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Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.

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The role of Indigenous Knowledge in Land Management for Carbon Sequestration and Ecological Services in Southern Ethiopia
,bebe S-iferaw.*) /ans /urni 2) 0ete 1ele2e * 1.3orresponding aut-or) formerl4 5esearc- and Development &fficer !International 6ivestoc2 5esearc- Institute# now an e7pert in soil -ealt- and fertilit4 program at Et-iopian ,gricultural 8ransformation ,genc4 !,8,# and "-.D student !9niversit4 of :ern# E-mail; ,bebe.S-iferaw<ata.org.et or s-iferaw.abebe<4a-oo.com ".&. :o7 7 $) ,ddis ,beba) Et-iopia 2."resident of 3entre for Development and Environment =3DE> and director of Swiss National 3enter of 3ompetence in 5esearc- =N335> Nort--Sout- "rogramme) 9niversit4 of :ern) Swit?erland *.Director of t-e @ater and 6and 5esource 3entre =@653> -Et-iopia and researc- proAect leader in N335 Nort--Sout- "rogramme !9niversit4 of :ern) Swit?erland# Ac nowledgement The authors are grateful to the U.S. National Science Foundation [NSF] for funding this study under grant number GEO !"#$%&' through (nternational ST)*T Secretariat as #!+! Grants for GE, *esearch in )frica. -e are grateful to .ere/e 0amo1 former Soil ,onser2ation *esearch 3rogramme staff1 for his assistance in field data collection. Abstract 8-e significance of Indigenous Bnowledge =IB> s4stems in management of sustainable ecos4stems -as long been recogni?ed. 8-is stud4 reflects t-e role of IB in sustaining ecos4stem services and contributing to carbon seCuestration among t-e @ola4ta people in Damot-Sore District) Sout-ern Et-iopia. 8-e stud4 applied an et-no-ecological approac- using 2e4 informants) group discussions) village-dialogues and validation met-ods. E7pert rating of land management practices and comparison of land suitabilit4 classifications s4stems was also used. ,lt-oug- past development -as overloo2ed IB) t-is stud4 reflects t-e significance and wealt- of IB as e7-ibited in t-e diversit4 of practices) terminolog4) and land suitabilit4 classification s4stem. ,mong t-e nine land management practices observed) indigenous agro-forestr4 -as t-e -ig-est potential in contributing to carbon seCuestration) mitigating climate c-ange and sustaining soil ecos4stem services. 3roplands -ave t-e most diverse and widel4 used indigenous land management practices compared wit- forests and grass lands. 8-e stud4 recommends furt-er Cuantitative valuation and integration of appropriate practices in development intervention. Ke! words" Ecological services) Et-iopia) Indigenous Bnowledge) 6and management) Soil carbon. #$ Introduction 1.1 General o2er2ie4 8-e importance of Indigenous Bnowledge =IB> in sustainable ecos4stem management -as been well-recogni?ed and it is now gaining increasing attention !@arren and 5aAase2aran 1++*; $D Bolawole 2 1; (D Samal et al1 2 1 ; 1( #. 8-e gap between scientific and indigenous 2nowledge is declining as scientists and indigenous people are collaborating in man4 parts of t-e world !5eiAntAes 2 (; (1#. 8oda4) farmerEs 2nowledge w-ic- was considered in t-e past as irrelevant) is now considered as relevant and sop-isticated insig-t !3-ambers) 1+$*; %-$D Bolawole) 2 1; (#. It is) -owever) good to note t-at IB is not in itself capable of addressing all of t-e issues in sustainable ecos4stem management !8ripat-i and :-attar4a) 2 (; *#. In an agro-ecos4stem) farmersF indigenous practices can lead to bot- to a sustainable and unsustainable management !:ellon 1++%; 2G*D Di7on) 2 2; G) Belbessa) 2 %; 17#. Nevert-eless) t-e importance of integrating IB into contemporar4 ecos4stem management is ta2en as a step to overcome problems of global concern li2e climate c-ange and unsustainable ecos4stem services !5ist and Da-dou--0uebasD 2 G; (G7#. 8-e term indigenous 2nowledge -as various meanings !Hood and ,griculture &rgani?ation =H,&>) 2 %; 7D :oillat) 2 $; $2-$*#. 8-ere is) -owever) general agreement t-at t-e terms li2e Iindigenous or local 2nowledgeJ) Itraditional !communit4# 2nowledgeJ) Iindigenous traditional 2nowledgeJ) Itraditional ecological !environmental# 2nowledge =8EB>J and Irural peoplesE 2nowledgeJ are all used for 2nowledge belonging to local people !8ripat-i and :-attar4a) 2 (; *D 9NE") 2 $; 22#. 8EB came into wide use in t-e 1+$ s !Inglis) 1++*; 1#. 8-e term indigenous 2nowledge !IB# is used to distinguis- 2nowledge developed b4 a given communit4 over several generations as opposed to t-e scientific 2nowledge !/erweg) 2 2; G7+D Bolawole) 2 1; (D ,Aibade 2 *; ++-1 D 8ripat-i and :-attar4a) 2 (; *#. IB is an institutionali?ed 2nowledge t-at passes

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Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.17) 2 1*

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from one generation to anot-er and develops wit-in a certain culture or et-nic group and strives to meet subsistence goals in a particular ecological setting !,Aibade) 2 *; ++#. IB is uniCue 2nowledge developed over time and continues to develop b4 people in a given communit4 or geograp-ic area !Samal et al. 2 1 ; 1( D International Institute for 5ural 5econstruction =II55> 1++G; 2 D H,& 2 %; 7-$D Kiti2u et.al1 2 G; 1$1#. , comparative review of bot- IB and scientific 2nowledge is available in Inglis !1++*; 2-G#. In t-is paper) t-e term indigenous 2nowledge and local 2nowledge are used s4non4mousl4. IB pla4s an important role in sustainable management of ecos4stems and can also -ave a role in addressing problems of global concern !8ripat-i and :-attar4a) 2 (; 2#. Indigenous people -ave e7tensive 2nowledge in managing landscapes !Kat-iui and Bariu2i) 2 7; %*G# wit- t-eir own land management e7perimentation ma2ing t-em more innovative !5eiAntAes 2 (; (2#. 8-ese local innovations ma2e indigenous practices contribute to sustainable management of ecos4stem and carbon seCuestration. 6al !2 (; +-11# describes carbon seCuestration as tec-nological option to mitigate climate c-ange. 8-e role of land management and carbon seCuestration -as been well reviewed b4 H,& !2 1#. 8-e term IseCuestrationJ is eCuivalent to t-e term IstorageJ !H,&) 2 1; *# and carbon seCuestration is t-e accumulation of carbon !organic matter# in sin2s li2e soil and vegetation from t-e atmosp-ere t-roug- using sustainable land management practices. De 0root) et al. !2 2; *+(# describe ecos4stem services as Icapacit4 of t-e environment to provide goods and services to satisf4 -uman needsJ. Hrom a functional point of view t-ere are four t4pes of services; productive) supportive) regulative and recreational. 3arbon seCuestration is part of t-e bio-geo-c-emical c4cle) w-ic- can be considered as regulative function of ecos4stem services !De 0root) et al.) 2 2; *+7#. Stud4ing t-e role of indigenous 2nowledge in land management contributes to better understanding on -ow to sustain ecos4stem services) adapt to climate c-ange and paves wa4 to integrate indigenous practices into development initiatives. Stud4ing t-e role of IB enables t-e use of transferable indigenous 2nowledge =8IB>) w-ic- -as t-e potential to be applied to ot-er sites also !Inglis) 1++*; *%D S-aw and S-arma) 2 7; *D Srivastava) S.) 2 +; (1 #. It also paves t-e wa4 for t-e protection of indigenous 2nowledge and t-eir environment !Davis and @ali) 1++(#. ,lt-oug- a vast -eritage of indigenous 2nowledge e7ists on ecos4stems) it is not well documented to be available in literature !@arren) 1++2; $#. 8-ere is a need to document indigenous 2nowledge !Bolawole) 2 1; (#. In Et-iopia) t-ere are over $ et-nic groups !3osoleto) 2 1 ; *# living under varied climatic conditions witdiverse ecos4stems and ric- bio-diversit4 !"lant 0enetic 5esources 3enter ="053>) 1++%; %-G#. @it- sucdiverse agro-ecolog4) ric- bio-diversit4 and e7istence of multi-et-nic groups) eac- et-nic group ma4 -ave a uniCue wa4 of managing its ecos4stem. 8-is stud4 -4pot-esi?es t-at indigenous 2nowledge in land management -as a vital role in sustaining ecos4stem services and in contributing to carbon seCuestration among t-e @ola4ta et-nic group in Sout-ern Et-iopia. IB mig-t -ave contributed a lot to t-e maintenance of t-e present-da4 ecological bio-diversit4 against t-e past natural and social problems in Et-iopia. In spite of government and partnersE effort on soil conservation since t-e mid-1+7 s !Environmental "rotection ,ut-orit4 of Et-iopia =E",E>) 1+$+#) little is 2nown on t-e role of IB) especiall4 in sustaining ecos4stem services and seCuestering carbon to mitigate climate c-ange. Koreover) e7cept for /urni !1+$(# and Bruger et al. !1++G#) t-ere -ave not been muc- efforts to understand t-e wealt- of IB focusing on land management and review past et-no-ecolog4 in Et-iopia. 8-e aim of t-is stud4 is to reflect t-e importance of IB from ecos4stem services and soil carbon seCuestration perspective in Sout-ern Et-iopia. In Sout-ern Et-iopia) t-e @ola4ta 1one is an appropriate site for stud4ing IB owning to its varied agro-ecolog4 and e7istence of ric- bio-diversit4 and different agro-ecologies leading to t-e e7istence of diverse land management practices. 8-e stud4 site) Damote-Sore) is situated in an enset-farming environment w-ere livestoc2 and crop production are integral part of t-e farming s4stem !He2adu) 2 +#) and w-ere enset is used as a staple crop along wit- root crops and cereals -ave minor importance. 8-is paper adds value to et-no-ecolog4 researc- in Et-iopia in four wa4s. Hirst) it gives an overview of past et-no-ecolog4 researc- in Et-iopia. Second) it s-ows t-e wealt- of IB in t-e stud4 area. 8-ird) it reflects t-e role of IB in tec-nolog4 adoption) sustaining of ecos4stem services wit- a focus on carbon seCuestration and climate c-ange adaptation. Hourt-) it s-ows w-4 IB -as not pla4ed its e7pected role as a result of c-anging socioeconomic conditions w-ere land degradation is prevalent. 1.2 Ethno ecology re2ie4 in Ethio5ia "ast researc- on indigenous 2nowledge -as paid little attention to ,frica !Belbessa) 2 %D 17#. 8-ere is poor record) lac2 of appreciation of IB and less attention was given to indigenous land management b4 e7perts) researc-ers and polic4 ma2ers in Et-iopia !5eiA) 1++1;12) Kiti2u et al) 2 GD 2G#. /owever) most farmers in Et-iopia are aware of soil related problems and -ave attitude to conserve land at farm level. ,lt-oug- less attention was given to IB) it -as remained an important) 4et unnoticed wealt- of 2nowledge for sustainable management of ecos4stem. In Et-iopia) an earl4 stud4 on IB was carried out in 1+$* b4 /urni !1+$(# and a more detailed stud4 was continued b4 ,lema4e-u in 1++2) Bruger et al. in 1++G and 0ebere Kic-ael in 1++G as cited in Soil 3onservation 5esearc- "rogramme =S35"> !2 #. 8-e earl4 studies b4 0ebere Kic-ael !1++$# and ,lema4e-u

Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.17) 2 1*

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!1++2# focused on indigenous soil and water conservation. 8-e role of IB in pastoral areas for climate c-ange adaption was described in 0ebre Kic-ael and Bifle !2 +#. &t-er studies s-owed t-e role of IB in improving soil fertilit4) increasing crop 4ield and reducing erosion !Elias 1++7D /aileslassie et al.) 2 GD ,mede et al.) 2 1) 5eiA) 1++1) N4ssen) et al.) 2 ) "ound and Jonfa) 2 %) /erweg) 2 2) ,ssefa) 2 7) Er2ossa and ,4ele) 2 *#. 8-e role of IB in overcoming labor s-ortage is described in /erweg !2 2D G$1-G$2# and Kinistr4 of ,griculture and 5ural Development =Ko,5D> !2 1 D22#. , description of indigenous water -arvesting) agro-forestr4 and soil and water conservation in Et-iopia was underta2en b4 Ko,5D !2 1 # and 6iniger et al. !2 11# w-ile t-e ,frican /ig-land Initiative =,/I> !1++7; *(-*%# describes indigenous practices of burning -eaps of soil mi7ed wit- manure IguieJ in t-e Et-iopian -ig-lands. 8-e role of IB in wetland management -as been documented in relation wit- combating desertification !Di7on) 2 2#. Kost studies in t-e past -ave not e7amined t-e geograp-ic variation of IB practices) e7cept for ,ssefa !2 7D 2$# w-ic- focused on terracing. Studies b4 ,bera and :elac-ew !2 11# and 8egene !1++2# indicate IB e7istence t-oug- it focused on farmerEs perception. "ound and Jonfa !2 %D 11-1%# e7amined indigenous soil classification w-ile Kiti2u et al. !2 GD 1 7# indicates t-e e7istence of numerous traditional plowing s4stems in Et-iopia. 3ompared wit- available documents on et-no-arc-aeological !@eedman) 2 GD 1$7# et-no-veterinar4 !Kesfin and &bsa) 1++(D (17#) et-no- botan4 and et-no-medicine studies !,ddis et al) 2 %D $%#) studies on et-no-ecolog4 are scarce. 8-e above review s-ows t-at t-e 2e4 gap in past et-no-ecolog4 researc- is t-e absence of IB promotion for better use in development) protection and conservation of indigenous materials and practices. "ast researc- provides ample evidence on t-e role IB in contributing to liveli-oods) increasing productivit4 !crop) soil and water#) reduction of environmental degradation !loss of nutrients) bio-diversit4) and soils#. /owever) researc- evidence on t-e role of indigenous 2nowledge s4stems in sustaining ecos4stem services) contributing to carbon seCuestration and climate c-ange adaptation is still missing. %$ Methodolog! and stud! area 2.1 The study area 8-e stud4 area) Damot-Sore) is one of t-e 1* districts in @ola4ta 1one !3entral Statistics ,ut-orit4 =3S,>) 2 +D 2(-2G#. It is situated in t-e Sout-ern Nation Nationalities and "eoplesE 5egion =SNN"5> in Et-iopia at GL +1E +2.+EE and 7L 1+E 21.GEE Nort- latitude and *7L (*E 7*.+EE and *7L $(E 77.2EE East longitude !Higure 1#. It is located Sout-west of ,ddis ,beba at **G 2m on t-e wa4 to /ossaina main road. 8-e district -as a total of .11 million people !% M are women# and t-e in-abitants are identified as @ola4ta !it means mi7ed people# et-nic group. 8-e district capital) 0ununo) is located ** 2m awa4 from Sodo 8own$ 8-e altitude of t-e district varies from 1+ to 2 1 meters above sea level =m a.s.l.> wit- average annual temperature of 22.%L3 and t-e rainfall is 12% mmN4r. ,gro-ecologicall4) t-e district -as 7(M 4eyna dega !warm to cool semi--umid&' 1%M dega !cool to cold -umid& and 11 M 6olla !semi-arid#. ,griculture is t-e main economic activit4 alt-oug- t-ere are pett4 trades as subsidiar4 activit4. 2.2 0ethodology 8-is stud4 uses an et-no-ecological approac- as described in 5ist and Da-dou--0uebas !2 G; (7%# to e7amine t-e role of indigenous land management practices. 0eneral met-ods used for t-is stud4 are stated in @al2er and Sincair !1++$; *GG-*$ #) @arren and 5aAase2aran !1++*; $-1 #) ,Aibade !2 *; 1 -1 2# O II55 !1++G; 2 -* #. /owever) specific met-ods applied involves t-e use of ( 2e4 informants identified b4 elders) administrators and agriculture office staff in a sample of si7 Bebele ,ssociations =B,>. Informants consist of 1%M women and age class mi7 of 2%M 4oung !2 -* 4ears#) 2%M mid-aged !* -% 4ears# and % M old aged !% -+ 4ears#. Be4 informants were identified based on residence -istor4) owners-ip of diverse of land management practices) agricultural 2nowledge and social acceptance. Information from 2e4 informants enabled describing land management practices and tabulating terminologies used for t-ree maAor 6and 9se 84pes =698> !forest lands) croplands and grasslands# as categori?ed b4 !@orld &verview of 3onservation ,pproac-es and 8ec-nologies =@&3,8>) 2 $; $#. 8-e procedures of data collection using 2e4 informants are similar as described in Jos-i et al. !2 (; (#. 8-e selected B,s are :olola 3-awuSore) Sore Kas-edo) Doge Kas-ido) Sore @amura) Dage,n 3-oc-o) SoreBelena. , village dialogue approac- was used to e7tract indigenous 2nowledge from fol2tales as described in ,Aibade !2 *; 1 2#. Successive group interviews) discussions and validation sessions were -eld in all si7 B,s wit- an average attendance of twelve communit4 members involving elders) men) women and 4outat eac- site. 8-e roles of identified nine indigenous land management practices were rated b4 e7perts at t-ree scales !ver4 -ig-) medium and low# as indicated in 6iniger and 3ritc-le4 !2 7#. 5atings of soil-based ecological functions were based on a framewor2 described b4 De 0root et al. !2 2; *+(#. E7pert rating was followed b4 communit4 validation. &pen-ended Cuestions were used during group discussions to compare indigenous and conventional land suitabilit4 classifications !9nited States Department of ,griculture =9SD,> and H,& met-ods# based on classification structure) features of land categor4 units description and indicators.

