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Map 64 Caesarea-Melitene

Compiled by T.B. Mitford, 1996 Introduction

The map covers a region dominated by mountains, the watershed of four great rivers flowing into different seas, and the transition between the endless plains of the Anatolian plateau and the highlands of eastern Turkey. Enclosed to the south by the broken ridges of the Taurus, the region is cut transversely by a more rounded massif, the rising north-easterly sweep of the Antitaurus. To the north and west, the mountains drain into the Kzlrmak (ancient Halys) as it flows towards the Black Sea; to the south, into the Seyhan (Saros) and Ceyhan (Pyramos), before they cut through the Taurus to reach the Mediterranean. To the east, large tributaries flow into the Euphrates, the natural frontier between the classical world and Armenia. Much of the central area lies above the tree line, and is snowbound from November to April. Settlement has concentrated on the river plains: along the Halys between Sivas (Sebasteia) and Kayseri (Caesarea), and to the south and east around Elbistan (Ablastha) and Malatya (Melitene). These formed the main axes of communications in antiquity as today, skirting the high Antitaurus and linking Sivas, Kayseri and Malatya. The geography has changed little since ancient times, except in the east where the Keban and Karakaya dams have transformed the Cappadocian section of the Euphrates into two elongated lakes. Most of the area covered by the map fell under Persian rule, and later comprised the eastern half of the Roman and Byzantine province of Cappadocia. But it also includes parts of Pontus, Armenia Minor and Armenia proper. In the fifth century B.C. it was probably traversed by the Persian Royal Road (described by Herodotus 5.52), the great trade route linking the Aegean with northern Mesopotamia and Susa. In Roman times there were military roads of the highest importance in Cappadocia, leading eastwards from Ancyra through Sebasteia towards Satala and northern Armenia, and through Caesarea to the Euphrates at Melitene. Moreover the eastern limes ran up the Euphrates valley, to continue over the Pontic mountains to the Black Sea. Strabo is an excellent source for the region, and draws on firsthand knowledge; he visited Comana, and wrote in Amaseia, the Pontic metropolis (Map 87 A4), under Augustus and Tiberius. He is thus able to describe the physical, historical and political geography of Cappadocia in careful, if not always reliable, detail. There is copious further documentary evidence for the ancient topography. In the mid-second century Ptolemy compiled the coordinates of the mountains, rivers and cities of Cappadocia and Armenia Minor. The main routes diverging from Caesarea and Sebasteia, and their intermediate stations, are known from ItAnt and TabPeut. Segments of the latter reappear in GeogRav, evidently drawing on a common source. The lists of bishoprics from Late Antiquity are no less essential. Cappadocia did not share the civilized structure of the western and coastal provinces of Asia Minor. Isolated and undeveloped, it was a vast region sparsely covered by villages and divided into districts (strategiai) evidently tribal in origin, adapted by the Seleucid kings as a basis for centralized administration, and retained under the Roman Empire. Much of it was occupied by royal, later imperial, lands. About 150 place names are preserved. Most can be located in general terms, although barely half can be identified with any certainty. The fact is that war, invasion and destruction have been endemic in this region since the third century A.D. Almost all physical traces of antiquity building materials, inscriptions, even road surfaceshave been pressed into reuse in the reconstruction of towns and villages, generally on sites already found convenient. A few ancient place names have survived in continuous use until modern times: Zara, for example, or Zimara on the Euphrates. Others have evolved in recognizable form: Sivas, Kayseri, Malatya. No comprehensive survey work has been undertaken across eastern Cappadocia as a whole. Notable, but partial, journeys of exploration were undertaken a century ago: along the southern routes by Sterrett (1888), Ramsay (1890), Munro (1893) and Hogarth (1893); in Pontus by Anderson (1903) and Cumont (1906); and up the Euphrates



