!%>; .. A$$eal Note2 T"is su#-ect s"all #e limited to appeal f om fi st le&el cou ts to t"e Regional T ial Cou t %$> and appeals f om t"e Regional T ial Cou t!%$$ T ial cou ts a e not conce ned )it" t"e ot"e (inds and modes of appeals! 1. 9eneral Principles $!$ An appeal is a statuto ' ig"t and pa t of due p ocess! Pe fection of an appeal in t"e manne and )it"in t"e pe iod laid do)n #' la) is not onl' mandato ' #ut also -u isdictional! %$% $!% Onl' pa ties can appeal f om a decision! A su et' on a #ond to insu e e1ecution of -udgment #ecomes a pa t' )"en notice )as se &ed upon it fo e1ecution of t"e -udgment and ma' appeal f om t"e o de of e1ecution!%$. $!. A pa t' cannot c"ange t"e t"eo ' on appeal! Onl' issues pleaded in t"e lo)e cou t and p ope l' aised ma' #e esol&ed #' t"e appellate cou t! %$/ ?o)e&e , issues )"ic" a e infe ed f om o necessa il' connected )it" t"e issue p ope l' aised and pleaded ma' #e esol&ed #' t"e appellate cou t! %$6 $!/ T"ose )"ic" cannot #e appealed2 3$4 An o de den'ing a motion fo ne) t ial o econside ation5 3%4 An o de den'ing a petition fo elief o an' simila motion see(ing elief f om -udgment5 3.4 An inte locuto ' o de 5 3/4 An o de disallo)ing o dismissing an appeal5 364 An o de den'ing a motion to set aside a -udgment #' consent, confession o comp omise on t"e g ound of f aud, mista(e o du ess, o an' ot"e g ound &itiating consent5 374 An o de of e1ecution5 394 A -udgment o final o de fo o against one o mo e of se&e al pa ties o in sepa ate claims, counte claims, c oss0claims and t"i d0pa t' complaints, )"ile t"e main case is pending, unless t"e cou t allo)s an appeal t"e ef om5 and
20) 210

Rules of Court, Rule 37, Sec. 6. Rules of Court, Rule 40. 211 Rules of Court, Rules 41 and 42. 212 ?#llanue'a '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. ))307, 9anuary 27, 1))2, 200 SCRA 037- %orre '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 07204, Marc" 14, 1)**, 10* SCRA 060. 213 !eo$le2s Gomes#te and Gous#n( Cor$orat#on '. 9erem#as, 5. R. No. 43202, Se$tember 30, 1)76, 73 SCRA 23). 214 Med#na '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. )*334, May *, 1))2, 20* SCRA **7. 210 <s$#na '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 10212*, No'ember 6, 1))2, 210 SCRA 4*4.

