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PART III - SPECIAL CIVIL ACTIONS

The special civil actions are: (1) Interpleader (Rule 62); (2) Declaratory Relief (Rule 63); (3) Certiorari, rohi!ition and Mandamus (Rule 6"); (#) Quo Warranto (Rule 66); (") $%propriation (Rule 6&); (6) 'oreclosure of Real $state (ort)a)e (Rule 6*); (&) artition (Rule 6+); (*) 'orci!le $ntry and ,nla-ful Detainer (Rule &.); and (+) /onte0pt (Rule &1)1

I. The Different Special Civil Actions
1. Interplea er 1. Requisites (1) The plaintiff clai0s no interest in the su!2ect 0atter or his clai0 is not disputed; (2) There 0ust at least !e t-o (2) or 0ore conflictin) clai0ants; (3) The parties to !e interpleaded 0ust 0a3e effective clai0s; and (#) The su!2ect 0atter 0ust !e one and the sa0e1 2. Decisional Rules Interpleader -as found to !e a proper action in an action of a lessee -ho does not 3no- to -ho0 to pay rentals due to conflictin) clai0s on the property; 3+. and in an action !y a !an3 -here the purchaser of a cashier4s chec3 clai0s it -as lost and another has presented it for pay0ent1 3+1 It -as ho-ever found to !e i0proper in an action -here defendants have conflictin) clai0s a)ainst the plaintiff; 3+2 and an action -here one of the defendants had earlier sued the plaintiff and secured a 2ud)0ent a)ainst hi0 -hich has already !eco0e final1 The action is !arred !y laches or unreasona!le delay13+3
390 391

Pagkalinawan v. Rodas, 80 Phil. 281 [1948]. Mesina v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, %o. &'(014), %ove *er 13, 198+, 14) ,#R! 49(. 392 -eltran v. Peo"le.s /o esite and /o$sing #or"oration, %o. &'2)138, !$g$st 28, 19+9, 29 ,#R! 14). 393 0a1k 0a1k 2ol3 and #o$ntr4 #l$*, In1. v. 0on, %o. &'238)1, Mar1h 2+, 19(+, (0 ,#R! 1+).

3. Procedural Peculiarities 311 ,pon the filin) of the co0plaint, the court shall issue an order re5uirin) the conflictin) clai0ants to interplead -ith one another1 3+# 312 The court 0ay direct in the sa0e order 0entioned in the precedin) para)raph that the su!2ect 0atter of the suit !e paid or delivered to the court1 3+" 313 The su00ons shall !e acco0panied !y copies of the co0plaint and order 0entioned in 6o1 11 31# The defendants 0ay file a 0otion to dis0iss on the )round of the i0propriety of the interpleader action or on other appropriate )rounds specified in Rule 161 31" The defendants shall serve a copy of the ans-er not only to the plaintiff !ut also to their co7 defendants -ho 0ay file their reply thereto1 316 The effect of a failure to plead -ithin the prescri!ed period is that, upon 0otion, the defendant -ill !e declared in default and thereafter renders 2ud)0ent !arrin) hi0 fro0 any clai0 in respect to the su!2ect 0atter1

!. Declarator" Relief an Si#ilar Re#e ies 1. Requisites (1) There 0ust !e a 2usticia!le controversy; 3+6 (2) The controversy 0ust !e !et-een persons -hose interest is adverse; (3) The parties 0ust have le)al interest in the controversy; (#) The controversy 0ust !e ripe for 2udicial deter0ination; 3+& and (") The petition 0ust !e filed !efore there is a !reach or violation1 3+* 2. Procedural Peculiarities 211 The petition 0ust !e filed !efore there is a !reach of contract or violation of the statute or ordinance13++ 212 Third7party co0plainant is not allo-ed1#..
394 39)

R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le +2, ,e1. 2. Ibid. 39+ 5*iles v. Re"$*li1, 92 Phil. 8+4 [19)3]. 39( -oard o3 5"to etr4 v. #olet, 2. R. %o. 122241, 6$l4 30, 199+, 2+0 ,#R! 88. 398 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le +3, ,e1. 1. 399 Ibid. 400 #o issioner o3 #$sto s v. #lori*el, %o. &'2103+, 6$ne 30, 19((, (( ,#R! 4)9.

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213 $%cept in actions for 5uietin) of title, the court action on an action for declaratory relief is discretionary1 Thus, the court motu proprio or upon 0otion 0ay refuse to e%ercise the po-er to declare ri)hts and to construe instru0ents in any case -here a decision -ould not ter0inate the uncertainty or controversy -hich )ave rise to the action or in any case -here the declaration or construction is not necessary under the circu0stances1#.1 21# 8hen a statute, e%ecutive order or any )overn0ent re)ulation or ordinance is alle)ed to !e unconstitutional, the 9olicitor7:eneral should !e notified !y the party assailin) the sa0e1 #.2 If the validity of a local )overn0ent ordinance is in 5uestion, the prosecutor or attorney of the local )overn0ent should !e notified1#.3 3. Declaratory Relief Improper in the Following Cases (1) to o!tain 2udicial declaration of citi;enship;#.# (2) to see3 relief on 0oot 5uestions or to resolve hypothetical, a!stract or theoretical 5uestions, or to decide clai0s -hich are uncertain;#." (3) to resolve political issues or 5uestions;#.6 (#) to test the correctness or validity of a court decision; #.& (") to deter0ine hereditary ri)hts;#.* (6) -hen the petition is !ased upon the happenin) of a contin)ent event; (&) -hen the petitioner is not the real party in interest; #.+ and (*) -hen ad0inistrative re0edies have not yet !een e%hausted1 #1.

$. Certiorari 1. Requisites (1) < tri!unal, !oard or officer e%ercises 2udicial or 5uasi72udicial function; (2) It or s=he acts -ithout or in e%cess of 2urisdiction or -ith )rave a!use of discretion; and
401 402

R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le +3, ,e1. ). Ibid.,,e1. 3. 403 Ibid.,,e1. 4. 404 74 Po1o v. #o issioner o3 I igration, %o. &'22313, Mar1h 31, 19++, 1+ ,#R! +1)8 ,ingson v. Re"$*li1, %o. &' 218)), 6an$ar4 30, 19+8, 22 ,#R! 3)3. 40) &i v. Re"$*li1, %o. &'29)3), 9e*r$ar4 2(, 19(1, 3( ,#R! (83. 40+ 7ela &lana v. #o ission on :le1tions, %o. &'4(24), 7e1e *er 9, 19((, 80 ,#R! )2). 40( ;anda v. !lda4a, )2 5.2. %o. 11, )1() <,e"te *er 1), 19)+=. 408 :dades v. :dades, )2 5.2. %o. 11, )149 <,e"te *er 1), 19)+=. 409 ,antos v. !>$ino, 94 Phil. +) [19)3]. 410 5llada v. #entral -ank, %o. &'113)(, Ma4 31, 19+2, ) ,#R! 29(.

