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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

Chapter 1 1.0 Lanka Electricity Company (pvt) Ltd.


1.1 Introduction to LECO Lanka Electricity CO. (Pvt) Ltd. (LECO) is a private limited liability Company established in 1983 re istered !nder the Companies "ct #o. 1$ o% &ri Lanka %or 'istrib!tion o% Electricity. Prior to the establishin o% LECO several companies and other local a!thorities (ere en a e in distrib!tion o% electricity in vario!s part o% the island. '!e to vario!s de%ects and lack o% %acilities) services provided to c!stomers (ere very lo( standard and very lo( liability. *eliability o% the distrib!tion system has been vastly improved in island (ide. LECO+s sta%%s have strived hard to o%%er reliable and e%%icient services thro! h a val!e added process to o!r c!stomer. LECO contin!es to ro( in their b!siness (hile ettin e%%icient and e%%ective. LECO p!rchases electricity %rom CE, at -9 primary s!bstations at 11k. volta e and distrib!te to nearly /01)111 c!stomers. LECO has ro(n in to a pro%essional service entity that has (on reco nition o% li%e o% the comm!nity it serves. &ince (ith the modern technolo y and improvement o% the distrib!tion net(ork and healthy %inancial hi h position over the years Lanka Electricity Company is the Sri Lanka National uality !"ard #inner in $001. 1.$ %istory o& LECO &ince late nineteenth cent!ry electricity eneration and distrib!tion have bein promoted (ith the ne( technolo ies. 2hen electricity ind!stry (as or ani3ed by several "!thorities and decentrali3ed operation. . &ri Lanka+s %irst commercial electricity distrib!tion scheme commissioned by 4essers ,o!sted ,rothers) (hich provided electricity to cons!mers (ithin a restricted area in Colombo city. "%ter the initiatin o% b!lk electricity transmission by means o% lar e scale 5ydropo(er) then 6overnment decided to contrib!te their b!lk electricity to the national rid. '!e to poor mana ement and lack o% 7!ality en ineerin kno(led e) distrib!tion o% electricity ind!stry drastically collapse (ith the rapid ro(th o% !rban pop!lation.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 8inally 6overnment reco ni3ed the de%ects o% these local "!thorities s!ch as hi h po(er loss) !nreliable po(er s!pply) !nsatis%actory reven!e collection proced!res) etc. and appointed a committee to overcome these iss!es. "s a res!lt o% committee recommendation the Lanka Electricity Company (Private) Limited (as established in &eptember 1983 !nder the Companies "ct. 1.' LECO (ision En9oy bein the li ht %or lives o% people thro! h innovative eco:%riendly b!siness 1.) LECO *ission 2o provide the best ener y sol!tions to the society thro! h contin!o!s innovation 1.+ LECO Lanka. ;n all process and services) company+s commitment to 7!ality shall be ive apparent. 2his m!st also be apparent in the (ay personnel %ollo( and instr!ctions) and in the (ay they apply the <!ality &ystem and s!pport it. LECO ;s committed to deli ht its c!stomers thro! h deployment o% a uality ,olicy

2he name Lanka Electricity Company (Private) Limited shall stand %or

7!ality) and the company is committed to be the best electricity distrib!tor in &ri

competent) dedicated and connected sta%% backed by the latest technolo y. Company personnel shall re ard the achievement o% 7!ality as one o% their

most important d!ties. Lanka. LECO is committed to contin!ally improve its environment and ecolo y

%riendly services contrib!tin to the economic) social and c!lt!ral development o% &ri

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1.- Service !ssurances

#e( connection estimate in 1/ days #e( connection in 1/ days 4eter testin in 1/ days &hi%tin o% meters and poles in 9!st 1/ days &!pply volta e
;ndemnity o% cons!mer+s appliances

1.. Or/ani0ation Structure

2he chairman and ,oard o% 'irectors

;nternal "!ditor 64

5ead o% Operation

5ead o% En ineerin

Chie% 8inancial O%%icer

5*4 = "4

,4
2rainin 4ana er &'4

;2

,"

"O

2rainin Cons!ltant

Chie% &ystem 'evelopment En ineer

Proc!rement &!pply En ineer

,E

EE

2O C&& 2O

2est En ineer Plannin En ineer 'esi n En ineer

2O

*O

2echnician

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

1.1 2he 3ranch ,ranch or ani3ation is the main link that connects LECO hierarchy to the cons!mer. Company e>pects ,4 to mana e the branch or ani3ation in the most e%%icient manner ens!rin that his employees are treatin the cons!mers. 1.4 2he 5epots 2he depot is the smallest !nit in the LECO branch set!p (hich co!ld be considered as an independent entity. ;t is headed by the C&& and is s!pported by a (ork %orce (hich incl!des skilled and semi:skilled persons. 1.10 LECO ,o"er 5istri6ution !reas LECO po(er distrib!tion areas are administrated by the seven branches #e ambo) ?elaniya) ?otte) #! e oda) 4orat!(a) ?al!tara) and 6alle. Each branch administrates its c!stomer service centers.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 8i !re1.1 LECO po(er distrib!tion areas 1.10.1 LECO distri6ution !reas and 3ranches #e ambo ?elaniya ?otte : : : #e ambo) &eed!(a) Aa:Ela 'al! ama) 4ahara) ?andana) Battala Pitakotte) ?otika(atta) ?olonna(a #! e oda) 4ahara ama) ,orales am!(a 4orat!(a north) 4orat!(a so!th) Panad!ra) ?orala(ella) ?esel(atta ?al!tara 6alle : : ?al!tara) Paya ala) "l!th ama 6alle) 5ikkad!(a) "mbalan oda

#! e oda : 4orat!(a :

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Chapter 2 $.0 System modi&ication &or the increasin/ load


$.1 Introduction 2o meet the load demand in &riLanka distrib!tion net(ork sho!ld be e>panded to s!pply a reliable and most e%%ective service to their c!stomers. 2o achieve this p!rpose system modi%ication is needed. 2he %irst step is Load %orecastin . 2hen plannin and desi n the system. $.$ Load 7orecastin/ $.$.1 ,rocess o& 7orecastin/ Load %orecastin is the %irst step o% system modi%ication process. 5ere) %orecastin is done %or the %!t!re %ive years by considerin the load ro(th statistics in recent years by !sin vario!s n!merical methods. $.$.$ 2he &actors a&&ectin/ the accuracy o& 7orecastin/ 2ime %actors 2his incl!des the consideration o% holidays) e>act ho!r o% the day) day o% the (eek etc. C!stomer classes Beather in%l!ence Other s!dden demand ro(in iss!es like political) terminal constr!ction pro9ects etc. "reas bein sat!rated) so the past increment o% demand (ill not be in the %!t!re.

2he ne>t step o% the system modi%ication to meet the %!t!re demand is plannin and desi nin o% the system accordin to these %orecasts made.

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$.' ,lannin/
$.'.1 O68ectives o& plannin/ 2he %ollo(in a!thorities. 1. Provide reliable and ood 7!ality s!pply -. 4aintain cons!mer volta e (ithin stip!lated stat!tory limits. 3. 4aintain distrib!tion losses at a minim!m /. <!ick attention to s!pply breakdo(ns. $.) System considerations and &eatures 2he %ollo(in aspects are considered in plannin a system addition) or modi%ication) or an entirely ne( system. 1. 4aintain proper volta e and loss levels -. Contin!o!s c!rrent ratin s o% e7!ipment and circ!its 3. &hort time and %a!lt c!rrent ratin s o% e7!ipment /. *eliability o% s!pply @. ;nter%erence (ith other circ!its in the vicinity s!ch as telephone and comm!nication circ!its 0. Constr!ction constraints $.+ Statutory 9e:uirements 2he s!bsidiary le islation !nder the electricity act (19@0) de%ines a ma>im!m volta e variation o% C 0D o% the nominal volta e to the cons!mer. 2his limits the volta e at the cons!mer+s s(itchboard to a val!e bet(een -10.-. and -/3.8. at a nominal volta e o% -31.. 33 k. or 11 k. distrib!tion circ!it Lo( volta e distrib!tion circ!it) incl!din allo(ance %or service connection 2able-.1 "llo(able .olta e variances E@D E@D :@D :11D are desired ob9ectives to be met by po(er system distrib!tion

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 2h!s LECO has to plan distrib!tion net(ork to s!pply (ith correct volta e %or the sa%ety and proper %!nctionin o% cons!mer appliances. Other than that) system %re7!ency m!st be at @1 53 or (ithin C 1D. $.- ,lannin/ cycle o& L( and %( Net"ork L. system is planned and desi ned %or @ years (hereas the 5. system is %or 11 years. "%ter implementin the ne( desi n no more modi%ications co!ld be re7!ired (ithin the %ive year period %or the L. system. $.. Lo" (olta/e System 5esi/nin/ $...1 ,ossi6le reasons &or volta/es 6elo" statutory limits i. ii. iii. iv. v. 5. lo( volta e E>cessively lon %eeders ;nade7!ate cond!ctor si3e Fnbalanced loadin o% the 3 phases O%% load tap settin o% the trans%ormer is too lo(