valley by Hogarth and Yorke (1896). Grgoire (1909) later traveled south-westwards from Nicopolis (Map 87 D4), and down the R. Halys. Then, in the final decades of Christianity there, many of the names and traces of antiquity were still preserved. So locations could readily be proposed for many ancient names, and lines for many roads. The early results were collated by Ramsay (1890), and mapped by Anderson (1903). They were supplemented some forty years later by von der Ostens (1929; 1930; 1933) automobile journeys in the north and east of Cappadocia. His map of ancient sites shows the distribution of settlements in Hittite and earlier times. The detail and conjecture of these earlier travelers cannot always be corroborated, however. For they followedor createdrudimentary maps, and it was only the publication in 1947 of the Turkish military series (1:200,000) that permitted accurate location of physical and cultural features, and of the roads and tracks linking them. These Turkish maps retain almost all the village-names known to earlier scholars, and form the indispensable foundation of the present compilation. They show that the lines proposed for several roads are unsustainable: Grgoire's roads leading north and west from Zara, for example, or Ramsay's road north-east from Arabissos. They permit precise tracking of milestones (collated by French 1985; 1988) along the strategic road from Caesarea to the Euphrates. And they show where settlement has been possible, and where it has not. In collating evidence for the ancient place names, RE remains essential. More recent work is carefully summarized in TIB Kappadokien to provide a comprehensive study of the geography of Cappadocia in the Byzantine period. Sinclair (1989; 1989a) describes ancient sites and roads in a broader historical framework; Bryer and Winfield (1985) discuss the tortured geography of southern Armenia Minor, where the lines followed by ancient roads are not all firmly established. I have covered the eastern frontier on foot over many years. But across eastern Cappadocia as a whole, exploration has been patchy; of this, the omission from the map of a place as important as Divrii is an unwelcome reflection.

All place names are in Turkey Abbreviation
TIB Kappadokien F. Hild and M. Restle, Tabula Imperii Byzantini 2, Kappadokien (Kappadokia, Charsianon, Sebasteia und Lykandos), DenkWien 149, 1981

Grid E4 H4 B1 B1 F2 H1 Name Ablastha Ad Aras Agranai Agriane Akdamadeni Alacahan Analib(l)a Bubalia Dalana? Dar(a)nalis Anisa Antitaurus M. Arabissos/ Tripotamos Arane Aranda Arangae Arapz Arasaxa Arathia Period R?L AHRL RL R?L R?L? RL L HR HRL CRL A?HRL L RL Modern Name / Location Elbistan Pirot? near Mualm Kalesi han with ancient remains Hasanova? Reference TIB Kappadokien 260 Dillemann 1962, 117 TIB Kappadokien 137 TIB Kappadokien 138 TIB Kappadokien 138 RE; Bryer 1985, 25, 31

B3 C4 D4 F2 B2 B3

Kara Eyk / Kltepe Antitaurus Afin, formerly Yarpuz Akakale ruins to S Akmesit, formerly Zerezek

Cumont 1932 TIB Kappadokien 143 TIB Kappadokien 144, 264 TIB Kappadokien 146 TIB Kappadokien 147 TIB Kappadokien 147

MAP 64 CAESAREA-MELITENE Grid F4 A3 G2 A3 G3 C3 C2 G2 H3 D3 H2 B1 B4 G4 D1 B3 H1 B2 B2 G4 H1 H1 H2 B4 D4 C4 Name Arca Karmala? (M)arkala? Archalla Archelais Arege Argaeus M. [Argaous] Ariaratheia Armaxa Armaza Armenia Minor Arsanias fl. Aa Kzl evrek Autka Azapbal Bagadania Baheba [Bathys Rhyax]/ [Krya Pege]? Bnyan Caesarea = Mazaka Capotes? M. Cappadocia Cappadox? fl. Carsa(g)is = Chorsabia Chabina fl. Charax? Chorsabia/ Carsa(g)is Elegarsina Chosomachon Chryse = Comana Cilicia Coduzalaba/ Sabalassos? Comana/ Hierapolis/ Chryse Comassa = Kamisa Dalanda Delendis Dascusa Daseusa Dagousa Dasmenda? Dastracus M. Dulluk Tepe Ekrek Elegeia Erp(h)a = (H)Erp(h)a Eski Arabkir Euagina/ Sebagena? Eudagina Period RL R RL? RL L HRL R HR L? RL? R?L RL ARL L/ L C R CHRL RL RL RL R?L HR R/ R ACHRL 11 miles NE Pnarba 3 miles N Dutluca ruins 1 mile N Azapbal land S Argaeus M. 3 miles S Eski Malatya, formerly Orduzu 8 miles SE Yldzeli Persian royal park Kurtlu Tepe Modern Name / Location Akcada, formerly Arga Erkilet? signal station, 8 miles WNW Kemaliye S Caesarea Arguvan Pnarba, formerly Azizie Gemerek? Reference RE Arka 4; TIB Kappadokien 152 TIB Kappadokien 147 Sinclair 1989a, 68 RE TIB Kappadokien 150 TIB Kappadokien 151 RE RE See Map 89 von der Osten 1933, 123 T.B. Mitford TIB Kappadokien 155 TIB Kappadokien 178 TIB Kappadokien 249 TIB Kappadokien 157-58 Cook 1983, 180 RE; T.B. Mitford RE Kappadokia See Map 63 See Map 67 RE 4; Mitford 1998 Cumont 1906, 327; RE RE Elegarsina Howard-Johnston 1983, 255-56 TIB Kappadokien 43 RE TIB Kappadokien 208-209


