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Dr.

GeorgeGougoulidis
Introduction(CSR,Energy,emissionsandthemaindrivers,
Researchprojects)
Regulations
Operationalmeasures
Techmeasures
Hull&superstructures
Design
Coatings
Airlubrication
Propulsioncomponents
Renewableenergy
Mainengines&Alternativefuels
Machinery
Futureconsiderations
Aconceptwherebycompaniesintegrate
social andenvironmental concernsintheir
businessoperationsandintheirinteraction
withtheirstakeholdersonavoluntarybasis.
(originalEuropeanCommissiondefinition)
Newdefinition:theresponsibilityof
enterprisesfortheirimpactsonsociety.
Tofullymeettheircorporatesocial
responsibility,enterprisesshouldhavein
placeaprocesstointegratesocial,
environmental,ethical,humanrights and
consumer concernsintotheirbusiness
operationsandcorestrategyinclose
collaborationwiththeirstakeholders
Theinterestofmanystakeholdershasincreased,leadingto
pressureonthemaritimeindustry
Gainacompetitiveadvantage
Strengthenitsbrand,image,reputation
Achievehighersales
Increaseemployeeprideandloyalty,motivation
Realizecostsavings
Enjoyeasieraccesstofinancing/Sociallyresponsibleinvesting
Reducerisk
AvoidUnethicalbusinesspractices
Avoidpotentialnegativeimpactsonlocalcommunities
Avoidexposureofpoorperformance
EnergySavings
CostSavings
Ship
Owners/Operators
Environmental
Benefits
Everyone
Financial
Crisis
Regulations
(IMO)
Headseas,Beaufort6
SecondIMOGHGStudy2009
SecondIMOGHGStudy2009
EEDI=EnergyEfficiencyDesignIndex
EEOI=EnergyEfficiencyOperationalIndex
SEEMP=ShipEnergyEfficiencyManagementPlan
CEEMP=CompanyEnergyEfficiencyManagementPlan
IEEC=InternationalEnergyEfficiencyCertificate
KPI=KeyPerformanceIndicator
MBM=MarketBasedMeasures
MBI=MarketBasedInstruments
IMO
Measures
Technical
EEDI
Operational
SEEMP/EEOI
Economic
MBM/MBI
TheEnergyEfficiencyDesignIndex(EEDI)isameasureofshipsenergyefficiency
Inforcesince1Jan2013
Applicabletoshipsover400GT
Notapplicabletoshipswithdieselelectric,
turbineorhybridpropulsion
EEDIfornewships
Contracted1Jan2013,or
Keellaid1Jul2013,or
Delivered1Jul2015
FlagStatemaywaivetheEEDIforupto4
years
AttainedEEDI&RequiredEEDIfor
newships
newshipsundergoneamajorconversion
neworexistingshipsundergoneamajor
conversion
AttainedEEDI RequiredEEDI
Environmentalcost=EmissionofCO2
Benefit=Cargocapacitytransporteda
certaindistance
society for Benefit
cost tal Environmen
index design efficiency energy Attained
Toestablishamechanismforacompany
and/orashiptoimprovetheenergyefficiency
ofaship'soperation
Mandatoryforallshipstohaveone,butnota
specificform
Existingshipsbyfirstintermediateorrenewal
surveyafter1Jan2013
Planning
Implementation
Monitoring
(EEOI)
Self
evaluation&
improvement
Anassessmenttooloftheefficiencyofaship
withrespecttoCO2emissions
Voluntary
DefinedastheratioofmassofCO2emitted
perunitoftransportwork
MEPCrecognizedthattechnicaland
operationalmeasuresnotsufficientto
satisfactorilyreducetheGHGemissions
MBMsplaceapriceonGHGemissionsand
servetwomainpurposes:
provideaneconomicincentiveforthemaritime
industrytoreduceitsfuelconsumption
offsetinothersectorsofgrowingshipemissions
Improvedvoyage
planning
Weatherrouteing
Justintime
Speedoptimization
Optimizedshaftpower
Optimumtrim
Optimumballast
Optimumpropellerand
propellerinflow
considerations
Optimumuseofrudderand
headingcontrolsystems
(autopilots)
Hullmaintenance
Propulsionsystem
Propulsionsystem
maintenance
Wasteheatrecovery
Improvedfleetmanagement
Improvedcargohandling
Energymanagement
FuelType
Improve
Technology
Exteriorofship
Hull
Superstructure
Propulsion
components
Interiorofship
Mainengines
Machinery
Operations
Hull&Superstructure
Design
Coatings
Airlubrication
RenewableEnergies
Propulsioncomponents
Propeller
Rudder
ESDs
Mainengines
Derating
Longerstroke
Turbochargercutout
Cylindercutout
Tuning
Commonrail
Alternativefuel
Machinery
Shaftgenerator
Hybridauxiliarypower
generation(fuelcells)
Wasteheatrecovery
Voyageplanning
Slowsteaming Speedoptimization
Weatherrouteing
Justintime
Optimizedshaftpower
Optimumtrim
Optimumballast
Optimumuseofrudderandheadingcontrolsystems
Hullmaintenance
Propulsionsystemmaintenance(engines,propellers)
Trainingofpersonnel
Itcanencompassothermeasuressuchas
weatherrouteing,justintime,speed
optimization
Therearevarioussoftwareavailablefor
planningpurposes
Prevoyageanalysis&planning
Deployidealvesseltoeachroute
Designbestroutes
Planfor
Minimizingtime:recommendoptimumrouteto
meetearliestarrivaltime.