Page 35 of 43

3:4 An o de dismissing an action )it"out p e-udice! In all of t"e a#o&e instances )"e e t"e -udgment o final o de is not appeala#le, t"e agg ie&ed pa t' ma' file an app op iate special ci&il action unde Rule 76!%$7 $!6 Diffe ence #et)een final o de and an inte locuto ' o de A final o de is one t"at completel' disposes of a case o of a pa ticula matte ! An inte locuto ' o de is one t"at does not finall' dispose of a case and does not end t"e cou t’s tas( of ad-udicating t"e pa ties’ contentions and dete mining t"e ig"ts and lia#ilities as ega ds eac" ot"e #ut o#&iousl' indicates t"at ot"e t"ings emain to #e done #' t"e cou t!%$9 It does not, "o)e&e , necessa il' mean t"at an o de is not final simpl' #ecause t"e e is somet"ing mo e to #e done in t"e me its of t"e case! It is settled t"at a cou t o de is final in c"a acte if it puts an end to t"e pa ticula matte esol&ed, lea&ing t"e eafte no su#stantial p oceeding to #e "ad in connection t"e e)it" e1cept its e1ecution5 and cont a i)ise, t"at a gi&en cou t o de is me el' of an inte locuto ' c"a acte if it is p o&isional and lea&es su#stantial p oceedings to #e "ad in connection )it" its su#-ect in t"e cou t #' )"om it )as issued! %$: T"us, t"e issue )"et"e an o de is a final o de is its effect on t"e ig"ts of t"e pa ties! A final -udgment, o de o dec ee is one t"at finall' disposes of, ad-udicates o dete mine t"e ig"ts, o some ig"ts of t"e pa ties, eit"e on t"e enti e cont o&e s' o some definite and sepa ate # anc" t"e eof, and )"ic" concludes t"em until it is e&e sed o set aside!%$; T"is is #est e1emplified in actions )"e e t"e e a e t)o stages, suc" as e1p op iation, %%> pa tition%%$ and in special p oceedings )"e e t"e e a e se&e al stages! %%% 0. T/e M"(e) "# A$$eal T"e t" ee 3.4 modes of appeal a e2 3$4 o dina ' appeal5%%. 3%4 petition fo e&ie)5%%/ and 3.4 appeal #' certiorari 3petition fo e&ie) on certiorari4!%%6 2. C"!na%e R,le) $! As a gene al ule, in o dina ' appeals, e1ecution is sta'ed unless t"e ule o la) p o&ides ot"e )ise! Among t"ese a e2

216 217

Rules of Court, Rule 41, Sec. 1. 7n'estments, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 60036, 9anuary 27, 1)*7, 147 SCRA 334. 21* 3e /a Cru: '. !aras, 5. R. No. 41003, 6ebruary 27, 1)76, 6) SCRA 006 c#ted #n Re$ubl#c '. =acloban C#ty 7ce !lant, 7nc., 5. R. No. 106413, 9uly 0, 1))6, 20* SCRA 140. 21) 3e la Cru: '. !aras, Ibid.- 5old C#ty 7nte(rated !ort Ser'#ces, 7nc. D7N!;R=E '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, 5. R. Nos. 71771 73, Marc" 31, 1)*), 171 SCRA 07). 220 Mun#c#$al#ty of %#Ban '. 5arc#a, 5. R. No. 6)260, 3ecember 22, 1)*), 1*0 SCRA 076.
221 222 223

M#randa '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. *0030, ;ctober 26, 1)*), 17* SCRA 702.

Rules of Court, Rule 10), Sec. 1. Rules of Court, Rules 40 and 41. 224 Rules of Court, Rules 42 and 43. 220 Rules of Court, Rule 40.

