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1

I'HE

CONCEPT LI FROM HOMER

OF

A2

DOS

IN

GREEK

TERATTJRE TO 404 B_

DcDPAac. 11

as

Lai

d1

aw

Cairns

Degree

of

Ph. d.,

Faculty

of

Arts

April,

1987

Douglas

L. Cairns

MCMLXXXVII.

ii

PREFACE. The scope of the 404 although are excluded, better his in the the last case, to thesis, B. C. authors except consider two plays too, considered of is as given a entire incidental whole us of well in the title, cut-off falls references, Aristophanes, into of fourth the fourth requires point, after it even cenmuch date, that some

explanation: since, date seemed though tury; of

largely whose for the take the may

nominal oeuvre

fragments be of

Demokritos, century

material

but light

the

corpus which the

as

a whole

is shed

included on fifth

for

the century

sake

of

the

fragments

controversies.

should Mr.

like

to

thank

my

supervisors, for my I their

Professor generosity but at also their debts be end by

D. M. MacDowell and more (and sup-

and port for

A. F. Garvie, the

especially period of

during the

research, received

generally their one but I

excellent hands one's like to most

education as an

colleagues') owes should also two to

undergraduate. perhaps, may

The never

which

teachers, go some

repaid, mentioning

way

towards

that

inspirational without whose pursuing wife, my work work to who in my

schoolmasters, example the endured the mother study my (fruitful) and to I of should classics.

A. C. Jones probably

and never

A. H. Murray, have also many dedicate father. considered go parts this to

Thanks and for of

must read I

my of

unsociability search the

errors. my

memory

iia

CONTENTS Introduction 1-6

notes

6-7

1. Homer notes 2.

8-94 95-114

From

Hesiod

to

the

Fifth

Century

115-152 152-160

notes 3.

Aeschylus notes

161-196 197-208

4. Sophokles notes 5.

209-263 263-282

Euripides notes

283-395 395-419

6.

Herodotos notes

420-446 446-449

7.

Thucydides notes

450-490 490-497

8.

Aristophanes notes Andokides

498-531 531-535

9.

Presocratics, notes

Sophists,

Antiphon

and

536-570 570-580

Conclusion Bibliography

5$1-583 584-596

iii

SUMMARY The introduction is position4taken basis in to own is of deals briefly as firstly, and, with shame such the or question guilt-cultures, a distinction that Greek to in topics its culture the the is the has of the and no

classification the real

societies that,

human the

psychology differences superficial. culture

secondly, ancient challenge continues the central an with both and to internal

application and our

between The

largely

shame-culture/guilt chapter extent The noted, tion are or on to Homer, which of

antithesis one of

which

Homeric association terms which

man possesses of aidos

conscience. opinion of situitself to that to it is

fundamental and the

popular the the kind censure

which merits

describe censure view standards.

conduct with and no basis

studied,

a particular co-operative for in the

their It of the is

relevance concluded co-operative although more is or in his

competitive there the is with way is

a subordination vocabulary that latter many sphere. of of

competitive certainly failure part of the in the

the

poems, are however, the poet

case the moral

characters This, either

concerned no

ideology

characters. a dos in philia, identified: its concern its relevance with and with the guests, regard categories

The in to

main battle the

areas and

of as

operation fear of

of disgrace of

are

role

general, its

co-operative regard particular especially also obtain for

standard others, form in in which women. subsequent

positive and to the sex,

especially the These concept are

suppliants takes broadly

which

chapters.

Instances Pindar note notion verb, nions and arete, are are

of

the largely

relevant

terms

in

the but

poetry particularly

from

Hesiod

to of

heterogeneous, remarks in his and lack the on the

Hesiod's also present to

ambivalence Solon's

of

worthy (a aidos of the

Homer), of

application for of the qualities by

aideomai, of loyalty both others, to

concern

misguided like i s,

opiaidos with

association itself in

one's and

friends, social,

promoted Theognis.

moral

iv

In of

the aidos

Tragedians, etc. in with the the in the the

attention motivation

is

paid of

first characters, of the

of

all then

to

the to its

role

importance then, usage outside in the the bulk and of

thematic caution, may

structure to reflect the is, the

plays, that in the of

and

only

some tragedians

possibility changes operation briefly, with an of its

the society

plays.

In

Aeschylus, categories is

the

concept but the

above-mentioned of the of here chapter characters the inhibitory

surveyed, role in difficult apparent, Such all is

concerned faced with

psychology choice: it

acutely is

force crises of

aidos

as

frequently is

provokes often an

indecision. sign that

indecision, not well. is it is and extant the

moreover,

important

The far

psychological from elementary, who of aidos of by and another. makes his

insight but, most have

of of use

Aeschylus, the of In three aidos all

it

is

argued,

very

tragedians, in but the two

Sophokles motivation tragedies possibility suggested explored, against are

psychology of the importance: a topic perhaps

characters. etc.

a central ideas of

thematic i s,

conflicting demand Sophistic in evidence both of

sophistic one

relativist of traditional discussions in

theory,

is aid os of the the

frequently is often of and set aidos the

nature Ajax of work the

particularly which internal to in of the view the the

two the

plays, operation

Philoktetes, as an

reveal conscience people" of the

concept

form

which whose

can

without is This often apprewith of the

reference mentioned ciation Demokritos' individual.

"other context internal of its

judgement

aid os-reaction. of in the corresponds conscience

aspect operation

Sophistic although
psychology Relativism particular extent ding since to it to

ideas they
of is

are are
individual also

even much

more less

readily
than

apparent integrated
they are poet,

in into
in

Euripides, the
Sophokles. and of a the accor-

closely
in work of is that the is a

characters

important of his character aidos appears

younger the given

feature which the

exploration act in is may this now

vary context,

circumstance: frequently

relevant aidos

appropriate,

now

inappropriate. about kairos dramatist's of the in

This subject that

is in

the

burden and be

of the

Phaidra's importance as this an

famous attached indication kind. recalls affords the of of in of to Odyssey, everyday the this the

doubts to of The their us to an the the

Hipp., might in of

passage

taken of in

interest instances in Homer,

relativism our the to terms

abundance frequency opportunity, the

Euripides work by range aware topic uses

and

tragedian's that over offered a wide is

comparable working Euripides, of aidos like and of

observe

applications. internal chapter verbs, these element such is uses a natural done of of the aspect is the

Sophokles, an important

of large and

ads, number

retrospective and of "bad" the extent and

aideomai circumscribe of the is

aischunomai, the concepts

which The

guilt

remorse. in argued, conscience on that notice work,

retrospective, accepted, combination but of

conscience it of criticism Particular is both

several there of account; is and which of why society, people of

more fear the

often,

motives, of

wrong neither taken its again the do in

and these

prospective cancels

other. aidos in

importance association sophistic of political the respective of

of

Euripides'

frequent reflects nature wrong the

with interest

education, in the the of

something origins reasons and

communities, roles and

and

heredity

environment

development

skills

character. the of stan-

In

Herodotos, of for of laws, impulse of great in honour

the

historian's and shame is in

view historical

of

operation causation, of wrongs belief has its

dards in the

largely and that the the in as

context

of

individual

desire victory Greek the is

vengeance, the Greeks

resentment is as noted, the

his

against and social to in but the this

Persians

roots aidos, own

customs to conform importance

organization, standards connexion. fact where no the belies it such is of

since one's Aidos the occurs term

society, only of or

occurs

once the T; is

Thucydides, in and his in

this both

importance as aischune

concept IJ a frequent level,

work,

passageslwhich at both motive and particular of honour

occurs. and the to both the

Honour internaways competi-

individual

tional in which

attention and shame

paid

standards

operate

vi

tively, as part

in of

the the

conflict obligation

between owed

states, by one

and state

co-operatively, to another.

Many minor an by role hero by

uses

of

the

relevant but of at the the which licence

terms bulk of

in the

Aristophanes chapter for were the is

are taken

of up

only with

interest,

investigation the of festivals this of the the comic

opportunities the in of of plays both society of

anaideia performed

afforded and of the the the

celebration enjoyed conventional targets. expressed by

freedom and those

restraints exposure who

comic morality

breaches the of

figures with syneidesis,

are

comedian's conscience,

A certain as aischune

familiarity and as

concepts is noted.

The in the

final the

chapter thought topic of

is

largely

taken

up

with and

the

role to

of take

aidos and place the of

Protagoras, is the takes related as simple or public by sees dialectic

Antiphon which and the and

Demokritos,

central (perhaps

seems impulse dike to in

between law Plato's like appears ted by

a view to

which be

aidos to

to the

obey myth

aidos

Protagoras) legal to punishment be

responses humiliation Antiphon) aidos without ideas the chapter, "the appendices, and the as

external (this another internal to is

sanctions view (represencorrective the fear is are the also of related of of

represented which can operate

and an it of

Demokritos) which by

mechanism detection more

reference view,

others.

Demokritos' Demokritos' earlier in in Two Gorgias

argued,

sophisticated. (as are,

conscience the orator"), on the instances

examined syneidesis to his

which view in of

occur aidos.

Antiphon short

and

speech are

Kallikles to conclude

Plato's the survey.

Dissoi

Logoff,

added

1
INTRODUCTION

Aidos words indeed Erffa1 Kraft

is to

notoriously translate; renderings to uns

one there

of is

the no

most English

difficult equivalent,

of

Greek and Von eigene he the Scott2 no single every concept are not of is

many is fr

are point out Wort to

positively that fehlt, "

right die

misleading. "eine is aidos yet in his

das

account by

constantly deficiencies and, at

concerned of greater definition will Aidos be made and its this length,

identify are Adkins3. be discover

separate well set

meanings; out

approach by will to

Accordingly, here, essence although of the

universal effort itself. the terms only

offered the derivatives, have to

direct we shall

however, consider: etc. refer (in will directly Homer), of the taken other same into It has the also

Greek

words on

group be to

centred as

aischron, those such there

aischune, words as exists operate too, must difference to conduct which nemesis

important, popular etc.. which usage points however, graphical none light of of on the our In can, as of

will

disapproval, addition, on a'do been study, relevant theme, other

oneidos terms field account, not, lexicoin to which of and

a number within be

occasion, ; these, or

similarity

noted.. an

my intention and

entirely passages seem of

accordingly, terms or to occur, reveal will

certain but the which

shed

operation also is as be

standards

behaviour

than

aidos,

considered.

The

most

common

translation it is

of with

aidos shame be

"shame",

and

to

a and

considerable cultural suggested the that not to in entire our be be entity by

degree that the

a psychological As is already can

we shall

concerned. no translation the the

observation of the word and that, as refer say",

that aidos, that of one; in

cover

range idea of

possibility ancient Greeks it does relate may

shame is as read

co-extensive taken feeling literature people

a real

nevertheless, general, aidos that

should the Greek

we describe often will

shame; their and that,

we find aidos surely,

characters to is

explicitly

"what

other

an The

important anxiety

manifestation of aidos, symptoms, patterns, such oneself shame between

of moreover, such as from

at

least can be

one

kind

of

shame. by

accompanied or by eyes typical the

physiological behaviour desire tants of to

as

blushing, of these further the are

instinctive or the concomi-

lowering view; and and

hide the

reaction4 shame of shame, of

suggest people". is almost

relationship logical as an definition adequate of them thought or

"other

A psychoas elusive the and that fear, shyness like or rejects shame rage,

however, aidos.

translation his as of as a too as

Piers5summarizes predecessors

definitions most can hope of be

psychoanalytical narrow; an affect, explaining an symptom, a character his own

(p. emotion such trait, definition,

18) like as

etc.,

neurotic or as offer

self-effacingness, he goes on (23-4)

modesty6, naming

to

four

criteria

which

differentiate

shame

from

guilt. level us very the

These

criteria, and, in

however, in dealing or great

operate

largely do ways conscious to know in not in

at take

the

of far.

unconscious, For example, portray be no

consequence, with the the

which

ancient of aidos, is guilt. " of a ideal

authors it will

describe advantage threat

anxiety "the that, shame anxiety as as and ego and in

uncon-

scious,

irrational and not

impl

lied

abandonment, Piers' tension product (p. 24) ion on (the with peer

mutilation however,

(castration) between the guilt

distinction, between of does similar have its the

a product shame the the as ego

ego tension

and

superego, the

between provided internal punitive rle parents the 9

value, (an of social loving distinction one guilt: of

we accept source of

distinctbased ego ideal

between the

superego

reference the

interdictions idea the of ideals one's of This forms

parents) based and has the on of

and

identification the sibling conthe differand

groups)8. which of

following for

sequence, entiation

criteria

shame

and is

"Whereas the superego)

guilt is

generated or

whenever

a boundary shame occurs

(set

by

touched

transgressed,

when

3 a goal thus (presented indicates by a real shame, the ego ideal) 10 " is Guilt not being anxiety reached. accompanies It

shortcoming. failure.

transgression,

Perhaps distinction guilt, individuals might limit

this

definition between the to

is

useful

for

preserving states of

a proper shame of and real

psychological the linguistic

but

as it

a guide has its

behaviour Anyone, for or to action, depending points of out be

limitations. as as an

example, may see the a may the (p. 29), thus creation same shame action and be indi-

regard

a transgression not to be by to fail

a failure,

requirement not

injunction A given

obeyed, then, on

transgressed. either guilt as may a sense and both Piers take of it or

accompanied vidual. Parental the of may guilt of or of fails This, mainly actions: the in creation a sense be

shame, himself

Furthermore, punishment of of

the guilt is

form may possible The

humiliation: the the of (and

encompass that closeness

shame, by

attended is further in the

senses. by can lead guilt to

demonstrated which one failure an to guilt can

Piers'

discussion shame

(31-9,44) vice versa)

ways which with

conceal the with

other. for

The

shame to it of

and adequate is

transgression,

association then,

provide seems guilt when an

criterion because with experiences

a distinction. is thinking own shame be conhe of down. found own sense at to someonein a sense

me,

partly felt

Piers to a sense

and

shame

regard

one's of

individual at his own of

retrospectively reacting duct, has he done, or to may and the

conduct, others'

while

he

may

simply of for that what

prospect be shame

disapproval responsibility may be encompass then, very hard

equally the

accepting reaction In such

a degree the to may to

remorse tion But in

repentance. shame empirical that need and

a context, would distinction always guilt,

distincpin be

between a more the fact and

guilt does unlike may, at to

and shame not, One does, thought In

workable not for

relate presuppose feel which

one's some

conduct, of thing self, fact, of

responsibility. someone or one one's at has own else being not.

example, done need guilt,

shame happens

something have shame while

something not

which,

short,

encompass irrational

resonsibility,

even

guilt should of the

usually not guilt of be

does. too

(Even rigidly

here, applied: by whole

however, we often nations certain the

the

distinction hear, for example,

experienced

at

the

transgresbelieve as a whole

sions in and

previous of one guilt

generations, which at however, and in of process quoted adheres birth.

and to )

religions human race

a kind which

inherits

It

should

be

noted, guilt

that shame the the are

Piers' internal of

discussion states the both This, between collaborator, justifications to the conclusion it of is is

presupof con-

poses

both that 11 both science:

operate and ideals the often

context

internalized and are in turn,

prescriptions acquired brings culture" Singer, distinction as a means us early to and

in the

individual v of socialization.