2o identi%y (hether the cons!mer volta es are (ithin stat!tory limits the %eeders (hich %eed the most n!mber o% cons!mers) or very lon %eeders have to be selected. On these %eeders %eeder end volta es are recorded d!rin peak ho!rs to et the minim!m volta e o% the system. ;% those val!es are belo( the stat!tory limits s!itable remedies have to be done. $...1.1 9emedies i. *e:cond!ctor (ith lar er si3ed cond!ctors ii. iii. iv. v. ;nstallin an additional %eeder ;ntrod!ction o% a ne( s!bstation and shortenin %eeders *aisin o%% load tap position on the trans%ormer &hi%tin the trans%ormer to load center

$.1 Overloaded 5istri6ution Su6station


Loadin o% the s!bstation is e>amined monthly %rom the 4'; meter installed at the s!bstation. Bhen a distrib!tion s!bstation is %o!nd e>ceedin

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering rated capacity it is in%ormed by 'epot 2echnical O%%icer to ,ranch En ineer and he does the plannin %or appropriate sol!tion. $.1.1 Criteria &or 8ud/in/ overloadin/ o& 2rans&ormers " 2rans%ormer is considered to be overloaded only i% its monthly ma>im!m demand e>ceeds 1.3 times ratin and its load %actor is reater than 1.@. $.1.1.1 9emedies;procedures ;% a 2rans%ormer is 9!d ed as overloaded) it is necessary to et the %ollo(in details. i. ii. iii. iv. Capacity o% the trans%ormer #!mber o% cons!mers %ed by the trans%ormer 8eeder layo!t Loadin o% the ad9oinin trans%ormers

'ependin on the above) corrective meas!res co!ld be taken as %ollo(s. i. ;% the capacity is lo( (in the ran e o% @1 k.") 111 k.") and no. o% cons!mers is less) overloaded trans%ormer is replaced by a hi h capacity trans%ormer (2rans%ormer "! mentation) ii. iii. ;% the ad9oinin s!bstations are !nder loaded) some cons!mers co!ld be trans%erred %rom the overloaded s!bstation to them. 8ailin above sol!tions) it is necessary to install a ne( s!bstation. 5ere it is important to relocate cons!mers %rom ad9acent s!bstations in the pro>imity o% the overload line. iv. ;n certain instances) (here P8 is lo( eno! h) installation o% P8 correction capacitor bank at 28 is also a better sol!tion. Bhen takin these remedies it is necessary to check (hether no lo( volta es at %eeder ends and overloadin occ!r (ithin %!t!re @ years. 2his can be checked by !sin GL. desi nH so%t(are.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering L. 'esi n %!nction is limited to si> enerations) i.e. %eeders are connected to the trans%ormer and there are three levels o% poles and t(o levels o% sp!r lines. 2here can be ma>im!m o% nine %eeders connected to the trans%ormer. On each %eeder or sp!r ma>im!m o% nine %eeders connected to the trans%ormer. On each %eeder or sp!r ma>im!m o% 99 poles can be connected to a pole. $.4 %i/h (olta/e System 5esi/nin/ 8or the 5i h .olta e system desi nin method !sed in LECO. $.4.1 Load 7lo" Study in LECO 2he main ob9ectives o% the load %lo( st!dy in LECO are to analy3e the system behavior) to identi%y the ne>t %ive year system development re7!irements o% the branch areas and to in%orm the %indin s to the 4ana ement o% LECO and CE, %or implementation. LECO made load %lo( proposals to overcome the present and %!t!re load re7!irements considerin the least cost options. 2hose proposals are) Load trans%er #e( line constr!ctions Primary s!bstation constr!ctions Load %lo( st!dies are done !sin P&&I"'EP2 (Po(er &ystem &im!latorI"dvanced 'istrib!tion En ineerin Prod!ctivity 2ool) so%t(are in LECO. $.4.1.1 *ethodolo/y o& Load 7lo" !nalysis 1. " model o% branch 11kv net(ork is prepared !sin the P&&I"'EP2 so%t(are. -. 2he trans%ormer loads o% partic!lar area are cate ori3ed as domestic) ind!strial) commercial or mi>ed. 3. Load types o% each load cate ories are identi%ied as constant po(er type) constant c!rrent type and constant impedance type. /. &ystem peak is identi%ied Load 8lo( &t!dy is most important

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering @. 2he contrib!tion o% each load cate ory %or the system peak is considered !sin estimated peak contrib!tion data. 0. 8orecast data are taken %or the load %lo( st!dy. $. "cceptable limits are considered as) Percenta e .olta e 'rop (11kv) Percenta e 'istrib!tion Losses (11kv) 8irm Capacity o% P&& C/J 1J @1J

$.4.1.$ 5e&ects o& the e<istin/ Load 7lo" !nalysis in LECO '!e to the %inancial restrictions some o% the most e>pensive important modi%ication as s! ested by the load %lo( analysis cannot be implemented. that the

2he load %lo( analysis %or the second year is done estimatin

proposed modi%ications in the %irst year+s analysis have already been implemented even tho! h some o% them are act!ally not completed (ithin the period o% the partic!lar year. "ltho! h the analysis is abo!t to propose %or the ne>t %ive years o% the load %lo( modi%ications) the e%%ect o% the analysis (ears o%% by the third year since the system recovers so that any more modi%ications are not needed c!rrently.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

Chapter' '.0 =IS;=,S S>S2E* O7 ?LECO@


'.1 Outstandin/ ,urposes o& =,S;=IS ,asically there are three o!tstandin load %lo( analysis. *appin/ 2he coordinates o% their distrib!tin area are collected and they are plotted (ith links to their details. ;t is easy to et in%ormation o% distrib!tion net(ork. !ssets *ana/ement Fsin collected details attached to the map) (e can mana e all the assets s!ch as 2rans%ormers) "!to:reclosers) &ectionali3es) C2IP2 s) cond!ctors etc. and easy to maintain those assets. ,lannin/ "s a po(er distrib!tion company) plannin is made (ith validity o% %!t!re %ive years. #e( concepts) modern technolo ies and all the behavior o% the or ani3ation are planned and %inancial val!es are calc!lated %or planned period. p!rposes implemented by LECO

6P&I6;& !nit. "nd this 6P& based on prepare maps %or vario!s modi%ications and

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'.$ Overall procedure o& =,S;=IS Section in LECO &tart "lteration records o% ,O &tart "lteration records o% C&C &end system alteration %orm to ,O at month end

Collect sketchesIrecords o% the (ork %rom 9ob %ile

#O ;% alteration records to 6P& data collect Kes "rran e the 6P&I6;& data collection sched!le %or (eek *elease 6P& record %or data collections as per sched!le ;n%orm relevant C&C = collect 6P&I6;& data *e7!est base %iles %rom 5O *elevant base %ile 'i%%erential Correction ;mport "!to cad 4ap 4odi%y the 6P&I6;& map Link map = database "ttach to 6P&I6;& map to 9ob %ile = back!p rover %ile &end 6P&I6;& %iles to 5O .eri%y) 4er e = Or ani3e 6P&I6;& %iles P!blish 6P&I6;& map
End

Fpdate 6;& database

Fpdate 6;& database

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'.' 2heoretical o& ,rocess o& =,S;=IS System '.'.1 =lo6al ,ositionin/ Systems (=,S) 2his system is !sed to locate a position on the earth s!r%ace by !sin a set o% coordinates (ith respect to %e( satellites. ;t is %ree to !se %or anyone) any(here. '.'.$ System Se/mentation 2he 6P& is divided into three ma9or components. 2hey are) Space se/ment (satellite constellation)

2he &pace &e ment consists o% the Constellation o% #"."&2"* earth orbitin satellites. 'e%ense 'epartment plan calls %or a %!ll constellation o% -/ ,lock ;; satellites and 3- medi!m Earth orbit satellites (ith orbital periods o% 1- sidereal ho!rs (ith each satellite contains %o!r precise atomic clocks (*!bidi!m and Cesi!m standards) and has a microprocessor on board %or limited sel%:monitorin and data processin . Control se/ment 2his se ment o% consist o% %ive monitorin station. 2his is the sole

responsibility o% the 'epartment o% 'e%ense in F&" (ho !ndertakes constr!ction) la!nchin ) maintenance) and virt!ally constant per%ormance monitorin o% all 6P& satellites. Aser se/ment 2he !ser se ment is a total !ser and s!pplier comm!nity) both civilian and military. "nd it consists o% all earth based 6P& receivers. ;t is !sed to receivin data contin!o!sly and !pdate the position re%errin to the satellite.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 8i !re3.1 2he interconnection bet(een the 3 se ments '.) %o" =,S determines a location ;n a n!tshell) 6P& is based on satellite ran in : calc!latin the distances bet(een the receiver and the position o% 3 or more satellites (/ or more i% elevation is desired). "ss!min the positions o% the satellites are kno(n) the location o% the receiver can be calc!lated by determinin the distance %rom each o% the satellites to the receiver. 6P& takes these 3 or more kno(n re%erences and meas!red distances and Ltrian !latesL an additional position. 2he acc!racy o% the meas!rement increases as the !sed n!mber o% satellites increases. #o() to determine yo!r position the 6P& receiver compares the time a si nal (as transmitted by a satellite (ith the time it (as received by the 6P& receiver. 2he time di%%erence tells the 6P& receiver ho( %ar a(ay that partic!lar satellite is. ;% (e add distance meas!rements %rom a %e( more satellites) (e can %ind o!r position. 6P& is based on kno(in the distances %rom a receiver to satellites

2able3.1 E%%ective #!mber o% satellite Num6er o& satellites used in E&&ective sur&ace o& the position@s measurements location 1 &!r%ace o% a sphere. 3 / @ or more 2he res!ltant circle o% the c!ttin ed es o% the spheres. Only - separate points. Only one appro>imate partic!lar point Concentrates to the desired point

8i !re3.- pointin into the desired location !sin t(o satellites

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'.+ Satellite Code =eneration Each 6P& satellite transmits t(o radio si nals. 2hey are mod!lated (ith t(o pse!dorandom noise (P*#) ran in codes. Be !se the same code at the receiver and satellite. 2hen synchroni3e the satellites and receivers to enerate the same code at same time. Look at the incomin code %rom the satellite and see ho( lon a o the receiver enerated the same code.