Page 36 of 43

3$4 Decision in =o ci#le Ent ' and Fnla)ful Detaine , unless appellant sta's immediate e1ecution #' filing a notice of appeal, supersedeas #ond and depositing in cou t a mont"l' ental o compensation fo t"e occupation as fi1ed #' t"e cou t )"ic" ende ed t"e decision5%%7 3%4 Decision of t"e Det opolitan, Dunicipal o Dunicipal Ci cuit T ial Cou t o t"e Regional T ial Cou t )"e e e1ecution pending appeal "as #een g anted #' t"e cou t of o igin o in a p ope case #' t"e appellate cou t upon good easons to #e stated in t"e o de 5%%9 3.4 Decision of t"e Regional T ial Cou t ende ed in t"e e1e cise of its appellate -u isdiction on cases t ied and decided #' t"e cou t of o igin unde Summa ' P ocedu e5 %%: 3/4 Decision of Iuasi0Audicial Agencies unde t"e Rules of Cou t, Rule /., Section $%, unless ot"e )ise p o&ided fo #' t"e Cou t of Appeals5 364 Decision in Cases of In-unction, Recei&e s"ip, Suppo t and Accounting! %%; %! Diffe ence Cet)een Iuestion of =act and Iuestion of La) <"en t"e *uestion is t"e co ectness o falsit' of an alleged fact, t"e *uestion is a *uestion of fact! <"en t"e *uestion is )"at la) is applica#le in a gi&en set of facts, t"e *uestion is a *uestion of la)! %.> .! Notice of Appeal It need not #e app o&ed #' t"e Cou t )"ic" ende ed t"e decision! T"e cou t "o)e&e ma' den' it due cou se if on its face, it )as filed out of time o t"e appellate doc(et and ot"e la)ful fees "a&e not #een paid! T"e cou t )"ic" ende ed t"e decision cannot "o)e&e den' due cou se to t"e Notice of Appeal on t"e g ound t"at t"e appeal is f i&olous o dilato '!%.$ /! Reco d on Appeal A Reco d on Appeal is e*ui ed in2 3a4 Special P oceedings5 3#4 Ot"e cases of multiple o sepa ate appeals )"e e t"e la) o t"e Rules so e*ui e!%.% 6! Pe fection of appeal A pa t'’s appeal #' notice of appeal is deemed pe fected as to "im upon t"e filing of t"e notice of appeal in due time! A pa t'’s appeal #' eco d on appeal is deemed pe fected as to "im )it" espect to t"e su#-ect matte t"e eof upon t"e app o&al of t"e eco d on appeal filed in due time! In appeals #' notice of appeal, t"e cou t loses -u isdiction o&e t"e case upon t"e pe fection of t"e appeals filed in due time and t"e e1pi ation of t"e time to appeal of t"e ot"e pa ties!

226 227

Rules of Court, Rule 70, Sec. 1). Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. 2. 22* Re'#sed Rules on Summary !rocedure, Sec. 21. 22) Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. 4. 230 C"eesman '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, 5. R. No. 74*33, 9anuary 21, 1))1, 1)3 SCRA )3. 231 ;rt#(as A Co. /td. !artners"#$ '. ?elasco, 5.R. No.10)640, Au(ust 10, 1))7, 277 SCRA 342. 232 Rules of Court, Rule 41, Sec. 2.

Page 37 of 43

In appeals #' eco d on appeal, t"e cou t loses -u isdiction onl' o&e t"e su#-ect matte t"e eof upon t"e app o&al of t"e eco ds on appeal filed in due time and t"e e1pi ation of t"e time to appeal of t"e ot"e pa ties!%.. 7! Effect of Pe fection of Appeal T"e cou t )"ic" ende ed t"e appealed decision loses its -u isdiction o&e t"e case! ?o)e&e , it ma' still do t"e follo)ing2 3$4 issue an o de fo t"e p otection and p ese &ation of t"e ig"ts of t"e pa ties )"ic" do not in&ol&e an' matte litigated #' t"e appeal5 3%4 app o&e comp omise of t"e pa ties p io to t"e t ansmittal of t"e eco d on appeal to t"e appellate cou t5 3.4 pe mit t"e p osecution of indigent appeals5 3/4 o de e1ecution pending appeal in acco dance )it" Section %, Rule .;5 and 364 app o&e )it"d a)al of appeal!%./ 9! Pe iod of time to appeal must #e st ictl' enfo ced on conside ations of pu#lic polic'! T"e pe iod is mandato ' and -u isdictional%.6 and t"e failu e to do so ende s t"e *uestioned decision final and e1ecuto ' t"at dep i&es t"e appellate cou t of -u isdiction to alte t"e final -udgment muc" less to ente tain t"e appeal %.7 o motion fo ne) t ial!%.9 T"e decision of t"e Cou t of Appeals afte e1pi ation of t"e pe iod to appeal is null and &oid! %.:

<. E=ECUTION OF 'UDGMENTS AND FINAL ORDERS 5R,le .<7 1. Ba)i+ C"n+e$%) an( D"+%rine) $! E1ecution is a legal emed' fo t"e enfo cement of a -udgment .2 3 . :in() "# E>e+,%i"n T"e e a e t)o 3%4 (inds of e1ecution2 disc etiona ' e1ecution and ministe ial e1ecution! Disc etiona ' e1ecution, )"ic" is also called e1ecution pending appeal, is t"e e1ecution of a -udgment o final o de #efo e it attains finalit'! T"e cou t )"ic" ende ed t"e decision can g ant an e1ecution pending appeal if it still etains -u isdiction o&e t"e case and is in possession of t"e eco ds at t"e time of t"e filing of t"e motion5 ot"e )ise, t"e motion s"all #e acted upon #' t"e appellate cou t!%/> To #e &alid, t"e e s"ould #e a good eason to -ustif' t"e e1ecution of t"e -udgment pending appeal, t"e same to #e stated in t"e o de g anting it! %/$

233 234

Rules of Court, Rule 41, Sec. ). Ibid. 230 5o'ernment Ser'#ce 7nsurance System '. 5#nes, 5. R. No. *0273, Marc" ), 1))3, 21) SCRA 724. 236 3e Castro, 9r. ?. Court of A$$eals, No. / 36021, 6ebruary 2), 1)**, 10* SCRA 2**. 237 ?elaso '. ;rt#:, 5. R. No. 01)73, A$r#l 16, 1))0, 1*4 SCRA 303. 23* Anton#o '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 77606, Au(ust 31, 1)*7, 103 SCRA 0)2. 23) !ele8o '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 60*00, Au(ust 31, 1)*2, 116 SCRA 406. 240 Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. 2. 241 Ibid.

Page 38 of 43

On t"e ot"e "and, e1ecution as a matte of ig"t o ministe ial e1ecution is e1ecution of a final -udgment o final o de )"ic" "as attained finalit'! <"en a -udgment o o de "as #ecome final, t"e cou t cannot efuse to issue a ) it of e1ecution e1cept2 3$4 <"en su#se*uent facts and ci cumstances t anspi e )"ic" ende suc" e1ecution un-ust, o impossi#le, suc" as a supe &ening cause li(e t"e act of t"e Commissione of Ci&il Se &ice finding t"e plaintiff administ ati&el' guilt' and )"ic" constituted a #a to "is einstatement as o de ed #' t"e t ial cou t in a ci&il case5%/% o )"e e t"e defendant #an( )as placed unde ecei&e s"ip5 %/. 3%4 On e*uita#le g ounds, as )"en t"e e "as #een a c"ange in t"e situation of t"e pa ties )"ic" ma(es e1ecution ine*uita#le5%// 3.4 <"e e t"e -udgment "as #een no&ated #' t"e pa ties5 %/6 3/4 <"en a petition fo elief o an action to en-oin t"e -udgment is filed and a p elimina ' in-unction is p a'ed fo and g anted5%/7 364 <"e e t"e -udgment "as #ecome do mant, t"e fi&e 364 'ea pe iod unde Rule .;, Section 7 "a&ing e1pi ed )it"out t"e -udgment "a&ing #een e&i&ed5 %/9 o 374 <"e e t"e -udgment tu ns out to #e incomplete %/: o is conditional$/; since, as a matte of la), suc" -udgment cannot #ecome final! . )hen writ of e'ecution may be quashed 3$4 )"en it )as imp o&identl' issued5 3%4 )"en it is defecti&e in su#stance5 3.4 )"en it is issued against t"e ) ong pa t'5 3/4 )"e e t"e -udgment )as al ead' satisfied5 364 )"en it )as issued )it"out aut"o it'5 374 )"en a c"ange in t"e situation of t"e pa ties ende s e1ecution ine*uita#le5 and 394 )"en t"e cont o&e s' )as ne&e &alidl' su#mitted to t"e cou t! %6> 0. E>e+,%i"n "# #inal ?,(!men%) an( "r(er)
242 243