"guilt-culture". the length,

distinction 12 Piers'

"shameM. B. for this that,

investigates at of some

conventional and comes

characterizing here is the

whole

cultures,

scarcely by

tenable. into called grace sanction" Yet, nalized, given parents internalize Singer standard, external quires felt by between nalized It sed may with a that as two

Important

classification morality punishments, rely the of to be shame so on i. e.

cultures sodis13 interincluding

those categories: "external sanctions", humiliation, of individual seen, is will in their the and

whose

enforced the of also than with

or

those

which

"internal guilt. be

conscience, sense identify likely

sense may

we have and

indeed

sooner before

guilt, their begin quoted internal between shame reshame to by

children others parental

positively

and

environment 14 Margaret prohibitions. that to shame by be may the refer

they Mead, to an

(p. 65), but and (real) the the ideals be

is

aware

attempts internal audience

preserve

distinction that 15 from and it the or is is But if

sanctions to really then of other only being in

claiming

effective. does stem

the

individual act

a discrepancy his own is often be has interrequired. expresthus present been be the

contemplated or goals,

or

committed no that but

clearly shame

audience

a characteristic reference to present ideal completely. be the

people, fantasy,

audience may not

implied at all,

may if

internalized

challenged The "other

one

which may

people"

simply

expression "eidetic"

of other.

the 16

internalized

standard,

a "generalized"

or

If,

then,

there shame it and it

is and

no guilt

possibility in that terms the cannot conceived.

of of be In

an

absolute and between in

distinction external shamethe form shame the from Singer tests and

between sanctions, culture in and which guilt

internal

follows guilt-culture was first so

distinction maintained particular,

since arises that differ

can for

be

close,

the the

possibility two senses

criteria one

differentiating to another. of

may

researcher the out

On pp. 71-83 comparative of American the by

discusses carried white Several distinguish to the

results among

of his study "moral ideology" Indian children

groups children

Protestant of the

from employed guilt with antithesis

conservative the

Midwest. to

criteria from

researchers17 seem of ancient falling however, especially 19 Again, show questionable the

shame reader

must the

surely application in the

familiar

shamecontext. be the idea one's

culture/quilt-culture In particular, as set one one a feeling by should is that, parents. be

Greek is to

reads

that

guilt/conscience

regarded ideals that father, told

of unworthiness, of 18 In Greek culture, unworthy of one's parents, aidos. definitely

below the

for regarded as occasion "The midwestern children concern than concede from respects; the about most that personal of the the

we are a greater peris

expressed sonal intended does differ failure

achievement Indian children. of the

and about "20 This the Indians

to

shame-culture of well known,

guilt-culture but it is that concern this is

midwesterners especially Greeks were from also

in the

important writings distinguished and their personal

of

A. W. H. Adkins, by an acute and is

classical for one Piers'

personal of the to

achievement features mark it out 21 of as that, " a

failure, which we

society

commonly too,

believed

shame-culture; "Guilt anxiety Is this feature, feature

remember,

definition, shame, children's

accompanies then, or of

transgression, the midwestern

failure.

response

a guilt

a shame

feature?

The

shame-culture/guilt-culture

antithesis,

then,

is

fraught

6 22

with in one: they the

difficulties, difference way the way way they feel.

and

it

may in

be, the

as way

Dover people

says, talk

that

the than trivial and

essential the

lies This talk is

rather is no

difference, is part of subjects is therefore exactly dealing power is for of us, of the the way talk

however, way they marks unsafe the with same they are.

way they our

people think ancient

think, Clearly, out

part

Greek and they it

them to as

as that,

different whatever in the

from they same to

us, say,

assume is

mean In the it

we should it

circumstances. realize for them the that than

aidos,

necessary was be at greater ready the

popular and of to

disapproval we should also

to same

admit time, like their an

prudential be

aspect prepared internal way of

their allow

morality; them, as of alibe the

we should ourselves, society;

human

beings of and 23

their a middle attitude

awareness between total must

standards enation forged.

excessive

familiarity

NOTES

TO

INTRODUCTION.

(For title

full see

details bibliography.

of

works )

cited

by

author's

name

and

short

1. 2. 3. 4.

P. 9. Acta Man See Classica , Piers 2-6. in (EN and its rather sensation Piers and Singer, the effects (and Shame and he an Guilt, P. 19. nature it and of as relates Gau e 1980, p. 13.

Aristotle aid os

1128b)

recognizes a hexis of

psychological when so not also describes ae)

physiological than

a Pathos it I, 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. to the p. 348. op. cit., We shall P. 24. Piers Piers,

blushing:

see

Wilamowitz,

18-21. meet aidos in all these capacities.

discusses p. 24. JZ, but

this

distinction

on

pages

25-30.

Lloyd-Jones,

p. 25,

quotes

a similar that

definition Campbell's

from idea

J. K. Campbell,

points

out,

correctly,

7
of does 11. and 12. For transgression not Piers 39. On these their use terms, in see classical MR, Singer Greek in Piers contexts, 102. and Singer, see 10,312n. Dodds,, 5,353n. 12; Part Two. adequately argues for as transgression account the for internal all of the forms sense of laws of of guilt. at pp. 28 God alone

shame

c. 2,28-63, Lloyd-Jones, 13. 14.


15. Scott, to

Adkins, JZ, Singer, Piers,


this

48-9,154-6,170n.

2,15,24-7,55-6,171n. 63-70. p. 46.

See See
That

is Classics

true

of 1980,

aidos p. 15:

in

Homer "(aidos)

is

the needs

position other

of people

Acta it.

impose

"

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.


22. sens tion to to case "Greek after notion such people Physis of

Singer, Kluckhohn Singer, See

p. 67. and p. 76. p. 28 p. 79.


p. 220n. 3; Vorgeschichte one general are to this des Gewis-

Leighton.

below,

etc..

Singer,

P. 3 above.
GPM, cf. O. Seel, On this Begriffs", suggests have their in no p. 297. itself. objective _"Zur subject, of a observasupposed adjust was the p. 26, until well of cause kind nomos/ standards A large of the

Members moral (see Greece

shame-culture but p. 75); simply but if

standards, Singer, (and to be why see a did

environment classical culture the that fifth all The whom

here

Lloyd-Jones,,

continued century"), nomoi reaction Aristophanes suggests as were

shame-culture the dissemination

conventional, of ordinary wrote that the rules those values

man-made, people, Clouds, Greek to to saw be must the gods the the his

stir? for

controversy and of the morality the fact

law

objective of

obeyed. have

amount from

objectivity that, from standards.

resulted and

Homer

onwards,

share

underwrite

human

23. Snell

See

Seel,

293-8,319

on

this

(against

the

approach

of

and

others).

1. In

AIDOS Homer

IN the and is

HOMER range to one over which extent, of aidos the its the epic: is employed is history diminution the only in in is x, " no verb two the Homer, possibility of in and at its of the of aideomai its

widest, concept power. is at

a great of

subsequent uses usage it and of takes object personal

refinement however, in Homeric governing object an

Syntactically, its simplest either (and refers could x: being this to

constructions, accusative thus that having Homer) never aideomai done or

a direct is always

hence there action; "I mean, am ashamed of is by always used

i. e.

aideomai followed

prospectively infinitive.

a prolative

As the by

a preliminary poems, looking the combat let briefly reaction is us

to

a detailed get a few of the

examination some idea of the

of

the nature

concept of In

in aidos

first at

characteristic Greeks to Hektor's

passages. challenge

I1.7.93 single

to

as

follows:

ai1, EOEJ 44tJ Compare Od. 20.343-4,


ctL r, 0Xt S 11AVew both these of force of the

VjJatAa where
p(E KoJ(a'I

EiocJ

U-71 '

X C-

Telemachos
ado is

explains,

MEaCoa

cStE9ac it the 1 This

D(V Kv,, 1xc w passages the is action most aidos inhibitory, in shown that a 6-r(ocrov 'I it (xe modifies is is youthful of it is (a( ` O' d w_S the recogadvised. the at prevents infinitive. 11.15.657-8,

In

performance inhibitory we learn

expressed clearly field the EOfBC-J <

where

in army E ou clearly

Kc Aidos conduct nized In in is thus of

cEos those a check of some kind; 2 Its affected. restrictive passages urging him at line he where its nature

those

few

abandonment the

Od. 3.14,

Athene, tells

Telemachos aidos";

outspokenness on has "not the slightest of the same book

later,

96

need (=4.326)

recognized in order to

that spare

aidos

may

cause

one

another's for yD Aq

feelings; the

back to keep information 3 at 0d. 17.347 Odysseus V, include vac to his rather absence 4 the

Telemachos' observation, a1 caws Finally, any fee at ling

instructions S"

beggar vw urges

oK

KExeI,

C1'L >raec

11.10.237-8 of on the In is aidos

Agamemnoton which may cause on

Diomedes to choose of which status an

ignore

him grounds in

accomplice than of That is of

spying desirable, provided its

mission

merit.

circumstances, aidos by

then, is aidos in the

restraint the

specifically is an emotional at be

excluded. one

restraint by is

suggested If not it
cases together

situation an emotion, on each

thumos not

11.15.561 if

and

661.5 it is

aidos effective is
the

we need and with every pity

emotion,
these named

often
very shows

coupled
fact that that they that aidos generally or less

surprised 6 As an occasion. 7 In or fear.


and pity identical, work together that pity while on or fear yet the with

aidos are aidos does not

are the

combination emotional these aidos panies

does plane.

suggest Where it is

does occur

one

of

emotions, for aidos the

true fortunate, 8

accompanies fear accom-

helpless for one's

superiors.

Simple (the

instances type of tell

of passage us Often,

aidos in virtually however, by For

with which it

a direct, is

personal

object as of

generally about the to the

rendered essence the

"respect") the object character's explains, concept. is

nothing the

reference giving at 11.22.105-6

personal for the

amplified aidos.

a clause example,

grounds Hektor

ai
)&I

c a.
Ta r&

IW
-t' lS

PCs K(

wJX

vTte -h0V
C"c a

c'irvJ (l Cr

c h o Ka K WTEcaS

K-rwc
Thep to fear; -clause the at may but the say. this further warrior's

h. Kr
suggests ads of the here what he reference relationship takes other the people, form of of dos appreinferior

hension people concern,

prospect At

even

11.6.442-3 time the

expresses to

a similar "what other

people

10

will

say"is

not

explicit:

a)O&r0'aL
0AL Nevertheless, that he he the shuns, fears. Trojans and There opinion, fashion. it K& it

Cwas
Ka. Ks is WS

KAc
voIr'. that see that

(t
'/ his him it link,

CKfrc. -rr-ThouS, , hvrkSw'0 TioX le 0C0 X600


prima acting their then, now ry in concern the way is that that aidos in and more

certain not

should is is clear

is

disapproval between explore

a definite which

popular systematic
SANCTIONS

a, link

we shall

Popular d/10v

opinion C? tS or

in

Homer

is

most

clearly

OVEteoc occur which aidos

5 . At 11.9.459-61 together, and the context be killing present: his Phoinix father by

expressed avj/ou fonts is clearly

by and one that in he was

might from

explains Tcs a

restrained

a'fiQV,

E Kf cvj. u
Phoinix popular will say" LJS is /t%v t c1 concerned

nJ
v this exactly cfOs about

Kx c
, his looking the it ET

ArXat,

t%oc -Tra
oc. tcJ

5j 06

OU'4'%w v'(.VO(
KaSEd .

reputation, forward reaction seems likely

disapproval: parallels quoted and

and envisages to "what people of Hektor that in the 9 le Vt4OU

passages } .11 Oc tt 75

above,

and

( =19.527)

VFCfbcare 6 Aoto oSa/FYh

participle YVVO o(W synonymous is

here. At Od. 16. for aidos a periphrasis 1h of the Ls occurs as the object JPMV 0 VI 21.323 ocYW" at while of occgr va here. tVoc. 11 , which must be

the with

object

pciOVMtcVat-

The

most

important however, nemesis be below; relationship 13

expresyion is is nemesis. so close

purposes, aidos latter discussion of that and will

disapproval of Popular 12 The relationship that many instances in the main on

for between of the

our

considered at this and

individually point on the a few operation

remarks of

the

nature will

nemesis

suffice.

11

One fact

indication that they

of

the

closeness occur

of

aidos

and see,

nemesis for

is

the

frequently

together;

example,

I1.13.121-2,

CK
Od. 2.64-6,

C6TO$

and

atO Q'KPc vc erv . ,


e V C-v. a' v Te Kai c v0c ap Toi. trOU3 T vTF i pc cEC
the relationship

Xhovs X at
The nature

'fEe tcTiovs
becomes

LYA c&Ta 0V6L


of clearer when we I1.17.91-5:

examine

VJ
1

e 1vw
rCo K)ov

d,
os

Ka-roc T t Ev KE INC-1r(A)
KE-rfx c d;,, vtS 6V-6K

un faK, cX c 0&" 'rC/K 6V


e

wJ Lj sac vE oc ac /vc,
KEJ FE 6F6 EcS i oc ,
The either and the him then, nemesis. and being risk. aidos and alternatives he can the which remain leave nemesis the where and, if notice others

(vt (lItS

KE Vi

/.

ac

EW-roec -IF

C W4 /, ouvos w(' S /IILE- nEc6T


considers arms14 fellows, of in is not their spite and or are the

KA( W C V#( ltd


as of follows; Patroklos in

A 7ct

which

Menelaos

behind of thought he it is, his

body he can

give

to in

disapproval of the danger. forestalls

arouses Aidos,

foresees

ignored, the connexion t9v'r'(. ).