8i !re3.3 2ime synchroni3ation o% 6P& readin s

'.- Startin/ *ethods

2he hot start 2he hot start is (hen the 6P& device remembers its last calc!lated position

and the satellites in vie() the almanac !sed (in%ormation abo!t all the satellites in the constellation)) the F2C 2ime and makes an attempt to lock onto the same satellites and calc!late a ne( position based !pon the previo!s in%ormation. 2his is the 7!ickest

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 6P& lock b!t it only (orks i% yo! are enerally in the same location as yo! (ere (hen the 6P& (as last t!rned o%%.

2he "arm start 2he "arm start is (hen the 6P& device remembers its last calc!lated

position) almanac !sed) and F2C 2ime) b!t not (hich satellites (ere in vie(. ;t then per%orms a reset and attempts to obtain the satellite si nals and calc!lates a ne( position.

2he cold start 2he cold start is (hen the 6P& device d!mps all the in%ormation) attempts to

locate satellites and then calc!lates a 6P& lock. 2his takes the lon est beca!se there is no kno(n in%ormation

'.. 7actors a&&ectin/ the accuracy o& the =,S 9eadin/s

,osition 5ilution o& ,recision

Position 'il!tion o% Precision is an indication o% the c!rrent satellite eometry. 2he dil!tion o% precision ('OP) allo(s one to more precisely estimate the acc!racy o% 6P& position %i>es by ad9!stin the error estimates accordin to the eometry o% the satellites !sed.

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8i !re3./ &atellite position %or 6ood 'OP

SN9

2his is the si nal to noise ratio o% the carrier incomin . "lso called si nal level or si nal stren th. &#* ran es %rom 1 to aro!nd 3@. ,asically it is accepted to be more than 39 to be a ood readin . &#* s lo(er than @ are considered !n!sable.

'.1 =,S System E:uipments used in ?LECO@

=,S 9eceiver
6P& receivers calc!late position as o%ten as once per second and provide acc!racies %rom s!b meter to @ meters (ith di%%erential correction processin . 2he typical receiver is composed o% an antenna and preampli%ier) radio si nal microprocessor) control and display device) data recordin !nit) and po(er s!pply. 2he 6P& receiver decodes the timin si nals %rom the MvisibleM satellites (%o!r or more) and) havin calc!lated their distances) comp!tes its o(n latit!de) lon it!de) elevation) and time. 2his is a contin!o!s process and enerally the position is !pdated on a second:by:second basis) o!tp!t to the receiver display device and) i% the receiver display device and) i% the receiver provides data capt!re capabilities) stored by the receiver:lo in !nit.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

8i !re3.@ 6P& *eceiver

5ata receiverBlo//in/ unit


'ata collector is handheld comp!ter r!nnin data collection so%t(are. 2he lo the 6P& receiver. in so%t(are controls

8i !re3.0 'ata receiver:lo

in !nit

!ntenna

8i !re3.$ "ntenna "ntenna is !sed to capt!re the si nals comin %rom the satellites to the receiver. " 6lobal Positionin &ystem (6P&) !nit is a device that helps someone locate) navi ate) or track somethin . 8or the receiver o% the !nit to %!nction at its best) it needs a 6P& antenna. 2he -/ satellites that transmit to 6P& systems) ive a code that is p!lled o!t by the 6P& antenna.

'.4 2ips in 7indin/ the 3est =,S 9eceiver &or LECO 1. ;t sho!ld be ability to mobile conveniently as a individ!al !nit to %ield (ork.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering -. "cc!racy o% the overall system as in LECO the readin s are needed to be acc!rate to a certain level to do the po(er %lo( analysis. 3. &ince the LECO !ses post:processed receivin the system sho!ld %acilitate post:processin . /. Bireless connectivity is better %or lack o% %acility to reach to the poleItrans%ormer. @. &i nal loss sho!ld be minimi3ed to et reliable service. 2hat is (hy sho!ld be !sed a system that contin!o!sly monitors several satellites at a time 0. 6P& &o%t(are sho!ld be %acilitate in pro rammin ne( data dictionaries to lo the data relevant to LECO+s readin s. $. '!rability is the most important d!e to this !nit is more e>pensive. 8. ;t sho!ld be (ater proo% and shock proo% or not. 2emperat!re limits %or better %!nctionin 9. &ho!ld be concerned abo!t ho( lon 6P& receiverMs act!al po(er s!pply to be last.

'.10 ,ole Num6erin/ '.10.1 E<istin/ *ethod

"dvanta es
2he method !sed to identi%y the poles ive a speci%ied name %or each o% the assets o% the net(ork. &ince there is a !ni7!e name %or each asset) it is easy %or mappin p!rposes.

5isadvanta/es 2he e>istin method is so comple>. 2here is no any prNcised method %or namin . 2he hi her the n!mber o% ne(ly installed poles) the more the comple>ity. &ometimes yo! may con%!se as to ho( to distin !ish the side o% the road as yo! take the readin s %rom the di%%erent sides o% the road.

'.10.$ Su//estions &or a ne" pole Num6erin/ system

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 1) " combination o% the e>istin pole n!mberin system and a system o% identi%yin the poles accordin to the distance %rom a standard point (ill be (orth to consider. ;n this system a pole n!mber (ill look like thisO ?O.P1.&-.8-.'.# ?O:branch code) Pi:primary station code) &:&econdary s!bstation code) 8: %eeder code) ':distance to recent km %rom the &) #:n!mber o% the pole in the %eeder.

-) Fse the serial n!mber and the bar code speci%ied %or a pole ,ar code can be assi ned a se7!ence n!mber accordin to the load %la(. ;% there is a ne( installation the se7!ence m!st be !pdated.

'.11 #hat messes up the =,S si/nalC &elective "vailability(&I")

&" is an intentionally imposed de radation in the acc!racy o% civilian 6P& by the F.&. 'epartment o% 'e%ense. Fnder &") 6P& acc!racy can be de raded to a ma>im!m o% 111 meters (3-8 %eet). &atellite eometry

;n simple terms) satellite eometry re%ers to (here the satellites are located relative to each other (%rom the perspective o% the 6P& receiver).

&atellite orbits

'!e to the ravitational %orces) sli ht shi%ts o% the orbits happen tho! h the satellites are positioned in precise ob9ects res!ltin errors in the readin s.

4!ltipath e%%ect

&imply p!t) m!ltipath is the res!lt o% a radio si nal bein re%lected o%% an ob9ect.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering propa ation delay o% si nal

propa ation delay is the Mslo(in do(nM o% the 6P& si nal as it passes thro! h EarthMs ionosphere and troposphere. ;n space) radio si nals travel at the speed o% li ht) b!t they are si ni%icantly slo(er once they enter o!r atmosphere. Clock inacc!racies and ro!ndin errors.

'espite the synchroni3ation o% the receiver clock (ith satellite time) still the remainin inacc!racy makes an error o% the res!lts.

2rian !lation

;n %act) the 6P& receiver may be !nable to provide a position readin P BhyQ ,eca!se all the distance meas!rements are %rom the same eneral direction. 2his means trian !lation is poor.

'.1$ %o" =,S &ace to 7uture Challen/es #o(adays 6P& is !sed to track the tra%%ic o% the roads.

&ome o% the ne(er cars are e7!ipped (ith 6P& technolo y so sophisticated that it acts like an airplane ,lack ,o>. 2his techni7!e is still not in eneral !se d!e to the hi h e>pendit!re. 4obiles phones (ill be more sec!re beca!se they are o!t%itted (ith 6P& trackin devices. ;t (ill be possible to !se mobile comm!nication and 6P& technolo y to create a ne( type o% mobile phone. ,!t there are developments in pro ress ri ht no( that is seemed strictly science %iction material a %e( years a o and still !nder development. 6P& (ill !ndo!btedly play an important role in Earth ravity %ield determination in the comin years. Planetary ravity models (ill depend on the availability o% satellites %rom (hich trackin data may be obtained.