="e C#ty of %utuan '. ;rt#:, 113 !"#l. 636 +1)61,. /#$ana '. 3e'elo$ment %an& of R#:al, 5. R. No. 73**4, Se$tember 24, 1)*7, 104 SCRA 207. 244 ?da. de Albar '. 3e Carandan(, 116 !"#l. 016 +1)62,- Ge#rs of 5um#n$#n '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 34220, 6ebruary 21, 1)*3, 120 SCRA 6*7- /una '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, 5. R. No. 6*374, 9une 1*, 1)*0, 137 SCRA 7. 240 6ua Cam /u '. Ha$ 6auco, 74 !"#l. 2*7 +1)43,- Ia$anta '. 3e Rotaec"e, 21 !"#l. 104 +1)12,- Sal'ante '. Cru:, ** !"#l. 236 +1)01,. 246 Refer to Rules of Court, Rule 3*, Sec. 0. 247 Cunanan '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 20011, Se$tember 2*, 1)6*, 20 SCRA 263. 24* 3el Rosar#o '. ?#lle(as, 4) !"#l. 634 +1)26,- 7(nac#o '. G#lar#o, 76 !"#l. 600 +1)46,. 14) Cu .n8#en( e G#8os '. Mabalacat Su(ar Co., 70 !"#l. 3*0 +1)40,. 200 Cobb !ere: '. /ant#n, 5. R. No. 22320, May 22, 1)6*, 23 SCRA 637- Sand#co, Sr. '. !#(u#n(, No. / 26110, No'ember 2), 1)71, 42 SCRA 322.

Page 39 of 43

T"e e a e t)o 3%4 )a's of secu ing e1ecution of final -udgments and o de s2 e1ecution #' motion and e1ecution #' action! E1ecution #' motion is an e1ecution o#tained t" oug" a motion fo e1ecution filed )it"in fi&e 364 'ea s f om t"e date of its ent '! %6$ E1ecution #' action is o#tained t" oug" t"e su#stitution of an action to enfo ce a -udgment o o de afte t"e lapse of fi&e 364 'ea s f om its ent ' and #efo e it is #a ed #' t"e statute of limitations!%6% 2. S$e+i#i+ R,le) $! E1ecution of -udgment can onl' #e issued against a pa t' to t"e action %6. and t"ei p i&ies )"o a e t"ose #et)een )"om an action is deemed #inding alt"oug" t"e' a e not lite all' pa ties to t"e said action %6/ o to an inte &eno !%66 %! A -udgment #ecomes final and e1ecuto ' #' ope ation of la), not #' -udicial decla ation! T"e p e&ailing pa t' is entitled as a matte of ig"t to a ) it of e1ecution, and t"e issuance t"e eof is a ministe ial dut' and compella#le #' mandamus!%67 T"e e must, "o)e&e , #e a motion!%69 .! Rule on e1ecution in case of t"e deat" of a pa t' If t"e -udgment de#to dies afte ent ' of -udgment, e1ecution depends upon t"e natu e of t"e -udgment! T"us2 3a4 =o eco&e ' of eal o pe sonal p ope t' o t"e enfo cement of a lien t"e eon, e1ecution ma' #e done against e1ecuto , administ ato o successo 0in0inte est5 3#4 =o mone' -udgments , t"e -udgment s"ould #e p esented as claim fo pa'ment against t"e estate in a special p oceeding! Suc" a claim need no longe #e p o&ed, since t"e -udgment itself is conclusi&e!%6: /! <"en t"e p ope t' su#-ect of t"e e1ecution contains imp o&ements const ucted o planted #' t"e -udgment de#to o "is agent, t"e office s"all not dest o', demolis" o emo&e said imp o&ements e1cept upon special o de of t"e cou t, issued upon petition of t"e -udgment c edito afte due "ea ing and afte t"e fo me "as failed to emo&e t"e same )it"in a easona#le time fi1ed #' t"e cou t! %6; T"e special o de of demolition ma' #e g anted onl' upon petition of t"e plaintiff afte due "ea ing, and upon t"e defeated pa t'’s failu e to emo&e t"e imp o&ements, )it"in easona#le time gi&en "im #' t"e cou t! %7> T"e notice e*ui ed #efo e demolition of t"e imp o&ements on t"e p ope t' su#-ect of t"e e1ecution is notice to t"e -udgment de#to , and not to a st ange o t"i d pa t' to t"e case! %7$ T"e o de of demolition is not appeala#le!%7% T"e s"e iff and t"e issuing pa t' s"ould ca ' out t"e demolition of t"e imp o&ement of t"e defeated pa t' on t"e p emises in dispute in a manne consistent )it" -ustice and good fait"! %7.
201 202

Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. 6. Ibid. 203 St. 3om#n#c Cor$orat#on '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, No. / 70623, 9une 30, 1)*7, 101 SCRA 077. 204 Cabresos '. =#ro, No. / 46*43, ;ctober 1*, 1)**, 166 SCRA 400. 200 /#s#n( '. !lan, No. / 00107, No'ember 14, 1)*4, 133 SCRA 1)4. 206 Mune: '. Court of A$$eals, 5.R. No. 46010, 9uly 23, 1)*7, 102 SCRA 1)7- C#ty of Man#la '. Court of A$$eals, 5.R. No. 100626 No'ember 2), 1))1, 204 SCRA 362. 207 Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. 1- Soco '. Court of A$$eals, 5. R. No. 116013, ;ctober 21, 1))6, 263 SCRA 44). 20* <'an(el#sta '. /a !ro'eedora, 7nc., No. / 32*24, Marc" 31, 1)71, 3* SCRA 37). 20) Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. 14- Rom '. Cobadora, No. / 24764, 9uly 17, 1)6), 2* SCRA 70*. 260 6uentes '. /e'#ste, No. / 47363, ;ctober 2*, 1)*2, 117 SCRA )0*. 261 /oren:ana '. Cayetano, No. / 37001, Au(ust 31, 1)77, 7* SCRA 4*0. 262 3a'#d '. <8erc#to, No. / 41334, 9une 1*, 1)76, 71 SCRA 4*4, Cua '. /ecaros, No. / 71)0), May 24, 1)**, 161 SCRA 4*0. 263 Albelt: 7n'estments, 7nc. '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 32070, 6ebruary 2*, 1)77, 70 SCRA 310.

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<"e e t"e p emises )as padloc(ed and no one )as t"e ein at t"e time e1ecution )as ca ied into effect, t"e e )as no need fo t"e s"e iffs and t"e plaintiff to secu e a B# ea(0openB o de inasmuc" as t"e c"a acte of t"e ) it in t"ei "ands aut"o i@ed t"em to # ea( open t"e said p emises if t"e' could not ot"e )ise e1ecute its command!%7/ 4. Le*y an( Garni)/men% Le&' is t"e sei@u e of p ope t', pe sonal andKo eal, #elonging to t"e -udgment de#to fo su#se*uent e1ecution sale to satisf' -udgment! Ha nis"ment is t"e p ocess of notif'ing a t"i d pe son called t"e ga nis"ee to etain and attac" t"e p ope t' "e "as in "is possession o unde "is cont ol #elonging to t"e -udgment de#to , to ma(e disclosu e to t"e cou t conce ning t"e same, and to dispose of t"e same as t"e cou t s"all di ect to satisf' t"e -udgment!%76 $! Decisional Rules on Le&' $!$ A &alid le&' is essential to t"e &alidit' of an e1ecution sale, and le&' is in&alid if t"e notice of le&' of eal p ope t' is not filed )it" t"e office of t"e egiste of deeds, t"e pu pose of )"ic" is to notif' t"i d pa ties )"o ma' #e affected in t"ei dealings )it" espect to suc" p ope t'! %77 <"e e a pa cel of land le&ied upon e1ecution is occupied #' a pa t' ot"e t"an a -udgment de#to , t"e p ocedu e is fo t"e cou t to o de a "ea ing to dete mine t"e natu e of said ad&e se possession!%79 $!% To effect a le&' upon eal p ope t', t"e s"e iff is e*ui ed to do t)o specific t"ings2 3a4 file )it" t"e egiste of deeds, a cop' of t"e o de and desc iption of t"e attac"ed p ope t' and notice of attac"ment5 and 3#4 lea&e )it" t"e occupant of t"e p ope t' a cop' of t"e same o de , desc iption and notice! %7: Note t"at notice to t"e o)ne )"o is not t"e occupant does not constitute compliance )it" t"e statute! %7; $!. Real p ope t', stoc(s, s"a es, de#ts, c edits and ot"e pe sonal p ope t', ma' #e le&ied on in li(e manne and )it" li(e effect as unde a ) it of attac"ment! %9> $!/ T"e le&' on e1ecution s"all c eate a lien in fa&o of t"e -udgment c edito o&e t"e ig"t, title and inte est of t"e -udgment de#to in suc" p ope t' at t"e time of t"e le&', su#-ect to liens and encum# ances t"en e1isting! %9$ $!6 Le&' o attac"ment o&e p ope ties t"emsel&es is supe io t"an le&' on t"e &endo ’s e*uit' of edemption o&e said p ope ties!%9% % Decisional Rules on Ha nis"ment

