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Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

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Synchronous Motor

A synchronous machine is an AC rotating machine whose speed under steady state condition is proportional to the frequency of the current in its armature. The magnetic field created by the armature currents rotates at the same speed as that created by the field current on the rotor, which is rotating at the synchronous speed, and a steady torque results. Synchronous machines are commonly used as generators especially for large power systems, such as turbine generators and hydroelectric generators in the grid power supply. Because the rotor speed is proportional to the frequency of excitation, synchronous motors can be used in situations where constant speed drive is required. Since the reactive power generated by a synchronous machine can be adjusted by controlling the magnitude of the rotor field current, unloaded synchronous machines are also often installed in power systems solely for power factor correction or for control of reactive kVA flow. Such machines, known as synchronous condensers, may be more economical in the large sizes than static capacitors. With power electronic Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) power supplies, synchronous motors, especially those with permanent magnet rotors, are widely used for variable speed drives. If the stator excitation of a permanent magnet motor is controlled by its rotor position such that the stator field is always 90o (electrical) ahead of the rotor, the motor performance can be very close to the conventional brushed dc motors, which is very much favored for variable speed drives. The rotor position can be either detected by using rotor position sensors or deduced from the induced EMF in the stator windings. Since this type of motors does not need brushes, they are known as brushless DC motors.

Synchronous Machine Structures Stator and Rotor The armature winding of a conventional synchronous machine is almost invariably on the stator and is usually a three phase winding. The field winding is usually on the rotor and excited by dc current, or permanent magnets. The dc power supply required for excitation usually is supplied through a DC generator known as exciter, which is often mounted on the same shaft as the synchronous machine. Various excitation systems using AC exciter and solid state rectifiers are used with large turbine generators. There are two types of rotor structures: round or cylindrical rotor and salient pole rotor as illustrated schematically in the diagram below. Generally, round rotor structure is used for high speed synchronous machines, such as steam turbine generators, while salient pole structure is used for low speed applications, such as hydroelectric generators. The pictures below show the stator and rotor of a hydroelectric generator and the rotor of a turbine generator.

Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

2.

Asynchronous Motor / Induction Motor

Induction motors are simple and rugged and relatively cheap to construct. They consist of a wound stator and a rotor assembly. They have fixed stator windings that are electrically connected to an AC power source. Current is induced in the rotor circuit. The resulting magnetic field interacts with the stator field for the induction to occur. No separate power source is required to provide the rotor field. An induction motor can be started and accelerated to steady state running conditions simply by applying AC power to the fixed stator windings of the motor. They do not rely on brushes like a DC motor does. Induction motors have a longer life than synchronous motors and are common for applications above 1 kW. There are a couple of types of induction motors a squirrel-cage motor and a wound rotor motor. A squirrel-cage motor is one where the secondary circuit consists of a number of conducting bars that have their end pieces connected by metal rings or plates at each end. A wound-rotor motor in one where the secondary circuit has a poly phase winding or coils whose terminals are either short circuited or closed through suitable circuits. The rotor assembly of an induction motor, when looked at from the end, resembles a squirrel cage (or a hamster exerciser). Thus the name squirrel-cage motor refers to an induction motor. The most common rotor type has cast aluminum conductors (bars) and short-circuiting end rings. The position of the bars in relation to the surface of the rotor, the shape, cross sectional area and material of the bars determine the rotor characteristics. A bar with a large cross sectional area will exhibit a low resistance. A copper bar will have a low resistance compared to a brass bar of equal proportions. The rotor design will determine the starting characteristics of the motor. The rotor turns when the moving magnetic field induces a current in the shorted conductors. The stator of an induction motor is the outer body of the motor. This houses driven windings on an iron core. The standard stator has three windings for a three-phase design. A single-phase motor typically has two windings. The core of the stator is
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Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

