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Original Title: InTech-Effect of Turbulence on Fixed Speed Wind Generators

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Hengameh Kojooyan Jafari

Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/51407

1. Introduction

The influence of wind energy connection to the grid has increased greatly and turbulence or unreliable characteristics of wind energy are expected to produce frequency and voltage changes in power systems and protection system equipment. To prevent these changes, it is necessary to study the working point change due to turbulence. In other papers, the voltage and transient stability analysis have been studied during and after turbulence [2] and the impact of WTGs (wind turbine generators) on the system frequency, inertia response of dif ferent wind turbine technologies, and comparison between inertia response of single-fed and doubly-fed induction generators have been examined. Moreover study of the frequency change alone was conducted using Dig-SILENT simulator for FSWTs (fast-speed wind tur bines) with one-mass shaft model [2]. In this chapter both frequency and grid voltage sag change are presented with MATLAB analytically and also by SIMULINK simulation in FSWTs with one- and two-mass shaft turbine models to compare both results and a new simulation of induction machine without limiter and switch blocks is presented as a new work. The first part of study is frequency change effect on wind station by SIMULINK that shows opposite direction of torque change in comparison with previous studies with Dig-SILENT. The second part of study is effect of frequency and voltage sag change on wind station torque due to turbulence in new simula tion of induction generator that is new idea.

The equation of wind turbine power is

2012 Jafari; licensee InTech. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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P=

1 r AC pu w3 2

(1)

where is air density, Ais area of turbine, Cp is power coefficient and w is wind speed. The C p curve and equation are shown in Fig. 1 and given by equation (2) and (3)

-c c9 1 l + c8q pitch 1+q 3 pitch 1 7 5 - c3q pitch - c4q pitch - c6 e C p = c1 c2 c 1 9 l + c8q pitch 1 + q 3 pitch 1 -16.5 + 0.002 C p = 0.44 125( + 0.002) - 6.94 e l l

1

(2)

(3)

where pitch is blade pitch angle, is the tip speed ratio described by equation (4). The pa rameters are given in Table 1.

l=

wM R vw

(4)

33

The curve of Fig.1 has positive slope before Cp max and it has negative slope after Cp max.

Induction machine equation is

Te - Tm = J

d wm + Cwm dt

(5)

Where, T mis the mechanical torque, T e is the generator torque, C is the system drag coeffi cient and J is the total inertia. Table 1 shows the parameters of the one-mass shaft turbine model and induction generator.

Generator

Rs = .011 L s = .000054H L

m = .00287H

Wind Turbine

c1=.44 c2 = 125 c3 = 0 c4 = 0 c5 = 0.1 c6 = 6.94 c7 = 16.5 c6 = 0.1 c9 = -.002

R = 35 [m] A = R2 [m2] =1.2041 [kg/m3]

= .000089H

p (# pole pairs ) = 2

Pn = 2e6 [w]

vw = 6, 10, 13 [m/s]

pitch = 0 []

Table 1. Parameters of one- mass shaft turbine model and generator.

This model is used to investigate the effect of the drive train or two-mass shaft, i.e., the masses of the machine and the shaft, according to the equation (8) [3], [4]. In this equation, J t is wind wheel inertia, J G is gear box inertia and generators rotor inertia connected through

34

the elastic turbine shaft with a as an angular stiffness coefficient and C as an angular damping coefficient. The angular shaft speed t can be obtained from equations (6) and (7) [1], [3], [4].

T G is the torque of the machine, T t is the turbine torque, t is the angular turbine shaft angle,

the inertia of the machine shaft and turbine shaft, respectively. The Parameters, defined above, are given in Table 2. This model is described as equation (8).

G is the angular generator shaft angle, is the inverse of the gear box ratio and J G and J t are

TG = J G

(6)

Tt = J t

(7)

-n 2 .C &G J G w & n .C wt = wG Jt w 1 t 0

nk 1 J G wG JG -k wt +0 Jt dG 0 0 dt 0 0

1/80 .5 1 1e6 6e7

TG T 0 t 0 0 1 Jt

(8)

J G [kg.m2] J t [kg.m ]

2

C [Nm/rad2] [Nm/rad]

In a single-fed induction machine, the torque angular speed curve of equation (12) [1] is nonlinear, but by using the Kloss equation (13), equations (9), (10), and (11), this curve is lin early modified [1], [2] as shown in Fig. 2. Therefore, the effect of frequency changes in wind power stations can be derived precisely by equation (12) and approximately using equation (13), as shown in Figs. 26.

