Biscocho. Bitoon. Cabangon. Cabra. Cajoles.

Canapi

Biscocho. Bitoon. Cabangon. Cabra. Cajoles. Canapi

• This determines the effects of different herbal plants on skeletal muscle activity of albino mice.
• STANDARDS USED

– Aminophylline and Chlorpromazine
• PLANTS TESTED

– Pansit-pansitan (Peperomia pellucida), Mayana (Coleus blumei) and Makahiya (Mimosa pudica)

• AMINOPHYLLINE – A theophylline-ethylenediamine complex
– MECHANISMS OF ACTION • Inhibition of PDE  cAMP  stimulation of cardiac function, relaxation of smooth muscle, and reduction in the immune and inflammatory activity of specific cells • Inhibition of PDE4  release of cytokine and chemokines  immune cell migration and activation

• Aminophylline
– MECHANISMS OF ACTION • Inhibition of adenosine  (-) contraction of airway smooth muscle and histamine release from airway mast cell – PHARMACODYNAMICS • CNS: alertness and deferral of fatigue • CVS: (+) chronotropic and inotropic effects • GI: stimulates secretion of both gastric acid and digestive enzymes

• Aminophylline
– Pharmacodynamics
• Kidney: weak diuretics • Smooth muscle: bronchodilation • Skeletal muscle: strengthen contractions

– Clinical use
• As bronchodilator – relieves airflow obstruction in acute asthma

• Aminophylline
– Available preparations
• Oral: 105 mg/5 mL liquid; 100, 200 mg tablets • Rectal: 250, 500 mg suppositories • Parenteral: 250 mg/ 10 mL injection

• CHLORPROMAZINE – An aliphatic phenothiazine
– PHARMACOLOGIC EFFECTS • Antipsychotic action – due to blockade of dopamine in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems (for schizophrenia) • ANS – blockade of muscarinic cholinoceptor causing loss of accommodation, dry mouth, constipation, and blockade of alpha adrenoceptor causing orthostatic hypotension, impotence

• CHLORPROMAZINE
– PHARMACOLOGIC EFFECTS • CNS – muscarinic blockade causing toxic-confusional state • Endocrine – dopamine receptor blockade causing amenorrhea, galactorrhea and infertility – AVAILABLE PREPARATIONS • Oral: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg tablets; 100 mg/mL concentrate • Rectal: 100 mg suppositories • Parenteral 25 mg/mL for IM injection

• PANSIT-PANSITAN
– Peperomia pellucida Linn. – Effects: Considered anti-inflammatory, refrigerant, analgesic, antifungal, anticancer – Folkloric uses • Infusion and decoction of leaves and stems are used for gout and arthritis. • Pounded whole plant used as warm poultice for boils, pustules and pimples.

Preparation of the decoction
30 mg Pansit-pansitan leaves 100 mL water Heat to boiling. Filter. Filtrate (decoction) Residue Discard.

5 albino mice

Place on the pool jar.
Observe frequency and amplitude of motor activity. After 30 minutes, administer the decoction into each mice intraperitoneally. Observe frequency and amplitude of motor activity after 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes.

30’ before
F
aminophylline

15’ after
F 183 A +++

30’ after
F 196 A +++

45’ after
F A -

60’ after
F A -

A ++

163

chlorpro mazine

133

++

104.6

+

79

+

60.4

+

37.5

+

Pansitpansitan

123

+++

133

+++

134

++

106

++

119

+

250

200 150 100
50 0 30' before 15' after 30' after 45' after 60' after

aminophylline chlorpromazine pansit-pansitan

• P. pellucida is used against convulsions, in treatment of excited mental disorder and it's CNS depressant effects. • These uses are in agreement with our experimental results. • ISOLATED CHEMICALS
– Styrene - Slows sensory nerve and nervous conduction velocity as well as CNS depression – Sitosterol and campesterol - reduce cholesterol biosynthesis – stigmasterol - inhibits sterol Delta-22-reductase and cholesterol absorption

• ISOLATED CHEMICALS – Stigmasterol - inhibits sterol Delta-22-reductase and cholesterol absorption – Campesterol, Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol reduce cholesterol levels in animal body • Since CNS synaptogenesis is promoted by cholesterol this might be responsible for the depressant action of this plant.