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Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.17) 2 1*

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($ )esults and *iscussions *.1 (ndigenous land management in .amote Sore .istrict E7amining t-e terminolog4 in indigenous land management also reflects t-e wealt- of peopleEs perception and understanding !8able 1#. Indigenous terminolog4 reflects t-e t4pe of land use) t-e state of land degradation) as well as mis-managed land. In t-is paper) land used for mi7ed agricultural land use) suc- as indigenous agroforestr4) was considered as cropland use. Indigenous agro-forestr4 is called as IDgarso :itaJ) IEspe0os-aJ ) I@ala 0os-aJ or JDaren3-aJ. 8-e inventor4 of indigenous land management practices in Damote-Sore district !8able 2# reflects t-e diversit4 of land management practices in t-e area. 8-e indigenous terms used for a fertile and an infertile soil agrees witprevious description of "ound and Jonfa !2 %; 1%#. *.2 (ndigenous land suitability classification 6and evaluation is t-e assessment of land performance or potential for a particular purpose to assist land use management !SoAa44a) 2 %; %) H,&N9nited Nations for Environmental "rogram =9NE">) 1+++; (G#. "eople recogni?e different t4pes of natural resources as part of t-eir ecos4stem and indigenous classifications reflect indigenous perceptions on land potential use and variabilit4 !/erweg 2 2; G7+#. In @ola4ta) "ound and Jonfa !2 %; 1 -1$# documented indigenous soil classification and land use patterns at -omestead levels. In t-is stud4) indigenous and modern land use classifications were compared based on classification structures !class and sub class#) features of land-use class and t4pe of indicators. "eople use indigenous land suitabilit4 indicators for allocation of land for various purposes. Indicators for indigenous land use classification include; steepness of land !slope#) color !fertilit4#) relative location of land to residential are) and location. ,ccording to indigenous land sustainabilit4 classifications) croplands are allocated close to residential areas) on level land usuall4 wit- dar2 colored soils !-ig- fertilit4#. 0rasslands are allocated at distant from residential areas) on level land wit- less dar2 or brown color !less fertile# and on communal lands. 0rasslands are allocated close to residential areas in Iless productiveE !marginal# lands and usuall4 on t-e edges of croplands. Horest lands are allocated along t-e edge of roads) on steep slopes furt-er awa4 from residential areas and in areas witflood problems. 3omparing wit- t-e H,& framewor2 of land evaluation !land suitabilit4 classification# and 9SD, land capabilit4 classification) t-e indigenous met-od -as classes corresponding wit- t-e maAor order and sub-order or maAor class and sub-class. In t-e stud4 area) croplands are sub-classified in to t-ree fertilit4 categories as -ig-l4 fertile J,radaJ) medium fertile J0udwaJ and infertile I6edaJ. 0rasslands are sub-classified in to t-ree pasture Cualit4 categories as ver4 good pasture JBoru@aJ) medium Cualit4 pasture J,c-aJ and poor Cualit4 pasture I:odlaJ or :edlaJ. Horest lands are sub-classified into t-ree forest densit4 categories as dense forest J@oraJ) medium dense forest JDursaJ and less dense forest I"olwaJ. 9nli2e t-e scientific classification) indigenous classification s-ows c-ange in indicators depending on prevailing socio-economic conditions. Be4 factors in-ibiting t-e use of indigenous classification over t-e past decades are increase in population densit4 and land scarcit4. /alf a centur4 ago) w-en population densit4 was lower) grasslands were located far from residential areas. 8oda4) -owever) t-e communal grasslands are being converted to eit-er forest lands or croplands. 6ocal peoplesE insig-ts) perceptions) and management strategies can offer guidance for realistic land management) as indicated b4 SoAa44a !2 %; 1$#) -owever) current land use management does not consider t-e e7istence of indigenous land-use classification. *.* (ndigenous cro5land management in .amote Sore '.'.+ (ndigenous cro5 residue and manure management 3rop residues are deliberatel4 left b4 farmers on cropland to increase soil fertilit4. Harmers sa4 t-e residues decompose as termites use t-em) and t-is 2eeps t-e soil moist and covers it from direct sunlig-t) raindrops and wind. 3rop residue is used in t-e area b4 different parts of t-e communit4 !from ric- to poor farmer#. ,s cited b4 "ound and Jonfa !2 %; 17#) Elias !1++7# found t-at % M of t-e farmers use crop residues in @ola4ta. 3rop residues from enset) root crops !potato) sweet potato# are often left at bac24ards) w-ile crop residues from cereals !mai?e) w-eat) teff#) pulses !-aricot bean# and leftovers from cas- crops are left to improve soil -ealt- at distant fields. 8raditionall4) people do not allow livestoc2 to gra?e on cropland after -arvest) to avoid soil compaction and ensure crop residue incorporation into t-e soil. In a previous stud4 in t-e area) t-e gra?ing practice was described as in-situ gra?ing !"ound and Jonfa) 2 %; 1+#. 8oda4) due to livestoc2 pressure) scarcit4 of land and forage) livestoc2 are allowed to gra?e on cropland after -arvest to feed on left over crop residues. 8-e use of mulc- IBaKiPogaJ or I:ita Ka1iPo0aJ involves t-e use of leftovers from crop residues !leftover from animal feeds and crop residue#. ,s cited b4 "ound and Jonfa !2 %; 17#) Elias !1++7# found t-at *G M of t-e farmers in @ola4ta use mulc-. 8-e cover from mulc- ensures moisture conservation and its decomposition contributes to soil fertilit4. Harmers clearl4 indicate t-e role of mulc- in terms of turning soil color to dar2er

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color) increasing soil moisture and contributing to crop droug-t tolerance. 8-e degree of mulc- use is -ig-er in fields close to -omestead and t-ose furt-ermost. Kulc-ing is still a widel4 used practice in Damote-Sore) alt-oug- in recent 4ears t-e demand for fuel) -ouse construction and animal feed -as affected its use. In a previous stud4 in @ola4ta) "ound and Jonfa !2 %; 17# documented t-e use of earl4 maturing crops !crop selection# b4 farmers in response to droug-t and decline in soil fertilit4 in t-e area. 8-e use of animal dung) as- and -ouse-old tras- on croplands is a common practice to improve soil fertilit4. In a previous stud4) composting was described as modern practice !"ound and Jonfa) 2 %; 1+#. In t-e stud4 area) manuring is well practiced wit- -ig- concentration of manure at t-e bac24ards and t-at agrees wit- previous description of manuring practice around t-e -omesteads !/erweg) 2 2; G$ #. ,s cited b4 "ound and Jonfa !2 %; 17#) Elias !1++7# found t-at $7 M of t-e farmers in @ola4ta use manure. ,ddtion of soil organic ammedment ! manure# leads to carbon seCuestration of .1 to .G tons of 3N-aN4r !3-an) et al) 2 1 D12#. &n croplands) t-e role of inputs to soil !manure) mulc- and crop residue# is reflected as an increase in productive soil ecological function leading to suppl4 of nutrients and availabilit4 of air and water associated wit- an increase in soil organic matter !carbon#. H,& !2 1D 2(-2%# describe role of t-e above practice in improving soil and seCuestering carbon. Estimate of carbon seCuestration potential of various crop lands under different management varies from .1 to .$ tons of 3N-aN4r !6iniger et al.) 2 11; 1(2# and from . 2 to .7G 3N-aN4r !6al) 2 (; 1(#$ 3-an et al. !2 +; G# reviewed croplands carbon seCuestration rates from .1 to .G tons of 3N-aN4r wit- organic amendment !animal manure# . 8-e soil ecological supportive and productive functions improved t-roug- nutrient c4cling and increased crop 4ield) respectivel4. 8-e soil ecological regulative functions are in reducing flooding and water stress. 8-e overall role of t-ese indigenous practices is reflected in reduced effect of droug-t) increased soil moisture and improved soil nutrients. '.'.# (ndigenous ,ro55ing 3ractices Enset !Ensete 2entricosum# seedling propagation is an indigenous practice. Enset is endemic to Et-iopia and occurs t-roug-out t-e countr4 bot- as wild and cultivated crop at altitudes ranging between 1) and to *) meters !"053) 1++%D 1G#. It is an important staple food for @ola4ta people and preferred b4 most for being droug-t tolerant and a source of food and feed !He2adu) 2 +#. 8-e indigenous practice of seedling propagation !budding# from t-e mot-er plant involves cutting into pieces and bur4ing t-e cuttings !covered wit- dung#. , buried cut !often done in Januar4# at a place can produce 2 -( seedlings in 2 mont-s. Kultiple or inter-cropping is an indigenous practice on croplands. Harmers in Damote-Sore traditionall4 allocate a piece of land for multiple cropping in a season. Kultiple cropping occurs wit- no or minimum competition for lig-t) water and nutrient. Kultiple cropping enables farmers to get a -arvest at different times of a 4ear and to minimi?e ecological ris2 from insect pest) disease or droug-t. Intercropping) locall4 described as IDu:er Be@oJ is anot-er age-old practice. "ound and Jonfa !2 %; 22# -ave described it as rotation wit- legume. It -as importance in terms of soil fertilit4 improvement) increasing 4ield and ensuring income in time of disaster. 8-e practice is widel4 used and practiced b4 growing of mai?e wit- potato or cabbage) beans !-aricot bean or pea# wit- cereals !mai?e#. Harmers also underta2e crop rotation) because t-e4 see a difference between crops in terms of improving soil fertilit4. Hor e7ample) t-e role of -aricot beans in improving soil fertilit4 is well understood b4 $ M farmers in t-e area. , plot covered b4 mai?e in one seasons is to be covered b4 potato at anot-er season. In crop rotation) potato can be followed b4 teff or /aricot bean. Suc- cropping practice -as been indicated b4 /erweg !2 2; G$ # as local 2nowledge based on soil-plant-fauna relations-ips involving selection of crops for sustainable soil use. Improved crop rotation on crop land leads to carbon seCuestration of .1 to .* tons of 3N-aN4r !3-an) et al) 2 1 D12#. 8-e role of indigenous cropping practices increases t-e productive ecological functions) as it leads to better suppl4 of food and fiber. 8-e ecological supportive functions are in improving nutrient c4cling from various combinations of plants in time and space. 8-e ecological regulative functions are in reducing t-e effects of droug-t) seCuestering carbon and reducing water stress. 8-e practices contribute to overall ecos4stem management and climate c-ange adaptations. '.'.' (ndigenous agroforestry and culti2ation methods Indigenous agro-forestr4 practices at -omesteads are described as I@ola4 0os-aJ !see 8able 1#. 6and -olding for agro forestr4 at -omesteads usuall4 varies from .%- .2% -a wit- various crops !cereals) pulses) spices and fruits# and different combinations of trees species. Harmers describe t-e importance of indigenous trees as a source of food) moisture) animal feed and s-ade. It is widel4 practiced in t-e stud4 areaD -owever) wealt- status of t-e farmer seems to -ave an effect on agro-forestr4 practices in terms of t-e land -olding) densit4 and diversit4 of trees and crops. Indigenous agro-forestr4 -as a role in increasing productive ecological functions as it diversifies food suppl4 t-roug-out t-e 4ear. It reduces t-e effects of droug-t and famine) and it pla4s a significant role in climate c-ange mitigation and adaptation. 8-e supportive functions of t-e practice include improving nutrient and water c4cling