Minimizingfuelconsumption:recommendthe
optimumrouteandpowertoarriveontimewith
minimumfuelconsumption
Minimizingcost:recommendtheoptimumroute
andpowertoarriveonthebasisofminimumcost
Enrouterealtimeupdates
Postvoyageassessmentandfeedback
Speedoptimizationvs speedreduction
Reducingshipspeedeffectivelyreducesfuel
consumption
Propulsionpowervs.speedisathirdpower
relation
AstudyconductedbyIMOprovedthat
optimalspeedreductionisbetween1020%
Costeffectivenessof10%superiorto20%
Optimizationshouldbecarriedoutfortheoff
designconditions
Originallyexcellenthullforms,optimizedfor
designspeedanddraft,mayshowpoor
performancewhensailingatlowerspeeds,
especiallyinapartialloadingcondition
Optimumspeedmeansthespeedatwhichthe
fuelusedpertonne mileisminimum
Itdoesnotmeanminimumspeed
Sailingslowerthanoptimumspeedwillconsume
morefuel
Slowsteamingremainscontroversial,
especiallywitholderenginesnotoriginally
designedforthepractice
However,itremainstheeasysolutionof
copingwithunfavorablemarketconditions
Overcapacity lowfreightrates slow
steamingwillbecomeevenslowerandeven
moreprevalent
Userealtimedataofthephysical
environmenttochoosetheoptimal
routethroughcalmareas
Weatherrouteing canbeappliedto
allshiptypesandtradeareas
Theincreaseofresistancecausedby
heavyweatherdependsonthe
current,thewind,andthewavesize
Theresistanceinheadseascan
increasebyasmuchas50100%of
thetotalshipresistanceincalm
weather
Earlycommunicationwithportauthoritiesto
ensuretheexacttimeofberthavailabilityand
planforoptimumspeedtoarrivejustintime
Lessturnaroundtimeinportallowsforspeed
reductionwhileunderway
Appliestoshipswithscheduledoperations,such
asferriesandcontainervessels
Measuresforimprovementinclude:
Bettermaneuveringcapabilitiesoftheship
Increasedcargoflowbyusingsophisticatedship
systems,suchasramps,liftingequipment
Increasedcargoflowduetoimprovedport
loading/offloadingsystems
Theprovisionof
shoreside electrical
powertoashipat
berthwhileitsauxiliary
enginesareshutdown
Trimhasanimmediateeffectin
resistance
Foranygivendraftthereisatrim
conditionthatgivesminresistance
Severalsystemsinthemarket
Collectdatafromthevessel's
automationandnavigation
systemstooptimizetrim
GreenSteamOptimizer,Enirams
DynamicTrimmingAssistant,etc
Potentialsavingsupto4%
Autopilotscanachievefuelsavingsby
reducingthedistancesailedofftrack
Bettercoursecontrolthroughlessfrequent
andsmallercorrectionswillminimizelosses
duetorudderresistance
Hull
Regularinwaterinspectionoftheconditionofthe
hull
Monitoringofthefouling
Monitoringofthecoatingscondition
Cleaningofthehullwhenrequired
Dockingintervalsplanning
Completeremovalandapplicationofnewcoatingsfor
reductionofroughness
Propeller
Usediverstopolishthepropellerinregularintervals
whileshipisinservice
Newstandardforhullandpropeller
performanceunderdevelopment
Thedevelopmentofthestandardwas
discussedinTokyo inNovember2013
Hullperformancemonitoringisdifficult
becauseseveralparametershavetobe
considered(draft,trim,speed,seaway,wind,
etc)
Physical
roughness
Macro
Welds
Corrosion
Plate
waviness
Platelaps
Mechanical
damage
Micro
Minor
corrosion
Steel
profile
Coatings
condition
Biological
roughness
Macro
Animal
fouling
Weed
fouling
Micro
Slime
fouling
IncreaseinResistance@15kt IncreaseinResistance@30kt
Inabsolutetermspropellerroughnessisless
importantthanhullroughness
Intermsofenergylossperunitareapropeller
roughnessissignificantlymoreimportant
Typicalcleaning
intervalsshouldbe:
6monthsforpropellers
2monthsforhull
(dependsoncoating