35

fs 2 2 R s + X ss f b G= 2 2 f 2 s 2 ( X m - X ss X rr ) f + Rs 2 X rr b sk = RrG fs 2 X mGVs 2 fb

2 f 2 fs 2 2 ) + s ( X ss + GRs X rr ) Rs + G ( X m - X ss X rr f fb b 2

-2

(9)

(10)

Tk =

(11)

Te =

fs X m 2 Rr sVs 2 fb

2 f 2 f 2 ) + s ( X ss + GRs X rr ) Rs + G s ( X m 2 - X ss X rr f f b b 2

(12)

Te = 2Tk

s ; s<<sk sk

(13)

36

Equations (11) and (12) are given in per unit, but the associated resistances are in ohms.

Figure 4. Mechanical and electrical torque versus frequency curves per unit with Vsag = 10% .

37

Figure 5. Mechanical and electrical torque versus frequency per unit with Vsag = 20%.

Figure 6. Mechanical and electrical torque versus frequency per unit with Vsag = 50%.

Figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6 illustrate that for lower wind speeds of 6 and 10 m/s, as the synchronous frequency f s and V sag change, the T e and T m values of the rotor change in the same direction as the frequency of the network, as shown in Tables III, IV, V, and VI. These figures and ta bles give the results for V

sag

However, for a higher wind speed of 13 m/s, as f s and V sag change, the T e and T m values of the rotor change in the opposite direction to the changes in the frequency of the network.

38

For small changes in the slip according to the Kloss approach in equation (13), the torque changes as follows [2]:

Tm1 = Tm 0 + Ka Dw

(14)

Then:

Tm1 = 2

Tk sk

wm 0 + Dw 1 we

(15)

and

Ka =

or

T T l = w l w

(16)

Ka =

C p 1 1 4 r R vw 0 wM 0 2 l

l0 ,n 0

- TM 0

(17)

Dw =

-Tm 0 + 2

Tk T w - 2 k m0 sk sk we Tk ka + 2 sk we

(18)

f s = 48

f s = 50

f s = 52

m pu

6 10 13 .96050 .9621 .9631

T e pu

-.1157 -.5337 -.7863

m pu

1.0005 1.0021 1.0035

T e pu

-.1064 -.491 -.8122

m pu

1.0405 1.0421 1.0439

T e pu

-.0974 -.4493 -.8331

39

f s = 48

f s = 50

f s = 52

m pu

6 10 13 .9606 .9625 .9738

T e pu

-.1156 -.5163 -.7868

m pu

1.0006 1.0027 1.0043

T e pu

-.1064 -.5137 -.8127

m pu

1.0406 1.0429 1.0448

T e pu

-.0974 -.5086 -.8335

f s = 48

f s = 50

f s = 52

m pu

6 10 13 .9607 .9632 .9648

T e pu

-.1156 -.5163 -.7875

m pu

1.0007 1.0034 1.0054

T e pu

-.1064 -.5136 -.8134

m pu

1.0407 1.0437 1.0461

T e pu

-.0974 -.5085 -.8341

f s = 48

f s = 50

f s = 52

m pu

6 10 13 .9618 .9681 .9724

T e pu

-.1153 -.5161 -.7927

m pu

1.0018 1.0088 1.0139

T e pu

-.1061 -.5131 -.8181

m pu

1.0418 1.0494 1.0555

T e pu

-.0971 -.5076 -.8382

During turbulence and changes in the grid frequency, the torque speed (slip) curves change in such a way that as the frequency increases, the torque is increased at low wind speeds; 6 and 10 m/s, in contrast to Fig. 6 and decreases at a high speed of 13 m/s [2], as shown in Table 7 and Figs. 715.

w f s = 48 f s = 50 f s = 52

m pu

6 10 13 .9619 .9684 .9724

T e pu

-.1148 -.5179 -.7945

m pu

1.0019 1.0091 1.0147

T e pu

-.1057 -.5134 -.8177

m pu

1.0418 1.0494 1.0559

T e pu

-.0969 -.5076 -.8373

Table 7. Simulink simulation results for one- and two-mass shaft models

40

Figs. 715 show the electrical torque and mechanical speed of the induction machine for the one- and two-mass shaft turbine models at wind speeds of 6, 10, and 13 m/s to vali date Table 7.