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(3) There is no appeal nor plain, speedy and ade5uate re0edy in the ordinary cause of la-1 2. erminology (1) 8ithout 2urisdiction > a!sence of a le)al po-er to deter0ine a case1 (2) $%cess of 2urisdiction > the court has 2urisdiction !ut fails to co0ply -ith the conditions prescri!ed for its e%ercise1#11 (3) :rave a!use of discretion > 2udicial po-er is e%ercised capriciously, ar!itrarily or despotically due to passion or personal hostility1 #12 3. Certiorari is not a proper re#e " if appeal is availa%le or it is lost thro&'h the fa&lt of the petitioner()1$ e*cept+ (1) appeal is not a speedy and ade5uate re0edy; #1# (2) order is issued -ithout or in e%cess of 2urisdiction;#1" (3) in consideration of pu!lic -elfare and for the advance0ent of pu!lic policy; #16 (#) order is a patent nullity;#1& (") to avoid future liti)ation;#1* (6) to avoid a 0iscarria)e of 2ustice;#1+ (&) in furtherance of the !roader interest of 2ustice and e5uities1 #2. ). ,efore certiorari can %e availe of( petitioner sho&l first file a #otion for reconsi eration of the challen'e or er( resol&tion or ecision()!1 e*cept in the follo-in' cases+ (1) in the interest of 2ustice and pu!lic -elfare and advance0ent of pu!lic policy; #22 (2) order -as issued -ithout or in e%cess of 2urisdiction; #23
411 412

&e$ng -en v. 5.-rien, 38 Phil. 182 [1918]8 ;eng1o v. 6o1son, 43 Phil. (1) [1922]. 2a *oa v. #r$?, %o. &')+291, 6$ne 2(, 1988, 1+2 ,#R! +428 9ilinvest #redit #or"oration v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, %o. &'+)93), ,e"te *er 30, 1988, 1++ ,#R! 1)). 413 7illena v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &'((++0, 6$l4 28, 1988, 1+3 ,#R! +308 @elas1o @da. 7e #aldito v. ,eg$ndo, %o. &')818(, ,e"te *er 30, 1982, 11( ,#R! )(3. 414 ,al$des v. PaAarillo, (8 Phil. ()4 [194(]. 41) Phili""ine %ational -ank v. 9lorendo, 2. R. %o. +2082, 9e*r$ar4 2+, 1992, 20+ ,#R! )82. 41+ 6ose v. B$l$eta, %o. &'1+)98, Ma4 31, 19+1, 2 ,#R! )(4. 41( Mar1elo v. 7e 2$? an, %o. &'290((, 6$ne 29, 1982, 114 ,#R! +)(. 418 ,t. Peter Me orial Park, In1. v. #a "os, 6r., %o. &'38280, Mar1h 21, 19(), +3 ,#R! 180. 419 :s1$dero v. 7$la4, %o. &'+0)(8, 9e*r$ar4 23, 1988, 1)8 ,#R! +9. 420 Maraha4 v. Meli1or, 2. R. %o. 44980, 9e*r$ar4 +, 1990, 181 ,#R! 811. 421 -$t$an -a4 0ood :C"ort #or"oration v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &'4)4(3, !"ril 28, 1980, 9( ,#R! 29(. 422 6ose v. B$l$eta, supra, note 41+. 423 Phili""ine #ons$ ers 9o$ndation, In1. v. %ational ;ele1o $ni1ations #o ission, %o. &'+3318, %ove *er 2), 1983, 12) ,#R! 84).

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(3) order is a patent nullity#2# as -hen petitioner4s ri)ht to due process -as denied in the lo-er court#2" or petitioner has !een unla-fully deprived of his ri)ht to appeal; #26 (#) -hen relief is e%tre0ely ur)ent, there is no 0ore need to -ait for the resolution of a 0otion for reconsideration;#2& (") -hen the 5uestions raised and passed upon in the lo-er court are the sa0e as those to !e passed upon in the certiorari case;#2* and (6) 5uestion is purely of la-1#2+ .. Re/&ire#ents Re'ar in' the E*trinsic S&fficienc" of the Petition (1) it 0ust !e verified;#3. (2) acco0panied !y a certificate of non7foru0 shoppin); #31 (3) acco0panied -ith certified true copy of the 2ud)0ent, order or resolution su!2ect thereof, copies of all pleadin)s and docu0ents relevant and pertinent thereto; #32 (#) proof of service pursuant to Rule 13, 9ection 1; and (") if not filed and served personally, then, it should !e acco0panied !y a -ritten e%planation -hy personal service -as not resorted to1#33 !. ime to File 8ithin si%ty (6.) days fro0 notice of decision, resolution or order sou)ht to !e assailed, or fro0 the denial of petitioner?s 0otion for reconsideration or ne- trial filed in due ti0e after 2ud)0ent1 #3# ". Decisions &11 <s a )eneral rule, certiorari is not a proper re0edy to assail the order of the trial court denyin) a de0urrer to evidence in a civil case1#3" (otion for reconsideration and, in case of denial, appeal, are the proper re0edy1

). Prohi%ition
424 42)

!>$ino v. %ational &a*or Relations #o ission, 2. R. %o. 98108, ,e"te *er 3, 1993, 22+ ,#R! (+. -a1he and #o. <Phil.=, In1. v. R$i?, %o. &'32409, 9e*r$ar4 2(, 19(1, 3( ,#R! 823. 42+ %ational :le1tri3i1ation !d inistration v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &'32490, 7e1e *er 29, 1983, 12+ ,#R! 394. 42( @da. de ,a4 an v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &'2))9+, !"ril 28, 1983, 121 ,#R! +)0. 428 PeroCide Phili""ines #or"oration v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 92813, 6$l4 31, 1991, 199 ,#R! 882. 429 #entral -ank v. #lori*el, %o. &'2+9(1, !"ril 11, 19(2, 44 ,#R! 30(. 430 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le +), ,e1. 1. 431 Ibid. 432 Ibid. 433 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le 13, ,e1. 11. 434 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le +), ,e1. 4. 43) !sian ;rading #or"oration v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. (+2(+, 9e*r$ar4 1), 1999, 303 ,#R! 1)2.

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1. Requisites (1) a tri!unal, corporation, !oard, officers or person unla-fully ne)lects the perfor0ance of an act -hich the la- specifically en2oins as a duty arisin) fro0 an office, trust, or station or unla-fully e%cludes another fro0 the use or en2oy0ent of a ri)ht or office to -hich the plaintiff is entitled; and (2) there is no other plain, speedy and ade5uate re0edy in the ordinary course of la-1 2. Decisional Rules 211 Mandamus is an appropriate re0edy to co0pel a corporation to )rant its 0onthly salaried e0ployees holiday pay1#36 212 Mandamus is not proper to co0pel a school to enroll a student for acade0ic deficiencies !ecause this involves the e%ercise !y the school of discretion under acade0ic freedo01 #3& 213 Mandamus -ill not lie a)ainst the resident or /on)ress !ecause of the principle that the 2udiciary is a co7e5ual depart0ent of the latter1#3* 21# 'ailure to e%haust ad0inistrative re0edies is )enerally fatal to an action for mandamus1#3+ The e%ception is -hen the 5uestion is purely of la-1 ##.