We should seen by

also (s iav

between

aidos

A similar given
( 0<%I he refers "S

example by von to
wc. 0 of

of 15 his
V

the At

interaction Od. 20.343 away

of

aidos

and

nemesis his

is

Erffa.
E

Telemachos in
c. d e for

explains of aidos
at so

reluctance

send
i<ov

mother
o(/EY(oco as his -rxt-

terms

t /A4

to nemesis W(torwv

reason ).

ucc) while , doing not

2.136-7 ((e $ fl.

/eire.

In

the

passage which other

from could passage reference also feel

Iliad have

17 the been

object as from

of Iliad

nemesis 13.

was as The it

an was

action in has the

viewed above

cowardice,

quoted in

term

a similar We shall to be

11.6.351,13.117-9,292-3,10.129 passages the enemy. body 17 in or But which arms nemesis warriors of a fallen does not

-30.16 are

encounter lest the by

urged

nemesis

colleague

captured

12 18
at his same of loyalty is the in

operate
lines breach while was There places reason choosing

entirely
cited of in the the from

within
Od. 2 it loyalty previous

the
was

"competitive"
imagined in quoted a son from behaviour and to Laertes' as her husband. as

sphere.
directed towards the

In
a

the

expected passage the excessive

mother, book suitors. those as a it

invoked is also

against a link

between

nemesis

where for her one

Penelope's desire of the to suitors

sensitivity finish

nemesis shroud 19

given before

In

fact,

the

range employed

of in

usage

of

nemesis of

is

very

wide: or

it excess, it

is 20

frequently and also in

condemnation minor, of social 21 decorum. little out, himself transgression is always 22

violence contexts, In some than

a number

of

where cases, anger, connotes that is, on

censures moreover, although, in which

infringements it as the directed seems Redfield subject at else. refer to

signify points feels

more it

always

anger it the then, is

justified, or the ads, in which

always part that latter obviously aidos in of

some

deficiency possibility, even it

someone may is

There to

nemesis not refer normally

a breach and in the

of

when does in

the not

mentioned, to one of

cases

particular von Erffa's of _

contexts list aidos of

which

occurs. is not

Hence the

passages23 rather

which

nemesis

correlate

seems

over-inclusive. is

In

a number

of (in thus or

passages the form freed

nemesis

explicitly or O) V is therefore

disclaimed the action

0ul Ve, t6d tS from nemesis 24 In

denied i KLSo)/koct.

or etc. ) ; as a

regarded manner, when

justified character apologizing nevertheless The

understandable. 1i urges /%&I YEME(a (etc. beforehand feels is for demanded

a similar is

) he

effectively which he 25

annoying on the

behaviour particular

occasion. times in " the In

neuter in (Q. the

adjective sense 22.59) to the

poems 9.523

nemesseton "occasioning the expression of is

occurs popular is Ov

seven tf YEItC

disapproval.

Il.

corresponds the other

usage there

A Ou VE/&C-tltS an obvious

passages

-roV , which Just in mentioned; to "how reference

13

things for

look, example, act 26

"

to the

appropriateness; term is or applied place and

in to which the of

Il. the is

3.410

and

14.336, of the

performance felt question to be of status informed amends imagined by giving 27

sexual riate. correct most: it will Achilles the ted his latter, presence, i. e. 489 him

at At U.

a time 19.182 for former

inappropthe is that with fore-

24.463

conduct in the not

individuals passage for who

a certain is make be

Agamemnon him began is to the to

be

nemesseton it was is he here

since a king

quarrel;

apparently as in in the directo

nemesis at inferiors

which who even the

denied show they

would when

himself are in

weak the Priam

wrong; into would

Hermes on fitting

refuses grounds for tells in his

to`"`""d'ly that like that rags: status to do

Achilles' be nemesseton, at idea Od. 22. for

so

not

a god Odysseus beggar's and of the

himself. it would again of

Finally, be the

Eurykleia to remain

nemesseton of

physical stressed.

appearance This idea

theperson and of

concerned appearances popular those "how

is in

appropriateness with its

adjective, disapproval terms things which look",

the

together reveals express namely it

connexion comparable the aeikes.

with with

as

clearly explicitly and

more

aischron in

notion 28

of

The

use

of

nemesetos coupled it appears certain;

the

masculine and to the

at

11.11.648 of

is

unparalleled: Achilles this is

with to

aidoios "liable mean that

predicated feel nemesis, aideomai other in

' but and meanin39 would the

not

given can of this of

verbs each the

nemesizomai/nemessaomai it not could be a synonym rule evidence of these between in root is aischos of her the

approach here; Whatever fluidity

aidoios out.

tautology meaning,

necessarily is use

the,

passage in The also etc.. the

a certain

and

polyvalence

terms. disapproval the noun terms is the left

connexion evident The

Popular usage of of the

and aischos, "ugliness", range by is of

appearances aischros and its this

is

meaning present is sex, the

connotation Q. 11.433 the rest

throughout legacy the

uses. to

At

Klytaimestra clearly one

and

context

of

14

disgrace popular Telemachos for Again, these root clearly The laos, claims the two

or

infamy.

Aischos at

also

has

an

obvious Penelope and lobe to use of of be all

reference tells among men 6($LlOJUfvX'., three and, s. v. ), of its it

to

disapproval that he

Od. 18.225, suffer

where aischos protection in the

will

allowing

a guest are is

under

his

appearances terms. meaning bears terms Lobe

stressed

apparently a similar also over the is

roughly a synonym "disfigurement" relationship together defeated have no at his to

aischos (see LSJ

physical

appearances. where Mene-

occur

11.13.622,

exulting that context

opponent, lack of of

Peisandros, aischos and breach do goes is not on the lobe. of refer to lobe to say they is punish-

Trojans one of yet

condemnation the instance, two terms for

Paris'

guest-friendship, the that inflicted condemning ment, nature for the he of Trojans the lobe on in this which him

quoted Menelaos not lack Although

the

(v-1 conduct, in this

do Trojans It Xwflu(01l8t) then, instance for himself,

Paris' decides that

. and promising to stress the the

Menelaos divine

discreditable rather than

agent.

conduct 30

patient,

In

the

examples arouse

just popular

quoted disapproval aischea and

aischos and refer the

was the both reaction

both state to of not be

the

state resulting

which from

might it. In

the

plural, disgraceful

can to

the

state to that

considered state. inguished, both deemed same on and The

others sharply

two since

usages,

however, is

should the

distof

"ugliness" it popular words, it is perfectly opinion ugly is refers: to

dominant that be

connotation a condition by to

because by as At the

natural should in acts the liable disguised

ugly term

designated used to arouse Athene behaviour


KE

the

themselves,

comment dissays of to the

it.

Od. 1.229 aischea with

approval Telemachos, suitors

that

(note

reference ACf 227 6VE5

to

excessive C f le V"Tfe 1.ahW S)


veMEr! 0C CTb

the

0(/1

Al
A sensible Adkins31 Telemachos

fA&K
man, believes alone,

-rr

'
that but

eo JJ
would these this feel

/s

c vrTOS -Tcs-rr YE
at be pcsl? EK are disgraceful the case

then,

nemesis hardly

(-IT 0c. , 'T AV_


for when

aischea can

15

Athene she is

has

been

referring

to a guest

the in

hybris

of

the

suitors, house (and,

when as

masquerading as 32 we shall see, strict guest draw and host to her it is

Telemachos' demand

conventions surely

courtesy that

between should

incredible disgrace) and criticism at the "uglinesses" of aidos, as

a guest Telemachos as symof their

attention takes 33The here may

a host's words of that

when but

obviously Pathy. suitors hybris remember throughout

not

as

possibility suggests also entail they poem. are

nemesis their

aischea and and without

the

breaches characterized

we should aidos

that the

At is

Od. 19.373 to the of

the

reference which people,

of cause

aischea disgrace, than

(together that to the where it is is

with to the of term with

lobe)

insults other same occurs, 6.524.

reaction reaction. oneidos nemesis,

rat] her

object the

that

The also and

is true of 34 6.351,

11.3.242, where

coupled

At the

11.18.24,27,180 sense, "make

and ugly",

24.418

the

verb

aischuno while

occurs

in

it at 22.75 SW); (subject literal the YEVELOV and Oct Wvv'C S) KKCI governs , first is also two terms that sense of the aidos suggests 35 here, is the in the The meaning physical sense/aidoia. at 23.571, but the usage, because of the figurative ((-Tg4) At (Menelaos 6.209 Glaukos

"disfigure",

same

complains reports

object, abstract more 1i(; Cmv to Anti lochos, CVJocS ... father, injunction the of his we might the where jrEaCs deny of (87) that legitimately root meaning reacts 10 `Rats

6 YEvOS -rrPLTE(wJ /A41 "disgrace", translate is kept in mind.

aiu, Nvv "shame", is

where 0.2.85-6,

provided

Similar

Antinoos OClt(vvwd) they are

to Telemachos' gC ICEtw of responsible Antinoos them. there here This Jischea that

criticism: Jaca.The for the

jrO7o4 suitors that

dissipation

Telemachos' criticism on aischea

patrimony, could at x. "disfigure" 1.229; and it

yet

clearly relates

believes to our to of it that seems

his

remarks the

referred

suitors' behaviour difficult

behaviour, may to implicate deny, that

seems in

criticism since,

them is the

aischos,

16

result one that of

when takes

one allows another VVwV atCy simply as envisages criticism to use the harm of

aischunein "abusing" here to the his reputation

to

one. the

Even fact

if

remains result that of it

Antinoos Telemachos' possible of

as

the and

suitors' aischuno 36

excess, in

seems censure

verb failure.

a context

co-operative

The 2.216

adjective the

aischros superlative

remains is This used is

to to the

be

considered. Thersites, instance in Homer.

At

Il. "the

describe only

ugliest adjective passages

man at in (Il.

Troy".

of In

the several 411)Vo&s

a personal

application the case the

3.38,6.325,13.768)37 and in on each their with

combination ugliness and words, them. appearances of not then,

C JrC-E C1LV occurs, reflects speaker: equivalent the adverb refers particularly to address to

the on is

words the

recipient, ugly

someone "disfiguring" on act its of In the doubtless

(aischunein) only abusing both two

Similarly, in the someone wishes any disbut to be

O(t(Aews, to the

poems

or cases

reproaching the speaker and addressee, are felt

( 1.23.473, to censure

Od. 18.321). or humiliate would the

person fall

addressed, on which the

grace equally "ugly",

accruing it and is

words is

themselves

there

primarily incidentally "passage the are able that in

describes their particular,

the for that a case saying "appearance" the of the words on the the words at for abuse, expected of addressee. are directed and In the by

adjective and latter Melantho, they should be only

effect

unfaithful primarily to the prevent audience since (even if

maidservant, disgraceful others' are

Odysseus, the the to latter, possibility disapprove

while he

since

remains of abuse kind the of of former's one's

conduct, master behaviour and the

ill-treatment he is in the incognito) the

guests is not

and the

commended justice Oct( ws of is

Qdyssey. dictate for

Perhaps whether the

circumstances to or address not.

rebuke

another

discreditable

agent

The in also

neuter the

singular, all

aischron, three the

occurs in

only the

three Iliad. that

times All of three return

poems, refer to

instances same

exactly

situation,

17

from 2.298

a military is the most ai (xCJ

enterprise Trug succinct v

with of the

nothing three:

to

show TE

for

it.

U.

-re. vt Ev'EC of the same and the

KEVF V book

\/EFd'fac the of effects up

Similarly, on the

lines warriors' victory


O) fe /

119-22 reputations is
T'C. (

stress

disgrace

giving
A. TVOE(Vat 'AxacwV

before

achieved:
TGE V/ C rTC kE (f o"Woc. -rE xov E s -re (oVSt kEtcfEJ ltTh

InOt 'Trf

00I-W I ecro J

The

(L (c "p oL vr o? -rra v third i5 I1.21.436-8, passage


Tl. VWI, SL

TGluvltSE > T' E, o J

N o(6

e oc

where
EfToC/t, /

Poseidon
0 [

says
OIKEV

to

Apollo:
oLge, 1 (q

a(Javw
LOp.. e
EUCKEJ), out
Again, 10, appearances

GTEcw

-r 'Z40 V a J(co S 'roTI


the main

0t

XIj/t'ii'o/SE
constitute

XPAKO%r&5

a(

-"aX1T SW
4E

incentive

(O u

and

a fight.

the 38

context

is

again

one

of

returning

home

with-

It

will

readily build is

be

seen in much most 33. is we have

that

aischron It as thus does word the it

is

a word seems

of a little

very 30 a in sphere

infrequent to unwise iaischron man's saying in of that less

occurrence as the and aischron but, and as

Homer. on

Adkins used is

at to

R pp. denigrate

... actions") that

powerful Admittedly, confined just nor is the to seen,

Adkins

correct is

competitive same not to are

Homer, aischos the

aischuno; uses their

-the there any latter

true assume any

reason terms The of occur of

co-operative than to

of

two cousins.

powerful refers

competitive whether it

adjective a man, in an

aischros action, but in in which

appearances, or whatever; example,

those not used

a situation Theognis, drunken company that is for

does it

Hesiod,

we see men or (in

a situation in of neither then, other each a of occur terms that

other's requg. k these early from it is

men and sober (Thgn. 627-8), be returned

find the

themselves negative) and uses, usage of to

a favour

(1329-30),

uses in the

competitive. poetry, in Homer of few

Non-competitive and himself that in the

post-Homeric same in root a matter the

tends

suggest is occurs.

simply

chance

aischron which it

exclusively There

competitive

passages

18

are, ciates

moreover, which already by far

other have

terms

which

Adkins

ignores to now that we shall

or of

depreaischros: consider

a similar looked at

application nemesseton, term in

we have aeikes,

the and

most

frequent

unseemliness In it the is

unfittingness

expressing 39 Homer.

both

overwhelming the primary, When

majority physical qualifying-rorjtos to the the and been

of sense

passages of the

in

which

it

occurs which

adjective , for of Cyclops have Eumaios' warriors here the

dominates. it refers

or>ocyos unpleasant blinding Odysseus devoured the groan , the of nature the

example, death is suffered dogs slain reference of the an (Od. in by

violence. aeikelios (CtKeXto' 14.32). battle of the is

primarily 40 Similarly

at Od. 9.503, Xf O5 had he o In several also described is

would by of and

passages as

aei to

adjective At 11.24.19

clearly the noun which is used in aspect to suitors,

unpleasantness refers protects figuratively, house, situation, the but to the

sound.

aeikeie Apollo more

physical body. of the again it is for both. it

disfigurement At Qd. 20.308 of on

against the the the term suitors visual possible for the

Hektor's

behaviour comments scarcely dishonourable

Telemachos' of tell for the whether

and situation or

seems

Telemachos,

In the the ,

a number ideas disguised of

of

passages

ae' and

es low

and status. and here

aeikelios Often, accessories seems to

seem for

to

convey

meanness Odysseus' and the

example, are so the humble

clothes

designated, status Odysseus' "contemptible" at idea where the ance both of Qd. 20.366 of the

reference and their 41 Something present of suited

be for

to

items

unsuitability of in the the the use kind to lead at of and of the flavour of of

a man of of "mean" with Odysseus The 13.402, or YooS

position. seems and

ae' army

aeikelios is better is is used of idea also

feels

Agamemnon of low status

at

11.14.84. and

present

Od. 6.242 previous of

aeikelios Phaeacians lent him

firstly

impression the appearIn

had by the

Odysseus as that may part

secondly his of

Athene

beggar's low the status choice

disguise. are of also

passages unpleasant

people influence

appearance

19

vocabulary. present spent in many

The

notion

of

lowliness of as

or the

meanness bed at on

is which

also he

Odysseus' sleepless

description nights "disfigure" aeikizomai, of of dead the

aeikelios

Od. 19.341.

