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Ramji Kamakoti
Technical Specialist
May 13, 2013
Multiphysicsin Abaquswith
Emphasis on Fluid Modeling
2
Over vi ew
Introduction
SIMULIA Multiphysics
Abaqus/CFD
Fluid-Structure Interaction
Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) approach
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach
Comparison of CFD, CEL and SPH
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Introduction
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What i s Mul t i physi c s?
Definition: Multiphysics is the inclusion of multiple physical
representations to capture real-world phenomena
Collection of individual physical phenomena
Full 3-D physical field models (structural, thermal, EMag,
chemistry, )
Efficient abstractions of physical phenomena (1-D/logical
models, substructures)
Interaction between various physical phenomena
Sequential simulation chains (EMthermalstructural,
submodeling, multiscale )
Co-simulation (FSI, logical-physical, multiscale,
embedded, )
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Why Mul t i physi c s?
Crucial to include multiphysics in the design of many
engineering systems
Fluid-Structure interaction - Important to include fluid-
structure interaction (FSI) in the design of aircraft
wings and turbine blades
Multiple physics representation has to be taken into
account for the analysis of Aneurysms and heart
valves
Thermal-mechanical coupling - Sections of bridges
and highways expand on hot days, and many plastics
become extremely brittle at low temperatures
Electrical-thermal interactions - high-density microchip
circuits often create large heat loads that need to be
managed with heat-transfer techniques
Etc
Failure to include multiphysics can lead to
catastrophic phenomenon
Tacomas Narrows Bridge Wind-induced collapse
due to aeroelastic flutter in 1940
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Fl ui d-St r uc t ur e I nt er ac t i on
Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) represents multiphysics problems where
fluid flow affects compliant structures which in turn affect the fluid flow.
Ink droplet formation and discharge from a
piezoelectric inkjet printer nozzle
Fluid
Pressure
Velocity
Temperature
Structure
Displacement
Electrical Temperature
Temperature Temperature
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Electrical
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Spec i al i zed FSI
Contact increases solution complexity and requires specialized
analysis techniques.
Electrical Electrical
Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
Fluid
Pressure
Velocity
Structure
Displacement
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Contact
Vacuum removal of paper trim
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SIMULIA Multiphysics
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Over vi ew of SI MULI A Mul t i physi c s
Multiphysics solutions offered by SIMULIA broadly falls into three
different areas
Native multiphysics capabilities available in Abaqus
Broad range of physics
Abaqus Multiphysics
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SI MULI A Mul t i physi c s
Extended multiphysics capability
CEL in Abaqus/Explicit
SPH in Abaqus/Explicit
Abaqus/CFD
Extended Multiphysics
CEL
SPH
CFD
Native multiphysics capabilities available in Abaqus
Broad range of physics
Abaqus Multiphysics
Multiphysics solutions offered by SIMULIA broadly falls into three
different areas
11
SI MULI A Mul t i physi c s
Open scalable platform for partners and customers
Co-simulation engine
Native FSI capability
Coupling with third-party CFD codes
Multiphysics Coupling
SIMULIA Co-simulation Engine
Abaqus/
Structural
Abaqus/
CFD
Abaqus/
EM
Other
codes
Extended multiphysics capability
CEL in Abaqus/Explicit
SPH in Abaqus/Explicit
Abaqus/CFD
Extended Multiphysics
Native multiphysics capabilities available in Abaqus
Broad range of physics
Abaqus Multiphysics
Multiphysics solutions offered by SIMULIA broadly falls into three
different areas
Abaqus 6.12 MpCCI 4 Fluent 12
CSE
Abaqus 6.12 Abaqus/CFD 6.12
Abaqus 6.12 Star-CCM+ 7.02
CSE
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Abaqus Mul i t physi c s
Abaqus enables coupling of multiple fields
Courtesy: Honeywell
FM&T
Courtesy of Dr. Michelle Hoo
Fatt (University of Akron)
Tire noise
Bottle drop
Ultrasonic motor
Ball grid array
Earthen Dam
Thermal-Mechanical Structural-Acoustic
Piezoelectric
Fluid-Mechanical
Structural-pore
fluid diffusion
Thermal-Electrical
Fuse
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Coupl ed Eul er i an-Lagr angi an (CEL)
Courtesy: JP Kenny
Eulerian material definitions can interact with
Lagrangian elements through contact in
Abaqus/Explicit
Multi-material finite element formulation (Volume-of-
Fluids method) tracks material boundary in Eulerian
domain
Interface interactions created using general contact
definitions
Automatic refinement of Eulerian elements
improves accuracy and performance
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Par t i c l e Met hods: SPH
Mesh-free Lagrangian particles
Automatic conversion from conventional
elements to SPH particles
Applications include ballistic impact with
fragmentation, class of fluid problems
Courtesy of US Dept of Health
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88% efficiency for fixed-
work per processor at
64 cores
Mesh sizes limited only by
pre and post capabilities
Abaqus/CFD Gener al pur pose f l ow sol ver
Coupling with Abaqus/Standard and
Abaqus/Explicit
2
nd
-order accurate
in space and
time
Turbulence modeling
Spalart-Allmaras