Cendere Bozolak, formerly Ihtik Melik erif? emigezek around and NE Caesarea Ky Yeri / Sarz? ar

F3 H3 C3 G1 G4 C3 H4 G2 C3


Darende? Panik? Kukalesi Kzl Da?, SE Nicopolis signal station, 2 miles SE Melitene Kprba, 30 miles E Kayseri vicinity of Kmrhan ruins 2 miles NW Arabkir vicinity of Gemerek

Ramsay 1890, 309-10 TIB Kappadokien 169-70 RE; TIB Kappadokien 300-301 RE; Magie 1950, 1222; T.B. Mitford Mitford 1980, 1186 TIB Kappadokien 173 RE 2 TIB Kappadokien 146 RE Euagena

988 Grid E1 B2 H1 E2 B4 Name Eudoixata Eudoxiana? Eulepa Aipolioi Euphrates fl. Eusebeia = Mazaka Euspena Frakdn Foroba? = Sibora E3 D1 E1 B2 H3 Gauraina Gkkaya Gundusa Halys fl. Hastek Kale Herakleopolis = Sebastopolis (H)Erp(h)a Hierapolis = Comana In Medio In Medio? = Symposion Kabassos Kabissos Kale Kamisa/ Comassa Eumeis? Kantariz Kalesi Kara Kavak Karakuyu Karana? = Sebastopolis Karmalas? fl. Karnalis Komaralis Kataonia Kemaliye Kerar Kale Kerpi Kiakis Chiaca [Kiskisos] Kz Kalesi Kzl ehir Kzolan Kalesi Kokousos [Korakesios] fl. Korax fl. Korne Korpinik Hyk RL? R?L? R RL? Period R RL

MAP 64 CAESAREA-MELITENE Modern Name / Location Tutma? Glova, formerly Palas Reference RE TIB Kappadokien 137 See Map 93 RL A Kangal Gmren TIB Kappadokien 288 von der Osten 1930, 32-33; TIB Kappadokien 177 TIB Kappadokien 181-82 Cumont 1906, 231 TIB Kappadokien 296 See Map 87 TIB Kappadokien 187

Grn rock tombs Gndz? Yenipayam, above Arabkir ay at crossing of Karmalas fl. Karacalar? Doanbeyli?, W Kokousos above Pirot settlement and mine SW Boazdere, formerly Kantariz very large settlement 1 mile ENE Hasan elebi spring and settlement 4 miles E erefiye Viranehir? around Comana 3 miles S Kemaliye town below rock citadel on S bank of iro ay temple, 2 miles S Kerpi vicinity of Morhamam Yaylack, formerly Kiske small citadel NW Kemaliye 6 miles SW arkla 1 mile NW Kaanli Gksun Sultan Su Hurman ay Kerar Kale? / vicinity of iro ay mouth and Brky signal station above mouth of Arabkir ay

C3 D2 C4 H4 E1 D2 F3 D3 A4 D2 C4 H2 H4 B2 G3 B4 H2 C2 D4 C4 G4 D3 H4 H3


RE Karmalas RE RE 1 Sinclair 1989a, 42-43 RE RE TIB Kappadokien 198-99 von der Osten 1929, 81; TIB Kappadokien 187 von der Osten 1933, 123-27 See Map 67 RE TIB Kappadokien 202 von der Osten 1929, 110 TIB Kappadokien 204-205 Grgoire 1909, 46-53 TIB Kappadokien 165 TIB Kappadokien 206 von der Osten 1929, 110-15 Grgoire 1909, 42 TIB Kappadokien 201 TIB Kappadokien 217-18 TIB Kappadokien 265 TIB Kappadokien 190 RE; Mitford 1998 PECS 259; Mitford 1980, pl. 2