made up of a stack of round pre-punched laminations pressed into a frame that is made of aluminum or cast iron. Laminations are round with a round hole where the rotor is positioned. The inner surface of the stator has slots or grooves where the windings are positioned. The arrangement of the windings determines the number of poles that a motor has. A stator is like an electromagnet and has poles (north and south) in multiples of two (2-pole, 4-pole, etc.). The voltage rating of the motor is determined by the number of turns on the stator. The power rating of the motor is determined by the losses. These include copper loss, iron loss and the ability of the motor to dissipate the heat generated by the losses. The design of the stator determines the rated speed of the motor as well as the full load/full speed characteristics. The synchronous speed of the motor is the speed where the magnetic field rotates. It is determined by the number of poles in the stator and the frequency of the power supply. It is the absolute upper limit of motor speed. There is no difference between the rotor speed and rotating field speed. This means no voltage is induced in the rotor bars and therefore no torque is developed. When running, the rotor must rotate slower than the magnetic field, to cause the proper amount of rotor current to flow so that the torque that develops is able to overcome the winding and friction losses and therefore drive the load. This speed difference is called slip. Most motors use the squirrel cage design. An alternate design, wound rotor, is used when variable speed is desired. Compared to squirrel cage rotors, wound rotors are expensive and require more maintenance. A wound rotor motor has controllable speed and torque. Single-phase AC induction motors are typically used in devices requiring low torque like fans and other household appliances. A split-phase induction motor is used in larger household appliances.

Idealized three phase, two pole induction motor

Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

3.

Universal Motor

A universal motor is a series wound electric motor that is designed to run on either AC or DC current. Advantages of a universal motor over an AC or DC motor are higher start up torque, smaller size, and the ability to operate at very high rpm. The disadvantage is a shorter lifespan, so these motors are generally used in applications where the motor is only used intermittently.

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Rotor and Types of Rotor in Induction Motor

The rotor is the non-stationary part of a rotary electric motor, electric generator or alternator, which rotates because the wires and magnetic field of the motor are arranged so that a torque is developed about the rotor's axis. In some designs, the rotor can act to serve as the motor's armature, across which the input voltage is supplied. There are two different types of induction motor rotors that can be placed inside the stator. The types are: 1. Squirrel cage / cage 2. Wound / slip ring 5. Connection of the Rotor in Induction Motor

Squirrel cage / cage A squirrel cage induction motor consists of a series of conducting bars laid into slots carved in the face of the rotor and shorted at either end by large shorting rings. This design is referred to as a squirrel cage rotor because the conductors, if examined by themselves, would look like one of the exercise wheels that squirrel or hamsters run on.

Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

Wound Rotor / Slip Ring A wound rotor has a complete set of three phase windings that are mirror images of the windings on the stator. The three phases of the rotor windings are usually Y connected, and the ends of the three rotor wires are tied to slip rings on the rotors shaft. The rotor windings are shorted through brushes riding on the slip rings. Wound rotor induction motors therefore have their rotor currents accessible at the stator brushes, where they can be examined and where extra resistance can be inserted into the rotor circuit.

Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

6.

Comparison between Squirrel Cage Rotor and Wound (Slip Ring) Rotor

Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

7.

Describe Stator

Stator is the stationary part of the Induction motor. It is the part to which supply is given. Stator of Induction motor is built up of the low hysteresis loss or high permeability material such as CRGO (Cold Rolled Grain Oriented) Silicon Steel. 8. Stator Arrangement

Technically whenever flux is changed in a core, in accordance with Faradays Law of Electro -Magnetic Induction, an EMF is induced in the core and as the core is short circuited, this results in the current which is termed as Eddy Current. Some energy is dissipated in form of heat due to this current and this is called eddy current loss. It depends upon the thickness of the sheet of core because more thick the core is there more content or material will be there and hence more EMF will be induced resulting in more eddy losses. So the point is to reduce eddy current loss we will have to reduce current, for which induced voltage have to be reduced and this is possible by limiting thickness of the sheet. Hence Eddy current losses are reduced by using thin laminated sheets to construct the stator of the machine. These stator laminations require a base to be mounted and this base is termed as stator frame. This is usually made up of Cast Iron or Steel with slots in it. These slots are used to host stator winding.
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Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

Stator winding is supplies with AC supply and this produce magnetic field in the stator of the machine. This three phase winding may be connected in Star arrangement or in Delta arrangement.

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Connection of the Stator in Star and Delta Connection

There are two types of stator connection, which is: 1. Star / Wye 2. Delta

Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

10.