41

42

43

44

7. Simulation of wind station with one-mass and two-mass shaft turbine models

The results of simulations of a simple grid, fixed-speed induction machine, and one-mass and two-mass shaft turbines are given in Tables 8 -10 and Figs. 1642. For an induction wind generator using the induction block in SIMULINK with high voltage sag i.e. 50% with fre quencies 50 and 52 and equal to 13, C bles 8 -10.

p

Then results of 50% voltage sag are realistic in new simulation of induction machine in Ta

f s = 48

f s = 50

f s = 52

m pu

6 10 13 .9624 .9703 .9757

T e pu

-.1152 -.516 -.795

m pu

1.0024 1.0111 1.0176

T e pu

-.106 -.5128 -.8201

m pu

1.0423 1.0519 1.0595

T e pu

-.097 -.5071 -.8399

Table 8. Simulation results by SIMULINK for one and two mass shaft model for V sag = 10%

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f s = 48

f s = 50

f s = 52

m pu

6 10 13 .963 .973 .9799

T e pu

-.1151 -.5159 -.7977

m pu

1.003 1.014 1.0223

T e pu

-.1059 -.5125 -.8226

m pu

1.043 1.055 1.0648

T e pu

-.0969 -.5066 -.842

Table 9. Simulation results by SIMULINK for one and two mass shaft model for V sag = 20%

f s = 48

f s = 50

f s = 52

m pu

6 .9674

T e pu

-.114 -.5146 -.8239

m pu

1.0074 1.0364 1.0474

T e pu

-.1048 -.5096 -.8347

m pu

1.0474 1.0796 1.0917

T e pu

-.0959 -.502 -.85

10 .9933 13 1.0248

Table 10. Simulation results by SIMULINK for one and two mass shaft model for V sag = 50%

Figure 16. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 10% and w = 6m/s, f s =48

46

Figure 17. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 10% and w = 10m/s, f s = 48

Figure 18. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 10% and w = 13m/s, f s = 48

47

Figure 19. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 6m/s, f s = 48

Figure 20. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 10m/s, f s = 48

48

Figure 21. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 13m/s, f s = 48

Figure 22. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 6m/s, f s = 48

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Figure 23. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 10m/s, f s = 48

Figure 24. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 13m/s, f s = 48

50

Figure 25. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 10% and w = 6m/s, f s = 50

Figure 26. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 10% and w = 10m/s, f s = 50

51

Figure 27. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 10% and w = 13m/s, f s = 50

Figure 28. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 6m/s, f s = 50

52

Figure 29. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 10m/s, f s = 50

Figure 30. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 13m/s, f s = 50

53

Figure 31. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 6m/s, f s = 50

Figure 32. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 10m/s, f s = 50

54

Figure 33. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 13m/s, f s = 50 in new simulation of wind generator

Figure 34. Torque-time in per unit while V sag =10% and w = 6m/s, f s = 52

55

Figure 35. Torque-time in per unit while V sag =10% and w = 10m/s, f s = 52

Figure 36. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 10% and w = 13m/s, f s = 52

56

Figure 37. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 6m/s, = 52

Figure 38. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 10m/s, f s = 52

57

Figure 39. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 20% and w = 13m/s, f s = 52

Figure 40. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 6m/s, f s = 52

58

Figure 41. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 10m/s, f s = 52

Figure 42. Torque-time in per unit while V sag = 50% and w = 13m/s, f s = 52 in new simulation of wind generator

59

Figs. 33 and 42 show the results of new simulation of the induction machine model illustrat ed in Fig. 43 [1]. The new simulation, which has no limiters and switches, is used because at high grid voltage drop-down or sag, the Simulink induction model does not yield realis tic results.