.. #uo $arranto 1. Definition < quo warranto is a prero)ative -rit !y -hich the :overn0ent can call upon any person to sho- !y -hat -arrant he holds a pu!lic office or e%ercises a pu!lic franchise1 ##1 !. #uo $arranto as istin'&ishe 0ro# Election Contest If the dispute is as to the countin) of votes or on 0atters connected -ith the conduct of the election, quo warranto is not the proper re0edy !ut an election protest1 ##2 8hen the dispute is on the ineli)i!ility of a person sou)ht to !e ousted, quo warranto is the proper action1##3 3. Peculiarities of Proceedings

43+

MantradeD9MM# 7ivision : "lo4ees and 0orkers Enion v. -a1$ngan, %o. &'4843(, ,e"te *er 30, 198+, 144 ,#R! )10. 43( Eniversit4 o3 the Phili""ines v. !4son, 2. R. %o. 8838+, !$g$st 1(, 1989, 1(+ ,#R! )(1. 438 ,$anes v. #hie3 !11o$ntant o3 the ,enate, 81 Phil. 818 [1948] Resol$tion on the Motion 3or Re1onsideration, 81 Phil. 8(( [1948]. 439 !>$ino v. Mariano, %o. &'3048), Ma4 31, 1984, 129 ,#R! )32. 440 5ne /eart ,"orting #l$*, In1. v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &')3(90, 51to*er 23, 1981, 108 ,#R! 41+. 441 3 Moran 208 [19(0]. 442 #aesar v. 2arrido, )3 Phil. 9( [1929]. 443 9ort$no v. Pal a, %o. &'(0203, 7e1e *er 18, 198(, 1)+ ,#R! +91.

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311 8hen the 9olicitor :eneral or a pu!lic prosecutor co00ences the action at the instance of another person, leave of court 0ust first !e secured1 312 The 0otion for leave 0ust !e set for hearin) -ith notice to the respondent so that he 0ay !e heard; and 313 The court issues the order allo-in) the filin) of the action -ithin the period fi%ed therein1

1. E*propriation 1. Requisites For %&ercise of Right (1) due process of la- > co0pliance -ith the rules set do-n (Rule 6&); (2) pay0ent of 2ust co0pensation; and (3) ta3in) 0ust !e for pu!lic use1### 2. wo '2( )tages in %&propriation Proceedings 211 Deter0ination of the authority of the plaintiff to e%ercise the po-er of e0inent do0ain and the propriety of its e%ercise in the conte%t of the facts1 This sta)e is ter0inated !y either an order of dis0issal of the action or order of the conde0nation declarin) that e%propriation is proper and le)al1 These orders are final and therefore appeala!le1 ##" 212 Deter0ination of 2ust co0pensation This is done -ith the assistance of not 0ore than three (3) co00issioners1 The order fi%in) 2ust co0pensation is also final and appeala!le1##6 @ust co0pensation is to !e deter0ined as of the date of the ta3in) of the propriety or the filin) of the co0plaint, -hichever co0es first1

2. 0oreclos&re of Real Estate 3ort'a'e 1. he *udgment in a *udicial foreclosure proceeding should+ (1) 0a3e a findin) of the a0ount due the plaintiff includin) interest, cost and other char)es approved !y the court; (2) order defendant to pay said a0ount -ithin a period of not less than ninety (+.) days nor 0ore than one hundred t-enty (12.) days fro0 entry of 2ud)0ent; and (3) if the defendant defaults, the court should order the sale at pu!lic auction of the 0ort)a)ed property1
444 44)

6. M. ;$a?on and #o., In1. v. &and ;en$re !d inistration, %o. &'210+4, 6$ne 30, 19(0, 33 ,#R! 882. M$ni1i"alit4 o3 -iFan v. 2ar1ia, 2. R. %o. +92+0, 7e1e *er 22, 1989, 180 ,#R! )(+. 44+ Ibid.

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2. Distinction ,etween Right of Redemption and %quity of Redemption $5uity of Rede0ption is the ri)ht of the defendant 0ort)a)or to e%tin)uish the 0ort)a)e and retain o-nership of the property !y payin) the a0ount fi%ed in the decision of the court -ithin ninety (+.) to one hundred t-enty (12.) days after entry of 2ud)0ent or even after the foreclosure sale !ut prior to its confir0ation1##& An the other hand, ri)ht of rede0ption is the ri)ht )ranted to the de!tor70ort)a)or, his successor7in7interest or any 2udicial creditor of said de!tor70ort)a)or or any person havin) a lien in the property su!se5uent to its 0ort)a)e or deed of trust under -hich the property is sold to redee0 the property -ithin one (1) year fro0 the re)istration of the sheriff?s certificate of foreclosure sale1 ##* 'or as lon) as the sale have not !een validly confir0ed, the e5uity of rede0ption 0ay !e e%ercised !y the 0ort)a)or or his successors7in7interest1##+ $. 4rit of Possession in 5& icial 0oreclos&re <fter the foreclosure sale is confir0ed, the court, upon 0otion, 0ay issue a -rit of possession to install the !uyer at auction into possession of the property sold1 -. Deficiency .udgment 9o0e rules on deficiency 2ud)0ent are: (1) < 0otion for deficiency 2ud)0ent 0ay !e 0ade only after the sale and after it !eco0es 3no-n that a deficiency e%ists1#". (2) Deficiency 2ud)0ent cannot !e rendered a)ainst a non7resident defendant1 #"1 (3) 6o deficiency 2ud)0ent 0ay !e rendered a)ainst the o-ner -ho is not a 0ort)a)or and has not assu0ed personal lia!ility for the de!t1 The re0edy is an ordinary action a)ainst the de!tor1#"2 (#) If the de!tor dies, the deficiency 0ay !e filed as a clai0 a)ainst his estate1 #"3

6. Partition 1. wo )tages of the /ction 111 'irst 9ta)e > Deter0ination of the propriety of partition

44(

R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le +8, ,e1. )28 &i "in v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, %o. &'(098(, ,e"te *er 29, 1988, 1++ ,#R! 8(. 448 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le 39, ,e1. 298 7e #astro v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, %o. &'(38)9, ,e"te *er 2+, 1988, 1+) ,#R! +)4. 449 &i "in v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, supra, note 44(. 4)0 2overnor o3 the Phili""ine Islands v. ;orral*a @i$da de ,antos, +1 Phil. +89 [193)]. 4)1 :l -an1o :s"aFol'9ili"ino v. Palan1a, 3( Phil. 921 [1918]. 4)2 Phili""ine ;r$st #o. v. :1ha$s ;an ,i$a, )2 Phil. 8)2 [1929]. 4)3 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le 8+, ,e1. (.