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from a combination of crops and trees of different la4ers. 8-e regulative functions are in reducing flood problems) regulating microclimate) seCuestering carbon !above and below t-e ground#) and in reducing evaporation !water stress. Hor wide ranges of indigenous agroforestr4 practices t-e estimate of carbon seCuestration potential varies from .* to G.% tonnes 3N-aN4r !6iniger) et al.) 2 11; 12G#) w-ile estimates b4 6al !2 (; 1*# are lower wit- values ranging from .$ to 1. tonnes 3N-aN4r. 8-e role of indigenous agro-forestr4 e7tends to contributing to strong cultural values t-roug- growing of culturall4 preferred crops) increasing -omesteads aest-etic value t-oug- improvement of landscape beaut4. 8-ere are also ot-er indigenous cultivation met-ods w-ere farmers plow along t-e contour) construct ditc-es to divert e7cess water) and -arvest water. 8-ere are two indigenous tillage eCuipment used b4 @ola4ta people. 8-e first is a smaller -oe called I8i2iPaJ !Higure 2Npicture a#. It is smaller in si?e wit- two s-arp pointers used for weeding of s-allow rooted plants and to wor2 on lig-t soil. 8-e second is a bigger -oe called I,46iPaJ or I@ola4ta /oeJ !Higure 2N picture b#. It is used to till virgin land) wor2 on deep-rooted plants and -eav4 soil. 8-e -oes are used to till -ill4 areas w-ere o7en cannot be used. ,s described b4 Bolawole !2 1; (# indigenous tec-nical 2nowledge =I8B> -as in-erent features of construction material as described b4 local people. In t-e past) t-e tillage eCuipment used to be made from wood and rope but in recent 4ears) it is made from wood and metal. *.( (ndigenous grass and forest land management Indigenous practices on grasslands in t-e stud4 area include enclosure) grassland burning) rotational-gra?ing and grass land enric-ment. 5egeneration of degraded grassland is often done t-roug- enclosure at -ouse-old level. Horage is more valued b4 farmers t-an t-e grassland. Harmers describe t-e improvement of grass growt-) reduction of soil erosion and improvement in soil fertilit4 wit- grassland enclosure. 8-is is widel4 practiced in private grasslands and at -omesteads. Indigenous practice of cut and carr4 s4stem IBorawoJ is used witenclosures. 8-e indigenous practices contribute to t-e carbon reserve on grassland as reviewed in H,& !2 1; 7#. Estimates of t-e carbon seCuestration potential of enclosure areas wit- various vegetation var4 from .1 to *. tons of 3N-aN4r !6iniger et al.)2 11;1(2# and for grass lands from . 2 to 1.* tons of 3N-aN4r !6al) 2 (;1(# and wit- improved management from .1 to .% tons of 3N-aN4r. !6al) 2 (;1(#. 3-an et al. !2 +; G# reviewed pasture landsE carbon seCuestration rate to be from .1 to .7 tons of 3N-aN4r according to various management practices. ,not-er indigenous practice is grassland burning) locall4 called as J8ara0a 8aKa PoDeSoNaJ or IKa8a :i 8a 8u0i Po 0aJ. 8-e burning is underta2en in t-e dr4 season. @all and Banaw-a !2 1; *G# -ave described importance of indigenous burningD t-e communit4 also points at t-e benefits of burning in promoting fast growt-) and improving grassland ecolog4. "otential carbon seCuestration of grass lands wit- fire management varies from .%-1.( 3N-aN4r !6al) 2 (;1(#) but t-e overall potential of various grasslands under different management varies from .1 to .* tons of 3N-aN4r !6iniger et al.) 2 11; 1%G) 6al) 2 (;1*# 5otational gra?ing !controlled gra?ing# is also practiced instead of free gra?ing to overcome t-e problem of overgra?ing and increase pastureland productivit4. Kost farmers !7 M# do not associate t-e benefit of t-is practice wit- land. Scarcit4 of pastureland -as restricted t-e use of t-is practice. In a few localities including -omesteads) ?ero gra?ing and cut and carr4 s4stems are used toda4. 3ommunal grasslands are enric-ed t-roug- grass multiplication. 8-e most common met-od of grass multiplication is to let t-e grass grow to clima7) so t-at t-e seeds are dispersed on t-e land. 0rass is mowed after ensuring seed scattering. S-rubs are cleared and uprooted from grasslands) for eas4 movement of animals. 8-ere is also a deliberate removal of unpalatable species and damaged grass on grassland. 8-e communit4 -as indigenous b4-laws to reduce mismanagementD -owever) due to a lac2 of law enforcement) t-e grasslands are mismanaged and overgra?ed. 8-e potential of forest ecos4stems and t-eir role in carbon seCuestration is well documented !H,&) 2 1; G#. 8raditionall4) people ta2e care of trees on t-eir land and at farm boundaries. 8-ere are communal b4 laws for forest land. "eople value and ta2e care of forest products rat-er t-an t-e of forest soils. &n forest lands) t-ere are two met-ods of forest -arvesting met-ods Icomplete clearanceJ and Iselective clearanceJ. 8-e -arvesting practices ma2e use of indigenous indicators for cutting matured trees. /arvesting time is determined as most trees reac- t-eir clima7) w-ic- is determined using indigenous indicators; tree -eig-t) leave and stem color) stem widt- and branc-ing. Hull4 grown trees in clima7 vegetation usuall4 c-ange color of leaves and stem as 2e4 local indicators. 8-ere is an indigenous met-od of burning tree stems cuttings !stump# also called as J8e5e0aJ. Stumps are burnt slig-tl4 in a controlled wa4 so t-at tree stems can grow fast. 8-is met-od is often used toda4 wit- e7otic trees li2e eucaly5tus. :urning stumps) on t-e one -and) promotes t-e emergence of buds) and it fastens tree growt-. &n t-e ot-er -and) it clears weed from t-e woodlot and contributes as- to t-e soil. :urning s-ortens t-e coppicing c4cle. :urning of stumps can lead to accelerated rainfall erosion) if underta2en in -ill4 area. 8-is met-od is associated wit- coppicing as a traditional met-od of woodland management. 8-ere are indigenous met-ods of growing tree seedlings !from seeds) buds and from seedling#. H,& !2 %; +#