MAP 64 CAESAREA-MELITENE Grid F3 C1 Name Ktkale Kouloupene Colopene [Krya Pege]? = [Bathys Rhyax] Klek Da Kurtlu Tepe Period L? HR Modern Name / Location small fortress at Hsarck 10 miles SE Darende around Sebasteia and Sebastopolis large fortress of great antiquity on summit above ar signal station, 6 miles ESE Refahiye, on Capotes? M.? NE Cappadocia Gzene Kzlar Kalesi imperial estate, near Hisarck? arkla signal station, 20 miles NNE Melitene Dalca, formerly Maragos Eskiehir, 2 miles S Kayseri Kayseri Reference von der Osten 1930, 102-104; TIB Kappadokien 217 RE


C4 H1

L? R?L?

Sterrett 1888, 233 Mitford 1998

D2 G4 E4 B3 C2 G3 D4 A3 A3

Lagalasso = Leugaisa Laouiansene [Lapara] = [Lykandos] Leugaisa/ Lagalasso [Lykandos]/ [Lapara] Makelle Malandara Mardara? Malyan Maroga/ Sarromaena Mazaka Mazaka/ Eusebeia/ Caesarea Megalopolis? = Sebasteia Melas fl. Melas fl. Melitene Melitene Meydanck Miasena Mesena Moutalaske Nymphaios fl. Odur Kalesi Omma fl. Osdara Asdara Osmandede Ouarsapa Pagrum Phiara Siara Simos? Phlabianai Preion M. (P)Saros fl. Pusatl Pyramos fl.


RE Laviansene TIB Kappadokien 184 TIB Kappadokien 224-25 TIB Kappadokien 226-27 TIB Kappadokien 228 Ramsay 1890, 270 Mitford 1998 RE; TIB Kappadokien 153 TIB Kappadokien 193-96 TIB Kappadokien 193-96

B3 E3 E4 G4 H4 H4 B3 H4 G2 H4 E4 E3 E4 E4 D1 B3 D4 C4 B4 E4

Karasu, N Caesarea Tohma Su district W Euphrates Eski Malatya 3 miles W Pirot Tahni Talas

TIB Kappadokien 233 Mitford 1980, 1185 RE TIB Kappadokien 233-37 T.B. Mitford RE; Mitford 1998 TIB Kappadokien 242 See Map 67

A R R L? R?L R?L R L R L

8 miles SW Divrii Euphrates at Taurus gorge Demircilik? W Gurun Kk Yapalak? E Elbistan Yldzeli / Yeni Han? Erciyes NW Hurman Kale 25 miles SE Kayseri

von der Osten 1929, 118 RE Ommas RE TIB Kappadokien 252 TIB Kappadokien 272 RE RE TIB Kappadokien 259 Sterrett 1888, 304 (no. 352) See Map 66 TIB Kappadokien 263 See Map 67

990 Grid B2 G1 H2 B2 C3 G3 B4 G1 E1 C1 G4 B1 A1 G3 Name Rmdiin Sabalassos? = Coduzalaba Sabrina fl. Sabus Sam(m)a Castorum = Semissos Saraouene Sargarausene Saros fl. = (P)Saros fl. Sarromaena = Maroga Sartona Satky Scordiscus M Sebagena? = Euagina Sebasteia/ Megalopolis?/ Talaura? Sebastopolis/ Herakleopolis/ Karana? Semissos/ Sam(m)a Castorum Serm(o)usa Sermouga Sibora/ Foroba? Sobara? Siniskolon *Sinis Colonia Pisonos? Koloneia? Sinispora? Siricis Saricha? Skandos Skylax fl. Sobagena Stl Stl Dere Sophene Symposion/ In Medio? Talaura? = Sebasteia Tanadaris Ptandaris Taranta Taurus M. Tavra Teucila Tdrge Tomarza Tomisa Tonosa Period R RL RL HR HR R L RL

MAP 64 CAESAREA-MELITENE Modern Name / Location building in Felahiye Karabudak it Harabe N Halys E Caesarea ermik? church and rock tombs 39 miles SSE Kayseri Sarmsak (garlic) tepe? Sivas Sulusaray Pnarba near Kadehir Karamaara? Fethiye, formerly Hasanbadrk Reference Grgoire 1909, 43-45 RE 2 RE 1; Mitford 1980, 1189 RE RE Pliny, NH 5.84; T.B. Mitford TIB Kappadokien 273 RE; T.B. Mitford Cumont 1906, 217-28; RE Talara; TIB Kappadokien 274-76 RE 3; Mitford 1991, 182-83 RE ; TIB Kappadokien 270-71 RE RE; TIB Kappadokien 276 RE TIB Kappadokien 190 RE TIB Kappadokien 289 TIB Kappadokien 282 RE Scylax 5 TIB Kappadokien 153 TIB Kappadokien 285-86 TIB Kappadokien 286 See Map 89 RE; TIB Kappadokien 288-89