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This involves a deter0ination of -hether the su!2ect property is o-ned in co00on and -hether all the co7o-ners are 0ade parties in the case1 The order 0ay also re5uire an accountin) of rents and profits recovered !y the defendant1 This order of partition is appeala!le1 #"# If not appealed, then the parties 0ay partition the co00on property in the -ay they -ant1 If they cannot a)ree, then the case )oes into the second sta)e1 Bo-ever, the order of accountin) 0ay in the 0eanti0e !e e%ecuted1#"" 112 9econd 9ta)e > The actual partitionin) of the su!2ect property This is also a co0plete proceedin) and the order or decision is appeala!le1 2. Prescription of /ction <ction for partition is unprescripti!le for as lon) as the co7o-ners e%pressly or i0pliedly reco)ni;e the co7o-nership1#"6 Bo-ever, if a co7o-ner repudiates the co7o-nership and 0a3es 3no-n such repudiation to the other co7o-ners, then partition is no lon)er a proper re0edy of the a))rieved co7 o-ner1 9=he should file an accion reivindicatoria -hich is prescripti!le1#"& 3. )ome Decisions 311 8hen there -as a prior partition, the fact that the share of each co7heir has not !een technically descri!ed and the title over the -hole lot re0ains uncancelled does not ne)ate such partition1 There can !e no partition a)ain !ecause there is no 0ore co00on property1 #"* 312 Aral partition of land -hen the sa0e is fully consu00ated is valid and !indin) upon the parties thereto1#"+

7. 0orci%le Entr" an 8nla-f&l Detainer 1. 0ature of /ccion Interdictal It is: (1) a special civil action involvin) a realty; (2) su!2ect to the Rules on 9u00ary rocedure; (3) under the ori)inal e%clusive 2urisdiction of first level courts; (#) nature of the action is deter0ined !y the alle)ation of the co0plaint and the character of the relief sou)ht;#6. and (") one co7o-ner 0ay institute the action1
4)4 4)) 4)+ 4)( 4)8

Miranda v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &'3300(, 6$ne 18, 19(+, (1 ,#R! 29). 7e Mesa v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 10938(, !"ril 2), 1994, 231 ,#R! ((3.
#ivil #ode, !rt. 494.

Ro>$e v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, %o. &'()88+, !$g$st 30, 1988, 1+) ,#R! 118. %o1eda v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 119(30, ,e"te *er 2, 1999, 313 ,#R! )04. 4)9 #r$1illo v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, 2. R. %o. +)41+, 51to*er 2+, 1999, 31( ,#R! 3)1. 4+0 !*rin v. #a "os, 2. R. %o. )2(40, %ove *er 12, 1991, 203 ,#R! 420.

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2. Immediate %&ecution and 1ow to )tay It < decision e2ectin) the defendant in a forci!le entry or unla-ful detainer case is i00ediately e%ecutory1 Cut the 2ud)e should not order i00ediate e%ecution in his decision1 #61 There 0ust !e notice of the 2ud)0ent#62 and a 0otion -ith notice to the adverse party1#63 To stay e%ecution, the defendant should: (1) perfect his appeal in due ti0e; (2) files a sufficient supersedeas !ond, approved !y the (unicipal Trial /ourt; and (3) durin) the pendency of the appeal, s=he deposits -ith the appellate court the a0ount of rent due fro0 ti0e to ti0e under the contract, if any, as deter0ined !y the 2ud)0ent of the (unicipal Trial /ourt on or !efore the tenth (1.th) day of each succeedin) 0onth1#6# Cut upon 0otion of the plaintiff -ithin ten (1.) days fro0 the perfection of the appeal to the Re)ional Trial /ourt, the court 0ay still issue a preli0inary 0andatory in2unction to restore the plaintiff in possession if the court is satisfied that the defendant?s appeal is frivolous or dilatory, or that the appeal of the plaintiff is prima facie 0eritorious1#6" 3. Important Decisional Rules on 2nlawful Detainer 311 < covenant to rene- a lease contract -hich 0a3es no provision as to the rene-al or e%tension i0plies an e%tension or rene-al upon the sa0e ter0s as provided in the ori)inal lease contract1#66 312 <n action for e2ect0ent is not a!ated !y the death of the defendant1 #6& The heirs !eco0e the su!stitute defendants1#6* 313 8here there is a defense of tenancy, there 0ust !e a preli0inary hearin) on the 5uestion of tenancy relations1#6+ If there is a prima facie sho-in) of tenancy, the court should dis0iss the case for lac3 of 2urisdiction (2urisdiction !elon)s to the D<R<C)1 #&. 31# The lessee is not per0itted to deny the lessor4s title1 #&1 31" < person -ho occupies the land of another at the latter4s tolerance or per0ission, -ithout any contract !et-een the0 is necessarily !ound !y an i0plied pro0ise that he -ill vacate upon de0and, failin) -hich an action for unla-ful detainer 0ay !e instituted a)ainst hi01 #&2
4+1

&$ v. ,ia"no, 2. R. %o. !. M. M;6'3'99'1199, 6$l4 +, 20008 9elong1o v. 7i1tado, !. M. %o. R;6'8+)0, 6$ne 28, 1993, 223 ,#R! +9+. 4+2 74 v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 93()+, Mar1h 22, 1991, 19) ,#R! )8). 4+3 Gaw v. !n$n1ia1ion, !. M. %o. M;6'93'811, 242 ,#R! 1. 4+4 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le (0, ,e1. 19. 4+) Ibid., ,e1. 20. 4++ &edes a v. 6avellana, %o. &'))18(, !"ril 28, 1983, 121 ,#R! (94. 4+( @da. de ,ala?ar v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 121)10, %ove *er 23, 199), 2)0 ,#R! 30). 4+8 #aFi?a v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 11042(, 9e*r$ar4 24, 199(, 2+8 ,#R! +40. 4+9 Igna1io v. #o$rt o3 9irst Instan1e o3 -$la1an, %o. &'2(89('98, 51to*er 29, 19(1, 42 ,#R! 898 -a4og v. %atino, 2. R. %o. 118+91, 6$l4 ), 199+, 2)8 ,#R! 3(8. 4(0 -aranda v. Padios, %o. &'+13(1, 51to*er 21, 198(, 1)4 ,#R! (20. 4(1 R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le 131, ,e1. 3 <*=8 Re4es v. @illa3lor, %o. &'1)()), Ma4 30, 19+1, 2 ,#R! 24(. 4(2 7ak$dao v. #onsola1ion, %o. &')4()3, 6$ne 24, 1983, 122 ,#R! 8((.

- 10 -

This rule as to tolerance does not hold true in a case -here there -as forci!le entry at the start, !ut the la-ful possessor did not atte0pt to oust the intruder for over one (1) year, and only thereafter filed forci!le entry suit follo-in) de0and to vacate1 #&3 $lse-ise stated, the tolerance 0ust !e presented ri)ht fro0 the start of possession sou)ht to !e recovered to cate)ori;e a cause of action as one of unla-ful detainer1 #&# 316 De0and upon a tenant 0ay !e oral1#&" If de0and is 0ade upon the person found on the pre0ises, it 0ust !e done !y servin) upon hi0 notice of such de0and or !y postin) such notice on the pre0ises if no person !e found thereon1#&6 31& 8hen failure to pay rent or co0ply -ith the condition of lease is the )round for e2ect0ent, plaintiff should )ive t-o (2) de0ands: (1) de0and to pay rental or co0ply -ith conditions of the lease and if this is not co0plied -ith, (2) de0and to vacate -ithin fifteen (1") days in case of land or five (") days in case of !uildin)s fro0 notice thereof1 The t-o (2) de0ands 0ay !e e0!odied in one (1) letter1#&& De0and to pay or co0ply 0a3es lessee a deforciant -hile de0and to pay and vacate is a re5uire0ent for filin) the action for unla-ful detainer1 31* 8hen the lease has e%pired, there is no need of prior de0and to vacate1 The lessor can i00ediately file an action for e2ect0ent1 De0and is necessary only -hen the )round for e2ect0ent is failure to pay rent or co0ply -ith the conditions of the lease1 #&* 6otice and de0and to vacate is, ho-ever, re5uired on a lease on a 0onth7to70onth period to render effective the ter0ination of the lease upon the e%piration of the 0onth, and prevent an i0plied rene-al of the lease1#&+ The notice provision is the one )iven after the e%piration of the lease period for the purpose of a!ortin) an i0plied rene-al of the lease1#*. 31+ <n alternative de0and to either rene- the e%pired lease contract at a hi)her rental rate or vacate is not a definite de0and to vacate and therefore, insufficient !asis for the filin) of an action for unla-ful detainer1#*1 311. 8hen there is no definite period for a lease !ut rental is paid fro0 0onth to 0onth, then under <rticle 16*& (/ivil /ode), the period is fi%ed -hich is fro0 0onth to 0onth1 8hen the lessor )ave the lessee a de0and to vacate at the end of the 0onth and he fails to do so, an action for unla-ful detainer 0ay !e filed a)ainst hi01 #*2
4(3 4(4