k-epsilon
ILES
Incompressible
pressure-based
flow solver
Transient ,
Laminar and
Turbulent flows,
Heat transfer and
Natural convection
Superior and
robust hybrid
FV/FEM
discretization
Robust and fast
iterative solvers,
AMG, GMRES,
etc.
Fully parallel and
scalable
Arbitrary
Lagrangian-
Eulerian (ALE)
Native FSI
capability
Abaqus/CAE pre
and post support
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Mul t i physi c s Coupl i ng
SIMULIAs next generation open
communications platform that
seamlessly couples computational
physics processes in a multiphysics
simulation
Physics-based conservative
mapping technology
Superior coupling technology
Co-simulation
Engine (CSE)
Enables Abaqus to couple directly to
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rd
party codes
Currently in maintenance mode
SIMULIA Direct
Coupling
Enabled through MpCCI from
Fraunhofer SCAI
Allows coupling Abaqus with all
codes supported by MpCCI
Independent code
coupling interface
Abaqus
AcuSolve Star-CD Flowvision
Other
CFD
codes
MpCCI
Abaqus Star-CD Fluent
Other CFD
codes
SIMULIA Co-simulation Engine
Abaqus/
Standard
Abaqus/
Explicit
Abaqus/
CFD
Other
CFD
Codes
Star-CCM+ Star-CCM+
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SI MULI A FSI Sol ut i ons
Several methods available to address diverse industry needs
SIMULIA FSI Solutions
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Linear structures
SWAGELOK
pressure regulator
Specialized techniques
Coupled
Eulerian-
Lagrangian
(CEL)
Smoothed
Particle
Hydrodynamics
(SPH)
Multiphysics Coupling
Partitioned approach
Structural
solver
Fluid solver
Solenoid Valve
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Abaqus/CFD
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Abaqus/CFD
Abaqus/CFD is the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis
capability offered in the Abaqus product suite to perform flow analysis
Scalable CFD solution in an integrated FEA-CFD multiphysics framework
Based on hybrid finite-volume and finite-element method
Incompressible, pressure-based flow solver:
Laminar & turbulent flows
Pressure contours
Aortic Aneurysm
Pressure contours
on submarine skin
Submarine
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Abaqus/CFD
Incompressible, pressure-based flow solver:
Transient (time-accurate) method
2
nd
-order accurate projection method
Steady-state using pseudo-time marching
and backward-Euler method
2
nd
-order accurate least squares gradient
estimation
Implicit and explicit advection schemes
Unsteady RANS approach (URANS) for
turbulent flows
Energy equation for thermal analysis
Buoyancy driven flows (natural convection)
Uses the Boussinesq approximation
Isotropic porous media flow modeling
Includes isothermal and non-isothermal
flow modeling
Flow Around Obstacles
(Vortex Shedding)
Electronics Cooling
(Buoyancy driven flow due to
heated chips)
Velocity
contours
Velocity vectors
Inlet
Outlet
Substrate
Pressure
porous media flow
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Abaqus/CFD
Turbulence models
Spalart-Allmaras
RNG k-c with wall functions
ILES (Implicit Large-Eddy Simulation)
Inherently transient
Boundary conditions
Inlet, outlet and wall boundary conditions
User-subroutines for velocity and pressure
boundary conditions
Iterative solvers for momentum, pressure
and transport equations
Krylov solvers for transport equations
Momentum, turbulence, energy, etc.
Algebraic Multigrid (AMG) preconditioned
Krylov solvers for pressure-Poisson equations
Fully scalable and parallel
88 % efficiency
(fixed work per
processor at 64
cores)
Helicity isosurfaces
Prototype Car Body
(Ahmeds body)
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Abaqus/CFD
Fluid material properties
Newtonian fluids and non-Newtonian fluids
A variety of shear-rate dependent viscosity models are available
Temperature dependence of material properties
CFD-specific diagnostics and output quantities
Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) capability for moving deforming mesh
problems
Prescribed boundary motion, Fluid-structure interaction
hyper-foam model, total Lagrangian formulation
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Abaqus/CFD
Abaqus/CAE support
Concept of model type in Abaqus/CAE
Model type CFD enables CFD model
creation
Support for CFD-specific attributes
Step definition
Initial conditions
Boundary conditions and loads
Job submission, monitoring etc.
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Abaqus/CFD
Abaqus/Viewer support for Abaqus/CFD
CFD output database
Isosurfaces
Multiple cut-planes
Vector plots
Instantaneous particle traces
Temperature
contours
Temperature
isosurfaces
Velocity vectors on
intermediate plane
Pressure contours
Velocity
vectors
Temperature
contours
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Fluid-Structure Interaction
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What i s Fl ui d-St r uc t ur e I nt er ac t i on or FSI ?
FSI represents a class of multiphysics problems where fluid flow
affects compliant structures, which in turn affects the fluid flow
Coupling between the fluid and structure occurs at the wetted interface
Conjugate fields exist at the wetted interface, e.g., traction & displacement
Kinematic constraints provide continuity in the primary fields, e.g., velocity and
displacement
Normal stresses are also continuous at the wetted interface
Heat Flux
Fluid
Traction
Pressure
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Structure
Displacement
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Temperature
Velocity
f s
f s
f s
f f s s
f f s s
T T
=
=
=
=
=
u u
v u
n n
q n q n