264 260

Arcad#o '. Hla(an, A. C. No. 2734, 9uly 30, 1)*6, 43 SCRA 16*. Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. ). 266 ?alen:uela '. 3e A(u#lar, No. / 1*0*3 *4, May 31, 1)63, * SCRA 212. 267 5ue'ara '. Ramos, No. / 2430*, Marc" 31, 1)71, 3* SCRA 1)4. 26* 3elta Motors Cor$orat#on '. Court of A$$eals, No. / 7*012, No'ember 2), 1)**, 16* SCRA 206. 26) !"#l#$$#ne Surety and 7nsurance Co., 7nc. '. Iabal, No. / 21006, ;ctober 31, 1)67, 21 SCRA 6*2. 270 Rules of Court, Rule 3), Sec. 10. 271 Ibid., Sec. 12. 272 =o$ Rate 7nternat#onal Ser'#ces, 7nc. '. 7ntermed#ate A$$ellate Court, No. / 674))6, 9uly 7, 1)*6, 142 SCRA 467.

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%!$ T"e ga nis"ment of p ope t' to satisf' a ) it of e1ecution ope ates as an attac"ment and fastens upon t"e p ope t' a lien #' )"ic" t"e p ope t' is # oug"t unde t"e -u isdiction of t"e cou t issuing t"e ) it! It is # oug"t into custodia legis, unde t"e sole cont ol of suc" cou t!%9. It is also (no)n as attac"ment e1ecution! %!% Done' -udgments a e enfo cea#le onl' against p ope t' un*uestiona#l' #elonging to t"e -udgment de#to ! One man’s goods s"all not #e sold fo anot"e man’s de#ts, as t"e sa'ing goes! %9/ %!. T"e p o"i#ition against e1amination o an in*ui ' into a #an( deposit unde Rep! Act No! $/>6 does not p eclude its #eing ga nis"ed to insu e satisfaction of -udgment! %96 %!/ Ho&e nment0o)ned0and0cont olled co po ations "a&e a pe sonalit' of t"ei o)n, sepa ate and distinct f om t"e go&e nment5 t"ei funds, t"e efo e, alt"oug" conside ed to #e pu#lic in c"a acte , a e not e1empt f om ga nis"ment!%97 8. R,le) "n re(em$%i"n $! <"o ma' edeem $!$ Audgment de#to 5 $!% Successo 0in0inte est suc" as a pe son to )"om t"e de#to "as con&e'ed "is inte est in t"e p ope t'5 pe son to )"om a statuto ' ig"t of edemption "as #een t ansfe ed5 pe son )"o succeeds to t"e inte est of t"e de#to #' ope ation of la)5 one o mo e -oint o)ne s of t"e p ope t'5 )ife as ega ds "e "us#and’s "omestead5 and atto ne' )"o ag eed to di&ide t"e p ope t' in litigation5 %99 and $!. Redemptione , )"ic" is a c edito "a&ing a lien #' &i tue of an attac"ment, -udgment o mo tgage on t"e p ope t' sold, o on some pa t t"e eof, su#se*uent to t"e lien unde )"ic" t"e p ope t' )as sold! %9: %! Amounts to #e paid in case of edemption %!$ Pu c"ase p ice )it" $L pe mont" inte est5 %!% Assessments o ta1es paid )it" $L inte est2 %!. Amount of p io lien if also a c edito "a&ing a p io lien to t"at of edemption ot"e t"an t"e -udgment unde )"ic" pu c"ase )as made )it" inte est! Note t"at t"e fo egoing does not appl' if t"e one )"o edeems is t"e -udgment de#to unless "e edeems f om a edemptione in )"ic" case, "e must ma(e t"e same pa'ments as edemptione !%9; ;. R,le) in (ee( "# $"))e))i"n $! Afte t"e deed of sale "as #een e1ecuted, t"e &endee t"e ein is entitled to a ) it of possession #ut t"e same s"all issue onl' )"e e it is t"e -udgment de#to o "is successo s0in0inte est )"o a e in possession of t"e