dos Santos PR , de Limas Moreira D , Guimaraes EF , Kaplan MA . Essential oil analysis of 10 Piperaceae species from the Brazilian Atlantic forest . Phytochemistry . 2001;58:547-551. Bayma JD , Arruda MS , Müller AH , Arruda AC , Canto WC . A dimeric ArC 2 compound from Peperomia pellucida . Phytochemistry . 2000;55:779-782. Xu S , Li N , Ning MM , Zhou CH , Yang QR , Wang MW . Bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida . J Nat Prod. 2006;69:247-250. Moreira DL , De Souza PO , Kaplan MA , Guimaraes EF . Essential oil analysis of four Peperomia species (Piperaceae) . Acta Hortic . 1999;500:65-69. Ragasa CY , Dumato M , Rideout JA . Antifungal compounds from Peperomia pellucida . ACGC Chem Res Commun . 1998;7:54-61. Aqil M , Rahman FA , Ahmad MB . A new flavonol glycoside from Peperomia pellucida . Sci Phys Sci . 1994;6:141-143. Aqil M , Khan IZ , Ahmad MB . Flavonoids from Peperomia pellucida . Sci Phys Sci . 1993;5:213-215. Manalo JB , Han BH , Han YN , Park MH , Anzaldo FE . Studies on ether-soluble neutral compounds of Peperomia pellucida . Arch Pharm Res . 1983;6:133-136. Oliveros-Belardo L . Some constituents of volatile oil of Peperomia pellucida . Perfum Essent Oil Rec . 1967;58:359-363. da Silva MH , Zoghbi MG , Andrade EH , Maia JG . The essential oils of Peperomia pellucida Kunth and P. circinnata Link var. circinnata . Flavour Fragrance J . 1999;14:312-314. Khan A, Rahman M, Islam M.S. Neuropharmacological effects of Peperomia pellucida leaves in mice. DARU 2008; 16: 35-40.

Biscocho. Bitoon. Cabangon. Cabra. Cajoles. Canapi

Biscocho. Bitoon. Cabangon. Cabra. Cajoles. Canapi

• CVS is greatly influenced by ANS. • ANS can be altered or regulated by certain drugs.
• STANDARDS USED

– epinephrine and neostigmine
• PLANTS TESTED

– Chichirica (Catharantus roseus), Lagundi (Vitex negundo L.) and Mayana (Coleus blumei)

• EPINEPHRINE – Adrenaline – A catecholamine – A very potent vasoconstrictor and cardiac stimulant – Causes positive inotropic and chronotropic actions on the heart by activating 1 receptor

• EPINEPHRINE – AVAILABLE PREPARATIONS
• Parenteral: 1mg/1mL, 0.5 mg/mL, 0.1mg/mL, 0.01 mg/mL for injection • Parenteral autoinjector: 1 mg/mL, 0.5mg/mL • Ophthalmic: 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2% drops • Aerosol for bronchospasm: 0.22 mg/spray

• NEOSTIGMINE – Carbamate ester – Inhibits acetylcholine esterase action on Ach – ORGAN SYSTEM EFFECTS
• CNS – causes alerting response, may cause convulsions and respiratory arrest on excess • CVS – negative inotropic, dromotropic, chronotropic afects

• NEOSTIGMINE – CLINICAL USES
• Used as treatment for myasthenia gravis

– AVAILABLE PREPARATIONS
• Oral: 15 mg tablets • Parenteral: 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.25 mg/mL solution

• CHICHIRICA – Catharanthus roseus – USES: • Treatment of leukemia – vincristine and vinblastine • Aqueous extract of leaves are used as laxative • Remedy for ingestion and dyspepsia • It helps in relieving muscle pain, depression of central nervous system and wasps stings.

• CHICHIRICA – USES: • South Africa, as antidiabetic • South and Central America, as treatment for laryngitis and sorethroat, and as aye bath

Preparation of the decoction
50 mg Chichirica leaves 100 mL water Heat to boiling. Filter. Filtrate (decoction) Residue Discard.

Observe the heart rate, force and rhythm of contraction of the heart of a turtle After 30 minutes, administer 20 drops of the decocotion directly into the heart of the turtle Observe previously observed parameters after 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 munites

30’ before

5’ after

10’ after

15’ after

20’ after

25’ after

30’ after

I
epinephrine

C

D

I + + +

C 5 6

D R

I + +

C 5 2

D R

I + +

C 5 1

D R

I + +

C 5 2

D R

I +

C

D

I

C

D

+ +

5 4

R

5 IR + 0

5 IR 0

neositgmine

+ +

8 0

R

+ +

5 4

R

+ +

5 2

R

+ +

5 0

R

+

4 8

R

+

3 4

R

+

3 0

R

chichirica

+ +

4 8

R

+ +

5 3

R

+

5 3

R

+

5 4

R

+

5 6

R

+ +

5 9

R

+ +

5 7

R

90 80 70 60 50 epinephrine neostigmine chichirica

40
30 20 10 0
30' before 5' after 10' after 15' after 20' after 25' after 30' after

• Results that were obtained were not consistent with the theoretical result. • C. roseus contains the alkaloid, reserpine. • It works by decreasing heart rate and relaxing the blood vessel. • MOA
– it blocks the ability of aminergic transmitter vesicles to take up and store biogenic amines  depletion of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in central and peripheral neurons.

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