type)
MeasuredwithRubert Scale
Underwatercleaningcan
smoothenthepropellerby2
gradesoftheRubert scale
Frequentpropellercleaning
(every1or2months)canbe
easilydoneusingasoft
brushandabrasives
Enoughtokeepapropeller
atRubert GradeAorB
Cleaningtakeslesstimethanpolishing
Alargepropellercanbepolishedin~4h
Withregardtothefrequencyofpropeller
polishingthereisaconsensusof:littleand
oftenbyexperiencedandspecialized
personnel
Costofpropellercleaning(brush&abrasives)
1520%lessthanfullpolishingwithgrinding
orpolishingdiscs
Followmanufacturersinstructionson
maintenanceschedule
Conditionbasedmaintenance
Maintenanceisperformedbasedoninformation
receivedbytheequipmentandonevaluationof
thisinformationbyexperts
Persuadethepersonnelofthenecessityof
energysavings
Createacultureoffuelsaving,withanincentive
orbonusbasedonfuelsavings
Altertheroutine
ShutdownACPlantwhentheweatherisgood
anduseonlytheblowers
Switchofflightsinareassuchascabins,
recreationrooms,messrooms,etc.whennot
required
Typeofresistance %ofR
T
High speed Lowspeed
Friction 45 90
Wavemaking 40 5
Eddy 5 3
Air 10 2
FluidDynamics
Aerodynamics Superstructure
Hydrodynamics
Hull/Propulsion
components
General
Optimizedimensions
Reduceweight
Minimizeballast
Forepart
Optimizedbowbulb
Nobulb
Wavepiercingbow
Flare
Aftpart
Sternendbulb
Skeg
Ducktail/sternflap/
interceptors
Allowforlargepropeller
Optimizemaindimensions lines
LowwavemakingresistancehighL/Bratio
Lowfrictionminimumwettedsurface,B/T
ratio~2.25forCb=0.80
Maximizelengthtoreduceresistance
Optimizeskeg todirecttheflowevenlytothe
propeller
Shaftlinesshouldbestreamlined
Flowdisturbancefromhullopenings(bow
thrusters,seachests)shouldbeminimized
Reduceweight,uselightweightmaterials
Increasedeadweightscaleeffect
Reduceballast
UseCFD,modeltesting,seatrialstoverify
design
SEAHORSE35 B.DELTA DELTAMARIN
TheEnvironship,ofNVC
401LNGdesign,isthe
Eidsvaag Pioner
RollsRoyceBergenB
Seriesleanburngas
engines
RollsRoycePromas
propulsion
Optimizedbowand
hullform shape
Verticalbow maintain
speedeveninroughseas
Byusingalternativematerials
Byreducingballast
Byoptimizingdesign
Material Density (kg/m
3
) Yieldstrength(Mpa)
Steel 7850 235390
Aluminum5083 2650 215
Aluminum5383 2660 220
Aluminum5059 (Alustar) 2640 270
Titanium6Al4V(Grade5) 4430 880
SEAGIANT
L=458.5M
EMMAMRSK
L=398M
Benchijigua Express
L=124m
Aluminum
VisbyClass
L=73m
CFRPsandwich
SierraI&IIclass
MaxSafedepth=700m
Crushdepth=915m
L=111m
Titanium
DevelopedbyUniversityofMichigan
Itallowswatertoflowinto"trunks"insidethe
ship'shull,andthentopassoutthrough
outletsatthestern
Itworksbyreducingthebuoyancyinsteadof
increasingthedisplacementweight
ThefirstNOBSarebeingbuiltatNingboEast
Shipyard,China
26,500DWTand24,500DWTNOBS
BunkerTankers
DesignedbyXEDafter3yearsofresearch
DevelopedbyNamuraShipbuildingand
ShipbuildingResearchCenterofJapan,
approvedbyClassNK
300,000dwt VLCCthatrequires65%lessballast
watertooperatesafely(30,000tn)
BasedontheNOBSconceptthatrequiredno
ballastwateratall
NonBallastWaterShip(NOBS)employedan
extremelywidehull,limitingitspracticaluse
MIBSisofstandardbreadthbutemploysa
flatterbottomthanaconventionalVLCCanda
moreangularlowerhull
Bow bulbs are common practice in ship design, both for
commercial and naval ships
The maturing of the bulbous bow theory and design has
resulted in several bulbous bow designs which reduce
resistance by 10% or more
Reduction of wave making resistance (through the reduction
of bow pressure wave, due to the interaction with the