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describes common 2nowledge as -eld b4 all people) s-ared 2nowledge b4 man4 and speciali?ed 2nowledge b4 few people. Some of t-e tec-niCues of growing seedlings are based on speciali?ed 2nowledge and are 2nown b4 few people in t-e area. 3ollecting 4oung seedlings in undergrowt- and transplanting is one met-od. ,not-er met-od is collecting tree seeds and buds and bur4 !b4 covering wit- dung#. ,ppro7imatel4 a tree bud buried at a place can produce 2 -( seedlings in 2 mont-s. 8-is is often done at t-e beginning of t-e rain4 season. '.7 *ole of indigenous land management 5ractices 8-ere are indigenous land management practices) w-ic- lead to an improvement of soil-based ecological functions and to seCuestration of carbon. 8-ere is diversit4 among t-e nine indigenous land management practices and spatial variabilit4 of eac- practice among farmers in t-e area !8able 2#. 8-us) t-e role of eacpractice to seCuester carbon !Cuantit4 and t4pe of carbon#) contribute to climate c-ange adaptation and sustain soil-based ecos4stem services varies. In spite of t-e variation in t-e role of t-e practices) e7pertsE ratings were followed b4 communit4 validation. E7pert rating involved ran2ing t-e role of eac- practice based on t-ree impact scales rated as ver4 -ig-) medium and low !8able *#. Indigenous tec-nologies are developed b4 t-e local communit4 to solve a particular problem !,Aibade 2 *; 1 #. 8-e indigenous practices address one or more problems envisaged in t-e communit4. &n t-e basis of inventor4 of nine maAor practices) t-is stud4 s-ows t-at indigenous agro forestr4 is t-e best to address multiple problems envisaged b4 t-e communit4. It -as t-e -ig-est potential in seCuestering carbon !bot- above and below ground# per unit of land) to improve soil ecological functions) and to contribute to climate c-ange mitigation and adaptation. '." (ndigenous 6no4ledge system transfer Indeed) man4 indigenous conservation practices are lin2ed wit- ancient peopleEs perspectives and practices and t-eir relations-ip wit- t-e ecos4stem !Kat-iui and Bariu2i) 2 7; %*G#. IB is embedded in communit4 practices) institutions) relations-ips and rituals !H,& 2 %; 7#) w-ic- reflect peopleEs relation wit- t-e ecos4stem. @ola4ta people -ave lived in close to t-eir natural resources. 8-e @ola4ta values and perspectives are also reflected in indigenous proverbs !8able (#) w-ic- depicts t-at people are part of t-e ecos4stem) and t-ese restrict peoplesE rig-t to over-e7ploit natural resources. 8-e @ola4ta perspective of a Qnature--umanJ relations-ip is also reflected on nature regeneration capacit4 and manEs responsibilit4 to maintain -armon4 wit- nature. "eople in t-e stud4 area believe t-at nature can restore itself and 0od locall4 called as J8osoJ enables natural resources regeneration. 8-e @ola4ta ecos4stem value contributes to co-e7istence and sustainabilit4 of ecos4stem. Elders describe degradation of ecos4stems !soil) vegetation) water# as a wrong practice and @ola4ta cultural ceremonies are muc- li2ed wit- maintaining a well-managed ecos4stem. 8-e sociali?ation of people in meeting places called I0utaraJ reflects t-e lin2 between well-managed ecos4stems and culture. I0utaraJ -as dense green tree s-ades wit- good pasture as undergrowt-) w-ic- is also used during Ifuneral ceremon4J and -orse galloping. IB is transferred from one generation to anot-er t-roug- indigenous communication c-annels !Di7on) 2 2; G#. IB tends to be communicated t-roug- dail4 routine activities) stor4telling) village meetings) drama and in man4 ot-er wa4s. IB information can also be e7tracted from traditional fol2tales as described in ,Aibade !2 *; 1 2# from one generation to anot-er in t-e form of stories) tales or proverbs. ,frican indigenous traditions contain s4mbolic and et-ical messages and are passed on to ensure respect and compassion for parts of ecos4stem !Belbessa) 2 %; 17#) as stated in selected proverbs I/a4iseJ in @ola4ta !8able (#. In Sout- @estern Et-iopia) Di7on !2 2; (2# found ancestral 2nowledge as important source of information. In Damote-Sore District) indigenous practices are valued as ancestral 2nowledge and are also used b4 t-e present generation. 8-ere are IB practices w-ic- -ave strong similarit4 wit- some selected introduced practices. E7amining t-e relations-ip between IB and introduced practices s-ows t-at IB -as contributed to t-e introduction and later adoption of introduced practices li2e enclosure) cut and carr4) intercropping) and afforestation. 8-e contribution lies on t-e association between introduced practices wit- prior 2nowledge of farmersE practices. 8oda4) farmers ma2e use of indigenous 2nowledge s4stems along wit- introduced land management practices. 8-is also s-ows t-e role of IB in current natural resource management) 4et t-e effort to integrate wit- current development is not in place. Indigenous land management 2nowledge is overloo2ed) as t-ere is neit-er effort to s-ow its wea2ness nor its strengt- b4 relating it wit- modern land management practices. 8-e use of indigenous 2nowledge is) -owever) restricted b4 socio-economic factors !land scarcit4) -igpopulation pressure resulting in e7pansion of crop land#. 8-is restriction s-ows t-e less contribution of IB in present da4 ecos4stem management) compared wit- t-e e7pected role. Some of t-e abandoned indigenous land management practices in t-e area in recent da4s include; grassland burning) fallowing and reduction in amount of crop residue left on croplands. +$ Conclusions and )ecommendations Indigenous 2nowledge s4stems -ave contributed to t-e maintenance of t-e present da4) diverse and ric- biodiversit4 among t-e @ola4ta et-nic groups under different agro-ecos4stems against t-e -istorical social and natural problems in t-e area. 8-is -as been reflected in @ola4ta values and perspectives for t-e ecos4stem and in