M$Fo? v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 102+93, ,e"te *er 23, 1992, 214 ,#R! 21+. Re3$gia v. #o$rt o3 !""eals 2.R. %o. 118284 6$l4 ), 199+, 2)8 ,#R! 211. 4() 6akiha1a v. !>$ino, 2. R. %o. 83982, 6an$ar4 12, 1990, 181 ,#R! +(. 4(+ R$les o3 #o$rt, R$le (0, ,e1. 2. 4(( Bo*el v. !*re$, )2 5.2. %o. (, 3)92 <6$l4 1+, 19)+=. 4(8 #o ;ia 1o v. 7ia?, () Phil. +(2 [194+=. 4(9 Rivera v. 9lorendo, supra, note 3)18 Ha" v. #r$?, 2. R. %o. 8930(, Ma4 8, 1992, 208 ,#R! +92. 480 #h$a v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. &'10+)(3 Mar1h 2(, 199), +0 ,#R! )(8 2a *oa.s In1or"orated v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &'23+34, 6$l4 29, 19(+, (2 ,#R! 131. 481 Penas, 6r. v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 112(34, 6$l4 (, 1994, 233 ,#R! (44. 482 #risosto o v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, %o. &'4342( !$g$st 30, 1982, 11+ ,#R! 199.

- 11 -

3111 Refusal to collect or accept rentals is not a defense1 There 0ust !e consi)nation1 #*3 <cceptance of !ac3 rentals after de0and to vacate does not le)iti0i;e possession1 #*# /onsi)nation 0ust !e -here 9ec1 "(!) provides either in court or in !an3, in the na0e of and -ith notice to the lessor and not else-here1#*"

19. Conte#pt /onte0pt of court is a defiance of the authority, 2ustice or di)nity of the court, such conduct as tends to !rin) the authority and ad0inistration of the la- into disrespect of, to interfere -ith, or pre2udice parties liti)ant or their -itnesses durin) liti)ation1 It is defined as a diso!edience to the court !y settin) up an opposition to its authority, 2ustice and di)nity1 It si)nifies not only a -illful disre)ard or diso!edience to the court?s order !ut such conduct as tends to !rin) the authority of the court and the ad0inistration of la- into disrepute or in so0e 0anner to i0pede the due ad0inistration of 2ustice1 #*6 1. wo '2( 3inds of Contempt (Refer to the Ta!le of Differences Cet-een Direct and Indirect /onte0pt, infra) 2. wo '2( /spects of Contempt 211 /ivil /onte0pt is the failure to do so0ethin) ordered to !e done !y a court or a 2ud)e for the !enefit of the opposin) party therein1#*& 212 /ri0inal /onte0pt is conduct directed a)ainst the authority and di)nity of a court or of a 2ud)e, as in unla-fully assailin) or discreditin) the authority and di)nity of a court or a 2ud)e or in doin) a for!idden act1#** 6ote: < cri0inal conte0pt proceedin) is in the nature of a cri0inal or 5uasi7cri0inal action and, therefore, punitive in nature1 < civil conte0pt proceedin) is re0edial and civil in nature1 3. Decisions 311 The violation of a TRA issued !y the 9$/ or any 5uasi72udicial tri!unal is cri0inal conte0pt so that ac5uittal of the respondents is unappeala!le1 #*+ 312 < -rit of e%ecution issued !y a court after five (") years fro0 entry of final 2ud)0ent is void and diso!edience thereto does not constitute indirect conte0pt1 #+. -. 0ecessity of 1earing
483

@ele? v. !velino, %o. &'48448, 9e*r$ar4 20, 1984, 12( ,#R! +028 ,o1o v. Militante, %o. &')89+1, 6$ne 28, 1983, 123 ,#R! 1+08 E4 v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. (8)38, 51to*er 2), 1989, 1(8 ,#R! +(1. 484 #$rsino v. -a$tista, 2. R. %o. )033), !$g$st (, 1989, 1(+ ,#R! +). 48) Medina v. #o$rt o3 !""eals, 2. R. %o. 104+1), !$g$st 24, 1993, 22) ,#R! +0(. 48+ /alili v. #o$rt o3 Ind$strial Relations, %o. &'248+4, !"ril 30, 198), 13+ ,#R! 112. 48( Peo"le v. 2odo4, 2. R. %os. 11)908'09, Mar1h 29, 199), 243 ,#R! +4. 488 Ibid. 489 Hasa4 v. Re1to, 2.R. %o. 129)21, ,e"te *er (, 1999, 313 ,#R! (39. 490 #r$1illo v. Inter ediate !""ellate #o$rt, 2.R. %o. +)41+, 51to*er 2+, 1999.

- 12 -

revious hearin) is re5uired under Rule &1, 9ection 3 of the Revised Rules of /ourt, -here an arrest and the su!se5uent detention of petitioner for her failure to appear at a hearin) set !y the trial 2ud)e is !ased on the co00ission of an indirect conte0pt1 8ithout that hearin), the order violated the rules and deprived the petitioner of her li!erty -ithout due process1 #+1 8here a la-yer fails to o!ey a su!poena and li3e-ise co00itted direct conte0pt for havin) distur!ed the preli0inary e%a0ination !ein) conducted !y the 2ud)e !y repeatedly drivin) his 2eep and hon3in) its horn in the vicinity of the court session hall for -hich the la-yer -as ordered arrested and confined in 2ail, the 2ud)e should issue a separate order for such direct conte0pt, and another order re5uirin) the la-yer to sho- cause -hy he should not !e punished for diso!edience to its process, to )ive the la-yer a chance to e%plain his failure to appear as a -itness1 #+2 4. Contempt 5y non6party :enerally, no conte0pt is co00itted !y one not a party to the case1 The re0edy a)ainst such person is either a civil or cri0inal action1#+3 Bo-ever, persons -ho are not parties in a proceedin) 0ay !e declared )uilty of conte0pt for -illful violation of an order issued in a case if said persons are )uilty of conspiracy -ith any one of the parties in violatin) the /ourt?s order1 #+# !. Power to punish for contempt to 5e e&ercised in preser7ati7e not 7indicti7e principle8 what constitutes diso5edience
Anly in cases of clear and contu0acious refusal to o!ey should the po-er !e e%ercised1 < bona fide 0isunderstandin) of the ter0s of the order or of the procedural rules should not i00ediately cause the institution of conte0pt proceedin)s1 4The po-er to punish for conte0pt of court should !e e%ercised on the preservative and not on the vindictive principle1 Anly occasionally should the court invo3e its inherent po-er in order to retain the respect -ithout -hich the ad0inistration of 2ustice 0ust falter or fail1 9uch po-er !ein) drastic and e%traordinary in its nature %%% should not !e resorted to %%% unless necessary in the interest of 2ustice1#+"