The the the There could where

concrete verbs physical is be only

meaning aeikizo and

is

also

the are in in

primary often the used Iliad. the

one of 42

of

which bodies verb This for suffered by

maltreatment one instance

which at

sense beggar disto

considered chides .

figurative. Telemachos has

comes allowing no

Od. 18.222, the

Penelope

be aGtk'tIBI1t4&at, figurement, involved in but

Odysseus he has

physical and

been with

struck Iros.

Antinoos

was

a scuffle

The when or

adjective it occurs

aeikes in ergon the adjective before its Iliad43 is the

is

most

relevant whether Here of again, all that its

to

our

discussion as a substantive we should of aeikes In three the

neuter, or ergs. first assuming agent-or the

alone

qualifying

however, descriptive ergon

cconsider ergs reflects passages a situation honour where able -.: native people, that has it is

as an

themselves, on in either the that most

patient. fitting. of

combination and second in battle qn main situation, The that on one the of of

0Q K occo<iS describes The these is behalf point not of is will aeikes, nemesseton aspect people are of idea of (15.496), dishonourone's that not other feel then, and a liable

both

natural in the

prominent claims that one

Hektor ( e' land. in

death is

s) In

when these

fighting the

passages particular disapproval. to

viewing their

the

merits

neuter both

a similar

application it

aischron situation to

in that it categorizes

comments as

outward which

disapprove. "In or aeikes this is is no

Adkins to

claims

that, miltary ergon that

all social, who true

cases it is of

where is the

eraon

aeikes who and which

a defeat, the

formed' to suggest

discredited, all passages to

person "44 in be so

refers 'pergoes on

these

words

occur.

There At

need, for

however, e xample,

categorical.

04.17.216,

aeikes

describes

20

the

insulting

and

excessive

manner and

in

which

the The

goatherd, agent's is be provoked considBut reference depend the reputon

Melantheus, behaviour to ered aeikes is the ation to anger, unfitting does the is

addresses undoubtedly it for not can

Odysseus

Eumaios. yet it

condemned, hardly to be be that

Odysseus would by its and act not

and

him

insulted

a goatherd. primary it will

mean

"discreditable": words themselves, an patient unseemly or

goatherd's

circumstances of the agent,

whether the

damages

both.

In is

some no

passages, and

however, where which others, that, to

particularly only are the aeikea there status do

those of reflect is 46 the

in

which agent

there is on

patient,

involved, the often speaker however, for in latter. seems

actions 45 In clear

primarily it the

where in

a patient, an act aeikes, need not

designating the agent. patient deeply is

intends that a society in the the

condemn honour of cares

This does about

not also as

mean, suffer, that

the as

which Homeric at least)

honour

partrayed (to ergs and insult able for some of

poems, - it to says is is one allow as no-good any

surely to in

dishonourable suffer the with that dishonourSince, agents the as and same ai aischea an ea

degree others.

oneself much

Adkins47 and there aischea than

connexion to assume or es. both deny

aeikelios, designated the (14-15 it

reason more

insulting as ae

patient above), seems

described can discredit to

we saw patients, possibility. Particularly the

aischea entirely

arbitrary

aeikes

relevant of

murder

here 48 Agamemnon. Aigisthos the the

are In are

those these, described

passages the deeds as

which of

refer both and the

to

Klytaimestra condemnation directed Yet at it

and which them;

aeikea, is obviously at

description same his to regard is true

entails of as that aischos most

Agamemnon and as he

describes is hard not

death

pitiable

-0-d. at

11.433.49 Q. king 11.

412,50 such nity. condemn the fact

imagine such of

a great as would Agamemnon's an

warrior beneath his

would

a death society

dig-

Disinterested Klytaimestra's remains that

members crime

presumably failure, death, but

before

Agamemnon

suffered

ignoble

21

and

it

is

quite could

possible comment of wife, on his his

that adversely death,

someone on, his

not for failure certainly This be at people or

well-disposed example, to retain have being deterred society's might the the the the

to

Agamemnon ignoble loyalty mental seems the

manner of effect possible his

or

and

this

would fame.

a detricase, from dissay could it

posthumous that a person aeikea at had what suffered, at by

both of that one such

might aidos some

commission and in

erga aidos who

approval be present of The suffering,

feared hands.

prospect

treatment

others'

inconsistency reflect only from first.


ava

of only upon the At the

Adkins' upon agent the (cf.

insistence the is patient clearly second 20.316-9,

that while

aischea aeikes

and

aeikelios reflects passages of the the

demonstrated largely where


EVOS

by

two

Odyssey, 16.106-9 says,

a repetition Telemachos
01 /vtEX(OL(L E/CV Oa

is

speaker)

Odysseus

v KI 11 v TEBVOCAt

E% NcCc CcTal Y

KdTaCK'racM. a-t E, /

CCVavs euc-ro Now, refers according to the

-rfas to

rTv E

f C-> SO (. cFhcws schema and it in sense be is 109

of ELk isc

9ac,
Ka. s ... .

VOV$ KaTc

CSt4 J#r.S TEo.Ta ergs alone in who badly disgraceful protect this acts is acts one. to people acts to which

E1rvVo-t KPA 107

Adkins'

aeikea they

suitors, aeikelis 51 in the house is,

are on his

thereby Odysseus that

condemned, the head

while

aio Telemachos, of the dependants. in the text,

reflects is it that unable to for

should however, only

There which

no of

basis unseemly maids the

distinction of The which sense these disthus the or the the of

speaks of the

unseemly both terms approve; described52 terms patient example suitors to imagine ae'

treatment and are is and

serving is of that which of

aeikelis of the a kind is always

which might is

apply it

other these

appearance no

there must

necessity apply to

conclude the the the.

that agent

employed in any

either In

mutually Odysseus

exclusive obviously and their but it

way. regards is

particular conduct of the inference his are

quoted as that

insupportable, he sees

a reasonable as if the undermining suitors

actions equally,

status

and

reputation,

22

performing unseemly, unseemliness, This it their aidos too. 53 is an

actions and if then important the mentioned be

which society the

may at suitors

legitimately large will condemns also study suitors' and

be

described and

as

excess be of

discredited. aidos, conduct because and that Telemachos

point link

for between

the the aidos, for

establishes often may

lack

of factor

suggests and

a motivating

Odysseus

Of

the

terms

so

far

discussed, and or

then,

nemesseton, refer to liable and oneidos

aischos, the to external excite can situthe by be

aischea, aspect adverse used ations: reaction these to of of of

aischron actions

aeikes/aeikelios situations nemesis, of others which aischea to those

are

comment, the there to terms. the

while

reaction is idea

actions that aidos

or is

a strong of remains

presumption popular just

disapproval one on on to the more

represented group the elenchos of terms operation and

There

be discussed aidos itself,

before that

we move centred

examine nouns

elencheie.

The thing who

plural like are

of

the

noun

elenchos, can be disapproval 8.228) of the or elenchea.

which used of those object cowardice To their of. the so

appears concretely others; described of that

to

mean of two are

some-

"showing to

up"54 the and part

people

exposed (fl. aidos, of

in

passages to show implication reproachful these their works elenchos Diomedes reach 21.329, KAKw3eos suitors between made, the

5.787 and description, then, 55 same at

urged is in the the in on

aidos

unworthiness

contained describe aidos adjective, The Odysseus at

someone the slur

terms, reputation. in the occurs that

is

to

excite plural

The (f.

elenchem, singular tells Hektor to at -1(S the Off.

way

4.242,24.239). where be the is the

11.11.314-5, would Similar

elenchos ships. Eu the failed and as beggar in

result use the

were of taunts

Greek where if have

elenchea of where

rymachos

foresees Odysseus should the bow. say" the typical

succeed The is

drawing

connexion explicitly to

elenchos and inasmuch

"what aidos

people is

thus

reaction

23

popular subject idea suitors their calls the and is of

disapproval, to that emotion opinion forfeited in the

it

would here. at their

seem that 56 Penelope in to

the

speaker

is the the reason of

reinforces that by

popular have

331-3, claim of

claiming eukleia Adkins

actions Penelope's suitors' it is

house

Odysseus.

(MR c. 39)

implicit co-operative

identification failures that term she from she find is has that

with of elenchea definition", a "persuasive a different of it or the in view suitors, a way that 57 of but it

indeed of all clear

clear the

theapplication not at in seen and actions

that would the it be

using

society already aischea these obviously these. suitors' condemn an that places with the

general that that to

novel actions for

impossible. could be

We have

suitors' was seen possible as

designated

one the similar in

who

criticized and to

aischunon used be since poem in right

suitors, contexts terming in the

elenchos Penelope misdeeds them and which suitors does not may,

is

a word in fact,

the poem for fact do

elenchea, since would are the

characters was obviously condemnation. to criticism is not

composed The in in most58 keeping

audience the

share

their

insensitive the

mea+hat of society.

criticism

values

One has usages The the noun result

to the

concede, root

however, does four battle

that refer

in to

the

majority

of

its

elenchoccurs in failure Od. 14.38, of

competitive in the context other that he

failure. of competitive it would to to the

elencheie of 59 At

times or in

some had

exploit. have prevent his failure and same this is home. been

however, elencheie the does another not of of but the

Eumaios for beggar him

says

a source dogs Thus in is true the according

failed a visitor here, he but

his

attacking word

Odysseus, failure

refer the

to

is

protection

a co-operative of in the three refer of At battle, Od. 10.72 the reason usages out to the 61

a competitive the superlative four passages resulting fourth Odysseus it

deserves, 60 failure. The adjective in from which failure it

elenchistos: occurs on the it field does

disgrace in calls his being the

reference. fI40VfWV,

Aiolos for

has no such 30 i EhC-) XLr -& open to

and

elenchistos,

24

popular to Aiolos

reproach, to for Ithaka obviously to be in is open which nothing their be the in

in hated gods' spite

this by

case the

is gods,

the and

fact while his

that the

he

appears

latter's to this

evidence reach it not

hatred of the in

comes gift of

from the

failure of be to winds,

bag To is

a failure to elenchos is

competition. or in elencheie to the be

elenchistos, be or in a

then, position and would

one

liable

criticized words

mocked, which 62

there

inherent use in

themselves contexts.

exclude

non-competitive

All "how words

the

terms

discussed look" indicate and

in with the

this "what

section people for of

are say":

connected these and the

with are consequsage the

things which of

grounds The range

aidos their to

uences is wide,

ignoring and there

it. is to

collective believe or any that reason that

no any

real one

reason

some are

refer more

exclusively powerful that than words spheres Adkins 63

circumstance is both lose the idea there the their of

some to

others. which

Nor span

conclude competitive former. of popular

co-operative

and

the

necessarily much in is or perhaps some of of their of the

makes

in the power "effectiveness" the and co-operative of than

disapproval and it

competitive true them that at the least,

spheres, the

characters are failures This, not of the is more

Homeric at of not

poems, criticism their of

concerned criticism a matter the terms

competitive failures.

at is of

co-operative theory, but but of the of

however, the power

practice, realities in any breaches have

employed A strong

of society of to

particular able to "quiet" notice even the if of any the

situation. ignore moral

individual of his

others' virtues; of making It which deficiencies, in

censure he will,

the take

however, or inferiority, is

accusation person may failure moral criticism ful"

weakness the an is is

because inferior, to

accusation enemy not the or

an

charge a trial competitive decrying of

encourage

a competitor of likely No word, restraint; 65 and words than

attempt

strength.

power compelling the

decrying that of of

more but

words ignoring

results

either

sphere. effective

constitutes is

how "powerno matter 64 the only effective that is the ultimate

restraint

physical

force,

25

sanction reputation of

feared as

by

the

hero and is is Greek part if

who head

is of

sensitive his

about

his Criticism a

a warrior failure

community. because if to of an it take

competitive from As as it but Greek

taken the

seriously likely

challenge taken. this, society, into

a rival of

outcome we ought reality gain ideology"

is

not note insight

so of

students constitutes equally, values, is in

society of "moral well and as the to

Homeric

we wish the as

accurate of and the the

into theory competitive

Greeks, theory are

we must in Homer

consider that

practice,

co-operative identical terms.

failures

condemned

similar,

sometimes

AIDOS We have and

IN

BATTLE already seen together or to shirking show how that with in aidos nemesis, their aischos, relatives, Two passages in at the thick (= dos "a such aischron, can decry aeikds

elenchos,

cowardice referred to promote above)

battle. operates

already of 8.228; ( battle cf.

courageous we

behaviour;

11.5.787

p. 22

The The bring are even aidost

find the exhortation, 'A ws K K' C XC-ryea cyeLOL ai , , warriors are elenchea, as we should implication the urged more on is that of aidos point, as they others at in this that of are acting upon disapproval to to its 66 feel the own

) say, in

&-.