C4 B3 B1 D4 B4 E4 H2 D3


near Keklikoluk near Talas ekerek Irmak Hurman Kalesi columns, capitals in reuse, 32 miles SE Kayseri NNE Elbistan Kaleky

D4 E3 G4 D1 G2 F1 B4 H4 D2


Tanir NW Darende rock tombs 3 miles NNW Sivas Ortaky? rock tombs S Halys columns, capitals 25 miles SE Kayseri near zolu? Altnyayla, formerly Tonus

RE TIB Kappadokien 290-91 See Map 66 Cumont 1906, 226-28 RE; Mitford 1998 Grgoire 1909, 40 TIB Kappadokien 296 RE TIB Kappadokien 296-97

MAP 64 CAESAREA-MELITENE Grid Name Tripotamos = Arabissos H2 Vereuso? R Gerula, 2 miles S Kemaliye, formerly Ein beside R. Euphrates Zara Pingan? Doanehir (Viranehir) Tecer Han? Mitford 1998 Period Modern Name / Location Reference


H2 F1 G2 F4 E2

Zabulbar Zara Sara Zimara Sismara? Zizoatra Zoana


T.B. Mitford RE RE TIB Kappadokien 286-87 TIB Kappadokien 296

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Grid C1 D1 F2 G2 H1 H1 C4 E4 F4 F4 G4 G3 H3 H3 Location at Sebastopolis over ekerek Irmak (Skylax fl.) 12 miles WNW Sivas at Yldzrmak NW Arane at Ko Kprs SW Zimara at Burmahan on alt ay SW Analib(l)a over Karabudak (Sabrina fl.) S Charax? 6 miles E Comana at Kemer over Saros fl. NE Pagrum? at Gvur ren on Sgtl Dere 5 miles NW Arca 1.5 miles NE Zizoatra at Krkkpr N Melitene at Krk Gz Kpr on Tohma Su (Melas fl.) S Kiakis on Kuruay NNW Korpinik Hyk at Bahadn on Arabkir ay S Hastek Kale at Kara Maara Kpr over Arabkir ay Period RL L? R RL R L? RL R L R? R?L R?L? R L Reference Cumont 1906, 201 Cumont 1906, 215-16 von der Osten 1929, 80 Mitford 1980, 1185 Mitford 1980, 1185 Yorke 1896, Map; Mitford 1998, 267 TIB Kappadokien 203 Hogarth 1893, 686; Sinclair 1989, 492-93 TIB Kappadokien 152 TIB Kappadokien 287 Mitford 1980, 1185 Mitford 1998, 261 Mitford 1980, 1185 TIB Kappadokien 142, 200

Itinerary Caesarea Arasaxa Comana Kokousos Melitene Caesarea Sebasteia Lacotena Melitene (frontier road) Melitene Dascusa Zimara E Melitene Sebasteia Sibora Sebasteia Kamisa Zara Sebastopolis Serm(o)usa? Map 63 Caesarea Bnyan (H)erp(h)a Arasaxa (H)erp(h)a Tanadaris Arabissos Arasaxa Ariaratheia Gauraina Melitene Period Reference Magie 1950, 1349-50; Hild 1977, 86-87 Hild 1977, 72 Hild 1977, 142; Mitford 1998, 257-59 Mitford 1998, 261-67 Hild 1977, 106 Ramsay 1890, 264-66; Munro 1893, 722-27; Cumont 1906, 318-30 Anderson 1903, 31-34; Magie 1950, 1079-80 TIB Kappadokien map Sinclair 1989, 443-521 TIB Kappadokien, 125

992 Itinerary Caesarea [Kiskisos] Map 67 Caesarea [Kiskisos] Comana Ariaratheia Sebasteia Gauraina Euspena Melitene Kerar Kale Map 89 Melitene Zizoatra Map 67 Sebasteia Gkkaya Analib(l)a Zara Roads around Capotes? M.