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Chapter 4 ).0 5istri6ution Control Centre


).1 Introduction 2he main responsibility o% the distrib!tion control centre is control and monitor the (hole distrib!tion system to render a reliable service to its c!stomers (ho seek in%ormation and assistance in (hole day. 'CC sta%% consists o% Control En ineer) chie% controller and other controllers. ).$ 5CC 9esponsi6ilities ;. 'irectin all 5. s(itchin operations ;;. *emote operation o% s(itch ear and ac7!isition o% data ;;;. 4akin arran ements %or alternative s!pplies d!rin s!pply %ail!res and planned o!ta es

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering ;.. ;ss!e and cancellation o% Gpermit to (orkH in accordance (ith the appropriate sa%ety r!les and iss!e and cancellation o% Glimitation o% accessH (here necessary. .. "cceptin and disseminatin operational in%ormation in the %orm o% daily and monthly reports .;. "naly3in all the %ail!res in the system and obtainin %!rther in%ormation %rom other departments i% necessary. .;;. "ssist c!stomers (ho seek assistance .;;;. Plannin )sched!lin ) advertisin thro! h media o% planned interr!ptions ;R. Coordinatin (ith CE, d!rin so!rce s!pply o!ta es and other operational matters

).' Situations under "hich s"itchin/ operations has to 6e done ;. Planned (ork ;;. ;solatin %a!lt sections o% the lineIe7!ipment ;;;. Fr ent repair (ork ;.. "rran in alternative s!pply d!rin s!pply %ail!res and planned (ork .. Commissionin o% ne( lines and e7!ipment .;. &hi%tin o% #IO points .;;. Emer encies (hich threaten li%e or e7!ipment .;;;. 8or re7!ests made by a third party ).) ,lanned Interruptions &!pply interr!ptions that (ere taken (ith the noti%ication to the cons!mers is called as Gplanned interr!ptionsH. "ll planed (ork (ill be done accordin to a monthly pre: sched!led pro ramme. ).).1 7actors that should 6e considered in plannin/ interruptions 1. "rran in interr!ptions so that they overlap (ith CE, planned interr!ptions -. ;% t(o depots re7!est same section to be isolated in t(o days) arran e them to a one day 3. 2akin other necessary actions to minimi3e o!ta es

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering /. 4ake s!re that no cons!mers is interr!pted more than 0 days per month @. "dvertise interr!ptions in ne(spapers and LECO (eb site 0. ;% they are not advertised properly) rep!blish them. i% it is impossible cancel all the interr!ptions $. ;n%orm b!lk cons!mers individ!ally in (ritten %orm ).).$ ,rocedure o& ,lanned Interruption C&& re7!est %or isolation o% 5. lines ,E re7!est %or isolation o% 5. lines CE, re7!est %or isolation o% 5. lines

,E send the re7!est to the control centre CE approved or denied the re7!est

CE approved or deniedQ KE&

#O

CE chan e the dates o% isolation

CE ret!rn the re7!est as accepted to C&&I,E

'CC p!t !p a paper advertisement re ardin the po(er int!rr!ption

'CC send letters to the b!lk cons!mers abo!t int!rr!ption

'CC send s(itchin instr!ction to C&&I,E

"!thori3ed person make a call to 'CC to veri%y the approval %or the isolation

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CE approved or deniedQ KE&

#O CE chan e the date o% isolation

;n:char e o% line an receives and si n %or a (ritten clearance re ardin the key to the lock o!t bo> and all keys !sed %or isolation

;n:char e describe to all men to be en a ed on the (ork abo!t the area they may (ork "ll (orkers si n the permission to (ork %orm a%ter clearin all the do!bts they have &(itch ears are operated to provide isolation to the maintain area and lock the operatin mechanism. ?eys sho!ld be kept in the lock o!t bo>

"ta is han ed in a visible position closed to the e7!ipment marked G'o not operate) men at (orkH

2hree phases are solidly bo!nded to ether and earthed at visible places

Cond!ctors sho!ld be proved to be de:ener i3ed by !sin a live: line indicator

Cond!ctors are inspected to ens!re be earthed correctly by the a!thori3ed person at all ends and ive the permission to (ork on

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,e%ore climbin on poles each lineman si n the sheet

KE& ;% any accident is occ!rredQ Postpone the (ork

#O Carry o!t and complete the maintenance

"%ter climbin do(n) each line man si n the above sheet

*emove the temporary earth connections

"!thori3ed person sho!ld ens!re that all the earth connections are removed and (ork is completed

"!thori3ed person make a call %rom 'CC to veri%y the reconnection

#O CE approved or deniedQ Faculty of Engineering-University of Ruhuna 'elay and reconnection

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KE&

*econnection is done sa%ely

).+ 7aults &!pply interr!ptions occ!rred accidentally !npredictably are called %a!lts. 2here%ore these are any interr!ptions taken (itho!t any noti%ications to cons!mers are called %a!lts.'CC controller (ill be the key person d!rin the %a!lty condition as he has an overall kno(led e o% the system. 5e sho!ld initiate the restoration proced!re. ).- Communication in 5CC in LECO 'CC comm!nication system (ill comprise o% radio and telephone. 2hese are e>cl!sively %or 'CC (ork. 2elephone and radio conversation (ill be recorded %or the p!rpose o% playin back to reveal the relevant %acts d!rin investi ation in to the events o% dan ero!s occ!rrences.

).. 5ata Entry ,rocess o& LECO ;. LO= Entry: ;t is maintained in the 'CC to record events that take place (ith re ard to the LECO po(er system. "ll the s(itchin operations) breakdo(ns) o!ta es) interr!ptionsSetc are entered in a lo book ;;. Computer data Entry: 2his incl!des above mentioned data and daily service calls ;;;. *I*IC 6oard: 2his board represents all Primary s!bstations) %eeders) 11 k. lines) and s(itches (L,&) L,C) "!tomatic reclosers) &ectionali3es).4;4;C dia ram represents the entire distrib!tion net(ork in %ield as it is. 2his is al(ays !pdated by controllers accordin to the s(itchin operations done. 2his helps to sa%ety o% (orkers in the %ield (hen operations are carried o!t. received by each depot.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 'i%%erent b!ttons in di%%erent colors are !sed to indicate s(itches and they may be in di%%erent colors accordin to the state. Lines *ed :,ack bones (1@1 mm- ""C) 6reen : ,ack bones) interconnectors) sp!rs (111 mm- ""C) Kello(: &p!rs (01 mm- ""C) S"itch positions *ed:#ormally Closed Kello(:#ormally Open Bhite:#IC b!t temporarily Open *ed (ith (hite strip:#IO b!t temporarily closed

).1 =raphical 9epresentation o& s"itchin/ instructions

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8i !re/.1 4imic 'ia ram

).4 9eports produced 6y 5CC 'aily *eport 'aily report consist o% all the interr!ptions (planned and %ail!res) accordin to the relevant cate ory 4onthly *eports. Electricity s!pply o!ta e report

2his report consists o% per%ormance meas!rement indices) no. o% o!ta es) no. o% cons!mer hrs) and no. o% cons!mer interr!ptions) !nder separate branches and as a total val!e. Cons!mer service calls report 2his report consists o% no .o% service calls) avera e restoration time per call in hrs) as a total val!e) branch (ise) and C&C (ise.

).10 System per&ormance Indices

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering ,elo( per%ormance indices are calc!lated %or each branch = also %or the (hole company monthly. S!I5ID System !vera/e Interruption 5uration Inde< "vera e total d!ration o% interr!ption o% s!pply that a cons!mer e>perience in the period) &";';Ts!m o% Uno. o% interr!pted cons!mersVinterr!ption d!rationWItotal no. o% cons!mers. S!I7ID System !vera/e Interruption 7re:uency Inde< "vera e n!mber o% interr!ption o% s!pply that a cons!mer e>perience in the period) &";8;Ts!m o% Uno. o% interr!pted cons!mersWItotal no. o% cons!mers C!I5ID Customer !vera/e Interruption 5uration Inde< "vera e d!ration o% an interr!ption o% s!pply %or cons!mers) (ho e>perienced an interr!ption o% s!pply in the period) C";';Ts!m o% Uinterr!pted cons!mersVinterr!ption d!rationWIs!m o% Uinterr!pted cons!mersW *!I7ID *omentary !vera/e Interruption 7re:uency Inde< :"vera e n!mber o% momentary interr!ptions o% s!pply that a cons!mer e>perience in the period.

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Chapter 5 +.0 LECO distri6ution system


+.1 Introduction LECO+s main responsibility is to constr!ct and maintain the 'istrib!tion #et(ork. &o it is mostly concern abo!t distrib!tion system. LECO distrib!tion system mainly consists o% Primary s!bstation (ith a ener y meter(P&&) 11 k. net(ork 'istrib!tion 2I8 L. net(ork &ervice connection (ith reven!e meter &(itch ear E7!ipment

8ollo(in %i !re sho(s ho( they are interconnected.


33/11 kV PSS CEB Meter Switches 11kV/400V TF 11kV Conductors Distri ution TF Meter FDS Ser"ice wire LV Conductors Consu#er !e"enue Meter

8i !re@.1 LECO distrib!tion system +.$ ,rimary Su6station 2he p!rpose o% a primary s!bstation is step do(n 33 k. to 11 k.. 2hese are o(ned and maintained by CE,. "ccordin to the load re7!ired there are trans%ormers (ith di%%erent capacities. 2hey (ill be as 1V@4.") -V@ 4.") -V11 4.". 2he t(o meters) %or meas!rin ma>im!m demand (k.") and ener y (kBh) p!rchased by LECO are o(ned by CE,. On the -1 th o% each month the meter readin s are taken

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering (ith the participation o% both parties. LECO p!rchases ener y (ith the rates o% *s.0.91IkBh and *s.--1Ik.". +.$.1 #hy 11 k( &or ,rimary Su6station 5eavy investment i% it is more than 11 k. &(itch ear e7!ipment li hter Compact Cost e%%ective(cost o% pin ins!lators are less 3./ times than 33 k.) li htenin arrester 10 times less) distrib!tion 28 1.-/:1.33 times less ) Less sa%ety clearances &tocks o% materials is easy and cheap

+.' 11 k( Line E L( Net"ork

5. net(ork consist o% mainly Cond!ctors) ;ns!lators) Poles and 6!y (ires.