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t-e indigenous proverbs. Et-no-ecolog4 researc- in Et-iopia -as s-own t-e importance of IB since t-e 1+$ sD -owever) efforts to integrate t-em wit- development -ave lagged be-ind. "ast researc- s-ows t-e role of IB in reducing erosion) increasing soil fertilit4 and crop 4ield to t-e e7tent of contributing to peopleEs liveli-oods. "ast studiesD -owever) do not s-ow spatial variation of practices and t-e role of IB in sustaining ecos4stem services and contributing to carbon seCuestration. It is recommended t-at studies be conducted on t-e spatial variation of indigenous practices) t-eir transfer) promotion and integration of IB s4stems for better economic use at a larger scale. :ased on similarit4 and association between some introduced and indigenous practices) t-is stud4 reflects t-e role of IB in ecos4stem management and its contribution to adoption of introduced tec-nologies. 8-e wealt- of indigenous practices in land management in Damote-Sore is reflected in t-e diversit4 of practices) terminolog4 used and indigenous land-use classification s4stem applied. 8-e reduced role of IB s4stem in en-ancing soil based ecos4stem services is associated wit- t-e prevailing socio-economic factors) w-ic- -inder t-e use of t-is 2nowledge. 3roplands -ave more diverse and widel4 used indigenous practices t-an forest lands and grasslands. 8-e inventor4 and rating of nine maAor land management practices s-ows t-at indigenous agro-forestr4 -as t-e best rating) as it provides multiple benefits in sustaining ecos4stem services w-ile seCuestering carbon in above and below ground and contributing to climate c-ange mitigation and adaptation. 8-e stud4 recommends t-at furt-er Cuantitative validation of indigenous practices in terms of carbon seCuestration and ecos4stem valuation be done in t-e stud4 area. )eferences ,bera)P. and :elac-ew) 8. !2 11# 6ocal "erceptions of Soil Hertilit4 Kanagement in Sout- Eastern Et-iopia. (nternational *esearch 8ournal of )gricultural Science and Soil Science. 'ol. 1!2# pp. G(-G+. ,ddis) 0.) 9rga) B) Di2asso) D.) !2 %# ,n Et-no botanical stud4 of Edible @ild "lants in Some Selected Districts of Et-iopia) 8ournal of 9uman Ecology1 'ol. **) No 1) pp $*-11$. D&I; 1 .1 7Ns1 7(%- %-1G%G,/I !1++7# ,n inventor4 of spatial and non-spatial surve4 and researc- data on natural resources and t-e land productivit4 in t-e -ig-lands of Et-iopia) Ben4a) Kadagascar and 9ganda. !eds.) :raun.,.5) Smaling)E.) Kuc-ung) E) S-ep-erd)B.D and 3orbett)J.D #) ,frican /ig-land Initiatives =,/I> 8ec-nical report serious No. GD pp. 12G ,Aibade) 6.8. !2 *# In searc- for met-odolog4 for t-e collection and evaluation of farmersE indigenous environmental 2nowledge) INDI6IN0,; )frican 8ournal of (ndigenous :no4ledge System) No 2; pp. ++-11*. ,vailable at R www.aAol.infoNinde7.p-pNindilingaNarticleNviewN(7 2S ,lema4e-u) K.!1++2# 8-e Effect of 8raditional Ditc-es on Soil Erosion and "roduction. Soil 3onservation 5esearc- 5eport 22. 9niversit4 of :ern) Swit?erland and Kinistr4 of ,griculture) :ern and ,ddis ,baba. pp.**. ,mede) 8.) :elac-ew) 8.) and 0eta) E. !2 1# 5eversing t-e degradation of arable land in t-e Et-iopian /ig-lands) Kanaging ,fricaEs Soil1 No. 2*) pp. 2+. ,ssefa) ,.!2 7# Impact of 8errace Development and Kanagement on Soil "roperties in ,nAeni ,rea) @est 0oAam) K., t-esis) Sc-ool of 0raduate Studies) ,ddis ,baba 9niversit4. pp. +(. :ellon) K.5.!1++%# HarmersF Bnowledge and Sustainable ,gro-ecos4stem Kanagement; ,n &perational Definition and an E7ample from 3-iapas) Ke7ico) 9uman Organi;ation <ol.7=.No '. 55. #"' #$#. :oillat) S.!2 $# 8raditional Ecological Bnowledge) 6and 9se and Ecos4stem Diversit4 in t-e 8unari National "ar2 !:olivia#) "-.D dissertation submitted to 3enter for Development !3DE#) Department of 0eograp-4)Uni2ersity of >ern. ,vailable at Rwww.ibcperu.orgNdocNisisN+ $2.pdfS 3-an) B.P) 3owie),) Bell4) 0) Sing-) :.)Slavic-) ".)!2 +# Scoping "aper; Soil &rganic 3arbon SeCuestration "otential for ,griculture in NS@) New Sout- @ales ! NS@# Dept. of "rimar4 Industries !D"I# Science and 5esearc- 8ec-nical "aper) pp. 2$) ,vailable at R -ttp;NNwww.dpi.nsw.gov.auNresearc-NareasNsoils-rec4cledorganicsNscientific-outputsN2 $NsoilTorganicS 3-an) BP) &ates) ,.) 6iu) D.6) 6i)0.D) "rangnel) 5.) "olle) 0.) 3on4ers) K.B!2 1 # , farmerEs guide to increase soil organic carbon under pastures) Industr4 and Investment NS@) @agga @agga NS@) ,ustralia) ,rris "t4 6td. pp 21) ,vaiable at R444.d5i.nsw.go2.au?@@...?,-farmers-guide-to-increasing-Soil-&rganic ...S 3osoleto) I.)!2 1 # 8-e population of Et-iopia; et-nic) linguistic and religious divisions) in Hact S-eet; Et-iopia) 9niversit4 of &slo. ,vailable at R-ttp;NNwww.uio.noNstudierNemnerNAusN-umanrig-tsN/9K5%% 1N- 7NundervisningsmaterialeNfacts-eetTEt-iopia. docS 3S, !2 +# National Statistical ,bstracts) 3entral Statistics ,ut-orit4 !3S,# -ttp;NNwww.csa.gov.etNdoucmentsNNational ,bstract StatisticsN2 + national statistics !,bstract# 3-ambers) 5 !1+$*# 5ural Development; "utting t-e 6ast Hirst. 2(G pp.) Jo-n @ile4 and Sons) Inc.) New Por2. Davis)S./. and @ali) ,. !1++(# Indigenous 6and 8enure and 8ropical Horest Kanagement in 6atin ,merica)

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)0>(OA ) /ournal of the 9uman En2ironment 1 'ol 2* ) No $) pp. ($%-(+ . ,vailable at R-ttp;NNwww.Astor.orgNstableN(*1(2G%S De 0root) 5.S) @ilson) K.,) :oumans) 5.K.J !2 2# , t4polog4 for t-e classification) description and valuation of ecos4stem functions) goods and services) Ecological Economics) (1) pp. *+*U( $. D&I; 1 .1 1GNS +21-$ +! 2# $+-7. Di7on) ,): !2 2# 8-e 5ole of Indigenous Bnowledge In @etland Kanagement; Kec-anisms of 2nowledge acCuisition and development as a basis for sustainable use) 9niversit4 of /uddersfield) @eN5e0 @or2ing "aper No (. ,vailable at Rwetlandsandforests.-ud.ac.u2NwetlandsTcwelNpdfN@"(.pdfS Elias.)E.!1++7# Soil Hertilit4 Kanagement and Nutrient :alance in Bindo Bo4s-a Harms; , case Stud4 in Nort&mo) Sout-ern Et-iopia) H5" 8ec-nical "amp-let No 1%. E",E !1+$+# 8-e conservation strateg4 of Et-iopia !3SE#) Environmental "rotection ,ut-orit4 of Et-iopia) pp. 1 . ,vailable atR -ttp;NNtcdc2.undp.orgN0SSD,cadem4NSIENDocsN'ol*N3onservationTEt-iopia.pdf B Er2ossa)8 and ,4ele) 0!2 *# Indigenous Bnowledge and "ractices for Soil and @ater Kanagement in East @ollega) Et-iopia) a paper presented at t-e International conference on ,gricultural 5esearc- for Development -eld at 0ottingen in 0erman4 from &ct $-1 )2 *. H,& !2 1# Soil 3arbon SeCuestration for Improved 6and Kanagement) @orld Soil 5esources 5eports +G) Hood and ,griculture &rgani?ation =H,&>) 5ome) Ital4) pp.7% H,& !2 %# :uilding on 0ender) ,gro-biodiversit4 and local 2nowledge) 8raining Kanual) Hood and ,griculture &rgani?ation =H,&>) 5ome) Ital4) pp. 177. H,&N9NE" !1+++# 8-e Huture of &ur 6and; Hacing t-e 3-allenge. 0uidelines for Integrated "lanning for Sustainable Kanagement of 6and 5esources) 5ome) Ital4) pp. 71. He2adu.) D. !2 +# 3-aracteri?ing farming practices from t-ree regions of Et-iopia on w-ic- Enset !Ensete 2ertricosum# is widel4 profited as a multi-purpose crop plant. Ci2estoc6 *esearch for *ural .e2elo5ment) 'ol. 21 !12# No.21*. ,vailable at R-ttp;NNwww.lrrd.orgNlrrd21N12Nfe2a2121*.-tmS 0ebreKic-ael) P.) and Bifle) K !2 +# 6ocal Innovation in 3limate-3-ange ,daptation b4 Et-iopian "astoralists) Hinal 5eport submitted to "5&6INN&',-Et-iopia and "astoralist Horum Et-iopia) ,ddis ,baba) Et-iopia. ,vailable at Rwww.prolinnova.netN...Nclimate c-ange...NEt-iopia pastoral climate c-ange pdf.S 0ebre Kic-ael) P. !1+++# 8-e use) maintenance and development of soil and water conservation measures b4 t-e small-scale farming -ouse-olds in different agro-climatic ?ones of Et-iopia. Soil 3onservation 5esearc- "rogram =S35"> 5esearc- 5eport ((. 3entre for Development and Environment) 9niversit4 of :erne) Swit?erland. /aileslassie ,) "riess J) 'eld2amp E) 8e2eta4 D) 6essc-en J." !2 %# ,ssessment of soil nutrient depletion and its spatial variabilit4 on small-oldersE mi7ed farming s4stems in Et-iopia using partial versus full nutrient balances) )griculture Ecosystems and En2ironment) 1 $) pp. 1-1G. D&I; 1 .1 1GNA.agee.2 (.12. 1 /erweg) B !2 2# Indigenous soil management) In Enc4clopedia of Soil Science !ed.) 6al) 5.#) pp. G7+-G$2) Karcel De22er) Inc) New Por2. D&I; 1 .1 $1NE-ESS-12 (27 *. /urni) / !1+$(#; 8-ird "rogress 5eport; Soil 3onservation 5esearc- "roAect) Kinistr4 of ,griculture and 9niversit4 of :ern. Inglis) J.)!1++*# 8raditional Ecological Bnowledge; 3oncepts and cases. International Development 5esearc3enter !ID53#) 3anada) pp. 1(* II55 !1++G# 5ecording and 9sing Indigenous Bnowledge; , manual) International Institute for 5ural 5econstruction !II55#)Silang) 3avite) "-ilippines) pp. 211. Jos-i)6.) @iAa4a)B.) Sirait)K.) Kul4outami)E.)!2 (# Indigenous s4stems and ecological 2nowledge among Da4a2 people in Butai :arat) East Balimantan a preliminar4 report) I35,H Sout-east ,sia @or2ing "aper) No. 2 (T*) 22 pp Bruger) /.J :er-anu H) 0ebere Kic-ael P.) BeAela) B !1++G# Inventor4 of indigenous soil and water conservation measures on selected sites in Et-iopian /ig-lands. Soil 3onservation 5esearc- 5eport *(. 3entre for Development and Environment !3DE#) 9niversit4 of :ern) Swit?erland. Belbessa) @ !2 %# 8-e 5e-abilitation of Indigenous Environmental Et-ics in ,frica) .iogenes) 'ol. %2) No. *) pp. 17-*(. D&I; 1 .1177N *+21+21 % %%1G7 Bolawole) &.D. !2 1# 6ocal Bnowledge 9tili?ation and Sustainable Development in 21 st 3entur4) Indigenous Bnowledge and Development Konitor +-* !(#) Nov 2 1. Bruger) /.J :er-anu H) 0ebere Kic-ael P.) BeAela) B !1++G# Inventor4 of indigenous soil and water conservation measures on selected sites in Et-iopian /ig-lands. Soil 3onservation 5esearc- 5eport *(. 3entre for Development and Environment !3DE#) 9niversit4 of :ern) Swit?erland 6al) 5.!2 (# Soil 3arbon SeCuestration to Kitigate 3limate 3-ange) Geoderma 12*) pp. 1-22) D&I; 1 .1 1GNA.geoderma.2 (. 1. *2 6iniger)/." and 3ritc-le4) @. !2 7# @-ere t-e land is greener; case studies and anal4sis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide) @orld &verview of 3onservation ,pproac-es and 8ec-nologies !@&3,8#)