Ii

ot,

disgrace". a way and as they are to

themselves, Other the the army

prospect. they-employ rousing

passages exhortation to greater

a means

activity. The that to In as the

major the save the in

function, soldiers themselves in

then, the

of field

aidos do of it

in not the

battle give outcome in

is to of

to the the

ensure impulse conflict.

regardless of or in
o, oVV6665 Elfe ipE

very

thick

things at 5. his 5Z

11.16.422, of
iAOL )

flight, to prevent acts often 67 Agamemnon, where alarmed at ,


KEXet lr4( ov '1 cX40eI

lack
^ W

vigour
' O(/

men,
Gl'foC `TG%loC 1. C4Cc OAk

oci cioVt, 4) U'O v1 &/

vkouS -r' ai -cAE tat Evw ov wV


cY cju T

-rrX&oveS )) ek f-o sV oc

v (-v1.5 KaTC-ts Coot. v E 'E ocvTa


(, au TF Tc s oCKVG UToc .

26

Important (those and who

here show is

are it

the retain likely

practical their to on the i \av9. ensure

justification Leos the and can

of win of of

aidos more, the the members

aidos

more

safety

majorityl4he of one contingent

emphasis (o(X)

interdependence

The

situation back to

is the

similar very

at prows the

15.655-8: of their The

Hektor ships, poet goes

has and on:

driven is

the

Greeks wreaking

havoc

amongst

army.

ey&LOL
1 fWJ &6P00L Kocc
By necessity not thus case, other. one's ensuring already break

YHZW
'rcW

Xw(J /AM-1 urov


a.

vrKI
Ec-Lor /P aiws
do dos the

Peek KhvfctrtJ , C/oe KEc5 cO / 6Te aTc' ofE csx -SOS Khc-4v o " AS J XFS Y-ae
the Greeks and have given some ground, Xi&J Kxc

hoc 6-c .
they yet (o$. this is each of in

ranks

scatter

c+rj(F -(^e

maintains we are " One's

discipline told, fellow in no battle, one lets because,

troops, among the and "they kept reproaching then, that side
X

soldiers, in the

are have down,

the an for,

guarantors interest as
c

bravery that learned,

they

we have
V174

owbVw\l

vew

1t

-ovEs

rO61

-ri&f

It

is

the

certain and in acting that,

knowledge one's their in if

that

one's to arouses which felt the normal like of his

comrades acquire ao they he

will

witness

one's for

actions cowardice of

reluctance eyes the an that way of

a reputation at the this get to in away act the

prospect does with like field the not it,

disapprove: could

mean he

individual take in to the act

would

necessarily that

opportunity situation a coward, fellows

a coward, he has no

simply

opportunity the

because make such

presence

and

exhortations

conduct

unthinkable. is, however, passages, of deos. can to

There in such

a very and The this fear be the

considerable is well

calculative illustrated here the for host that

element by the

presence scattering more dens likely

which fear of

prevents Hektor,

hardly produce aidos

would

be take

opposite it

response; denotes the

we must fear of

closely

with

here;

the

27 68

consequences considered perhaps, disgrace in lines the which

of fear

not

heeding and of one result being such if

aidos,

the out

fear for who

of

being and, to the

a coward

singled as they Nestor, do


%

reproach, alludes their

will

not

stand

ground

661-6:

0w Kxt vL C vvcv-S 0g ww 6-rt OL) Lk CKa6tos C' v hkwJ CCA rV1 cSE J )\/ '' 01 ox RE a k ' T0 ICk WV, Ka t Tt ALcawV c-ri A OS v' Vd wov6t. T-w vV Ka. c w KcC'faCTE-vvl KOcr(
0 "T ed r-hiv C r-f"OCVV(Cvxe The for thus phrase von must Erffa be 70 of of o[>kktV these vex6 KexTe C -&J )S Yati oa-f `f r some vUft caused and Eovrw L o6 -ira bc1 (O & avce ii difficulty; and this

8E

XVeCW1 QVhas are 69 "leer"

words

"nichtssagend", rejects to use the of the

interpolated; and sees aidos The

Verdenius as parallel the

rightly reaction for the is the vent of

approach, criticism noun with

here only

others.

a dependent (since is but not not the rule can feared is the the the

genitive person third

(Od. 14.505) designated party of the who by will

certainly genitive his aidos), since person feels disbut the in

different that place does

approval, this verb

recipient out take o/c, f usage since the to

feeling interpretation, of towards often a noun a verb not be

Verdenius' an the which use that

aideisthai is (this

accusative person is of of

the

whose

criticism aidos in

whom

one

rendered with governing right. the of If to the an

bybrespectf objective the accushe

English), is

and

genitive ative. is or

analogous

Nevertheless, depends girt OE on in

Verdenius whether 662 of in as

may one

Whether

not beginning one or the

regards

sentence the previous latter, who &AXWV may howsome

a continuation point. manner

addition refer ridicule is

a further a general the

0(VBew7r. J/ will criticize ever, way the refer or to former

anyone

the who

if, for Greeks retreating; AXW V XYQC& kNmust in case, mentioned that other be in 663.

those

are

It

seems least, is

to

me far

more each

likely to must in the

the than

twosentences none by ij at all;

bear at If OlvOoAJ7fW\/ the

some very there

relationship the some

second connexion

prompted vCi

thought,

first. the "Xhw4

28

be open will "other people" those down criticism quite the the the parallel who (in will this of

to

one will

of be

two those if

interpretations; named those still of in 663 or in

either they 663

the will are let to but In view the not of on be

disapprove case aidos

named be "other by of

would group

a reaction people",

a generalised people the as from

same

envisaged and

Verdenius). the emphasis

Odyssey

placed

in 662-6, former the the emotional appeal more seems CXXwv likely; direct then to the will refer recipoV6e ients their of the combatants' aidos, children, wives and and feel be the aidos sense for protection affecting The urged of very to the of their if Nestor's words will both are affects whose that be that they they and his parents Nestor of
to

parents, should will

dependants, the the fact feel material


honour, the one's

because killed

without any

warriors warrior that aidos those shows

because dependants are not


The this

disgrace as well. also thinking

dead simply
idea

are

is 71

consequences
then, notion dependants.

defeat.

of

community together to protect that of the Glaukos' that the the

of with

seems that one 72

underlie a passages the for 73 .

passage,

has Other in

responsibility reinforce honour example, injunction The converse, or the

idea

others

have

an

interest family

disgrace is of in

individual; of the /V1b rejoices warrior,

honour, hence rroi the fame the /

keeping father, father

EVos in

atCAjv of his

son, wish knew The

is that (i.

also she e. feels too, 75

found. might

74 be

At the of) Paris'

11.6.350-1 wife the of

Helen a better and in

expresses man, aischea battle, reflects of less their book Hektor would the is the six in rather one of and

the who men. Helen her.

took is

notice one that of her

nemesis slacking disgrace

context

clearly Hektor, brother. with and in the the sharp

husband's by

upon his

is Other

perturbed characters, of of their Helen that at

others' however

criticism , than are with in to

concerned safety, is the her of

honour attitude

relatives towards of

Paris

same son

to contrast 76 book; similarly, Achilles face him.

Andromache Hekabe bow it

22.82-9

avoided and

honour

than entirely 77 At 22.482-507,

to

demands other

29

element the to hero's protect,

in

Nestor's wife to and which of Even protect the

appeal, family

the on

complete their refers herself responsibility from of status of the

dependence and painting her son of the the the

of his a after

the duty

protector, in and

Andromache the then, is pitiful not lot of the

pitiable Hektor's protector honour, dependants Nestor's then, closely hold and is

picture death. to in

divorced situation the

claims dead of his

of hero's family.

that

presumably appeal an bound family. to

diminishes aidos on one, that of behalf since

hero's personal of

dependants, honour one's is

appropriate up with

one's

other

members

house-

We saw cowardice them each refers The as of

in

the were

section

on

sanctions described to which

that in

defeat terms

in which

battle

and

consistently and subject in of

condemn in aischron 78

unseemly the to the two

popular the in

disapproval; word the occurs martial to be be that

passages

disgrace in return those of

failure passages

context. the of their

implication

seems will such

empty-handed failure, ful and

the seem

warriors that

proof is be

it

would of any attitude

failure which may prevail

disgraceadduced at 11.17. in

regardless This where

circumstances also out, seems

mitigation. 336-7,

to

Aineias

points

''I ht a
Von here, but Erffa and

QS C6
takes

wir' 'Axat 'N hw Y' i v S'a4 t s C- 6-0Cvx v'S 'L EC wrx. vx c. t< . .
sees the rightly and discussed, be, "79 comrades' city "This Part aidos words as as a virtual meaning, that that an synonym "This is such 'a this use of a disgrace... would like aidos; " in or be observes suggests is is of aid os

v
",

(p. 6)

aischron

Verdenius parallel, we have will be arouse to then present. his the (ak but

without others sense ads to

passage, to aidos,

the the "let

exhortation for

occasion Aineias' is his will many as

strategy suggestion be taken

attempting to of

that as

return cowardice enough,

this

point at this Ci(s) i No doubt kC . is not envisaged

a sign well

Trojans adequate

fought excuse.

an

At

11.8.139-44

Nestor

advises

Diomedes

that,

since

Zeus

is

30

manifestly the man's it best

favouring policy. (146),

Hektor, Diomedes yet

a prudent recognizes the bring

withdrawal validity to act himself

would of the upon

be old

advice

cannot

(147-50):

(-0 KeoScV Kat -r-O's, VoJ akka a% K&vC-L. vpo/ C os of cEKTW( wE6f' oirox CVl
y-&Q lro-r _rV ce1 d vis U? i' L/"HIj v) Fl lev/'ttv0s ( &VWv C fc ro VII O. S.

Nestor's believe he

Ws _Tr_o-r K_V6X1CC. i " -no-re /4


answer Hektor (152-6). rely him on to of his do the (for so. two, that may, people what and very to this is to claim that were As he to impugn points of other does what be is people, suggests I rather thought even that Adkins opinion

? L x\XVOCEVe&Lj< UWV.
no one honour Diomedes nor Nestor, that anxiety more does the would in the way not

fears

Diomedes' so out, himself, hand, believe his

does

simply advise and aidos placed; opinion his

own

Nestor older

On the clearly is surely

wiser here

Diomedes' is) is for misthe

Diomedes of other for acute, is

then, than

concerned

normal. his the

Nevertheless, say, of is

concern

other this

enemies power however, self Diomedes' personal which the

obviously disapproval this the for of

popular

considerable. us that people say an idea people causes of the the put his

doubt, hero's it; "81 a high own worth

passage value what the

shows

Homeric on

whether "only has concern image he prospect The in the fact of

which others he hopes being

other might has other the case

presupposes of will him

self;

fervently this that society ation his of own not

share, great

and importance requires hero

anxiety.

popular and

opinion that one's does

is

utmost often that the

Homeric validof

self-image not mean

others worth.

has.

nQ. idea

Diomedes' significant, about and is hide his an the

reaction for opinions wish that of from

is

interesting that

in a hero as

other can well up be

ways, his

too;

it 82

is

example, of the the his

concerned peers; swallow (and

enemies would

as

ground

open

him) to

example oneself are

desire the classic shame-reaction, 83 Both view. of these aspects of his At that 11.4.171 he, Agamemnon would addresses be Agamemnon,

response Menelaos,

paralleled. him

telling

31

elenchistos out his leaving


while Trojans" at

on brother. an

his At

return 175

to

Argos, the

were familiar

he

to

return

withfor

we find

enterprise

unfinished
imagines Menelaos'

(&TEXvTjfw
the grave. taunts

distaste irri
of "one

176-81 as he

Agamemnon jumps on

of

the

At

this

CeGL but the this two

he reacts prospect, as ' 4Agamemnon, )(0 w& then, is is not closely for with would but his a matter bound, of

did is

Diomedes: concerned affection; death simply his of

TUTE for the

,VLX his brother, honour of

av/oL

mere the not protect enemies it

and

Menelaos others or to the

would would

be a disgrace charge his them purpose and


Again, whether based right There one's than on to may

Agamemnon, failing give their because which to

because brother,

him

because

death both, of

a chance negate recover

dishonour whole wife

also mission, his

would was to

Menelaos'

to

restore
it

honour.

appears that results stress be a of

that one's rather the number

the own

negative side or

judgement that of one's dkins in

feared, enemies, is Homeric first anything they can moray of therefore society. all, other place and a is

than

intentions71 of results for to upon is good this; consider which for

importance of reasons likely action

enemies results,

are since

hardly any

discreditable

interpretation

their

bad the as

for

one's

own; of and in fact, attempt

the one's

position, colleagues rather

however, and more

with friends

regard is not

to quite

judgements clear cut,

requires

consideration. in

There

does,

exist to

a number persuade only those need

of others

passages to

which intentsuccess Perhaps

characters ions or the offers rather failure most the

do

consider refer us to here.

than in striking opinion,

results;

which concern

battle, of

however, these is

11.14.80-1,

where

Agamemnon

D -((
/SC-iITFeeJ This is a clear discussed matter

res

vE
OS

e;rLj

uv-ECC4 KaKd/1 KocKo'


the found that in

oUcS, avoc YjKTd.

cc v1E Wq
those is should passages discreditbe

reversal so what far, the

of

view is

we have able no

which

retreat and it

circumstances,

32

noted stances his

that

Agamemnon

is

urging

a consideration rather than has from is of no the said has

of results. chance far to be

circumBut of greater disgracethe ), lines and "(84)

(greater to as of

advantage) convince one in his might which

attempt

audience expect retreat

success, number ful tout

indeed

passages 85 court.