MAP 64 CAESAREA-MELITENE Period Reference TIB Kappadokien, 125-27 TIB Kappadokien, 125-27 Hild 1977, 131 TIB Kappadokien map Mitford 1979; 1998, 257-60 TIB Kappadokien map Cumont 1906, 228-36 T.B. Mitford Mitford 1998, 265-68

Unlocated Toponyms
Name Ad Praetorium Apenzinsos Argos Arianodum Arsanus fl. Artaxata Asarinum Attagaina Azamora Blandi Borissos Claudias/ Claudiopolis Coeranus fl. Dandaxina/ Dandexina Dastarkon Dasteira Dogana Euesa/ Euaissa?/ Seioua?/ Siva? Eusimara/ Phousipara? Garnake Getasa (H)Ispa Iassos Kanotala Karape Karmalas fl. Kizara Korsagaina Kritalla Period R L H?R R?L R R L L HR? R L RL R R R H R L Probable Location vicinity of Hekimhan or Hasan elebi in Cappadocia fortress high in Taurus SW Zizoatra distinct from Arsanias? E Caesarea 24 miles from Kokousos in Orp(h)anene stronghold in Cappadocia between Sebasteia and Melitene in Cappadocia fort and road station, perhaps at Kerar Kale in Cappadocia between Kokousos and Melitene shrine of Apollo, probably on Zamant Su below Ekrek settlement near Dastracus M. Devekse in Orp(h)anene, NNW Caesarea, or in Armenia Minor in Melitene in E Cappadocia in Cappadocia between Sebasteia and Melitene in Melitene in Cappadocia in Armenia Minor dams above (H)Erp(h)a, on Zamant Su? in Laouiansene in Orp(h)anene marshalling point of Xerxes army Reference TIB Kappadokien 187 Ramsay 1890, 307 RE 6 ItMiller 762 RE Arsanias 2 ItAnt 180.1 RE RE RE RE RE Suppl. 1 TIB Kappadokien 197 RE 1 RE RE RE; Magie 1950, 1222 RE Zara 1 Jones 1971, 434; TIB Kappadokien 176, 250 Ptol. 5.6.14 R R L RL R L R H R L C RE RE Ramsay 1890, 308 RE Hispa RE 1 RE RE RE RE Ramsay 1890, 314 RE; Cook 1983, 117

MAP 64 CAESAREA-MELITENE Name Ladoineris Larissa Laugasa/ Laustasa? Lerisus Mallos Mogariassos Nocotesso Nosalene Oromandros Orp(h)anene/ Orbisene? Orsa/ Orsene? Pacosanda Pasarne Phargamous Phouphagena/ Phouphena? Phousipara? = Eusimara Pisingara Sabagena Sadagena Sandrales/ Sandiale Seioua? = Euesa Sinervas/ Sinibra/ Sinera Siva? = Euesa Spania Titarissos Tynna Zenokopis Zomeri Zoparistos Period R RL R R?L H L? L R R L R R?L R L R R R R RL R Probable Location in Melitene vicinity of (H)Erp(h)a or on Karasekdz, 12 miles WSW Kangal? in Laouiansene in Cappadocia or Armenia near (H)Erp(h)a and Karmalas fl. vicinity of Comana W Melitene in Laouiansene in Armenia Minor district in Armenia Minor or Saraouene next to Orbisene near Melitene? in Laouiansene in E Cappadocia? in Armenia Minor in Armenia Minor in Laouiansene in Sargarausene in Cappadocia in Armenia Minor Reference RE Suppl. 4 RE Larisa 11; TIB Kappadokien 221; Sinclair 1989, 462-63 RE GeogRav 2.16 RE Karmalas TIB Kappadokien 238 ItMiller 738 RE RE RE Suppl. 7; TIB Kappadokien 250 RE 2 GeogRav 2.16 Ptol. 5.6.24 TIB Kappadokien 258 Ptol. 5.6.20 RE RE RE TIB Kappadokien 271 RE 3


L R R R L? R

in Cappadocia in Melitene in Kataonia vicinity of Kemaliye village in vicinity of Sebasteia in Melitene

TIB Kappadokien 287-88 RE RE RE; T.B. Mitford TIB Kappadokien 308 RE

False Toponyms
Name Castabola Cilissa/ Ingilissis Kaparkelis Salius fl. Singa R R Period intrusion from Lycaonia or Cilicia corruption of Cilicia intrusion from Syria, in Laouiansene at Comana, corruption of Saros fl. intrusion from Commagene Reference ItMiller 737; RE Kastabala ItMiller 737 Ptol. 5.7.10 Pliny, NH 6.3 ItMiller 738; Ramsay 1890, 66