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Joint publication of 38, H,&)9NE") 3DE) pp. *7G. 6iniger) /.") Ke2dasc-i Studer) 5) /auert) 3) 0urtner) K. !2 11# Sustainable 6and Kanagement In "ractice; 0uidelines and :est "ractices in Sub-Sa-aran ,frica) 8err,frica) @orld &verview of 3onservation ,pproac-es and 8ec-nologies !@&3,8# and Hood and ,griculture &rgani?ation of t-e 9nited Nations !H,&#) pp. 2(*. Kat-iui) K. Bariu2i) " !2 7# 3over Essa4; Indigenous Eco -ealt- "ractices in East ,frica. Eco 9ealth1 () pp. %*G-%*$. D&I; +!.+!!$?s+!'&' !!$ !+== y. Kesfin) 8) &bsa.) 8 !1++(# Et-iopian traditional veterinar4 practices and t-eir possible contribution to animal production and management. *e2ie4 of Science and technology 1++() 1*; pp. (17-(2(.D&I; 1 .11$GN17(G(2G+-G-2 . Kiti2u) /) /erweg) B) Still-ardt) :!2 G# Sustainable 6and Kanagement; , New ,pproac- to Soil and @ater 3onservation in Et-iopia. Ke2elle) Et-iopia; 6and 5esources Kanagement and Environmental "rotection Department) Ke2elle 9niversit4D :ern) Swit?erland; 3entre for Development and Environment !3DE#) 9niversit4 of :ern) and Swiss National 3entre of 3ompetence in 5esearc- !N335# Nort--Sout-. pp. 2G+. Ko,5D !2 1 # Sustainable 6and Kanagement 8ec-nologies and ,pproac-es in Et-iopia) Kinistr4 of ,griculture and 5ural Development !Ko,5D#) !ed.) Danano) D.)# "ublis-ed b4 Sustainable 6and Kanagement "roAect !S6K"#. pp. *2+ N4ssen) J. /aile) K. Koe4ersons) J.) "oesen.)J and Dec2ers) J !2 # Soil and water 3onservation in 8igra4 !Nort-ern Et-iopia#; 8-e traditional 8ec-niCue and its integration wit- Introduced 8ec-niCues ) Cand .egradation and .e2elo5ment .11; 1++-2 $. D&I; 1 .1 2N1 ++-1(%V!2 %N G#11;*R1++;;,ID6D5*7GS*. .3&D2-PS "053!1++%# E8/I&"I,; 3ountr4 5eport to t-e H,& International 8ec-nical 3onference &n "lant 0enetic 5esources -eld in 6eip?ig) "lant 0enetic 5esources 3enter ="053> ,ddis ,baba. "ound): and Jonfa) E !2 %# Soil Hertilit4 "ractices in @ola4ta 1one) Sout-ern Et-iopia; 6earning from Harmers) H,5K-,fricaEs "olic4 and 5esearc- Series) H,5KU,frica) pp. *(. 5eiA) 3. !1++1#. Indigenous Soil and @ater 3onservation in ,frica) 0ate2eeper Series No. 27) pp *%) IIED) 6ondon. ,vailable at R-ttp;NNwww.iiav.nlNepublicationsN1++1NindigenousTsoilTandTwaterTconservationTinTafrica.pdfS 5eiAntAes 3.!2 (# :ridging local 2nowledge and global science) 3&K",S Kaga?ine) No. 7) pp. (1-(*) Sept) 2 (. ,vailable at R -ttp;NNwww.compasnet.orgNblogNwp-contentNuploadsN2 11N *N3KN3K7.pdfS 5ist)S and Da-dou--0uebas) H !2 G# Et-no sciences- a step towards t-e integration of scientific and indigenous forms of 2nowledge in t-e management of natural resources for t-e future) En2ironment .e2elo5ment and Sustainability) $ !(#) pp. (G7-(+*. D&I; 1 .1 7Ns1 GG$- G-+ % -7. Samal)".B) D-4aani) ".") Dollo) K. !2 1 # Indigenous medicinal practices of :-otia tribal communit4 in Indian 3entral /imala4a) (ndian 8ournal of Traditional :no4ledge1 +!1#) pp. 1( -1((. ,vailable at R-ttp;NNnopr.niscair.res.inNbitstreamN12*(%G7$+N7172N1NIJ8BM2 +M2$1M2+M2 1( -1((.pdfS. S35" !2 # 3oncept and Ket-odolog4; 6ong-term Konitoring of t-e ,gricultural Environment in Si7 5esearc- Stations in Et-iopia. Soil 3onservation 5esearc- "rogram =S35">) 3enter for Development and Environment =3DE>) 9niversit4 of :ern ) Swit?erland. SoAa44a) " !2 %# 3omparison between conventional land evaluation and a met-od based on farmersE Indigenous Bnowledge; case stud4 in 6om Sa2 District !"-etc-abun "rovince#) 8-ailand) KSc t-esis submitted to International Institute for 0eo-information Science and Eart- &bservation N I83 !8-e Net-erlands#. pp. $%. Srivastava) S.)!2 +# 8ransferring Indigenous Bnowledge t-roug- 5ural 8ele-centers; 6essons and "erspective from India) pp. ( +-(2+) In IIndigenous Bnowledge and Disaster 5is2 5eduction; Hrom "ractice to "olic4J !eds.) S-aw) 5.) S-arma) ,.) and 8a2euc-i) P # pp. (+ . S-aw) 5 and S-arma) , !2 7# 8ransferable Indigenous Bnowledge !8IB#; "rogresses and 3-allenges) wor2s-op presentation slide) B4oto 9niversit4) 0raduate Sc-ool of 0lobal Environmental Studies. SNN"5 !2 (# ,tlas of Sout-ern Nations Nationalities and "eoplesW 5egion !SNN"5#) :ureau of Statistics and Information !:oSI#) ,wassa) Et-iopia. 8egene) : !1++2# HarmersF perceptions of erosion -a?ards and attitudes towards soil conservation in 0ununo) @ola4ta) Sout-ern Et-iopia. Ethio5ian 8ournal of .e2elo5ment *esearch1 1() No. 2; pp. *1-%$. 8ripat-i) N and :-attar4a) S. !2 (# Integrating Indigenous and 0IS for participator4 Natural 5esource Kanagement; State of t-e practice. The Electronic 8ournal of (nformation Systems in .e2elo5ing ,ountries1 17 !*#) pp 1-1*. ,vailable at R -ttp;NNwww.eAisdc.orgNoAs2Ninde7.p-pNeAisdcNarticleNviewHileN1 %N1 %S 9NE" !2 $# Indigenous Bnowledge in Disaster Kanagement in ,frica) Nairobi) Ben4a) 9nited Nations Environmental "rogram =9NE">)1 $ pp. ,vailable at R www.unep.orgNIBN"DHNIndigenous:oo2let.pdfB @all) 5. B) and Banaw-a H) 6 !2 1# 8-e 5ole of Indigenous :urning in 6and Kanagement) 8ournal of Forestry1 'ol. ++) No 11) pp. *G-(1. ,vailable at R -ttp;NNwww.ingentaconnect.comNcontentNsafNAofN2 1N ++N 11Nart $S