+.'.1 Conductor and Ca6le 5ata I. Over %ead Conductors B(!erial 3undle conductorB %( !3C) and 3are Conductors #ominal si3e mm2ype &trandin #o.Imm 4a>im!m c!rrent ratin I" 2able@.1 11k. Cond!ctor 'ata 01 111 ""C ""C $I3./1 $I/.39 -10 -$9 1@1 ""C 19I3.-@ 3@-

2able@.- 33k. Cond!ctor 'ata(#ot !sed in LECO ) #ominal si3e mm-@1 1$@ 2ype ""C "C&* &trandin #o.Imm 19I/.-(31E$)I-.$9 4a>im!m c!rrent ratin I" /$$ 391 2able@.3 11k. Cable 'ata Cond!ctor &trandin #o.Imm Copper "l!min!m "l!min!m "l!min!m 01I-.8@ 3$I-.@19I-.1/ $I-.1/

&i3e Cores 1V311 3V18@ 3V$1 3V-@

Condition "mps @/@ 33/ 193 11-

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 2able@./ Lo( .olta e Cond!ctor 'ata (",C) $1E#@1 $1E10E#@1 @1E#3@ 19I-.1/ -13 19I-.1/ -13I01 19I1.$8 10-

#ominal si3e mm&trandin #o.Imm 4a>im!m c!rrent ratin I"

#ominal si3e mm2ype &trandin #o.Imm 4a>im!m c!rrent ratin I"

1@1 ""C 19I3.-

2able@.@ &ervice Cond!ctor 'ata -V11 -V10 /V10 ""C $I1.3@ 1@ &in le phase ""C $I1.$ 31 &in le phase ""C $I1.$ 312hree phase

/V-@ ""C $I-.-1 03 2hree phase

II.

Ander =round Ca6le F Cross Link ,oly Ethylene(GL,E)


Cond!ctor "l!mini!m -@ mm$1 mm18@ mm4a>im!m c!rrent ratin (") 11193 33/

2able@.0 C!rrent ratin s o% !nder ro!nd cables +.'.$ ,oles LECO !ses pre:stressed concrete type poles and *ein%orced concrete poles consistin o% a %rame o% steel bars s!itably held to ether and s!rro!nded by hi h rade dense concrete Poles are b!ried to a depth o% one si>th o% pole hei ht as in the %ollo(in %i !re.. 2he selected len ths are based on the re7!ired above ro!nd clearance %or the volta e level) cond!ctor sa ) vertical circ!it clearances (here applicable and b!ried depth. .

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8i !re@.3 *C pole

;ns!lator

&

$round Le"e% &/'

8i !re@.- Pre stressed concrete pole Poles are cate ori3ed into three types based on the top loads and they are applied accordin ly. $.0m poles are !sed %or service poles. 2able@.$ Concrete Poles P!rpose L. service L. only L.E5. L.E-5.

Pole Len th 8 9 11 13

2op Loads(dan) 3@1 -11)3@1)@11 -11)3@1)@11)8@1)1-11 3@1)@11)8@1)1-11

+.'.' S"itch/ear E:uipment &(itch ear covers a (ide ran e o% e7!ipment concerned (ith s(itchin and interr!ptin c!rrent. ;t incl!des s(itches) %!ses) circ!it breakers) relays and other e7!ipment. .2hey are important applications in the distrib!tion system (hen considerin h!man and system sa%ety and also the reliability o% s!pply. ;n LECO L,&+s) L,C+s and L. %!ses are !sed (idely. Essential &eatures o& s"itch/ear Complete reliability "bsol!tely certain discrimination <!ick operation Provision %or man!al control Provision %or instr!ments

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+.'.'.1 Load 3reak S"itches Load break s(itches are available in the main p!rpose o% providin alternative s!pplies. 8i !re@./ 4an!ally Operated Load ,reak &(itch

2hese are available in t(o cate ories as man!al and remote controllable s(itches. 4an!al s(itches have to be operated by rotatin the lever in hori3ontal plane or vertical plane accordin to the constr!ction type. ;n man!al s(itches breakin occ!rs in the air (here as in remote s(itches the breakin occ!rs inside as chambers. +.'.'.$ Load 3reak Cutouts Load break c!to!ts are installed in sp!rs. "ll these are man!ally operated and have a solid %!se link.

8i !re@.@ Constr!ction o% a load break c!to!t +.'.'.' Lo" (olta/e pole mounted %9C 7uses 2hese are s!pplied in the %eeder bo>es %or the three phases %or overload = short circ!it protection o% lo( volta e distrib!tion circ!its. 8!ses may be chan ed and the s(itches operated %rom the ro!nd !sin an operatin rod.

+.) E:uipments used in CSC storesB,itakotte

+.).1 Lo" (olta/e !rial 3undle Conductors 2hese are the ins!lated "l!mini!m cond!ctors (ith vario!s diameter si3es.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering ;n these cond!ctors) phases are identi%ied by the strips marked there. 2he ne!tral cond!ctor is smaller and t(isted to s!spense the b!ndle to the pole.&ome o% them very small street lamp cond!ctor is there.2his constr!ction is !sed to small an le assembly.

Pole bracket &tainless steel strap #e!tral cond!ctor 3 phases cond!ctor 8i !re @.0 ",C arran ement

'ead End Clamps are !sed to constr!ction o% lar e an le assembly.

Pole bracket 'ead End Clamp

8i !re @.$ Fse o% 'ead End Clamp 'ead End "ssembly is !sed %or the end o% the b!ndle cond!ctors.2he end part o% the cond!ctor sho!ld be closed (ith 2erminal Caps and covered (ith P.C t!be to prevent (ater oes to inside.2hen ne!tral (ire sho!ld be earthed. 2erminal Cap 'ead End Clamp

+.).$ Lo" (olta/e 3are Conductor arran/ement

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering ' bracket

Connectors #e!tral cond!ctor +.).' =uys

,are Cond!ctors

6!ys are !sed to (ithstand the cond!ctors carryin pole d!e to !n%avorable soil condition or (hen !ne7!al res!ltant %orce is s!b9ected to top o% the pole. LECO !ses 3 standard si3es o% !y (ires as belo(.
Li ht '!ty 4edi!m '!ty 5eavy '!ty

"ccordin to the constr!ction !ys are %!rther classi%ied into 3 types. 2hey are
'o(n !y 8lyin !y &tr!t pole.

&tr!t Pole

5o"n /uy

&lyin/ /uy

8i !re@.8 2ypes o% 6!ys

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 6!y or &train ins!lators are made o% porcelain. ;t+s p!rpose is to prevent c!rrent %lo( thro! h 6!y (ire to do(n in s!r e condition or short circ!ited condition. 8i !re@.9 2op vie( o% 6!y ins!lator

8i !re@.11 Components %or 6!yin arran ement

"!tomatic 'ead End +.).) Insulators

6!y (ire 2himble

"nchor &cre(

2he s!ccess%!l operation o% an overhead line depends to a considerable e>tent !pon the proper selection o% ins!lators.2o s!pport line cond!ctors on the poles or to(ers and prevent c!rrent %lo( thro! h ins!lator to earth are main p!rposes o% ins!lators.4ost commonly !sed ins!lator types are) Pin 2ype &!spension 2ype &train 2ype &hackle 2ype &train type ins!lators are mostly !sed in 33k. or above (5.) net(ork. &hackle type ins!lator are %re7!ently !sed in lo( volta e net(ork in earlydays.,!t no( ",C arran ement is !sed instead o% that. 2he most commonly !sed material %or ins!lators is Xporcelain+)b!t X lass+)+steatite+)etc. are rarely !sed. Pin ins!lator: .olta e !p to 33k. and 33k. 9!mper connection Faculty of Engineering-University of Ruhuna

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&train ins!lator: .olta e belo( 11k. 8! !re@.11 2ypes o% ;ns!lators

&hackle ins!lator:lo( volta e bare cond!ctors &!spension ins!lator: above 33k. +.).+ Connectors Connectors are !sed to 9oin 11k. bare cond!ctors or /11. "rial ,!ndle Cond!ctors(",C). Compression connectors(5 type) ) tension connectors ) 2:o%% connectors and ins!lated tension connectors are mostly !sed in constr!ction in LECO.

5 type connector: Fsed in 11k. bare cond!ctors. 8i !re @.1- 2ypes o% Connectors ;ns!lated tension connectors: Fsed in ",C cables.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 2ension connectors

2:o%% connectors:!sed %or ",C

?,re&ormed@ are !sed to connect ,are cond!ctor and ins!lator to ether. 2hen cond!ctor is not dama ed and very easy (ay connection. 2ie pad is !sed to protect %rom ca!se to be dama ed to the ins!lator.