pressure field created by the bulb)
Promoting of uniformity of the flow velocity around the hull
(which means reduction of the drag due to turbulent flow and
eddy-making resistance)
Reduction of wave breaking resistance at the bow
Reduction of pitching motion
Increase in frictional resistance
ASternFlapisanextensionofthehullbottom
surfaceaftofthetransom
Sternflapsmodifythepressurefieldunderthe
hullafterbody,causingtheflowtoslowdown
Decreasedflowvelocityincreaseinpressure
reducedresistanceduetoreducedafterbody
suctionforce
Waveheightsinthenearfieldsternwavesystem
andfarfieldwaveenergyarereduced
Additionalsecondaryeffectsduetolengthening
ofthehull,andtoimprovedpropeller
performance
Reducedpropulsivepower,propellerloading,
cavitation,vibration,noise
Matureandproventechnologytestedsince1989
173sternflapsinstalledonUSNavyandCoast
Guardships
Cumulatedfuelsavings$665million19892011
USSPORTROYALCG73 USSARTHURW.RADFORDDD968
Intheabsenceofahullfoulingcontrolsystem,a
vesselinservice,canaccumulateupto150kg/m
offoulingwithin6months
Totalresistancecausedbyfouling,mayincrease
by25 50%throughoutthelifetimeofaship
Themaincostassociatedwithfoulingisthe
increasedfuelconsumptionduetoincreased
frictionaldrag
Thecostrelatedtohullcleaningandpaintingis
muchlowerthanfuelcost
AF
coatings
Biocidal
CDP
SPC
Hybrid
Non
biocidal
Foul
Release
STC
Rosinisusedforbiocidereleasingbyhydration
Thickleachedlayersincreased
roughness(~75m).
HighVOC(5560%)
Rosinisbrittleandcancausecrackingand
detachment
Filmintegrityisgenerallypoor
Suitableforuseinlowerfoulingareasorshort
drydockingintervals
3years
Chemicaldissolutioniscontrolledby
hydrolysis
Thinleachedlayers(~1015m).
Controlledbiocidereleasewhichallowsa
constantrateofleachingovertime
Smoothersurface
Fairmechanicalproperties canbedamaged
Cleaningandrecoatingeasy
5years
Biocidereleasingmechanismisacombinationof
hydrolysis&hydration
CombineSPCacrylicpolymerwithacertain
amountofRosin
Moderateleachedlayerthickness(~2530m)
PerformanceandpricebetweentheCPDand
SPC
HighVOC
35years (verticalsides~3years,flats~5years)
Donotcontainbiocide
Lowsurfaceenergy,nonstick(siliconbased)
materialsareused
Lowroughness~70m
Effectiveonlyaboveacertainspeed
Notveryefficientonslowships
Shearforceneededtodetachthemarine
organisms
Softcoating easilydamaged
Hard,inert,nontoxiccoatings
Epoxies,polyestersorvinylesters someare
reinforcedwithglassflakes variations
includeceramicepoxy
Designedforfrequentinwatertreatment
Theirsurfaceimproveswithroutinecleaning
Provideprotectionagainstcorrosion
Extremelydurable
Cost
Performance
CDP
Hybrid
SPC
FRC
Blowersinjectairunderthevesselhull
Reducesthefrictionanddragcreatedbythevesselmoving
throughthewater
Energyisrequiredtopowertheblowers,offsettingsavings
tosomeextent
ClassNKpartneredwith
Mitsubishi(MHI),Nippon
YusenKaisha(NYK)
Moreefficientinlow
speed,wideandflat
bottomvessels
Whendeepdraft,more
energyneededtosupply
therequiredair
Idealforheavyliftships,
modulecarriers
Installedin2011onmodulecarrierYamatai,followed
byYamato
Installedin2012ontheferryNaminoue (slenderhull)
andthecoalcarrierSoyo
Tobeinstalledon2cruiseshipstobebuiltforAIDA
Cruisesand3bulkcarriersofADM
Airlayer
thickness
Power
decrease
Powerof
blower
Netenergy
savings
t=3mm 5% 2% 3%
t=5mm 14% 4% 10%
t=7mm 20% 7% 13%
SemiSphericalShape(SSS)bow
Reductioninwindresistance=50%
NissanPCTC
BasedontheMagnusEffect=
aspinningobjectcreatesa
whirlpoolofrotatingairor
liquidaboutitself.