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@al2er) D. /.D Sincair) H.6.)!1++$# ,cCuiring Cualitative 2nowledge about comple7 agro ecos4stems) part 2; Hormal representation. )gricultural Systems) %G !*# *G%-*$G.D&I; 1 .1 1GNS * $-%21V !+7# (+-$ @arren) D. K. !1++2# Indigenous 2nowledge) biodiversit4 conservation and development. Be4note address at t-e International 3onference on 3onservation of :iodiversit4 in ,frica; 6ocal Initiatives and Institutional 5oles) * ,ugust-* September 1++2) Nairobi) Ben4a) ,vailable at R-ttp;NNwww.ciesin.orgNdocsN (-17*N (-17*.-tmlS @arren) D. K.) and 5aAase2aran) : !1++*# "utting 6ocal Bnowledge to 0ood 9se) International ,gricultural Development) pp. $-1 ) 'ol. 1* !(#. ,vailable at R-ttp;NNdlc.dlib.indiana.eduNarc-iveN 2$$ NS @eedman) B.J !2 G# ,n Et-no arc-aeological stud4 of /afting and Stone 8oll Diversit4 among t-e 0amo of Et-iopia) 8ournal of )rchaeological 0ethod and Theory1 'ol. 1*) No * pp. 1$$-2*7. D&I; 1 .1 7Ns1 $1G- G+ 1 -( @&3,8 !2 $# @orld &verview of 3onservation ,pproac-es and 8ec-nologies =@&3,8> -3ategori?ation S4stem) ,vailable at R -ttps;NNwww.wocat.netNfileadminNuserTuploadNdocumentsNX8TandTX,N8ec-XuestE.pdf S

Higure -1-6ocation of Damote-Sore District !@ola4ta 1one#) Sout-ern Et-iopia

8i2iPa !a#

,46iPa !b#

Higure -2-Indigenious tillage eCuipment in Damote-Sore District !@ola4ta#

$+

Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.17) 2 1*

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8able -1- Indigenous terminolog4 in land management in Damote-Sore !@ola4ta# 6,ND 6and use t4pe Kismanaged 9SE Horest IKita :ita!0ade#J) I@oraJ) I@ora I6eda :itaJ Infertile land land :itaJ refers to land allocated for IKita Ben8ic-eSJ or I@oraBtaJ Y trees forest clearanceNdeforestaion IKa lele Ban8 PogaJ Y forest clearance 0rass IKata 0adi4Q or IBorawo :itaJ Infertile land land IKata :ita !0ade# or IDenbaJY I:odla :itaJ or IBo8eda Kata :itaJ refers to land w-ere grass grow and overgra?ed land or mismanaged pasture animals gra?e I:ulaPisJ Y overgra?ing I@udro /amiPogaJ Y using grass land be4ond its carr4ing capacit4 3rop I0os-a :ita !0ade# or IBata I6eda :itaJ Y Infertile land) land 0adi4J) Y refers to land allocated for 9nproductive land annual crops I6adSiSJ or I,tiSisJ Y infertile soil IBa8a @oseJ or I6o4it ,42ibenaJ Y poorl4 managed crops I/arum 8ibenagaJYpoorl4 weeded crop land Z&st:ena BataJ or Z6o -i ,-e 8i:enaJ Y mismanaged croplandN infertile Source" group discussion and 2e4 informants

@ell-managed I,rada-:itaJ fertile land Y

IBor@aJY good pasture land

I,rada-:itaJ fertile land

8able -2- Indigenous land management practices in Damote-Sore No @ola4ta !local# name ,m-aric nameN3onnotation 1 I&s-a 0ade Bisde Po0ePo0aJ :is:as- Kec-emer 2 Du:er Be@o ,bro Ke?erat * IBaKiPogaJ or I:ita Keret Ka1iPo0aJ Kes-efeneNKalbese ( IDgarso :itaJ) IEspe0os-aJ ) 8imir Ers-a I@ala 0os-aJor J Daren3-aJ % J8e5e0aJ. 0uto Ka2atel G ISufe !:urc-e# :itata Kata Enc-et Be Sar Boreta 0arsaHe BetiPo0aJ 7 IDirSaJ Ka8erNKeBelel $ I BorawoJ ,c-ido Kemegeb + J8ara0a 8aKa PoDeSoNaJ or KaBa8el IKa8a :i 8a 8u0i Po 0aJ. Source; communit4 discussion and 2e4 informants

Englis- name Kanuring Intercropping Kulc-ing ,groforestr4 :urning of tree stem cuttings Enric-ment !removal of unpalatable species# Enclosure 3ut and 3arr4 :urning

6and 9se 3rop land 3ropland 3ropland 3ropland wit- trees Horest land 0rassland 0rassland 0rassland 0rassland

Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 !"aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.() No.17) 2 1*

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8able -*- E7pert rating of indigenous land management practices 3arbon No @ola4ta !local# name ,m-aric name Englis- name SeCuestration Soil-based t 3N-aN4r Impact Impact Ecological 3limate 3-ange ] ]]] ]]] ]] ] ]]] ] ] ]

I&s-a

0ade

Bisde

:is:as- Kec-emer

Kanuring

. 2.7[ .1- .$\ .1- .G Q

]]]

]]]

Po0ePo0aJ

IDu:er Be@oJ

,bro Ke?erat

Intercropping

. 2.7[ .1- .$\ .1- .* Q

]]

IBaKiPogaJ Ka1iPo0aJ

or

I:ita

Keret Kes-efeneNKalbese

Kulc-ing

. 2.7[ .1- .$\

]]

J8e5e0aJ.

0uto Ka2atel

:urning tree stem cuttings

N,

ISufe !:urc-e# :itata Kata 0arsaHe BetiPo0aJ

Enc-et Boreta

Be

Sar

Enric-ment !removal unpalatable species# of

.1- .%[ .1- .*


\

]]

IDgarso IEspe0os-aJ) 0os-aJor JDaren3-aJ

:itaJ) I@ala

8imir Ers-a

,groforestr4

.$-1. [ .*- *.G\ .1-*\ . 21.*[ .1-*\ .1- .%[

]]]

]]]

IDirSaJ

Ka8erN KeBelel

Enclosure

]]

]]

I BorawoJ

,c-ido Kemegeb

3ut and 3arr4

]]

J8ara0a 8aKa PoDeSoNaJ or IKa8a :i 8a 8u0i Po 0aJ.

Sar KaBa8el

0rass :urning

land

.%-1.([ .1- .*
\

]]

\ Source" E7pert rating and communit4 validation 6iniger) et al. !2 11# is based on e7pert estimates for Q various activities. [6al !2 (# 3-an) et al) 2 1 Impact rating" ]]] Y ver4 -ig-D ]] Y mediumD ] Y low) and N,. Y not available

+1

,daptation

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Table 1+ 2 Selected proverbs on role of indigenous land management in *amote1Sore *istrict$ -olaytigna I,4eHud 0edenaJ 0edis ,2id )marigna IKasan masfat Sa4/one :ic-a) Kasan menBeba2eb Kertin PasadigalJ English translation and connotation It is not land e7pansion alone t-at increases 4ield) but also ta2ing care of t-e land.!Impl4ing t-e role of using intensive management) e.g. mulc-) manure) etc. to increase productivit4 of land# ^:itaw 8aleDaPe) 0aKa Ke8et EreNaI I6e Keret Pa:eDere @-oever loans or provides to a land) never gets ban2rupt. !Impl4ing t-e role of leaving crop residue) adding materials to t-e soil in return of t-e final benefit in terms of 4ieldN-arvest.# IKi1aPaPi ,eBe,0ed) EsESan :i8aKo ^Be:e8e ,fe5i :e,nde Pigital) :ota If 4ou let cattle gra?e at a spot) t-e4 gra?e bare land) so 4ou let t-em gra?e in a controlled wa4. !Impl4ing t-e danger of overgra?ing and

@ePniK Pese8e) @aNa @un ,4belamJ

Sele1-i

0adi4o PoS-aDa /emi2J

1er1er ,derge ,gedI

importance of controlled gra?ing.# ISan8an San8ed 6o2oKan 0aBoSeJ I6o2oKan 6o2omed :adla 0aBoseJ I:e0oKen ,denguare ,denguare 8edegefen Indersalen) 8edegefen :ecause of -aving cabbage) we reac- for /aricot :eans. :ecause of -aving -aricot bean we reacfor Kai?e. !5eflecting t-e role of cropping practice) e.g. inter croppingNcrop rotation as peoples liveli-ood strateg4.# ^,tena Bat Ka8a) ,areNa NaEi 8a6e/eI IPa6e8eBo8eBo8e Sebel ,rem a6e8eBoNe8e8e Se8aN NewI I:ete ,saJ I:e?u PemPiBo4i SewJ New) 6iJi If a crop is not cultivated) it is a weed. 6i2ewise) if a c-ild is not disciplined) it is li2e Satan. !Impl4ing t-e importance of weeding or cultivation in land stewards-ip.# &ne w-o does not in-abit long in an area. !:eing a term used b4 farmers) for t-ose w-o lac2 bac24ard tree s-ade) reflecting t-e importance of indigenous agro-forestr4.# Source" 3ommunit4 discussion

:o2olo EndersalenJ

+2

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