2ie pad

8i !re@.13 Pre%ormed Connectors +.+ ,rocedure o& selection o& e:uipment &2"*2

Pre%ormed

Locate pole positions) meas!re an le o% deviation

Calc!late e7!ivalent span &elect pole top constr!ction

"ssess sa = pole hei ht

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#O

;s pole !yed Q

KE&

Fn !yed pole

6!yed pole

&elect pole class

&elect pole class = !y

&elect pole = !y %o!ndation &elect pole

&elect ins!lator &elect cross arms

8;#;&5

+.- !uto 9ecloser " *ecloser is a circ!it breaker that opens on short circ!it and a!tomatically recl!ses a%ter a brie% time delay. 2he delay may ran e %rom a %raction o% a second to several second. 2he openIclose se7!ence may be repeated t(o or three times) dependin on 2he internal control settin o% the recloser. ;% the short circ!it does not clear itsel% a%ter t(o or three attempts to recl!se the line) the recloser opens the circ!it permanently. " repair cre( m!st then locate the %a!lt )remove it) and reset the recloser.

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8i !re@.1/ "!to *ecloser +.. Sectionali0er Bhen a main %eeder is protected by several %!ses spotted over the len th o% the line) it is o%ten di%%ic!lt to obtain satis%actory coordination bet(een them) based on %!se blo(in time alone. Fnder these circ!mstances) (e resort to sectionali3ers. " sectionali3er is a special circ!it breaker that trips dependin on the n!mber o% time s a recloser has tripped %!rther !p the line. ;n other (ords) a sectionali3er (orks accordin to the Ginstr!ctionsH o% a recloser.

,!shin Operator cabinet

8i !re@.1/ &ectionali3er

+...1 9ecloser;Sectionali0er protective system

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8i !re@.1@ *ecloserI&ectionali3er protective system 8or e>ample accordin to above %i !re i% a %a!lt occ!r at the point sho(n the recloser (ill a!tomatically open and recl!se the circ!it) accordin to the predetermined pro ram. " recorder inside the sectionali3er co!nts the n!mber o% time the recloser has tripped and) 9!st be%ore it trips %or the last time) the sectionali3er itsel% trips b!t permanently. ;t deprives c!stomers C and ' o% po(er b!t it also isolates the %a!lt. Conse7!ently) (hen the recloser closes %or the last time) it (ill stay closed and c!stomers " and , (ill contin!e to receive service. Fnlike recloser. &ectionali3er is not desi ned to interr!pt line c!rrents. 2here%ore it is a no load operatin device.

Chapter 6 -.0 Ener/y *eters


-.1 Introduction "t LECO ener y meters are properly maintained and iven hi her consideration as they meas!re ener y cons!mption o% cons!mers) (hich is the income o% LECO. "s the total income o% LECO depends on the acc!racy o% meters they %ollo( proper and on time maintenance) repairs o% meters) especially (hich are %o!nd dama ed) or ille ally accessed.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 8ollo(in %!nctions are done by LECO to keep ener y meters so that they are

properly (orkin . 1) 2estin and calibration o% ne( meters be%ore installin -) 2estin and recalibration o% old and %a!lty meters *epairin %a!lty meters 3) 2estin installed b!lk s!pply meters /) &!dden ;nspection on ille al ad9!stments o% meters. 2here are t(o types o% ener y meters accordin to the (orkin principle. ;nd!ction type meters 'i ital meters -.$ Induction type ener/y *eters(k#h meters) -.$.1 *ain components o& induction type meters Current coil ;t is made o% laminated &ilicon steel. &eries connected c!rrent coil is !sed to prod!ce an alternatin %l!> (hich crosses the al!min!m disk. ,ressure ((olta/e) coil .olta e coil is connected in parallel (ith the load. &!pply volta e is directly applied to this coil to prod!ce an alternatin %l!>. 3reakin/ ma/net 2his is a permanent ma net o% the t(o bipolar type (ith red!cin dema neti3ation e%%ect and heavy c!rrent s!r es. " disk is %reely rotated bet(een t(o dipolar ma nets. &o break ma net is !sed to control the speed o% the disk. "nd it is ad9!sted in %!ll load test. 9otatin/ !luminum disc Li ht (ei ht al!min!m disk is rotated by means o% interaction o% %l!>es and eddy c!rrent prod!ced by breakin black visible mark on it. *echanical re/ister ma net and c!rrentIpotential elements respectively to s!pport co (heels o% re ister. ;t consists o% anti:creep holes and

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 4ostly !sed re ister type is %ive di its (itho!t decimal type (ith li ht (ei ht and made to rotate smoothly. "nd si> di its type) !nidirectional) inclined) etc. are there. ;t indicates the n!mber o% rotated t!rns as per cons!med ener y. 3earin/ Ae(el type or ma netic %loatin type bearin s are !sed. 2he rotatin disk is mo!nted on the bearin .

Other components o& Ener/y meter 4eter cover 2erminal cover 4eter base 2erminal block made o% poly carbonate resin

2erminals: solid brass #ame plate:"l!min!m 4otor %rame:p!nched steel Lo( loadI%!ll load ad9!stable scre(: 8erro ma netic material

8rame C!rrent coil 'isk Press!re coil

8i !re0.1 Component o% 4eter

-.' Operation o& the #atthourmeter Load c!rrent in c!rrent coil prod!ces an alternatin %l!> is Yc Bhich crosses the al!min!m disc incl!din in it a volta e and conse7!ently eddy c!rrents ;% "nd also potential coil prod!ces an alternatin %l!> is Yp

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering Bhich intercepts c!rrent ;% 2he disk is there%ore s!b9ected to a %orce and the res!ltant tor7!e ca!ses it to rotate. 2or7!e on the disk ( YcV Yp ( .;cosY Y is the phase an le bet(een Yc and Yp i.e. phase an le bet(een c!rrent and volta e. Bhen the disc is rotatin at steady speed) "n !lar velocity ( 2or7!e ( .;cosY T active po(er delivered to the load 2here%ore) !n/ular rotation o& the disc (num6er o& turns) Z Ener/y supplied to the load

"s the disc moves bet(een the poles o% permanent ma net eddy c!rrents is ind!ced in the disc. 2he interaction o% the %l!> %rom the permanent ma net and these eddy c!rrent prod!ces a breakin tor7!e (hose val!e is proportional to the speed o% the disc.
-.) *ain cate/ories o& induction type meters &in le phase kBh meters 2hree phase kBh meters 2hree phase k." meters

-.).1 Sin/le phase k#h meters C!rrent coil

.olta e coil Line

Load

8i !re0.- Connection dia ram o% a sin le phase kBh meter

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 6enerally these ener y meters are !sed %or domestic cons!mers since the load is comparatively lo(. 2hese are available as @(1@) ") @(31) ") 11(31) ") 11(/1) ". 2hese meters are -31v) @1 53 and have meter constant 1-11 revIkBh or closer val!e.

-.).$ 2hree phase k#h meters 2he principle o% three phase kBh meters is the same as in the sin le phase meter. 2he constr!ction di%%ers as they have three press!re coils and three c!rrent coils %or the three phases. 2he meter may be constr!cted !sin one disk or t(o disks. #ormally the rated val!es are /1@ .) @1 53) -1(01) ") $@ revIkBh or 81 revIkBh

8i !re0.3 Circ!it connection o% 3 phase meter

-.).' k(! meters(*a<imum 5emand Indicator) 2his k." meter ives an acc!rate readin o% 4a>im!m demand over the choosen inte ration period. k." meters meas!re the ma>im!m demand o% the cons!mer. 2he needle indicates the hi hest peak load since the meter (as last read.. 2here are t(o indicators in k." meter. 8i !re0./ 4';

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering One indicator al"ays indicates the ma<imum demand "hile the other acts as a counter "hich pushes the &irst indicator to the reported ma<imum demand each 1+ minutes time. "t the be innin o% each 1@ min!tes period the short indicator (hich acts as the driver dra s the lon indicator to the relevant val!e and stops there. "s the indicator doesn+t move anti clock(ise) tho! h the demand %alls (ithin the ne>t 1@ min!tes) the lon indicator+s position remains same. 5ence the ma>im!m demand o% the month is indicated at the end o% each month. "%ter takin the monthly readin the indicators are reset to 3ero position. -.+ 9epairin/ o& induction type meters ,e%ore testin %or the acc!racy o% !sed meters the components o% them are repaired. 2here they are checked %or the belo( de%ects. 'isc problem *e ister problem Coil terminal (as dama ed '!st inside the meter *!st inside the meter &cre(s not properly connected

;% there is any o% above mentioned de%ects) the re7!ired components may be repaired or replaced by ne( ones. ,e%ore doin soO all the meters are properly cleaned so that they do not contain d!st inside. -.- 2estin/ o& induction type meters. *epaired meters and samples o% ne(ly bo! ht meters are tested %or acc!racy in the LECO calibration labs.11 meters can be %i>ed to one bench at one time (hereas -1 meters can be %i>ed to the other. 4eters (ith same meter constant and same c!rrent ran e (e. . @(31) " and 1-11 revIkBh) sho!ld be connected to one bench at a time. "nd also test links o% each meter sho!ld be open and e>actly -31 . is s!pplied to each press!re coil. "%ter that base c!rrent is iven to all meters %or 1@ min!tes to take them to normal operatin conditions. -.. 2estin/ o& sin/le phase k#h meters

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 8ollo(in tests are done %or the meters to check the acc!racy o% them. ;% the error percenta e e>ceeds the permissible levels re7!ired correction o% ad9!stments are done. 8or achieve that p!rpose !sed test bench in meter test lab.