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Sur vey of FSI Tec hnol ogy
Linear Structures Approach
Linear solid/structural deformation
Eigenmodes sufficient to represent the
dynamic behavior
Projection of dynamic system onto the
eigenspace
Segregated Approach
Structural and fluid equations
solved independently
Interface loads and boundary
conditions exchanged after a
converged increment
Stabilizing terms required
Monolithic Approach
Fully-coupled system of Equations
Can be difficult to solve
Can avoid stability issues
Specialized Techniques
Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian
+ + = Ma Cv Kd F
my +cy +ky = f

modes
( ) 0 1,...,
i i
i n = = K M S
Structural Solver Fluid Solver
( )
{ }
( )
f f f f f f f f f f
T
f f f f
T
f x y z
p t
K p
v v v
o
+ + + =
=

MV A V V KV C F
CV
V

( )
{ }

s s s s s s s
s x y z
K t
u u u
+ + =

MU CU U F
U

Abaqus native FSI capability is based on a stabilized segregated approach


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Nat i ve FSI Usi ng Abaqus
Coupling
Abaqus/Standard +
Abaqus/CFD
Abaqus/Explicit +
Abaqus/CFD
Fluid structure interaction
(FSI)
Conjugate heat-transfer
(CHT)
Fluid-structure interaction
Butterfly valve
Conjugate heat transfer
Heat exchanger
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Nat i ve FSI Usi ng Abaqus
Abaqus/CFD can be ccoupled with both Abaqus/Standard and Abaqus/Explicit
through the co-simulation engine
The co-simulation engine operates in the background (no user intervention
required)
Physics-based conservative mapping on the FSI interface
Significantly expands the set of FSI applications that SIMULIA can address
Fluid-structure interaction
Also supports conjugate heat-transfer applications
Abaqus/
Standard
Co-Simulation
Abaqus/
Explicit
Abaqus/
CFD
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Nat i ve FSI Usi ng Abaqus
Rigorous decomposition of the fully-coupled system
Retain segregated solution approach
Interfacial inertial effects
Stabilization provides temporal convergence in a one-step
algorithm
Time increment may be selected to resolve the physical time-
scales
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Nat i ve FSI Usi ng Abaqus
Supported though Abaqus/CAE
Support for creating FSI
interactions in
Structural analysis (in
Abaqus/Standard or
Abaqus/Explicit)
CFD analysis (in
Abaqus/CFD)
FSI jobs launched through
co-execution framework
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Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian
(CEL) Approach
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Coupl ed Eul er i an-Lagr angi an (CEL) Appr oac h
Three relationships between the mesh
and underlying material are provided in
Abaqus/Explicit:
Lagrangian
Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)
adaptive meshing
Eulerian
Lagrangian description: Nodes are
fixed within the material
It is easy to track free
surfaces and to apply
boundary conditions.
The mesh will become
distorted with high strain
gradients.
1
Lagrangian formulation
Impact of a
copper rod
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Coupl ed Eul er i an-Lagr angi an (CEL) Appr oac h
Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) adaptive
meshing: mesh motion is constrained to the
material motion only at free boundaries
It is easy to track free surfaces.
Mesh distortion is minimized by adjusting mesh
within the material free boundaries.
Lagrangian formulation
ALE formulation
ALE formulation
2
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Coupl ed Eul er i an-Lagr angi an (CEL) Appr oac h
Eulerian description: nodes stay fixed while
material flows through the mesh.
It is more difficult to track free surfaces.
No mesh distortion because the mesh is
fixed.
Eulerian formulation