Immediately reacts with that to he

Agamemnon great is

spoken (83ff. his

quoted, expresses better

Odysseus the suited

vehemence unworthy of "some of

opinion instead

kingship86 army.

command

aeikelios

Other is is that no

passages cause for wrong of the

are

similar; in

a character the particular

claims

that situation,

there but asserts

criticism by events.

proved none

At is the

11.13.222 responsible will and of as Zeus

Idomeneus for the

Achaeans must out well be (232-4), aware

current but, as is, in

reversals, Poseidon any wilful somewhat debates Patroklos' himself. mind, of his and At case,

which points very

(226),

Idomeneus

himself

withdrawal different. whether body

(228-30), does this excuse not 87 is 17.91-105 from battle. The tone of 88 Menelaos There, seen, already as we have defend to he should by attempting obey aidos risk the nemesis Menelaos view that against of of to the the this him, it of his seems would him, gods. view, and belief, fled to do in so, the and by he with fellows to by saving his however, the

or

98-101, expresses to

change be

he

unjustified Hektor is he

comrades fighting follow another another (102-5).

feel with

nemesis the aid

since

obviously does entirely; pursue Ajax no not

Nonetheless, and withdraw to help that of

the

implications thought occurs rescuing his

decides the then, face

method In find spite fault

of of he

body,

of

expressed one who not

one

could

with decides

divine with

intervention, a slight

follows, aidos.

modification, hand, the

the

course just

dictated

On the reference suided could whether suggests

other to or be not

passages and do or were at of

quoted, is indicate

in

which

the misthere as to

circumstances acted of upon, doubt

intentions least

proved that of opinion

a degree or not

difference relevant, and feel

intentions some individuals

this themselves

that

did

not

33

absolutely to retreat, of

constrained "89 but it popular own it, in to in opinion,

by

maxims it

such does could of one's

as

"

it that be

is

disgraceful for most on even to to have is eye, and the to to this,

general which

seem never

power share be the been that which

counted or

one's of area death is

interpretation was too strong. popular

actions, exception seem

aware main willing of

The opinion

major does and be aeikes which

which consider battle,

circumstances which a failure, on how the may but

intentions, to may, the

indisputably depending

be glorious,

victim

fought.

nevertheless, 90

In the

this

context,

that weakness his own seems

of of

the the

power

of

popular ability

opinion to

and content one

relative with Paris, is

individual's of of step six of his

himself figure, this his

interpretation rather true in in sharp him out book

actions, the Ilia that

with the to

others, where , of his Paris battle. Hektor, in

and

particularly emerges

character Hektor.

contrast Hektor his at for

brother, i)(ec3 Oc The second

On three , these to abusing episodes Paris' has

occasions begins house, kept

addresses

E-["F(-6CL of

slackness 6.325, his from wrath behalf;

91

where rebuke; the is

having he out

hastened that

commences himself away such on he his

assumes of

Paris and when fight the like to

field

)0X0$(326),

points are another of the

out

that

inappropriate, himself a fortiori 92 back. clearly cowardice. would he, This, intended

people with cause other arouse

dying whom conflict,

Paris (329-30); hang is of

saw

slacking not

should discussed, implication

passages aidos

we have by the

In

his

reply, he does (337-9),

however, say he that says

Paris he has

shows been that

no

ads

whatever, of so returning "seemed now what is he he

and, to better", one man,

while battle and now has either implicit

thinking to do

merely that

adds, the said by

philosophically, other. (333), Hector's or He acknowledges but gives reference by the

victory the validity

attends of that to popular [hkw. whom

Hektor moved a

no

indication to those of Kai

bears

responsibility, in (

threat

disapproval

o(%/ /AO4)<& Taco

34

Paris, might nor

then, be does

does

not by

seem his

concerned absence upset that is his

that from at the his

his

reputation field of battle,

diminished he seem

particularly suggest impression the him; attack at

brother's to the when that of words Hektor she other's to aidos, is at others' even stake. in 94 had of

reproach. aidos Helen, disdains been the is

This low.

might This

susceptibility by Paris wishes heed

confirmed against she took is

who to

continues address of

350-1

wife and

nemesis disapproval, a situation Later here

a better man, who 93 Paris then, aischea. and where therefore his not

insensitive to

susceptible as a warrior

reputation

in the

the latter

same is

book more

Paris

and

Hektor on the

meet

up

again, of his

and

reflective

subject

brother's

shirking:

iA C

mac.,ouis x/ -r-(. s Toi aVtosc


of
itjK

tT c
C_ K'

va r)

C-(1)
'
(4I k7C

j' &I.

ocx $

it E'fF C C kt/Crr

' /vt, E000-l, s -f-t- Kots CC fAU a)vvTA. ucO 4j lt, I noXUJ TZoS 1ewwV 6XcU6 ac . Here one this entirely and one's is that Hektor who was concedes EVatQV\os both that to some battle into to Paris would one's the his share bravery, his

To OuK E0EX' ce6EV XI r)Ce 0KOVw T1,0,1oJ E(Vt- ocC6c0(521-5), and claims that of is of to it; not others, any-

appreciation for valour

suggeS4S

reputation attacks who and are more The

vulnerable there are in

reproaches prepared than simply in

people by taking

judge one's

bravery

immediate in sharp

conduct contrast

account. the

E VAcf`MoS mentioned

this TLS

passage

frequently

(1.. KaK ,rPC OS


results efforts known. that justified troubles significant seem brother EVal4NO5 concerned and alone of In those his this who in and

/ i

22.106,
and who betters, case, are thus the that doing is

Od. 6.275,21.324),
takes even however, delight if the aischea Paris to their in

who judges
criticizing V,talities are seems Paris cause weight. Hektar; of It

on
the well to be

implication against is pull others the his

uttering so, since expected aischea'of they of like

are their is he of his that does

that

worry the equally retain

might himself,

affect but will

standing he

perhaps

expects

People,

himself,

a positive

35

appreciation his how the may them, be an ive previous and why

of

his

brother's and

fighting inactivity. important well-disposed the acting but benefit like war in it a loss led to past. well he few, and seek and value the is

ability This

in passage

spite shows

of us in

shirking intentions neutrals to

areiess and give to those him be man;

than to of the

results the doubt; may

poems; be

subject for still

prepared one who

appears brave and those

a coward a serious, will has defeat In the those excuse often been and

essentially

competitnot incurred disgrace, way, might the be be or

business, to one brave hero to other of allay The less

involved when has in quite the

prepared to spare however individual expected or some

accept whose he

excuses conduct has been know him will own fears of with bravery

same who

will

that to

support failure his his

should be

a retreat his be of in own

accordingly will not

estimation ient to

sufficthe

regarding shame, intentions all us us to of may think that his to be

disapproval seems results, aware on at who, forced

majority. to in have

feeling to do

moreover, than very based be well solely

general not other judgea walk lest even only

and that

"shame-cultures". make is not if of judgements uncommon

We are about for them

people and it

appearances, their as to

concerned one is

ments, result, with other though

even say,

we know some

false:

problem

balance, be acutely him his

a pronounced people, he is as

stagger, they will, aware

concerned is

inebriated, gait the

perfectly entirely the Paris Iliad and

result

of

circumstances Book

outwith is

control95 taken Paris is two to there see his by the as

six less

of of

almost

entirely and clearly

up

contrast the

Hektor, the

emerges

admirable in j the the

figure; susceptibility

contrast of the

particularly aidos, is attitude In herself her and from and a strong to speech her within if

evident Hektor,

more that

admirable than begs the Hektor that

character, to of his to defence as

presumption aidos at son, the as 6.407-39 and to

we are

intended

more

proper

brother. pity of follows

Andromache carry out

Hektor future replies

Troy

fortifications.

(441-6):

36

V)
oc K,

WOLL
KE

a.

C-/&"L L -rK(e w
-r t<xKos B un,

1r vra
Ka, t wS I vorJLV

EC .vac - hk'
s c. a ca. L CKFr !5oJ Li
Je

w
EL

ic,s

L"tE -1r Xuu 1roX

OU cE vt. e os OC wrtKoc. l at-C T' wru . re _n ATec s1 vv, Jos It is a dos, in clearly be for is acting rejecting something within might he says In us heroes the concept he has first his then, spite of like which the drives pity for a coward. Andromache's else himself say, that which not and his to is his it he

'a-cMau 4n xAuJC xc(Bos /W 1 -r C< < fin/ oc e6 brat 1 i/t 04`05 16 D< V auYOU. //vtG in open Hektor to fight feels that But for others this is he to his factor the his wife should not his knows risk fear that same is wish "will", t mos his of and child.

battle, It him is to

unbearable

him

consider only that life, what he result

reason there

appeal: impels him on this

something the refers as ively the this fight among divorce expressed; education the group, his Trojans

dependent is to

when a' dos. telling Greek is

thymos his

produces thymos Hektor

referring that in it battle. to which

effectto face but bids fight not to just him

own

subjective no word His and do for

He has he to

appeals. be brave

because the

learned Trojans; from

always well he has any of produced

of the "education" the be the aidos, Greek taught to his society in the

we should the aidos by

which the

in will and to in have

envisaged values and to

Iliad

expectations thus later 96 Hektor's

sensitivity a quality educational him the how

custom will

must

approximate prominently then, and leads will thus

which theory. society

figure education, to behave,

expects of as his his Hektor so his duty.

him social aidos, has that

contributes as to it is pursue the own faced

formation as well

role; which obviously they have

inasmuch him

thymos, this r6le, his

however, of society, and

internalized become his

expectations idea of

status

Hektor is his

is

with who he is

a similar attempt not in aidos to

situation dissuade (91), in directed

in him and

book from again of

22, going he

when into sees This

it

parents Again

battle. his time,

persuaded the is field not

choice

to

remain his

terms at

aidos.

however,

the

implication

37

of

behaving in to to to his the set

like duty city, up the

a coward, to he protect

but

at Troy

the and (100); city

charge its

that people.

he

has

failed return first him his his afraid

He cannot will had had be the

claims, for to fray, was city:

because him the

Polydamas Polydamas when Achilles had now

elencheie host to result to


,#

urged made

lead

back the

initial advice. to

return 97 The return

and disaster,

Hektor and

disregarded Hektor is

the

whEIrac d' oCTarOoc Xo. vd c-''CIA o $4 woc i FOntia,


G'. C woc. S Kc

ccytV

j(Lvi C-p
KE(N FToS

/VI VI -rro-r E i-cS "E. KTWJ c Two points regards in his it duty are as to

Ec cv) t

fl

KKCK

JTfIoS WitEC first be

\oS aQ

6/4 .

rLa (22.104-7)

'Ii c faS here: the should

important normal others; it protect point something aidos is still that as

is

that

Hektor for failing is the

he the

condemned for to such

punishment legitimate

failure that personal aware This

personal requirement honour. that not points he fears, he mean

disgrace, to The has

seems is

conclude of

regarded is that which is is

as Hektor

a demand is

second done his it his

clearly

reprehensible. as of von

does

that 98 out; and in

retrospective, the reproach is for does still his any

Erffa people he character of one's in refers he with he in terms is is


have explicit would say or and his that

other in

which Never-

apprehension the reason than own

prospective. aidos other - and and he is 104 Homeric awareness a word which,

theless, expresses his

giving clearly of his

more

awareness is

culpability, of conscience,

misdeed its Latin

a prerequisite and to and by Greek the he which his forms, idea knows others of this

syneidesis "awareness". because will of the judge his reproach awareness


him of is but the

conscientia, knows familiar although mistake

explicitly culpable, standards articulates prospective still


thus to

Hektor

is the

him; past of of
no;

"conscience"

of

apprehension, Hektor's
and actual "other it

the his
he

Trojans mistake
does not The we to

hypothetical;
subjective, await the to with of

troubles

disapproval people"

Trojans. not be this his what wrong

reference associate the that germ Hektor,

perhaps it present of would in

conscience, is the not

conscience within

passage, language

limitations

38

culture,

is

not in

experiencing situations 99 remorse.

something which

very

like in

that terms

which of

we experience conscience or

we explain

We saw Hektor this the the six made fighting hortatory intended host pp.

in that

the he

last

passage not bring

how

it

seemed his

to men; which by

be

expected to

of meet that of

should could be both was

endanger

failure suggests the

requirement standard individual. in to which the on Paris former's his might

elencheie, and upheld by

enforced of the

aidos from

In

passages

quoted Hektor

book was

criticized (6.327-30,525).

reference who were noticed were in passages

responsibility

to

those

behalf to the the

We also midst of battle

how

appeals to have

aidos effect

in of

the

ensuring of all;

discipline to 01 t the

the on

and 25-7 cKt vic-

promoting above

security

add 11.15.502-3: pKLOV hereto L "" v\/ i 'rrwl. aW6v^Vocc (afea, Koc. then, the co-operation appeal while of failing bring proper to the in to the the

i Toke8t.

Kak the

/v1wJ. troops concern it seems was and seen arouse one's honour; causes see one's is for

In

such

appeals, through reputation, charge which

among individual's other

achieved his that as his own the one

passages

one's disgrace modes

comrades-at-arms on of the conduct of his and failure reproach. has its to subject towards personal own

might Thus the

aidos. are

fellows the him that

allied

requirements regarding in battle while for

individual's to his remain fellows constitutes at

sensitivity his do place the

honour to

strive to

same,

protect

comrades

grounds honour, as its in

The

idea

of

personal as well the

then, competition;

part

to

play

in our

co-operation subject other, to on the for is but not

since, the heroes be

however, to each

responsibility and relatives,

of

aidos of

we shall which be to nemesis have concerned their in

restricted bearing with

discussion our subject.

those passages 100 Here we shall of the heroes that

a direct mostly

responsibility it is in this rle

fallen particular

comrades, has a

context to play.

considerable

39

Glaukos' and refers

words

after the to

the first Hektor's

death point

of in

Sarpedon his

are

both

typical

instructive: directly

speech

(11.16.538-40)

to his responsibility allies: ( Or 'A(-XoCeU EKT4t, TIKO(WV1 VvV A. E1/0 S E. 3 bJ. -1 D.\(-Xl) 4 hwV Kac 7roc-r(L OL (FOG-NI Ec Vc-KK os tl .S -r-lx(1. 11 . .1 C' E'fro< 46 Ou//" Lvbeourl / Cc-Iro S '6 06 KC6 UV (LV. next line fate; to Glaukos clearly prevent turns body, it. to informs he feels Now the that more the Hektor that and Hektor the Trojans should has fallen, of of the have of

In

the

Sarpedon's taken however, rescue and their of steps

Sarpedon pressing general

Glaukos his allies

question company

addressing

Trojans

(544-6):
(6

-1

oclro

T'E

J) EEXW

va

t)

01 LKL

(W (L

cE

VDI KCS

The lest dis prize be of

Trojan Sarpedon figurement. for concrete honour, take passive always must

side, be

Glaukos' stripped The Lycian and of their the of

iloi, his leader

is arms

asked and be and It is

to his a his

feel body

nemesis suffer

would

considerable armour a would matter

Patroklos proof both steps form anger be the breach warfare should out of an of in

Myrmidons, success. and personal, his is feels the between body important oneself

therefore that his

collective to retrieve the which verb

comrades disgrace. if nemesis then here; but and a society

should The is there obviously another's in that which one

and

avoid here: justified,

one of

object

Trojans' one's relevant, it is

nemesis own

correlation of was be aidos a way

nemesis for in

is of

not life to

scarcely from killing

credible one's occasion Glaukos surely Patroklos

expected or an

refrain it was a feel

opponent for cannot for

aidos, when the

that

considered friend; nemesis

resentment be killing asking

enemy

killed to

Trojans

towards

Sarpedon.