8i !re0.@ 4eter 2est ,ench 8ollo(in tests are done to check (eather e7!ipment is operate properly or not) 4a>im!m c!rrent test 8!ll load test Lo( load test Po(er %actor test Creep test 'ial test

-...1 2estin/ ,rocedure o& induction meter Birin the meter correctly to the 2est bench

?eep to r!n ro! hly to reach its normal volta e

&et the po(er so!rce to relevant val!e

&et the rotor+s 3ero division to the marker on the name plate

2est @D ;b at P8T1 111D ;b at P8T1 111D ;b at P8T1.@ la ;ma> at P8T1 @1

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Calc!late the error

KE& 'ial test

#O ;% error is (ithin limitsQ *et!rn to acc!racy test a%ter calibration

Creep test (#o load test)

Lo" Load 2est (IH0.0+I6I po"er &actor H 1 &or 1 turns) "%ter applyin @D o% base c!rrent and volta e) error is calc!lated by means o% co!ntin n!mber o% division has been %or(arded %rom 3ero mark o% the disk. 2hen lo( load ad9!stment is done to correct the error. "d9!stable scre( is located on yoke o% the potential core. Bhen scre( ad9!st) speed o% the disk is chan ed d!e to e%%ect o% the potential core is chan ed. "llo(able error percenta e limit is )3.@ 7ull Load 2est (IH I6 I po"er &actor H 1 &or + turns) ;n here load c!rrent is e7!al to base c!rrent as per name plate o% the meter. "bove proced!re is %ollo(ed. Error is eliminated by ad9!stin the break ma net located close to the disk. "llo(able error percenta e limit is )-.@ 2est &or ,o"er 7actor (IH I6I po"er &actor H 0.+) ;n here load c!rrent is e7!al to base c!rrent as per name plate o% the meter. " c!rrent e7!als to base c!rrent and po(er %actor e7!als to hal% is s!pplied. 2his error is eliminated by !sin ind!ctive load ad9!stment meas!res. Chan e the resistance val!e in here !sin ad9!stin scre( to chan e the speed o% the disc. 2his is located at the center o% the c!rrent core. "llo(able error percenta e limit is

)3.1

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering *esistor strip "d9!stin scre(

C!rrent Coil 8i !re0.0 ;nd!ctive Load "d9!stment *a<imum Current 2est (I H Ima<I po"er &actor H 1 &or 10 turns) ;n this case ma>im!m c!rrent is applied to the meter (ith ma>im!m po(er %actor. 2his checks (hether the disc is rotatin properly at ma>im!m c!rrent is applied. #ot ad9!stment meas!res are applied. "llo(able error percenta e limit is )-.@

Creep 2est ;n this test c!rrent is not applied. ,!t applied volta e is 111D o% nominal volta e. ;n here check (eather disk is rotated %!rther (itho!t load. ;n practically anti creep holes are on disk. 2hen %l!> oes thro! h the holes. "nd %l!> on the disk is red!ced and as a res!lt o% that disk is not rotated %!rther (itho!t load. 5ial 2est ;n this test the acc!racy o% the re ister is checked. "ccordin to the meter constant (e. .1-@1revIkBh) co!nted (eather re ister sho(s 1kBh a%ter rotatin relevant revol!tions. -.1 Error Calculation 2he test bench is e7!ipped in a manner that (e can ad9!st the n!mber o% p!lses. 2o per%orm a relevant test the n!mber o% disk rotations %or (hich the s!pply is iven is decided. 8or the iven c!rrent and volta e the relevant n!mber o% p!lses is calc!lated. 2hen it is checked (hether the disk stops at the correct position (hen the calc!lated n!mber o% p!lses is reached. ;% not error percenta e is man!ally calc!lated. 2he error is calc!lated (ith the %orm!la iven belo( on the basis o% the calc!lated nominal p!lses co!nt compared (ith the act!al p!lse co!nt.

Error T (Pc:Pi)IPi V111D

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering PcTcalc!lated nominal p!lse co!nt PiT act!al n!mber o% p!lses as co!nted Calc!lation o% nominal p!lse co!nt PcT *#I? *Tp!lsesIkBh (meter constant table) #Tpre selected n!mber o% revol!tion ?T2est meter constant revsIkBh ;% the error e>ceed above mentioned limits chan e the settin o% the ad9!stments and repeat test. ;% error cannot be bro! ht (ithin allo(able limits meter has to be replaced. -.4 !ccuracy Classes &or Induction 2ype *eters 4ost national standards and the ;EC recommendations classi%y 8erraris type active ener y meters as %ollo(s. Class -(Lo( acc!racy) : ho!seholds and commerce Class 1(4edi!m acc!racy): ind!stry and medi!m volta e distrib!tion centres Class 1.@(5i h acc!racy) : hi h volta e ind!strial cons!mers and hi h volta e distrib!tion centres

-.10 5i/ital *eters Bith modern technolo y LECO !ses di ital meters instead o% ind!ction type meters. Electronic meters are ood in acc!racy compared to ind!ction type meters. Fs!ally they can provide more %eat!res than ind!ction meters s!ch as kBh) k.") and can provide in%ormation abo!t the loadin pattern o% the cons!mer. #o(adays this type o% meters mostly !sed %or b!lk cons!mers. 2hey are a!tomatically reset the day o% meter readin . 2his type o% meters also has the capability o% storin data related to a n!mber o% past months. 2hey have a port to (hich a modem can be connected and readin s can be taken remotely. 2hey are very sensitive to hi h volta e s!r es and can easily et dama ed. 2hey cannot be repaired d!e to very sensitive electronic devices are there. 2hat is the main disadvanta es.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering ,attery receptacle

Li7!id Crystal 'isplay

Optical Port

8i !re0.$ 'i ital 4eter

Electronic meters can measureI storeI and display &ollo"in/ data &erial n!mber C!rrent time C!rrent date Phase an les o% each phase *4& volta es o% each phase *4& c!rrent o% each phase Po(er %actors o% each phase C2 ratio ,illin months "ll the above mentioned parameters o% previo!s months. reset time = date o% previo!s

-.11 2ari&&
2he rate at electrical ener y is s!pplied to the cons!mers is kno(n as G2ari%%H. 2he tari%% sho!ld incl!de total cost o% eneration) s!pplyin electricity and pro%it.

-.11.1 O68ectives o& 2ari&& &!itable pro%it. *ecovery o% eneration) transmission and distrib!tion.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering *ecovery o% cost o% operation and maintenance.

-.11.$ 5esira6le characteristics o& 2ari&& 8airness &implicity *easonable pro%it "ttractiveness Proper ret!rn

2he 2ari%% and char es are prepared valid %or 31 days in month. Bhen meter readin s are taken (ithin less than 31 days) 2ari%% sho!ld be chan ed proportional to 31 days. 8!el ad9!stment cost (31D) is not char ed %or domestic and 6eneral p!rpose i% cons!med !nits not e>ceeds 91 !nits (ithin 31 days

Chapter 7 ..0 2rans&ormers


..1 Introduction Lanka Electricity Company !ses 11 k.I/11. dyn 11)step do(n trans%ormers only) as they are dealin (ith only po(er distrib!tion %rom 11 k. to /11 .. %ollo(in %i !res sho(s (indin dia ram and phaser dia ram o% 11 k.I/11. dyn 11 trans%ormer.

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Primary

31
A a b B c C n

Secondary

dyn11

8i !re$.1 (indin dia ram and Phaser dia ram o% 11 k.I/11. dyn 11 trans%ormer. LECO+s trans%ormers can be classi%ied as in belo( accordin to the capacity. 2hey may be sin le pole mo!nted) do!ble pole mo!nted or plinth mo!nted.
&in le 2rans%ormer Capacity (k.") Pole 'o!ble Pole 4o!ntedI Plinth 4o!nted /11) 031 Plinth 4o!nted 1111

4o!nted @1) 111) 101) -@1

2able$.1 "vailable trans%ormer details in LECO LECO has distrib!tion trans%ormers at distrib!tion s!b stations as (ell as b!lk trans%ormers. 2he b!lk trans%ormer is !sed to s!pply %ort sin le cons!mer (hose load is hi h (hen compared to domestic loads. E>amples %or these are ;nd!stries) hotels) o%%ice comple>es or any other (ith hi h loads.

8i !re$.- ;nternal str!ct!re o% a trans%ormer

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

..$ 2ap chan/er '!e to volta e drops in transmission lines) the volta e in partic!lar re ion o% a distrib!tion system may consistently be lo(er than rated. Fnder these conditions the volta e across the secondary is considerably less than its rated val!e. 2o correct this problem Xtaps+ are provided on the primary (indin s o% distrib!tion trans%ormers. 2aps enable to chan e the t!rn ratio so as to raise the secondary volta e to some e>tent. 2ap positions %or 11 k.I/11 . trans%ormers are sho(n bello(. 1 3 / @ : 11-$@. : 11111. : 11$-@. : 11-@1. : 111$@.