Anderson 1903 J.G.C. Anderson, A journey of exploration in Pontus, Studia Pontica 1, Brussels, 1903. Bryer 1985 A.A.M. Bryer and D.C. Winfield, The Byzantine monuments and topography of the Pontos, 2 vols., Washington DC, 1985. Cook 1983 J.M. Cook, The Persian empire, New York, 1983. Cumont 1906 F.V.M. Cumont and E. Cumont, Voyage dexploration archologique dans le Pont et la Petite Armnie, Studia Pontica 2, Brussels, 1906. Cumont 1932 F. Cumont, A propos dun dcret dAnisa en Cappadoce, REA 34 (1932) 135-38. Dillemann 1962 L. Dillemann, Haute Msopotamie orientale et pays adjacentes. Contribution la gographie historique de la rgion, du Ve s. avant l're chrtienne au VIe s. de cette re, BAH 72, Paris, 1962. French 1985 D.H. French, Milestones of Cappadocia, EpAnat 5 (1985) 147-54. French 1988 D. French, Roman roads and milestones of Asia Minor, 2 vols., British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 9; BAR International series 392 (i-ii), Oxford, 1988. Grgoire 1909 H. Grgoire, Rapport sur un voyage dexploration dans le Pont et en Cappadoce, BCH 33 (1909) 3-169. Hild 1977 F. Hild, Das Byzantinische Strassensystem in Kappadokien, DenkWien 131, Vienna, 1977. Hogarth 1893 D.G. Hogarth, Modern and ancient roads in eastern Asia Minor. Part 2: the military road from Caesarea to Melitene on the Euphrates, RGS Supplementary Papers 3 (1893) 678-718. Howard-Johnston 1983 J.D. Howard-Johnston, Byzantine Anzitene, in S. Mitchell (ed.), Armies and frontiers in Roman and Byzantine Anatolia. Proceedings of a colloquium held at University College, Swansea in April 1981, BAR International series 156, pp. 239-90, Oxford, 1983. Jones 1971 A.H.M. Jones, The cities of the eastern Roman provinces, 2nd ed., Oxford, 1971. Magie 1950 D. Magie, Roman rule in Asia Minor, 2 vols., Princeton, 1950. Mitford 1979 T.B. Mitford, The Limes in the Kurdish Taurus, in W.S. Hanson and L.J.F. Keppie (eds.), Roman Frontier Studies 1979. Papers presented to the 12th International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, BAR International series 71, pp. 913-26, Oxford, 1980. Mitford 1980 T.B. Mitford, Cappadocia and Armenia Minor: historical setting of the Limes, ANRW II.7.2 (1980) 1161-1228. Mitford 1991 T.B. Mitford, Inscriptiones Ponticae Sebastopolis, ZPE 87 (1991) 181-243. Mitford 1998 T.B. Mitford, The Roman frontier on the Upper Euphrates, in R. Matthews (ed.), Ancient Anatolia. Fifty years work by the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, pp. 255-72, London, 1998. Munro 1893 J.A.R. Munro, Notes on roads in the Vilayet of Sivas, RGS Supplementary Papers 3 (1893) 719-39. von der Osten 1929 H.H. von der Osten, Explorations in Hittite Asia Minor 1927-28, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 6, Chicago, 1929. von der Osten 1930 H.H. von der Osten, Explorations in Hittite Asia Minor 1929, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 8, Chicago, 1930. von der Osten 1933 H.H. von der Osten, Discoveries in Anatolia 1930-31, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 14, Chicago, 1933.



Ramsay 1890 W.M. Ramsay, The historical geography of Asia Minor, Royal Geographical Society Supplementary Papers 4, London, 1890 Sinclair 1989 (vol. 2), 1989a (vol. 3) T.A. Sinclair, Eastern Turkey: an architectural and archaeological survey, 4 vols., London, 1987-90.

Sterrett 1888 J.R. Sitlington Sterrett, An epigraphical journey in Asia Minor, Papers of the American School of Classical Studies in Athens 2, Boston, 1888. Yorke 1896 V.W. Yorke, A journey in the valley of the Upper Euphrates, GeogJ 8 (1896) 317-35, 453-74.

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