ALE formulation
Lagrangian formulation
Eulerian formulation
Eulerian mesh
rod material
Mesh refinement needed in
impact zone to more accurately
capture strain gradient
3
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Coupl ed Eul er i an-Lagr angi an (CEL) Appr oac h
Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) approach:
An Eulerian mesh and a Lagrangian mesh are assembled in the same
model.
Interactions between Lagrangian bodies and materials in the Eulerian
mesh are enforced with a general contact definition.
Front-load
washing machine
Tub (Lagrangian)
Round object
(Lagrangian)
Water
(Eulerian)
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CEL Anal ysi s Tec hni que
Technical Approach
The Eulerian-Lagrangian capability uses a multi-material finite element
formulation
Volume-of-Fluids (VOF) method tracks material boundary in the
Eulerian domain
Interface interactions created using general contact definitions
Conforming meshes not required
Specialized technique to handle certain types of Fluid-Structure
Interaction (FSI) problems:
Extreme contact including self-contact
Large scale structural deformations and displacements
High-speed dynamic events
Damage, failure, or erosion of the interface
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Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
(SPH) Approach
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Smoot hed Par t i c l e Hydr odynami c s (SPH) Appr oac h
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics is a very general approach to the
simulation of bulk matter in motion.
SPH addresses modeling needs in cases where traditional methods
(FEM, FDM) fail or are inefficient:
Extremely violent fluid flows where mesh or grid-based CFD cannot
cope (free surface)
Extremely high deformations/obliteration where CEL is inefficient
and Lagrangian FEM is difficult
Liquid spraying through a hose Water fall under gravity
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Smoot hed Par t i c l e Hydr odynami c s (SPH) Appr oac h
The earliest applications of SPH were mainly focused on fluid dynamics.
Then its use was extended to the simulation of:
The fracture of brittle solids
Metal forming
High (or hyper) velocity impact (HVI)
Explosion phenomena caused by the detonation of high explosives
Priming a Pump
Projectile impact
continuum solid
projectile
SPH patch
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Smoot hed Par t i c l e Hydr odynami c s (SPH) Appr oac h
The novelty of SPH lies in a specific method for smooth interpolation and
differentiation within an irregular grid of moving macroscopic particles.
Because nodal connectivity is not fixed, severe element distortion is
avoided; hence, the formulation allows for very high strain gradients.
The conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy are satisfied
exactly.
Kernel function W(r)
Particle
Neighbors
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Smoot hed Par t i c l e Hydr odynami c s (SPH) Appr oac h
SPH in Abaqus
SPH analysis is an Abaqus/Explicit capability implemented for three-
dimensional models.
Any of the material models available in Abaqus/Explicit, including user-
defined materials, can be used.
Initial and boundary conditions can be specified as for any Lagrangian
model.
Concentrated nodal loads can be
applied in the usual way.
Spray can nozzle
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Comparison of
CFD, CEL, and SPH
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Mat er i al Consi der at i ons
Material types
SPH can use any material available in Abaqus/Explicit,
CEL can use any isotropic material available in Abaqus/Explicit
CFD can simulate only incompressible fluids
CEL SPH CFD
Type
Solids
isotropic