TA,LE 1 DI00ERENCES A3ON: PROVISIONAL RE3EDIES

D$'I6ITIA6

:RA,6D9

,R A9$

/A,RT 8BI/B /<6 :R<6T

11 reli0inary <ttach0ent (Rule "&)

< provisional re0edy issued upon order of the court

a1 In an action for the recovery of a specified a0ount or da0a)es, other than 0oral and e%e0plary, on a cause of action arisin) fro0 la-, contract, 5uasi7contract,

<s security for the satisfaction

9upre0e /ourt, /ourt of <ppeals, Re)ional Trial

491 492

-$lado v. %avarro, 2.R. %o. )9442, 9e*r$ar4 2, 1988, :n -an1, Min$te Resol$tion. 2ardones v. 7elgado, !. M. %o. 120'M6, 6$l4 23, 19(4, )8 ,#R! )8. 493 !4og v. #$si, 6r., 2. R. %o. 4+(29, %ove *er 19, 1982, 118 ,#R! 492. 494 7esa :nter"rises, In1. v. ,e1$rities and :C1hange #o ission, 2. R. %o. &'4)430, ,e"te *er 30, 1982, 11( ,#R! 321. 49) @illavi1en1io v. &$k*an, 39 Phil. ((8 [1919]8 2a *oa v. ;eodoro., 91 Phil. 2(0 [19)2]8 ,$lit v. ;iang1o, 2. R. %o. &'3)333, 6$l4 20, 1982, 11) ,#R! 20(8 &i"ata v. ;$taan, 2. R. %o. &'+1+43, ,e"te *er 29, 1983, 124 ,#R! 8((.

- 13 -

-here an action is pendin) to !e levied upon the property or properties of the adverse party therein, the sa0e to !e held thereafter !y the sheriff as security for the satisfaction of -hatever 2ud)0ent 0i)ht !e secured in said action !y the attachin) party a)ainst the adverse party

delict or 5uasi7delict a)ainst a party -ho is a!out to depart fro0 the hilippines -ith intent to defraud his creditors; !1 In an action for 0oney or property e0!e;;led or fraudulently 0isapplied or converted to his o-n use !y a pu!lic officer, or an officer of a corporation, or an attorney, factor, !ro3er, a)ent or cler3, in the course of his e0ploy0ent as such, or !y any other person in a fiduciary capacity, or for a -illful violation of duty; c1 In an action to recover the possession of property un2ustly or fraudulently ta3en, detained or converted, -hen the property, or any part thereof, has !een concealed, re0oved or disposed of to prevent its !ein) found or ta3en !y the applicant or an authori;ed person; d1 In an action a)ainst a party -ho has !een )uilty of fraud in contractin) the de!t or incurrin) the o!li)ation upon -hich the action is !rou)ht, or in the perfor0ance thereof; e1 In an action a)ainst a party -ho has re0oved or disposed of his property, or is a!out to do so, -ith intent to defraud his creditors; f1 In an action a)ainst a party -ho does not reside and is not found in the hilippines, or on -ho0 su00ons 0ay !e served !y pu!lication (9ection 1) a1 That the applicant is entitled to the relief de0anded, and the -hole or part of such relief consists in restrainin) the co00ission or continuance of the act or acts co0plained of, or in re5uirin) the perfor0ance of an act or acts, either for a li0ited period or perpetually; !1 That the co00ission, continuance or non7perfor0ance of the act or acts co0plained of durin) the liti)ation -ould pro!a!ly -or3 in2ustice to the applicant; or c1 That a party, court, a)ency or

of any 2ud)0ent that 0ay !e recovered !y the clai0ant

/ourt, 'a0ily /ourt, (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts

21 reli0inary In2unction (Rule "*)

<n order )ranted at any sta)e of an action or proceedin) prior to the 2ud)0ent or final order, re5uirin) a party or a court, a)ency or a person to refrain fro0 a particular act or acts1 It 0ay also re5uire the perfor0ance of a particular act or acts, in -hich case it shall !e 3no-n as a preli0inary 0andatory in2unction

To preserve the status 5uo or to resolve the last uncontested status 5uo

9upre0e /ourt, /ourt of <ppeals, Re)ional Trial /ourt, 'a0ily /ourt, (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts

- 14 -

(9ection 1)

a person is doin), threatenin), or is atte0ptin) to do, or is procurin) or sufferin) to !e done, so0e act or acts pro!a!ly in violation of the ri)hts of the applicant respectin) the su!2ect of the action or proceedin), and tendin) to render the 2ud)0ent ineffectual (9ection 3) a1 (atter is of e%tre0e ur)ency; and !1 The applicant -ill suffer )rave in2ustice and irrepara!le in2ury !efore the 0atter can !e heard on notice

31 Te0porary Restrainin) Arder (TRA)

<n order -hich 0ay issue upon the filin) of an application for preli0inary in2unction for!iddin) the defendant to do the threatened act until a hearin) on the application can !e had

To prevent )rave in2ustice and irrepara!le in2ury to the applicant !efore the application for a -rit of preli0inary in2unction can !e acted upon

9upre0e /ourt, /ourt of <ppeals, Re)ional Trial /ourt, 'a0ily /ourt, (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts

#1 Receivership

rovisional re0edy !y -hich the court appoints a receiver as its representative and in !ehalf of all the parties to an action for the purpose of preservin) and conservin) the property in liti)ation and to prevent possi!le -asta)e or dissipation or other-ise to carry the 2ud)0ent into effect

a1 8hen it appears fro0 the verified application, and such other proof as the court 0ay re5uire, that the party applyin) for the appoint0ent of a receiver has an interest in the property or fund -hich is the su!2ect of the action or proceedin), and that such property or fund is in dan)er of !ein) lost, re0oved, or 0aterially in2ured unless a receiver !e appointed to ad0inister and preserve it; !1 8hen it appears in an action !y the 0ort)a)ee for the foreclosure of a 0ort)a)e that the property is in dan)er of !ein) -asted or dissipated or 0aterially in2ured, and that its value is pro!a!ly insufficient to dischar)e the 0ort)a)e de!t, or that the parties have so stipulated in the contract of 0ort)a)e; c1 <fter 2ud)0ent, to preserve the property durin) the pendency of an appeal, or to dispose of it accordin) to the 2ud)0ent, or to aid e%ecution -hen the e%ecution has !een returned unsatisfied or the 2ud)0ent o!li)or refuses to apply his property in satisfaction of the 2ud)0ent, or other-ise to carry the 2ud)0ent into effect;

To preserve the property durin) the pendency of the liti)ation or to dispose of it accordin) to the 2ud)0ent -hen it is finally rendered or other-ise to carry the 2ud)0ent into effect

9upre0e /ourt, /ourt of <ppeals, Re)ional Trial /ourt, 'a0ily /ourt, (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts

- 15 -

d1 8henever in other cases, it appears that the appoint0ent of a receiver is the 0ost convenient and feasi!le 0eans of preservin), ad0inisterin) or disposin) of the property in liti)ation1 Durin) the pendency of an appeal, the appellate court 0ay allo- an application for the appoint0ent of a receiver to !e filed in and decided !y the court of ori)in and the receiver appointed to !e su!2ect to the control of said court1 a1 <pplicant is the o-ner of the property clai0ed, particularly descri!in) it, or is entitled to the possession thereof; !1 The property is -ron)fully detained !y the adverse party, alle)in) the cause of detention thereof accordin) to the !est of his 3no-led)e, infor0ation and !elief; c1 The property has not !een distrained or ta3en of a ta% assess0ent or a fine pursuant to la-, or sei;ed under a -rit of e%ecution or preli0inary attach0ent, or other-ise placed under custodia legis, or if so sei;ed, that it is e%e0pt fro0 such sei;ure or custody; d1 The actual 0ar3et value of the property1

"1 Replevin

/ourt orders the sei;ure of chattels or )oods clai0ed !y a party as his -hich are alle)edly -ron)fully ta3en or detained !y another person and to !e delivered to the for0er to !e retained !y hi0 durin) the pendency of the action

To prevent the su!2ect property fro0 !ein) disposed of durin) the pendency of the case

Re)ional Trial /ourt, 'a0ily /ourt, (etropolitan, (unicipal, and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts

61 9upport Pendente Lite

Arder issued !y a court in -hich an action for support has !een filed fi%in) an a0ount of support to !e )iven !y the adverse party to the applicant durin) the pendency of the case

8hen e5uity and 2ustice 0ay re5uire havin) due re)ard to the pro!a!le outco0e of the case and such other circu0stances as 0ay su))est the reasona!ility of )rantin) support pendente lite

To ans-er the 0aterial needs of the applicant durin) the pendency of the case

'a0ily /ourt

TA,LE ! ,ASIC C;ARACTERISTICS O0 PROVISIONAL RE3EDIES

- 16 -

8B$6 <D<IE<CE $

BA8 :R<6T$D

$''$/TIDI TF

BA8 DI99AED$D=DI9/B<R:$ D

11 reli0inary <ttach0ent

<t any sta)e of the action !ut !efore entry of final 2ud)0e nt

Ex-parte or upon 0otion and hearin)

Durin) the pendency of the case unless earlier dischar)ed or 5uashed !y the court

Cy order of the court after notice and hearin) on the )round that the preli0inary attach0ent -as i0properly or irre)ularly issued or enforced or the !ond is insufficient and -hen the adverse party 0a3es a cash deposit or files a counter!ond e%ecuted to the attachin) party -ith the cler3 of court -here the application is 0ade in an a0ount e5ual to that fi%ed !y the court in the order of attach0ent, e%clusive of cost

21 reli0inary In2unction

<t any sta)e of the action !ut !efore 2ud)0e nt or final order

,pon 0otion and hearin)

Durin) the pendency of the case unless earlier dischar)ed or 5uashed !y the court

Cy order of the court upon affidavit of the party en2oined or if it appears after hearin) that althou)h the applicant is entitled to the in2unction or restrainin) order, the issuance or continuance thereof -ould cause irrepara!le da0a)e to the party or person en2oined -hile the applicant can !e fully co0pensated for such da0a)es as he 0ay suffer and the for0er files a counter!ond a1 ,pon resolution !y the court of the application for a -rit of preli0inary in2unction

31 Te0porary Restrainin) Arder (TRA)

Durin) the penden

:eneral Rule: !nterpartes

6ot 0ore than 2. days fro0

- 17 -

cy of the applicati on for a -rit of preli0in ary in2unctio n

(9u00ary hearin)) $%ception: TRA )ranted !y @ud)e for &2 hours > Ex-parte

service upon the person sou)ht to !e en2oined

or the e%piration of the 2.7day period fro0 service of the -rit upon the party, -hichever co0es first; !1 ,pon affidavit of the party en2oined or after hearin) if it appears that althou)h the applicant is entitled to a TRA, the issuance or continuance thereof, -ould cause irrepara!le da0a)e to the party en2oined -hile the applicant can !e fully co0pensated for such da0a)e as he 0ay suffer upon the applicant?s filin) of a counter!ond a1 'ilin) !y the adverse party of a counter!ond; !1 If it is sho-n that the appoint0ent of a receiver -as o!tained -ithout sufficient cause; c1 The court motu proprio or on 0otion shall deter0ine that the necessity of a receiver no lon)er e%ists

#1 Receivership

<t any sta)e of the proceed in) and even after finality of 2ud)0e nt

!nter-partes

,ntil dischar)ed !y the court

TA,LE $ DI00ERENCES O0 ,ONDS IN PROVISIONAL RE3EDIES

- 18 -

RADI9IA6<E R$($DF

8B$TB$R R$G,IR$D

<(A,6T

,6D$RT<HI6:9 ,6D$R TB$ /A,6T$RCA6D To pay:

11 reli0inary attach0ent

Re5uired

Discretionary -ith the court !ut not e%ceedin) the applicant?s clai0

11 <ll costs -hich 0ay !e ad2ud)ed to the adverse party; and 21 <ll da0a)es -hich the adverse party 0ay sustain !y reason of the attach0ent if the court shall finally ad2ud)e that the applicant -as not entitled thereto

21 reli0inary in2unction

Re5uired

Discretionary -ith the court

To pay all da0a)es -hich the adverse party 0ay sustain !y reason of the in2unction if the court shall finally decide that the applicant -as not entitled thereto

31 Te0porary Restrainin) Arder (TRA)

Re5uired !ut the court 0ay e%e0pt

8hen re5uired, discretionary -ith the court

To pay all da0a)es -hich the adverse party 0ay sustain !y reason of the in2unction, if the court shall finally decide that the applicant -as not entitled thereto

#1 Receivership

Re5uired

Discretionary -ith the court

To pay da0a)es the adverse party 0ay sustain !y reason of the appoint0ent of a receiver in case the applicant shall have procured such appoint0ent -ithout sufficient cause a1 'or the return of the property or its value to the adverse party if such !e ad2ud)ed; and !1 To pay to defendant such da0a)es as he 0ay recover fro0 the applicant in the action

"1 Replevin

Re5uired

Dou!le the value of the property

61 9upport

6ot re5uired

6ot applica!le

6ot applica!le

- 19 -

pendente lite

TA,LE ) DI00ERENCES O0 CO8NTER,ONDS IN PROVISIONAL RE3EDIES

RADI9IA6<E R$($DF

8B$TB$R IT (<F C$ 'IE$D

<(A,6T

,6D$RT<HI6:9 ,6D$R TB$ /A,6T$RCA6D

11 reli0inary attach0ent

Fes

$5ual to that fi%ed !y the court in the order of attach0ent

ay0ent of any 2ud)0ent that the attachin) party 0ay recover in the action

21 reli0inary in2unction

Fes

Discretionary -ith the court

ay all da0a)es -hich the applicant 0ay suffer !y the denial or the dissolution of the in2unction or restrainin) order

31 Te0porary Restrainin) Arder (TRA)

Fes1 If a !ond -as filed !y the clai0ant, then a counter!ond 0ay !e filed !y the adverse party; !ut if no !ond is filed !y the for0er, -hat the adverse party can file is a !ond

Discretionary -ith the court

ay all da0a)es -hich the applicant 0ay suffer !y the denial or the dissolution of the in2unction or restrainin) order

#1 Receivership

Fes

Discretionary -ith the court

To pay all da0a)es -hich the applicant 0ay suffer !y reason of the acts, o0issions, or other 0atters specified in the application or )round for such appoint0ent a1 The delivery of the property or its value to the plaintiff if so

"1 Replevin

Fes

Dou!le the value of the property as stated in the plaintiff?s affidavit

- 20 -

ad2ud)ed; and !1 To pay such da0a)es -hich the plaintiff 0ay recover a)ainst the defendant

61 <li0ony Pendente Lite

6o

6ot applica!le

6ot applica!le

TA,LE . DI00ERENCES A3ON: T;E T;REE <$= 3ODES O0 APPEAL

ARDI6<RF <

$<E

$TITIA6 'AR R$DI$8

< $<E CF CE"#!$"%"!