The new simulation of induction machine is in dqo system and synchronous reference frame simulation on the stator side; n (Transfer coefficient) is assumed to be 1. Circuit theory is used in this simulation, and it does not have saturation and switch blocks, unlike the MAT LABSIMULINK Induction block. In Fig. 43, L M is the magnetic mutual inductance, and r and L are the ohm resistance and self-inductance of the dqo circuits, respectively. The ma chine torque is given by equation (19). In this equation, id ,qs andd ,qs , the current and flux pa

rameters, respectively, are derived from linear equations (20)(23); they are sinusoidal because the voltage sources are sinusoidal.

(19)

Where P is poles number, ds and qs are flux linkages and leakages, respectively, and iqs and

Then i matrix produced by the matrix is given by equation (20).

60

(20)

where the inductance matrix parameters are given by (21), (22), (23).

K s Ls ( K s )

-1

Lls + LM = 0 0 + LM Llr = 0 0

0 Lls + LM 0 0 + LM Llr 0 LM = 0 0

0 0 Lls 0 0 Llr 0 LM 0 0 0 0

(21)

K r Lr ( K r )

-1

(22)

( K r ) = K r ( Lsr ) K s Lsr

-1

( Ks )

-1

(23)

) lqs = Lls iqs + LM ( iqs + iqr ) lds = Lls ids + LM ( ids + idr

(24)

= Llr iqr + LM ( iqs + iqr ) lqr = Llr idr + LM ( ids + idr ) ldr = Llr ior lor

(28) (29)

61

To create the torque in equation (19), it is necessary to determine the currents in equations (30)(33) from the stator and rotor currents by using current meters.

n qs = rs iqs + wlds +

(30)

n ds = rs ids - wlqs +

(31)

= rriqr + ( w - wr ) ldr + n qr

(32)

= rridr - ( w - wr ) lqr + n dr

(33)

9. Conclusion

As frequency changes and voltage sag occurs because of turbulence in wind stations in ridethrough faults, the systems set point changes. The theoretical and simulation results results are similar for one mass shaft and two mass shaft turbine models. At lower wind speeds; 6 and 10 m/s, the directions of the changes in the new working point are the same as those of the frequency changes. At a higher wind speed; 13 m/s, the directions of these changes are opposite to the direction of the frequency changes. Simulation results of high grid voltage sag with SIMULINK induction block has error and new simulation of wind induction gener ator in synchronous reference frame is presented without error and in 50% voltage sag, new simulation of wind generator model has higher precision than that in 10% and 20% voltage sags; however, this model can simulate wind generator turbulence with voltage sags higher than 50%. Although results of new simulation of induction machine with wind turbine for 50% voltage sag and frequencies 50 and 52 have been presented in this chapter.

10. Nomenclature

P = Generator power = Air density

62

A = Turbine rotor area Cp = Power Coefficient w = Wind speed pitch = Pitch angle T e = Electrical torque T m = Mechanical torque

J = Inertia

m = Mechanical speed C = Drag coefficient = Gear box ration R = Blade radius Rs = Stator resistance L s = Stator inductance L L

m

r

R r = Rotor resistance p = Pole pairs = Stiffness r ,s = Rotor and stator flux K r ,s = Rotor and stator park transformation in synchronous reference frame ir ,s = Rotor and stator current vr ,s = Rotor and stator voltage

The new simulation of induction generator will be tested by new innovative rain turbine theory and model of the author.

63

Acknowledgements

I appreciate Dr. Oriol Gomis Bellmunt for conceptualization, Discussions and new informa tion and Dr. Andreas Sumper for discussions about first part of chapter, with special thanks to Dr. Joaquin Pedra for checking reference frame and starting point in new simulation of induction machine.

Author details

Hengameh Kojooyan Jafari* Address all correspondence to: kojooyan@iiau.ac.ir Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Iran

References

[1] Krause, Paul C. (1986). Analysis of Electric Machinery. MCGraw-Hill, Inc. [2] Sunmper, A., Gomis-Bellmunt, O., Sudria-Andreu, A., et al. (2009). Response of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines to System Frequency Disturbances. ICEE Transaction on Power Systems, 24(1), 181-192. [3] Junyent-Ferre, A., Gomis-Bellmunt, O., Sunmper, A., et al. (2010). Modeling and con trol of the doubly fed induction generator wind turbine. Simulation modeling practice and theory journal of ELSEVIER, 1365-1381. [4] Lubosny, Z. (2003). Wind Turbine operation in electric power systems. Springer pub lisher.

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