Ononesideofthecylinder
theflowisassistedbythe
inducedflowofthecylinder.
Onthissidethevelocityis
increased.
Ontheotherside,thefree
streamflowisopposedbythe
inducedflowofthecylinder
andthevelocityisdecreased.
Changeofthevelocityfield
changeofthepressurefield
lift
DevelopedbyAnton
Flettner in1924
Officialpresentationof
RotorShipinHamburg
in1925
RenamedBaden
Badenandmadea
successfulvoyageto
NewYorkin1926
Earthsaveragesolarirradianceonthe
surfaceisapproximately342W/m2
Onaverage,30%ofthisradiationwillbe
reflectedbacktospaceduemainlytoclouds
Theamountofenergycaptureddependson
efficiencyandpositioning
Currentsolarcellsefficiencyisabout13%
Tanker,270mlongand50mwide
Onemainengineratedat18,000kW,and
auxiliarypower1,000kW
Tankersdeckareacompletelycoveredby
solarcells
FirstvesselcarcarrierAuriga Leader
FollowedbyEmeraldAce
Partoftheelectricityisgeneratedviasolarpanels
Hybridelectricpowersupplysystem
768panel160kWsolargenerationsystem
Lithiumionstoragebatterysystem
Storagecapacity2.2MWh
Usedwhileinport
Needs3daysunderwaytocharge
Length:199.9 m,Beam:32.26 m
Aftbodyflowdevices
Devicesbeforethepropeller
Devicesatthepropeller
Devicesbehindthepropeller
Combinationsofsystems
Theirpurposeistoreduce
lossesintheshipswakeaxiallosses(black)
rotationallossesintheslipstream(blue)
hubvortexlosses(green)
tipvortexlosses(red)
MarinePropellersandPropulsion JohnCarlton
Vortexgeneratorfins/Safer
fins
Mewis duct
SchneekluthWake
EqualizingDuct W.E.D.
LJduct
DSMEpreswirlstator
PBCF
PostStatorbySamsung
HeavyIndustries
Vanewheels
Rudderbulb
HHIthrustfin
Twistedrudder
CRPContrarotatingpropeller
TipRakeTRpropellers
(Kappel)
Ductedpropellers
NonhubvortexNHV
Nakashimapropellers
PROMAS
ENERGOPAC
TipRakePropellers
Kappel Propellers
CLT(ContractedandLoadedTip)Propellers
TVF(TipVortexFree)Propellers
Propellerswithendplates
Tiprakesuppressesthe
formationoftipvortices
TRpropellersminimize
theflowoverthetip
Improvetheefficiency
3%6%
Reducednoise suitable
forsubmarine
applications
Nocommunication
betweenpressure
andsuctionsidedue
toendplates
Noformationoftip
vortices
Generationofthrust
alongtheentireblade
Improveefficiency
6% 8%
Nozzlesareairfoilshapedrings
placedaroundthepropeller
Anacceleratingductproduces
positivethrustandincreases
theefficiencyofheavilyloaded
propellers(upto20%)
Adeceleratingductproducesa
negativethrustandreduces
cavitation&noise
Theapplicationofanozzle
increasesthethrustat
relativelylowshipspeed
Increasedefficiency~6%
Theafterpropellerisusuallysmallerin
diameter(cavitation)buthigherpitch