anisotropic

Fluids

Compressibility
Compressible

Nearly incompressible

Incompressible

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Mat er i al Consi der at i ons
Multiple materials
CEL can simulate multiple materials interacting
Projectile impacting solid
plate (SPH)
continuum solid
projectile
SPH
patch
sand
water
air
Multiple materials
interacting (CEL)
CEL SPH CFD
Single material
Multiple materials interacting
Interactions via contact or FSI co-simulation
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Mat er i al Consi der at i ons
Special CFD capabilities
CFD can include turbulence modeling
CFD can model flows through porous media
Inlet
Outlet
Substrate
(porous media)
Pressure contours
porous media flow (CFD)
CEL SPH CFD
Turbulence modeling
Flows through porous media
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Material motion
CFD and CEL both allow for material flow through the mesh
Mat er i al Consi der at i ons
CEL
tire Hydroplaning
fluid
outflow
fluid inflow
CFD
Vortex Shedding behind a cylinder
fluid
inflow
fluid
outflow
CEL SPH CFD
Material inflow and outflow
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Mat er i al Consi der at i ons
SPH
Two-Lobe Cavity Pump: Water pushed while pump is rotating
Material motion
CFD and CEL both allow for material flow through the mesh
SPH uses a strictly Lagrangian formulation
Inflow and outflow conditions can only be modeled via more
expensive inflow and outflow volumetric regions
CEL SPH CFD
Material inflow and outflow
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Inflators
Inflators can be used to introduce gas in CEL simulations
Limited inflators can be modeled in SPH via long columns with fluid
pushed down via a plate
Initial geometry
Early deployment
Deployment
complete
Mat er i al Consi der at i ons
CEL Side curtain airbag deployment
Inflator injects gas into the air bag throughout the simulation
Courtesy of
TAKATA
SPH inflation
Long column of fluid pushed in
CEL SPH CFD
Inflators
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Cont ac t Consi der at i ons
Contact interface: conforming meshes
CEL allows you to create a simple mesh which does not conform to the
surrounding structure
CFD FSI requires a conforming mesh
SPH particles cannot overlap with other
surrounding Lagrangian bodies
CEL
structure moves through
Eulerian mesh
CFD FSI
CFD mesh conforms to structure
SPH
particles inside structure
CEL SPH CFD
Mesh need not conform
to surrounding structure