11 Bo- appeal is initiated

Ardinary appeal !y notice of appeal or record on appeal

Cy filin) a petition for revie-

Cy filin) a petition for revie- on certiorari

21 8here to appeal

a1 'ro0 the (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts to the Re)ional Trial /ourts, and fro0 the Re)ional Trial /ourts to the /ourt of <ppeals in decisions of the Re)ional Trial /ourt rendered in the e%ercise of their respective ori)inal 2urisdictions !1 'ro0 the (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts to the /ourt of <ppeals for decisions rendered !y the said courts in the e%ercise of their dele)ated 2urisdiction, in -hich case the (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourts act as Re)ional Trial /ourts

'ro0 the Re)ional Trial /ourt to the /ourt of <ppeals, a decision of the Re)ional Trial /ourt rendered in the e%ercise of its appellate 2urisdiction

'ro0 the Re)ional Trial /ourt to the 9upre0e /ourt on a pure 5uestion of la-, a decision of the Re)ional Trial /ourt rendered in the e%ercise of its ori)inal 2urisdiction

31 6ature of appeal

(atter of ri)ht

(atter of appellate court?s discretion

(atter of appellate court?s discretion

#1 To -ho0 appellate doc3et and other la-ful

/ler3 of /ourt -hose decision is !ein) appealed

/ler3 of /ourt of the /ourt of <ppeals

/ler3 of /ourt of the 9upre0e /ourt

- 21 -

fees should !e paid

"1 ay0ent of appellate doc3et and other la-ful fees as a re5uire0ent of perfection of appeal

6ot a re5uisite for perfection of appeal !ut a )round for dis0issal if not paid on ti0e

< re5uire0ent for perfection of appeal

< re5uire0ent for perfection of appeal to !e paid to the /ler3 of /ourt of the <ppellate /ourt

<ppellant > party appealin) 61 6a0e of parties <ppellee > adverse party

etitioner > party appealin) Respondent > adverse party

etitioner > party appealin) Respondent > adverse party

&1 Re5uire0ent of record on appeal

In special proceedin)s and other cases of 0ultiple or separate appeals a1 'ro0 the (etropolitan, (unicipal and (unicipal /ircuit Trial /ourt to the Re)ional Trial /ourt, 0e0orandu0 !1 'ro0 the Re)ional Trial /ourt to the /ourt of <ppeals, !riefs

6ot re5uired

6ot re5uired

*1 Casic docu0ent to !e filed in the appellate court

(e0oranda -hen re5uired !y the /ourt of <ppeals

(e0orandu0 -hen re5uired !y the 9upre0e /ourt

+1 erfection of appeal as to appellant

,pon filin) of the notice of appeal in due ti0e or if record on appeal is re5uired, upon approval of the record on appeal in due ti0e

,pon ti0ely filin) of a petition for revie- and pay0ent of correspondin) doc3et and other la-ful fees

,pon ti0ely filin) of the petition for revie- on certiorari and pay0ent of doc3et and other la-ful fees

1.1 8hen court -hose decision is !ein) appealed loses 2urisdiction

a1 In appeal !y notice of appeal > upon perfection of the appeal filed in due ti0e and the e%piration of the ti0e to appeal of the other parties !1 In appeal !y record on appeal > upon approval of the records on appeal filed in due ti0e and the e%piration of its ti0e to appeal of the other parties

,pon the perfection of the appeals filed in due ti0e and the e%piration of the ti0e to appeal !y the other parties

,pon the perfection of the appeals filed in due ti0e and the e%piration of the ti0e to appeal !y the other parties

111 <s to 5uestions -hich 0ay !e raised

Guestion of fact, 5uestion of la- and 5uestion of fact and la-

Guestion of fact, 5uestion of la-, 5uestion of fact and la-

Anly 5uestion of la-

- 22 -

<ppellant > party appealin) 121 Bo- parties are referred to <ppellee > adverse party

etitioner > party appealin) Respondent > adverse party

etitioner > party appealin) Respondent > adverse party

TA,LE 1 DI00ERENCES ,ET4EEN C%R I9R/RI: PRO;I,ITION AND ;/0D/;2)

CE"#!$"%"!

RABICITIA6

M%&'%M()

11 urpose of the -rit

To annul or 0odify an act perfor0ed !y respondent

To prevent co00ission or carryin) out the act

/o0pel the perfor0ance or act desired

21 <ct sou)ht to !e controlled

@udicial or 5uasi72udicial functions

@udicial, 5uasi72udicial or 0inisterial functions

Ee)al duty

31 Respondent

ersons e%ercisin) 2udicial or 5uasi72udicial functions

ersons e%ercisin) 2udicial, 5uasi72udicial and 0inisterial functions

ersons havin) le)al duty

#1 6ature of the re0edy

/orrective re0edy and refers to acts already consu00ated

reventive re0edy and refers to acts still to !e done

Directory re0edy co00andin) a person to do a le)al duty

TA,LE 2

- 23 -

DI00ERENCES ,ET4EEN PRO;I,ITION AND IN58NCTION

RABICITIA6

I6@,6/TIA6

11 Respondent

:enerally a court, tri!unal or person e%ercisin) 2udicial or 0inisterial functions

:enerally a)ainst a party in an action for in2unction

21 /ourt?s 2urisdiction

Eac3 or e%cess of 2urisdiction 0ay !e a )round

@urisdiction of the court is not 5uestioned

31 6ature of the re0edy

<l-ays a 0ain action -ith preli0inary in2unction as a provisional re0edy

/an !e a 0ain action -ith preli0inary in2unction as a provisional re0edy

TA,LE 6 DI00ERENCES ,ET4EEN 0ORCI,LE ENTR> AND 8NLA408L DETAINER

'AR/ICE$ $6TRF

,6E<8',E D$T<I6$R

11 6ature of defendant?s possession

,nla-ful fro0 the !e)innin)

Initially la-ful, then it !eco0es unla-ful

21 De0and to vacate

6o need

There is a need

31 roof of prior possession

laintiff 0ust prove it

6ot necessary for plaintiff to prove it

#1 'ro0 -hat point is the one (1) year period to file action counted

'ro0 forci!le entry

'ro0 de0and to vacate

- 24 -