Usedextensivelyintorpedoes
Increasedshaftingcomplexity,maintenance,
cost
Podded contra-rotating propeller (CRP) propulsion
Conventionalruddersareplacedbehindthe
propellerwithasymmetricalcrosssection
abouttheverticalruddercenterplane
Thisarrangementdoesnotconsiderthefact
thatthepropellerinducesarotationalflow
thatimpingestheruddersurface
Thisresultsinareasoflowpressureonthe
bladethatinducecavitationandcause
erosion
Savings36%forsinglescrew
Savings25%fortwinscrew
Savings29%
Variableexhaustvalvetiming
Permanentcylindercutoutimprovedengine
efficiencyforslowspeedoperation1014%
Optimizescylinderpressuredistribution12%
Deltatuning(Wrtsil)forreducedfuel
consumptionintheloadrangethatismost
commonlyused
Tunedforlowerconsumptionatpartload
Wrtsil IntelligentCombustionControl
ensuresoptimalfiringpressures fuel
reduction2.5g/kwh
Longerstrokeengines
(MANGtype)low
rpmlargepropeller
highefficiency
S80engine78rpm
G80engine68rpm
Potentialsavings47%
MANreportshaving
almost200Gtype
enginesonorder(spring
2013)
Cutoutofa
turbochargerfor
improvedengine
efficiencyatpart&low
loads
Potentialsavings24%
Consistsofahigh
pressurefuelrailfeeding
individual
solenoid/piezoelectric
valves
CommonRailcontrols
combustionsoitcanbe
optimizedateveryload
Recoversenergyfrom
exhaustgas
Convertsthermal
energytoelectricityfor
reducedgenset
consumption
Savingsupto12%
76%ofthemarinefuelusedisHeavyFuelOil
(HFO)whichhashighsulphur content
TheoptionstocomplywiththeSOx
regulationsare:
Operateonlowsulphur fueloil(MDO,MGO,ULSD)
OperateonHFOwithanexhaustgastreatment
system
Operateonalternativefuels:LNG Biodiesel
LloydsRegister
Composedmainlyofmethane,containing
smallquantitiesofethane,propaneand
butane
Tomaximizestoragecapacities,naturalgasis
usuallyrefrigeratedtochangeitsstatetoa
liquid(LiquefiedNaturalGas LNG)
EliminationofSOx
LowNOx andparticulateemissions
Savingsfromnothavingtoseparateandheat
HFO
LNGcanbeusedtocooltheshipsHVACtosave
ACcompressorpower
Lackofinfrastructureandsupplychainnetwork
Gasprovidersandbunkersuppliersunwillingto
investininfrastructuresincethereisno
sufficientdemand thereisnodemandsince
thereisnoinfrastructure
Extremelylowtemperatureshazardsof
coldburnsoncrewandbrittlenesson
structures
BLEVEduetohighexpansionratio~600:1(a
smallvolumeofliquidcanyieldalarge
amountofgas)
Highflammability
Wrtsil
34DF
50DF
MANDiesel&Turbo
32/40DF(400kW/cylinder)
51/60DF(975kW/cylinder)
Ottocycleengines
MANDiesel&Turbo
51/60G
Wrtsil 34SG&50SG
Basedonvegetableoils(camelina,cornetc.)