The

passive, it

VE/IE3(h61te does of but be. differ Sarpedon's at

is

the

clue, in

for

although from is

not the

a true middle; not is their of

passive, the at own, nemesis Patroklos or

slightly

meaning

fellow-soldiers the two sides breach to

directed a' os

themselves; are

of the

would

There

reaction

40

shame side, to

at when

the the

prospect agent the play other when are emotion

of

disgrace; the angry,

one

is

the which

inhibitory might side, is lead which *AA

suppresses is the taken can but the

action resentful action

ignominy; into

comes positive insult; appeals

reprehensible to be here wipe covered it is out any by

abandoned of hortatory nemesis. an

steps this

suggestion aidos (in by

especially),

expressed

101

In

Iliad for of

17 the both

question sides, and regarding the the

of

duty Greeks

to

one's

fallen to

comrades rescue the in

arises body

striving side of still

Patroklos

Trojan the 32 he in body above) should to

involved We have at

recriminations already 91-105, Patroklos' safety, of thus seen debates body,

Sarpedon. Menelaos, to consult fellows. in killed that

(pp.

11 and whether giving the

how attempt or his

11.17.

rescue his The line own question 92,

aidos, of

risking obligation that

nemesis to Patroklos

Menelaos' he his done

arises has been be

where for has

mentions (Menelaos') something to escape in in the

Patroklos The idea

fighting Patroklos finds Later of the much 4 Eve iL(254-5) as will here it in

time. for

must and now for the their i

Menelaos, something calling he appeals book:

Menelaos Patroklos.

difficult the as same his

doing after

episode, iloi did

on to

leaders nemesis (E

Argives as

248,

Glaukos

'AXCK -r
7t-re KXoV

previous ive, avid


1WF

t4r

E(8w

K viJ
nemesis

/tt&xnOeK to which the of the force the he of

At

line

95 by the to the

Menelaos aidos, others on

saw now to a vivid it

his is

responsibility

Patroklos imagines nemesis

Prompted motivate seems event; comrade's reaction failure, that invoked the in thus other fact, brings the

intervene; imagining to and then aidos for attitude regard present occur thus their

rely hero body of the

discreditable of losing the to will the be seen is a

is as

urged a real will of

disgrace possibility;

nemesis breach

as

a response It

envisaged. own, of

heroes' to

concern an of their bound

personal

honour towards of

encourage members

responsibility the honour the

contingent; up with that

each, and

is

closely about

of than

others,

co-operation

rather

competition.

41

The

appeal

to

personal of the the each which of

honour group heroes hero are just are

which is to not

is ,

implicated however, in the

in the interests

the only of

collective means their towards fact whole this general Patroklos of so his too that of

honour encouraging for others the loss

act certain

fellows, the

bears not

obligations connected reflects badly to with on the the in 102

directly body that

a comrade's seen

company. particular body of

We have context the army that

appeals addressed

nemesis to as the i i;

frequently

addressed in

collectively mentioned the of his

we remember, had

too,

Menelaos him the

service explanation (17.92); and 33-4 deaths of their

rendered towards reminded on himself was

context his that body the

reluctance Paris are is fighting feels whom he

leaving by his Hektor behalf responsible to

behind Trojans

allies and of

(6.327-30,525; for protect the

above), many p. 37

Hektor those

supposed

(22.104-7,

above).

The clearly at At

implications in is another Hektor's

of

these passage

passages of Iliad

are 17, to with grounds in is

brought and the the

out again

more the point

issue 142-7

responsibility threatens Hektor on their the efforts

dead

Sarpedon. of they the

Glaukos Lycian no

withdrawal (147-8) that

entire receive lack failure hetairos Sarpedon, fighting to of act one of

contingent, charis for Glaukos the The is his

the

field. in xeinos to

Hektor's his and save from expect him in guestthose

charis, to rescue (150). it on in to

claims, body of that will since when bound and then, Put and 103 by

manifested his has failed

Sarpedon, Hektor

fact

suggested, behalf, interests he was

discourage they he such can has

others scarcely

their whom

failed

to ties value specific

act of of

strong The as the

friendship, Sarpedon's between help and as is the him him

comradeship services, and Hektor, possible, when of his dead.

gratitude. as well to Hektor

ties to

under rescue

an him

obligation from

where

ill-treatment status because words and the he that

dishonour a result Hektor's other

Sarpedon as clear charis

enjoys a warrior from from

special and

pre-eminence but also it expect is

xeinos, Lycians

Glaukos' Hektor,

42

evidence to come

suggests to of each either the side

both other's of hetairos might hetairoi. be the

that aid two of

it in

was

seen

as

a duty that

of each

hetairoi

battle104

and

member considered one's existed

sides, the

Greek or Trojan, 105 Thus any others. by the obligations

could member which

be of

own

between

covered 106

We shall it will have Iliad; or his aidos mother by been

discuss be sufficient much

the

matter to for

of comment

supplication that there one's he lay become was can

below, does not

but

here seem in to the

room at

aidos claims even if

towards that he does has it less

opponents expect his no

Rektor from

22.123-4

mercy as

Achilles

down

arms

requests. that for if is point, pity no not or

Yet and aidos

Achilles perhaps from was ever why

particularly woithwhile opponents; as we shall even

savage to plead

thought

ferocious (and, the

otherwise, see, arise? this

quarter the case),

given should

question

AIDOS

AS

SOCIAL

VIRTUE

Frequently those feels who aidos,

in

the

poems this into

we find designation, three who

people

described before

as

aidoios; one before of awe; who the of are

deserve fall

people categories; one with

whom those

broad fill of

whom one those helpless feminine, any little. with

feels whom or who

inferior, one throw the woman, has

a sense and mercy. formulaically us those In

a tie

philotes; on is one's used tells

themselves adjective and its

however,

respectable

usage

relatively

Where refers contexts,

aidoios to those

is

the in the it help

only third is

adjective of the aidoios. yarn after these frequently

employed categories; combined precise One designed his

it

most in

often other

however, which so

with

other on is which deinos.

adjectives the At person Oc. 14.234,

define is of his how,

grounds of these to

described as part tells aidoios

Eumaios, became Hephaistos de

Odysseus os and

of KoS

deceive EX\Cro

he

among as

describes

Thetis

the Cretans. At 11.18.394 S 8t v' x ocioi a -r

43

and her.

goes The

on two factor

to

describe

a debt appear lie is this is in

of quite the

gratitude dissimilar, special for

which but status

he

owes

examples seems to

the of the he

common person owes while power; sense superiors The much feature attitude 11.1.331, Achilles, is her

described; a favour, in of

Thetis and

deine

Hephaistos a tie of his

because between wealth to

constitutes because and which aidoios one for feels some

them, and a

Odymus'

Cretan

deinos

combination awe or or inhibition one

deinos

seem

describe one's

towards other

those

respects

reason. in one the at he

relationship the same of of for both both way

between as that

aidoios between is

and

deinos and use The and in

thus fear,

works and

aidos their

combinations towards feel he in both and is his

portraying heralds for because

inferior example, because fearful

superior. both their dread

two aidos and

superior mood. with

particularly experiences Odysseus

present and fear At

Similarly, respect he to tells his

Eumaios masters, his

aidos his

Telemachos. of feelings

Od. 14.145-6 towards

disguised

master

Odysseus:

-r
His a' os

i vt, FJ
here his as this like awe for an

wWE
clearly master; indication reluctance Hephaistos one who the

G O/KXL - -7[-& OL 6L Y-Ae


respect strikes reason kindness; kind. the carry rather of for us for his

v6

Koc.. ov -T'aCFOV 1' ovo, ka CJ

c4i? c&c alai 1cj4 d4L


to a very to yet name he considerable him107 as but feels At that though his his some

approximates reluctance of not for has fear,

gives he

Odysseus' Thetis,

severity then,

treated

him Odysseus even

well.

17.18$-Q he he will would

swineherd out not,

tells

disguised instructions,

Telemachos' explaining:

SE Ctkkc -rJ x. vcc. KC-LI . Xoc \ fl(


This passage in shows like that is situations actions; it that is these

-rriw Ecoc c KI , ay IA44L e vo("KI-w1/ Kha! t E


the the fear object of one's aidos of in one's immediate and aidos that recipient towards Eumaios

108

experiencing own people in

Telemachos fears, not

Telemachos' of other

disapproval general.

44

The to

analogy help

of

the the

combination, use of the at

aidoios adjective I1.11.649.109 in

and

deinos,

seems in an

explain

nemesetos Here the context and same it

unparalleled is described

personal as that aidoios deinos

sense and to in on feel

Achilles of is as of but would Achilles' a the

nemesetos incur 654 his

Patroklos' significant two previous

unwillingness

anger, the active more

covers the seems idea he

notion

epithets; liable to

balance nemesis, the were

meaning likely,

nemesetos, passive feel instructions,

meaning, nemesis

expressing himself just

that to go

Patroklos against

towards seems

possible.

In also as

addition meet at

to them

finding in

aidoios

and with

deinos a third

as

a pair,

we Rhil0s,

combination Helen her: be Helen; of also ill any

adjective,

11.3.172, kindness There deinos and 110 in

where towards may to both

shown

EWVOS1"E. should old man, her be

Priam, who has just addresses E(tcEE 11 .1 pCS'L s TE evwi number of reasons why Priam he is'a senses her great may king, be and considered as the

K"uc ,

a reverend her father

these

superior. of

He is

manifestly

Philos,

new

husband.

At him de

Od. 8.21-2 mightier os and and to

Athene in aidoios stouter appear e' aspect, in in

covers with the

Odysseus a view of the

with to

charis him

and

makes

making Phaeacians. could and

Philos, Being

eyes to

taller expect epithets of wealth

appearance os the from

Odysseus Phaeacians, this would since, one who fact; be

obviously the other like to two a man find the he one is feel and it from as philoi can who

take and who will

their power,

force

looking more likely

Odysseus him, it is is both also is,

people reciprocal repay does natural towards those on

entertain that

philotes looks as

being if

relation hospitality And that those if he he

one's not.

a better deinos be

prospect and find Philos since

than it men

only aidos towards is his we shall of only

should

aidoios, they implication can expect be demos

whose their that

presence philoi.

imposing that aid os

who

are grounds

The

these

Odysseus

prospective see, even

hosts those

should, who are

however, neither

rejected; nor the

45

those it

they

encounter appear,

are

still that if

entitled one one done could could would that he to he

to be

be

met

with confident

aidos;

would

however, hospitality any kindness at

more

about

receiving that

create be

the hence AiSoc"T&Co1 Ithaka

impression

rewarded; be to

Odysseus' statement 44 4 Kai c)v rfcos

Od. 11.360 were

would

rtv
be a certain

return

There in

I( -rrh&co-reh')(E<ccc .
appears way to the in which for above); Kai in the compare,

degree and the former 0$ he Philos last

of

interchangeability aidoios; with to become we

deinos example, in the i TE latter One deinoi. Philos one owes is

accompany passage Odysseus

might

quoted expects

(p. 42 14.234 ot rFos O(% wealth, by the the while same

a result of increased SI-S $ becomes -LV0 S '1'' occ as it would the seem, in to of become the

-rt

process. of the

wishes, In 11.18 and one

Philos

question arises

relationship with At the 386

between gratitude

deinos who has as of

connexion

and at

425

Thetis at the

described

done one a kindness. i S o'Ll ire 4 th tI re a, which with done her, gives she a her Hera called in

while powerful becomes great

394,

beginning

a passage philotes has be the

for Hephaistos' grounds (E FCdi di &(' J. lvv) i& service, as to and and deine that by this and she Okeanos appears aidoie.

Thetis to At

Hephaistos for

reason

designation explains phile bringing one and fear who to ei has

14.210, that she if

however, will be succeeds Apparently, be from both the refer it is

Zeus

believes and

aidoie about

Tethys between

she them. may

a reconciliation owes os is a debt obviously both in of

whom one os; it dein

gratitude far deinos

Philos idea to this of one

removed and

here;

seems

that status

Philos and

a special status is

another's one aidoios. for and there

eyes,

special

which a frequent already

makes

Philotes to and of the

ground quoted 112 the

aidos

in

Homer;

in

addition

passages are in

aidoios passages that from he

combined, which be

in others also exists of ad

which philos a number in philotes Telemachos his he gives

operation At the her

relationships says mother the

may feels

observed. at

Od. 20.343-4 of at

aidos

thought will;

expelling 2.134-7

house

against

46

elaborate punish herself in the general him

reasons were set he

for to

his do

compunction; as the suitors

his

father

would his and mother people then, one's but punishment debt to This of the debt one's her gave son and fact was

request, him, Clearly, towards

would

"hateful feel that up

Erinyes" towards show

against him. aidos of by stresses in and her the fear

would

nemesis one by the should

requirement is backed is not

mother

strongest constrained 131 he

sanctions; of the

Telemachos or opprobrium,

simply at line he who

for

gratitude that also mother; bids him it felt at

which was to she be

owes gave

his him in

mother life producing bares of

referring nurture. aidos breast nurture

a factor

towards to she

I1.22.82-4 aidos on

Hekabe account
f

show

him:

av -rJ,
TW

C-C 'Ti' o T'

Tal, iE

OV E rt kac EC oc"
T'Kvo

e )(o

113

1AAV16oll

Strife even if

is the

to

be family aidos

avoided is from while

among divine; provoking at

members at

of

the

same Athene

family, is her again

Od. 6.329-30 a confrontation avuncular

deterred uncle gives Apollo reflects The tie

by

with philotes

Poseidon, rise and the to the the

11.21.468 which In both family

aidos in

prevents cases

a quarrel the divine

between sphere

sea-god. norm

human

relationships. one be between in

of of no is

philotes, the same tie

however, family, was but

was

not

simply in might

members which aidos 110-11 Achilles bind

blood also

involved. of this that the

existed 114 As type his of wish aidos

relationships expected, At ,

a feature informs is him; but aidos (38-42) and it was that to Thetis

philotes. in and assigning philotes already strengthens

1.24.