273 274

3e /eon '. Sal'ador, No. / 30*71, 3ecember 2*, 1)70, 36 SCRA 067. ;n( '. =at#n(, No. / 61042, A$r#l 10, 1)*7, 14) SCRA 260. 270 C"#na %an&#n( Cor$orat#on '. ;rte(a, No. / 34)64, 9anuary 31, 1)73, 4) SCRA 300. 276 !"#l#$$#ne Nat#onal %an& '. !abalan, No. / 33112, 9une 10, 1)7*, *3 SCRA 0)0. 277 Ma(no '. ?#ola, 61 !"#l. *0 +1)34,- !al#cte '. Ramolete, No. / 00076, Se$tember 21, 1)*7, 104 SCRA 132. 27* Sec. 27 DbE. 27) 2 Moran 32) +1)7),.

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p emises! <"e e t"e land is occupied #' a t"i d pa t', t"e cou t s"ould o de a "ea ing to dete mine t"e natu e of "is ad&e se possession!%:> T"e ) it s"all issue )"en t"e pe iod of edemption "as e1pi ed! %! A ) it of possession ma' #e issued onl' in a land egist ation p oceeding, in e1t a-udicial fo eclosu e of a eal estate mo tgage and in -udicial fo eclosu e if t"e de#to is in possession and no t"i d pe son, not a pa t' to t"e suit, "ad inte &ened!%:$ It "as #een "eld, "o)e&e , t"at a ) it of possession is a complement of t"e ) it of e1ecution! ?ence, if unde a final -udgment t"e p e&ailing pa t' ac*ui es a#solute o)ne s"ip o&e t"e eal p ope t' in&ol&ed, t"e ) it ma' #e issued fo "im to o#tain possession )it"out t"e need of filing a sepa ate action against t"e possesso !%:% A ) it of possession ma' also #e soug"t f om and issued #' t"e cou t unless a t"i d pa t' is "olding t"e p ope t' ad&e sel' to t"e -udgment de#to ! %:.

2*0

5ue'ara '. Ramos, No. / 2430*, Marc" 31, 1)71, 3* SCRA 1)4- .nc"uan '. Court of A$$eals D6#ft" 3#'#s#onE, No. / 7*770, May 31, 1)**, 161 SCRA 710. 2*1 5atc"al#an '. Arle(u#, No. / 30610, 6ebruary 17, 1)77, 70 SCRA 234. 2*2 ;le(o '. Rebuena, No. / 3)300, ;ctober 2), 1)70, 67 SCRA 446. 2*3 Ro>as '. %uan, No. / 037)*, No'ember *, 1)**, 167 SCRA 43.

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