andanimalfat(tallow)
SignificantlyreducedSOx emissions
Lowerparticleemissions
NOx emissionsdependonthefueltype
Enginesmayneedmodifications
Lowerthermalvalue 5%lessoutputfora4
strokeengine
Lowerenergycontentmeanslargerfuel
tanks
Biofuelproductionhasnotmovedtofull
scale
Moreexpensive
Currentrefersto2012
Conflictbetweenthebiofuelandthefood
industry
Thechallengeistofindsustainable
feedstocks atareasonablecost
Additionallandtogrowcropsforbiofuelsis
needed
Builtin2006
Sunkin2010
Partoftheprojectwasto
breaktheworldrecord
forcircumnavigatingthe
globeusingonly
renewablefuels
Theboat'sengineswere
poweredcompletelyby
biodiesel
Intheshort term,LNGisrelativelyeasyto
adoptthankstostandardsandtechnical
knowledge,despitethechallengesofbuilding
LNGinfrastructure
Windandsolarenergyareappropriate
auxiliarypowersources
Inthemediumandlongterm,biofuelsand
syntheticfuelshavepromise
Intheevenlonger term,hydrogenisseenas
anoption
Shaftgeneratorsdrivenbythemainengines
Reducetheneedtorunauxiliarygensets
Electricalsystemrequiresfixedvoltage&frequency
meaningthatenginespeedhastobeconstant
Twosolutions:
Powertakeoff(PTO) systemwithfrequency
controlensuringconstantfrequency
Hybrid systemconditioningthepowerfromshaft
generatorsothatthesupplytotheswitchboard
remainsconstantatanyenginespeed
Shaftgeneratormaybeusedasamotor
providingpowertothepropeller
Benefitfromefficientelectricdriveforcruise
speeds&costeffectivemechanicaldrivefor
higherspeeds
TheelectricdriveallowstheMainDiesel
Generators(MDG)toprovidepowerforthe
shipselectricalloadandthepropulsionmotors
Thesemotorsoperateasalternatorswhen
runningontheMainDieselEngines(MDE)at
higherspeeds
Theresultisfewerprimemovers,fewerengine
runninghoursandalsofueleconomy
Pentamaran conceptzero
emissioncarcarrier
Wallenius Wilhelmsen
Logisticsdevelopedthe
vesselforToyotaforExpo
2005inJapan
Propulsionbyfuelcells,sun,
windandwaves
Length=250m
Beam=50m
Draught=9m
Maxspeed=20kt
Vehiclecapacity=10,000cars
DesignedbyEcoMarinePower
AquariusMRESystem
Includessolarpanels,energy
storagemodules,acomputer
controlsystemandan
advancedrigidsaildesign
Additionally,advanced
electricalpropulsionsystem,
optimizedhulldesignand
wasteheatrecovery
technologies
Possiblefuelsavingsof40%
Cruiseshipconceptdeveloped
bySTXEurope
Reduced
Powerconsumptionby50%
CO2emissionsby50%
SO2by100%
NOx by90%
Ashby100%
Poweredby4dualfuelLNG
dieselelectricgensets
Equippedwithaninnovative
sailsystembySTXFrance
Fuelconsumption60%
Emissions80%
LloydsRegister Fairplay
AsofJan2012:104,305ships
UNCTAD Fairplay
Althoughthesizeoftheorderbooks is
reduced,thenumberofshipsisanticipatedto
increaseinthemidterm
Overcapacityislikelytocontinueforthe
foreseeablefutureandbeyond2020
Fuelandoperatingcosts since1990,with
theexceptionofasharpdipin2009,which
wasquicklyreversed
Inordertomaintaintheshippingindustrys
totalemissionsinlevelssimilartotodays,
moreefficientshipshavetobebuilt
Inthenearfuture,shipefficiencyisexpected
toimprovedueto:
Increasingregulatorypressuresontheindustry
Increasingcostofbunkerfuel
Howdowedefinethem?
Economic ~Ecological
Notarevolutionarytechnology
Ambiguous
Marketingtrickofshipyardstoincreasetheir
orderbooks???
Shipyardqualitymakesadifferencein
operatingperformance
Analyzed1298bulkersof5570,000tn (dwt)built
from1965to2013
Fuelconsumptioninthelast20yearswasprettyflat
andonpaperatleast,manyofthemodernshipsare
lessefficientthanolderones
Thebigtechnologicalimprovementof197588will
bedifficulttorepeatbecausethetechnologyhas
beensqueezedsohardoverthelast25years
Thebigfuelsavingscomefromslowerspeedwhich
canequallybeappliedtooldandnewships
Newecoshipsconsume28tn/daycompared
to3235tn/dayfortheoldshipsyieldingan
improvementof1520%
Newshipscarryalotofcapitalcosts
Newshipsareunattractiveonreturnon
capitaloverthelongterm
Themarketforecoshipsisimmature
Charterersreluctanttopayapremiumforeco
tonnage notpersuadedthatfuelefficiencies
canbedeliveredaspromised
Theadvantagesofecoshipsarehinderedby
slowsteaminginadownmarket
Ecoshipsareabletomeettightschedules
withoutthefearofbunkercosts
Ecoshipsadvantagewilldependonwhether
fuelpricesremainhigh
Canwe
actually
measurethe
performance?
Plethoraof
ESDsand
strategies
Savingsclaims
of110%
Combination
ofESDs.
Counteract
againsteach
other?
Ecoship:
Needor
necessity?
Toretrofit
ESDsorto
scrap?
Manage Measure Know Understand Improve