,e%ore tap chan in ''LO sho!ld be dropped do(n and then tap position sho!ld be chan ed correctly. "%ter that ''LO sho!ld be %i>ed as normal. Fnder normal operation tap chan er is set to position -. 2he t(o types o% trans%ormers mainly !sed in LECO are Conservator type = &ealed type trans%ormers. Conservator type (hich (as (idely !sed in earlier days consists o% a conservator tank. Bhen the temperat!re increases the oil level inside the trans%ormer rises. 2he increased oil vol!me oes to the conservator tank (hile the air inside is removed thro! h the e>ha!st pipe makin space %or oil. Bhen the temperat!re decreases oil level %alls back and air is entered into the tank. 2he atmospheric air may be h!mid = consists o% d!st. 2o avoid the ins!lation level o% the trans%ormer oil bein decreased) a silica el bottle is incl!ded in the e>ha!st pipe. &ilica el absorbs the damp in the air. 2he air is made to o thro! h oil (hich keeps the d!st o% the air bein mi>ed (ith the trans%ormer oil. Fs!ally they have metal t!bes to emit heat %rom ins!lation oil to atmosphere. Connection o& trans&ormer to the %( and L( lines

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering


11kV %ine L, DDL-

Tr*ns+or#er LV ,BC

Meter

FDS

8i !re$.3 connection dia ram o% a trans%ormer ..'Sur/e !rrester 2he p!rpose o% s s!r e arrester is to limit the over volta es that may occ!r across trans%ormers and other electrical apparat!s d!e either to li htin or s(itchin s!r es. Fpper end is connected to the line and the lo(er end is solidly ro!nded. ;t is a non linear resistor (hich acts as a resistor %or the volta es belo( a certain val!e (!s!ally the 5. nominal volta e). 2he e>cess volta e is passed to ro!nd and only the re7!ired val!e is provided %or the system. 5ence possible dama es to the system are avoided. ..) 5rop 5o"n Li&t O&& (55LO) 2he %!se constit!tes the movable arm o% the s(itch. ;t pivots one end and the circ!it can be opened by p!llin on the other end o% the %!se (ith a %iber lass hook stick. 2hese are !sed to protect trans%ormers and small sin le phase %eeders a ainst overloads. 2hey are desi ned so that (hen the %!se blo(s) it a!tomatically s(in do(n) indicatin that a %a!lt has occ!rred on the line. 8!sed c!to!ts possess a %!se link that is kept ta!t by a strin . 2his is !sed %or 11k. pole mo!nted %or protection and isolation %or distrib!tion trans%ormers.

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

&!r e arrester

8!se link assembly

8i !re$./ ''LO

..+ !ir 3reak S"itches "ir breaker s(itches can interr!pt the e>citin c!rrents o% trans%ormers) transmission lines. 2hese are composed o% a movable blade that en a es a %i>ed contact. ;t is also consists o% arc e>tin !ish devices.

8i !re$.@ "ir ,reak &(itch ..- 75S (7use 5isconnection S"itches) 2his consists o% 5i h *!pt!rin Capacity (5*C) %!ses %or 3 phases inside the %eeder bo>. 2his trans%ormer.
2rans%ormer capacity (k.") 11k. %!ll load c!rrent (") 8!se ratin (") @1 -.0 0 111 @.11 101 8./ 1-@1 13.1 1@ /11 -1.1 31 031 33.1 /1I @1

ives the protection %or overload passin

%rom

2able$.- CapacitiesI8!ll load c!rrentsI8!se ratin s in 5. side

2rans%ormer (k.") 8!ll load ratin (") O!t oin L. circ!it @1 111 $1// @1mm@1 or $1mm-

Circ!it %!se ratin (") 03 111

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering


101 -@1 /11 031 -31 301 @$$ 919 @1 or $1mm$1mmCons!mer special service Cons!mer special service 1-@ 101 31@ 31@

2able$.3 CapacitiesI8!ll load c!rrentsI8!se ratin s in L. side ... 2rans&ormer Earthin/ 2rans%ormer is s!b9ected to dama e or dan er d!e to o!tside %orces s!ch as li htnin ) line s!r es or hi h volta e crossovers to lo( volta e lines. 2I8 sho!ld be protected %rom those e%%ect by !sin earthin devices.
Connectors

Earth

6ank

!BLi htnin

arrester

connected (ire) 2I8 body earth and 6ro!nd cond!ctor


LA

Earth 6ank 3 and CBL. ne!tral (ire


TF

and ro!nd link bar connected "ll earthin rods are @1mm- P.C

coated copper cond!ctors.


C B A

8i !re$.0 2rans%ormer Earth ,anks


4a>im!m resistanceI [ 11 Combined 11 tested earth

Earth ,ank " , C

4a>im!m no. o% rods / 3 3

8rom tI% ne!tral b!shin

2able$./ details abo!t trans%ormer earth banks 8rom tI% tank 8rom LI"
&plit ,olt

2o earth bank C Faculty of Engineering-University of Ruhuna 2o earth bank , 8i !re$.$ 2he connection o% earth (ires 2o earth bank "

01

Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

..1 2rans&ormer 2estin/ ..1.1 *e//er 2est P!rpose o% this test is ens!rin the ins!lation correctly. 4eas!red the resistance bet(een 5. side and tank 4eas!red the resistance bet(een L. side and tank 4eas!red the resistance bet(een L. side and 5. side "ll val!es sho!ld be above 0114[ 8i !re$.8 4e er Ohm 4eter

..1.$ 9atio 2est 2his test is carried o!t to ens!re any %a!lt in (indin s.//1. volta e is applied to 5. side and L. side volta es are meas!red. ..1.' Oil 2estin/ ;n here meas!red the (hat is the minim!m volta e val!e o% startin o% cond!ctivity o% 2rans%ormer oil .;ts val!e sho!ld be reater than 11k..

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering

Electrodes ;ns!lation oil .ariable volta e so!rce (ith di ital display and ad9!stable s(itches

8i !re$.9 Oil 2ester

CONCLASION

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 2rainin period in LECO (Pvt.) Ltd is one o% my interestin periods in my en ineerin carrier. ;t ives me a lot o% e>perience abo!t the ind!strial environment. O!r En ineers in vario!s sections ave their %!ll consideration to me and to my trainin partners to make the trainin a s!ccess. ;t helped me to et an overall kno(led e in many areas. 8rom this ; had the chance to (ork (ith di%%erent people. ; am lad to say that all most all the s!pervisors and (orkers (ere very %riendly (ith !s and they tried to train me !p their standard. 2he thin that ; appreciate is they ave me the chance to develop my o(n trainin sched!le (hich ave the %reedom to cover my interestin this period) areas in en ineerin . 2he pro9ect that ; (as assi ned d!rin ave me lot o%

e>perience. ; ave my %!ll contrib!tion to that to make it a s!ccess. LECO (Pvt.) Ltd has a separate trainin a!thority (hich is called 2echnical 2rainin Center (22C). &ince this is a separate !nit (e co!ld easily meet sta%% and talk (ith them abo!t the s! estions and complains abo!t the trainin . 2hey ive their %!ll consideration to the ind!strial trainees. &o co!ld disc!ss any iss!es relatin to my trainin pro ram (ith them. Every time they try to ive !s a trainin (hich (e pre%erred. 2hey %acilitate every re7!irement o% !s relatin to o!r trainin . Bhen consider abo!t the trainin pro ram or ani3ed by the !niversity trainin division) accordin to my perspective they ave their %!ll consideration to me d!rin my trainin period. 2hanks to them ; had a very ood trainin place (hich ave me lot o% e>perience. 8rom another point o% vie( ; (o!ld like to say that) since (e are !nder rad!ates (e need to have a better trainin than others (ho are doin technical co!rses and diplomas. Bhat ; need to say here is that 1- (eeks trainin period is not s!%%icient %or have a better trainin . "s a proposal ; (o!ld like to ive one proposals that is to e>tend the trainin period like other diploma co!rse. ; am happy to say that ; had a really ood trainin pro ram in LECO (Pvt.) Ltd. 2his makes me an e>pertise person to the ind!strial environment. 8inally ; (o!ld be really rate%!l to every person (ho helped me to have a s!ccess%!l trainin period.

!339E(I!2IONS

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2I8 L. P&& 8'& ""C 5. ",C RLPE L,& L,C 5*C 4'; P8 'CC ''LO C&C LI" 6P& 6;&

2rans%ormer Lo( .olta e Primary &!b &tation 8!se 'isconnection &(itch "ll "l!mini!m Cond!ctor 5i h .olta e "erial ,!ndle Cond!ctor Cross Linked poly:Ethylene Load ,reak &(itch Load ,reak C!to!t 5i h *!pt!rin Capacity 4a>im!m 'emand ;ndicator Po(er 8actor 'istrib!tion Control Center 'rop 'o(n Li%t O%% C!stomer &ervice Center Li htnin "rrestor 6lobal Positionin &ystem 6lobal ;n%ormation &ystem

9E7E9ENCES

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Industrial Training Electrical and Information Engineering 1. LECO 4an!als &tandard Costs 4an!al Constr!ction 'ra(in 4an!al Plannin 4an!al

-. Po(er &ystems by .. ?. 4ehta 3. 2he 6ro!ndin Electrode &ystem by 'o! las 5ansen / (((.(ikipedia.com

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0$