Define Synchronous Speed, Slip and Slip Frequency

Synchronous Speed, nsync In an AC motor, the stator creates a rotating magnetic field when an AC voltage is applied to its coil. The speed at which the field revolves around the stator coils is called as synchronous speed.

The speed of the magnetic fields rotation is given by:

Where f is the system frequency in hertz and P is the number of poles in the machine. The unit for synchronous speed is rotation per minute or rpm. Slip The voltage induced in a rotor bar of an induction motor depends on the speed of the rotor relative to the magnetic fields. Since the behavior of an induction motor depends on the rotors voltage and current, it is often more logical to talk about this relative speed. Two terms are commonly used to define the relative motion of the rotor and the magnetic fields. One is slip speed, defined as the difference between synchronous speed and rotor speed:

where; nslip nsync nm = slip speed of the machine = speed of the magnetic fields = mechanical shaft speed of motor
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Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

The other term used to describe the relative motion is slip, which is the relative speed expressed on a per unit (or sometimes a percentage) basis. That is, slip is defined as:

This equation can also be expressed in terms of angular velocity (radians per second) as:

Notice that if the rotor turns at synchronous speed, s = 0, while if the rotor is stationary, s = 1. All normal motor speeds fall somewhere between those two limits. It is possible to express the mechanical speed of the rotor shaft in terms of synchronous speed and slip. ( or ( 11. The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor ) )

An induction motor works by inducing voltages and currents in the rotor of the machine, and for that reason it has sometimes been called a rotating transformer. Like a transformer, the primary (stator) induces a voltage in the secondary (rotor), but unlike a transformer, the secondary frequency is not necessarily the same as the primary frequency. If the rotor of a motor is locked so that it cannot move, then the rotor will have the same frequency as the stator. On the other hands, if the rotor turns at synchronous speed, the frequency on the rotor will be zero. At nm = 0 rpm, the rotor frequency fr = f, and the slip s =1. At nm = nsync, the rotor frequency fr = 0 Hz, and the slip = 0. For any speed in between, the rotor frequency is directly proportional to the difference between the speed of the magnetic field nsync and the speed of the rotor nm.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

The rotor frequency can be expressed as:

or

or ( 12. )

Diagram of the Power Transmission of an Induction Motor

Losses and the Power-Flow Diagram An induction motor can be basically described as a rotating transformer. Its input is a three phase set of voltages and currents. For an ordinary transformer, the output is electric power from the secondary windings. The secondary windings in an induction motor (the rotor) are shorted out, so no electrical output exists from normal induction motors. Instead, the output is mechanical. The relationship between the input electric power and the mechanical power of this motor is shown in the power flow diagram below.

The input power to an induction motor Pin is in the form of three phase electric voltages and currents. The first losses encountered in the machine are I2R losses in the stator windings (the stator copper loss PSCL). Then some amount of power is lost as hysteresis and eddy currents in the stator (Pcore). The power remaining at this point is transferred to the rotor of the machine across the air gap between the stator and rotor. This power is called the air gap power, PAG of the machine.
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Chapter 1: Introduction to AC Motor

ET601 DET 6D Jun 2013

After the power is transferred to the rotor, some of it is lost as I2R losses (the rotor copper losses PRCL), and the rest is converted from electrical to mechanical form (Pconv). Finally, friction and winding losses, PF&W and stray losses, Pmisc are subtracted. The remaining power is the output of the motor, Pout.

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Construct Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor Using Calculation and Related Formula

An induction motor relies for its operation on the induction of voltages and currents in its rotor circuit from the stator circuit (transformer action). Because the induction of voltages and currents in the rotor circuit of an induction motor is essentially a transformer operation, the equivalent circuit of an induction motor will turn out to be very similar to the equivalent circuit of transformer. An induction motor is called a singly excited machine (as opposed to a doubly excited synchronous machine), since power is supplied to only the stator circuit. Because an induction motor does not have an independent field circuit, its model will not contain an internal voltage source such as internal generated voltage E A in a synchronous motor.

The rotor current can be found as:

Where: s ER0 = = slip induced rotor voltage at locked rotor condition

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