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Cont ac t Consi der at i ons
Contact interface: topology changes
CEL and SPH can be used to perform FSI analyses with penetration
and/or pinching
CFD FSI fluid boundaries can move or deform, but not change
topologically
CEL
projectile impact and penetration
SPH
Grease filled CV joint
CEL SPH CFD
Contact interface
topology can change

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Cont ac t Consi der at i ons
Contact with immersed shell structures
With SPH and CFD FSI flow is discontinuous on either side of an
immersed shell structure because the boundaries are Lagrangian
CEL smears the discontinuity over the element that the shell
intersects
Discontinuous streamlines and
pressure contours in flow over a
flexible flap in a converging channel
(CFD/STD co-simulation)
Notes:
The same comparison is true for the
temperature field in heat transfer
simulations (CFD FSI and CEL only)
Abaqus/CAE includes a seam
feature to support CFD in this regard.
1. Partition cell
2. Assign seam
CEL SPH CFD
Solution discontinuities on either
side of an immersed shell

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Geomet r y and Mesh
SPH liquid can pass through
a narrow channel
initial
final
Capturing flow near small
geometric details
SPH does not require high mesh refinement around obstacles with small
geometric details, nor within narrow passages
CEL and CFD require a minimum of several elements across a
passage to represent flow
However, CEL can automatically refine
and coarsen the mesh locally during
the simulation to better capture small
details and local behavior
Indentation (CEL) with
automatic mesh refinement
CEL SPH CFD
Does not require high mesh
refinement around obstacles with
small geometric details

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Geomet r y and Mesh
Element conversion
SPH allows for conversion of continuum finite elements into SPH
particles
You define a finite element mesh using brick, wedge and
tetrahedron elements that can convert to SPH particles
Conversion can happen either at beginning of the analysis or
during the analysis based on some criterion
With CFD and CEL the nature of the mesh does not change during
the analysis
Continuum elements progressively converted to SPH particles as the specified maximum
principal strain is reached in each element representing the bird
Bird
Engine blade
CEL SPH CFD
Element conversion
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Geomet r y and Mesh
CEL
fluid surface rendered
CFD
cannot represent a fluid
material free surface
SPH
fluid particles rendered
Free surface visualization
Choose CEL over CFD, and SPH when you need clear visualization of
the fluid material free surface
CEL SPH CFD
Clearest definition of
material free surface
NA
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Heat transfer
CFD and CEL can simulate heat transfer in addition to
stress/displacement analyses
Conduction and convection; radiation not currently supported
Anal ysi s Type Consi der at i ons
Electronic circuit board example
Heat transfer within a solid region interacts with surrounding fluid (CFD)
Temperature
contours
Temperature
isosurfaces
Velocity vectors on intermediate plane
CEL SPH CFD
Heat transfer
57
Comput at i onal Consi der at i ons
Accuracy
CEL and CFD deliver approximately the same level of accuracy for the
same level of mesh refinement
When applied to deformation regimes amenable to the Lagrangian finite
element and CEL methods, SPH may produce less accurate results
SPH technique is effective in applications involving extreme
deformations and fragmentation
Relative accuracy
(generally speaking)
CFD CEL SPH
58
Comput at i onal Consi der at i ons
Performance and
computational cost
CFD can use large time
increments to run long-duration
transient simulations
CEL and SPH are limited to explicit time integration and relatively
small time increments
For a given computer resource (memory and CPU) CFD can have a
much finer mesh than CEL
The high computational cost of CEL simulations for problems
with a small material-to-void ratio may require the use of SPH
For example, tracking fragments from primary impact
through a large volume until secondary impact occurs
CEL SPH CFD
Large time increments
Much finer mesh for a
given computer resource
NA
Better performance with
small material-to-void
ratio

NA
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