Zeus

kudos Thetis the Thetis' to two,

preserve a philotes this for

which exists it and

relationship favour future.

between secures

further the

We saw other's other is is true

above ilo' which to

that that

the they

heroes had of

of

the

Iliad

were to while in

each each it

certain to the

obligations uphold; warriors individual

a matter the

honour of by their

say to

cohesion extent

battle

produced

a great

concern

47

for more

their to

own their to

reputations, mutual suggest to of the shared this belief by

we also

sensed than that; of

that it philoi, aidos. be

there now

was seems felt

obligations that, accord aidos that society to tie with reactions as

opportune themselves against approval, iloi aidos there will public, the will is will be

a group each will in the other still aidos

they The

obliged neglect since be itself also concerned but also

sanction disamong

popular

is general,

appropriate and of h' of other

because others, o' and a wider party to but each

a sensitivity be a direct not with only the

opinions the

between the

reactions of the

relationship.

The most to is said

issue

of

the

hero's in

obligations Iliad to return in indeed 9, where to the

to the

his

philoi

arises attempt Not what of the of 116 ee warrior '17 508, but to in has have responscharges with the nature; their their Achilles, his to not ties be of be a the to much is

conspicuously Achilles aidos or

persuade made is of

ambassadors 115 fighting. but purpose the injured in lead

philotes and

this the to

context, whole consider own

significant, is of to the to be persuade army eleos expected his its first is but of

mission the The rest appeal

Achilles rather (302) than is also

interests ime. that the

his

important, and of this in can his

appears to

to

among

philoi to those

subordinate makes the

interests

friends. at

Aidos here his

appearance not the one of

episode

context

Achilles' benefits after and

responsibility of Achilles whose to 630-2 he enjoys reciprocal with return Ajax he asks and words that Ajax giving

comrades, Ajax, the effect, and with of other the

god-given who the refer philotes. the philotes him speaks others

entreaty. rejected greatest ibility, Achilles rest the

however, appeals 118 to of does and of

explicitly At

dos

neglect army, and

rEminds (ER'

of V) he

its Achilles should

Achaeans and it 119 G/ are to the is In

honour implied

philotes, friendship. rc i", x rraL colleagues reference narrowly

that his points his of is

concluding

speech, out roof; xenia, that this

%GAKO&V, and guests under institution Ajax

appears need the

but to

interpreted;

appealing

48

friendship are see currently Ajax'

which

exist

between Achilles' appeal is the are to

them,

and

although

the

envoys not to

enjoying words similar as an

hospitality, xenia separate in bond as both between philoi.

we should from that

philotes; and, guest also to in is notice aidos, his

conduct once xeinoi Ajax

required initial treated his and Fvitl his K # it to do not,

relationships, host and

practice, forged, that by friends colleagues, Achilles the his

We should and his appeal Achilles' 642) to . attempt as suggest or brought then there unusual are to Ajax

concludes that -r' he

speech, fellows J ATxro

claiming

are L,

closest and to

(K'cfi ltoc then, by army;

consider referring they to any be

worthwhile their it is which friendship is true,

persuade of that

members openly

same

refusal or name of is not line be his

persuaded

unseemly may be but And as

discreditable, bear their as a result

sanctions of his but regard example, emphasis the

neglect

philoi, cajoling.

purpose

threatening, that 523, read that that the they for with even

indications and excessive;

enough

his

obstinacy ' a') 1T LV on the are concern

VEJue1Ta/ while

KEX okW 6out should the remarks of (497) even out would is

7CCLV, open for So, to

Phoinix suggest that that accept too desirable their it of

gods

persuasion exceeding in pointing

Achilles' is

his too, had that

time, Ajax, been

gods, one in that

abnormal. brother (632-3), or

even far

whose his

son

murdered Achilles was philoi, as their in

compensation

implies

going as

anger. one should

Clearly, listen them

then, to

it

regarded consult any own

one's but, put

interests, was first. difficult

and

accord to coerce

aidos, who

society, interests

those

The been

avoidance an ideal, the of his

of but

strife so too

in

the was

peer the at

group pursuit

appears of be honour,

to

have and as also

although two groups

opposing philoi, own claim

forces each to factor of has any; of

Troy

may

considered the group

individual honour; in the and for the

within where if

cherished as also honour, regarded an

honour of men,

exists there has equal is

acknowledged exists then as

motivation

a hierarchy no one

honour, by which

everyone token, is a finite

same there

honour

a commodity,

amount

49

within another acute wariness not this

the

community; loss. for one's their of situation and 120 one's rivals

one

man's

acct

sition be

of could

honour arise

is in which a

man's concern of

Thus own and at

a situation honour might

combined that they own.

with

a determination the expense of

should In to in

increase type

honour the aidos in

one's be

individual might concern in of which enter

might into

subject claims

competing more and any with with be than

claims, one

these own

sense, which in of the

that take eyes

for aidos others, aidos

one's at the 121

honour of

reputation, loss the the accorded of status honour

may the

prospect may conflict defend, one's iloi

group, that one's

helps and

or

requirement aidos.

superiors

Although some seen

the enjoyed that

forces greater

at

Troy

may than

be

seen

as we

groups have

of already to

h'

oi,

status a proper

others; with situations at and

aidos and about in

is

response

regard there are they

one's is no

superiors, problem obviously recognizes however, when for always either this, dealing who has two in the or such clear, to for

straightforward the heralds

this;

Achilles' that fact

inferiors, unambiguously. may the be

11.1.331 . the aidos In other

quite show him

situations, particularly are is his involved, not own claim, in in with one

position more of

more

complicated, heroes superiority to time more is of push is than never his

most the

prominent matter may of decide

situations and one

party or to may heroes claim

superiority while one his

parity; have he time

important another, dealing

hero

with a

fellow

negligible

to

own.

An episode 370-400 army on

in

Iliad

4 shows who effort is

how pursuing with

problems the little him his of

might task of

arise; urging

at the abuses

Agamemnon, to greater 368) him

no

enthusiasm, slacking and,

(W(kE(YEV comparing does the not son

Diomedes, unfavourably

accusing with but like Seven that

father. his

Diomedes

himself

immediately of Kapaneus the to the sons

respond, and of the so,

companion, one Thebes, is of

Sthenelos, the reacts inferior to

Diomedes, against his

epigonoi, angrily

suggestion

generation

50
in

that terms where enjoy words dispute the from

of of

his time,

father. arguing fathers time affront arise is

Significantly, that failed, (410). to on totally reply at his that his and Sthenelos, honour, basis. different; all,

he generation that

sees

the was should takes can

matter successful therefore

their greater as an might

they then, and we

Agamemnon's see how a on

Diomedes' at 401-2 a

response, he rkos refrains E vvir

other making

hand any As

oCi O E9 e. S and basileus

/ is of

aipOLOCO. paramount After offence; to right success then, has encourage to

supreme and has realizes the troops for, sorrow resent an affront he

commander Diomedes he

Agamemnon this why he is and has with

status, Sthenelos he

acknowledges explains that

aidos. no

spoken, (412-18) to as he of (O

taken

Agamemnon effort, out,. rest both with remarks can

attempting accepts glory his of

greater points failure Y fr

do and

so, the not

the him.

Diomedes, another why the

does taken

6W413) he

which

as were

because makes

understand both for

remarks status stasis

made; for the 122

allowance and

Agamemnon's that that

and entails.

pressures

responsibilities

Sthenelos both of

and which is

Diomedes, are the of one's again

then, by

exemplify the values lpyalty

opposite of

responses,

envisaged individual Diomedes superiors at IL.

society; of the personal group the excuses

Sthenelos' time, and latter Diomedes birth behind while respect

response, takes into 10.237-9, aidos accomplice


l

conscious to

that for

peer

account. where for one for

We see Agamemnon of the superior

attitude

from to the need into account choosing and rank/in enemy lines:

take an

mission
1)i

E Y
KkkVrt'E-J
Agamemnon Diomedes argument must On the have other is being not be a hand,

dE/o$ 0.(
E J
disingenuous

1'l

TUB

E/

olPEI. tJ

6troI'

a-4c

Ltr. ES YEVeJewJ v. afLhEvttCS n-c , (trying


to ensure that does must been select plausible; powerful a Menelaos, aidos force, like 240), for in one's some that of but even superiors, individuals Sthenelos at may so his then, least.

-xt

oai

oo.

i`Kw1, c.

response

also

be

envisaged

as

normal,

as

at

10.129-30,

where

Nestor's

51

denial in be the likely

that present in

anyone

will

feel implies

nemesis that (cf. of

at such

Menelaos' a response where

commands might

instance other on

instances the part of subdue time; that

114-5,

Nestor

foresees Menelaos venes, by term an

nemesis with then, affront it to

dereliction helps one's

he charge Agamemnon should 123 duty). interWhere aidos the 124 the nemesis the fact which that the as is occasioned is to of the

nemesis failure a breach

employed

suggests

affront, be regarded

recognize aidos. is

another's-time,

may

It

suggested in 4.402

by is

Scott125 not shared the If

that by

the

fact

that and

Diomedes' others in the

aidos same the given then this is or and an

Sthenelos of that not the

situation concept situation we shall does not

reveals provides. while have imply to to

weakness the fact do this is

restraint feel aidos aidos me,

which in is a

some

others accept aidos some

means argument. weak, but

that To

weak,

however, that it

that

simply than their in consider to it of beings; aidos so. It

emotion certain

which

are as

more

sensitive of

others, upbringing some fear to

which

individuals, are more likely 126 are

a result to

disposition, than simply nor by

experience not

situations be weak nor pity,

in

others.

We should more

because love; their seen the that

some

prone the

than these

others,

rather power that in in of is not

we judge individual some being

power human

emotions have

and can be

we

already

individuals undesirably in every

to powerful surprise no 23.473ff. and sides

point it

should

be

powerful

individual.

At

Il.

a quarrel Idomeneus; after the

breaks

out

between burst of the

Ajax,

son

of from

Oileus, both cf.

a quick

invective latter (492-4):

(in

which

former quickly

addresses interposes

ai c(Cw5,

P. 16 above),

Achilles

/441 t
Koc It may be

K E-T 1,

vv vx

o'it

tcv

rtt

Av
J true but and

(d
ilkcJ that Achilles

tvt
YV Ajax'

TE

((CTO/, address reprimands for

Ka Kots ) ,
is the

lE-r-16i

'e e OoJ e Tr iv

Oc. C oJcTE K&1


YF for both appeal its as

IrLS only

TococrZZ aischron of

e 0c, ,

recipient, "unseemly"

conduct terms which

occasion

nemesis,

to same

the

52

ideas This is

of is

appropriateness clearly a minor inappropriate, of the cause that has

and quarrel,

disapproval and but where dispute can

as perhaps time may arouse and seen

does that is be at

aischron. is why it the and which standard by

considered

stake,

importance so it is

of

the

irrelevant, nemesis, the

important that aidos arouse

a dispute been

suggests which
iXvJ

ignored, can be

that as

it
V1(:

does
CXr6).

nemesis

universal

We have and that

seen

that

aidos is the then,

can in both in ideal do

override of ideal insult cases

resentment one who feels

at

an himelf

affront,

nemesis aidos,

reaction an the both

affronted; both ways, to

situation, and on an an

should excessive appreciation few in any

work

preventing it, time. and relying But

reaction the other's

of

situations At this

are point

society, help centre by but of

disputes reminded plot his and of

arise. the

we can at is his

hardly the

be the

of the

quarrel Iliad. is to for

which When

stands

Achilles of

insulted opponent's clearly Adkins, in

Agamemnon, 127 anaideie, lie in the

reaction his he grounds has and

complain this upon

accusation his time. out value

slight with this

suffered other to when

connexion there operative and aidos anaideie certainly was the there and is

passages, set one

points

that on cowronged, but of others; Achilles for 128

a natural values is time does all wronged Achilles, up to plainly are seem those in

tendency others a great associated, to coincide

a higher has

oneself in

been this,

deal 129 with an

of-truth and the opinion (above, anger admits the first of their Achilles'

charge of that abused has early

judgement feel is

who

express at 19.86 at

party; while that

Agamemnon

provoking says that,

9.523 Achilles'

p. 48)

Phoinix not as Most to pointing calm out been book

point,

nemesseton. two (377)

Even that it

Agamemnon was he

himself who started the terms

as

quarrel. to attempt time, of

importantly, the that allotted time of he divine two, sees him has

however, the matter

Nestor, in not other battle), the

Agamemnon by won

should the in and

deprive Achaeans and greater

Achilles (visible that warrior, Achilles,

a prize of the

proof

although bow before the

birth

should

53 129

greater

time

of then,

a king is 13 0

who

rules

from

Zeus in

(1.275-84).

Agamemnon, Achilles' being

certainly while of Achilles aidos

anaides

disregarding is reproached at for 4.402.

time, without

himself shown by

the

kind

Diomedes

The

implications of for the

of nature that Nestor the which

this of

aspect Homeric

of

the

quarrel

for

the

wider we as did not the

q stion see, Diomedes, regarded response it be one for appears

values Achilles to, the

example, or as with that as in

although urges is him

are manifold; does act not nevertheless he

is

wrong; aidos kinds and

while for of one one

reflective may suffered thus be

response, the is ideal, felt

associated, a wrong are

retaliation Two

to

legitimate. of the self-control time may and of on to


be

response of of

envisaged, one of regard Aidos, one's the avenge is that


yield

self-assertion, regard responses, hand, from to for one's aidos and aidos failure Achilles he claims
he two will 131 to

of be

others, part of on it at

own. for at to

moreover, iloi prospect affront subject


would Agamemnon conflict, loyalty to

both the

superiors humiliation the the other; latter


deilos every where group

one

resulting seems 1.293-4,


outidanos Obviously do, loyalty the

the

me that where
were the conflict to oneself.

clearly he
to

called in and the

and

matter. they and

responses be between

The

conflict

is

also the

one

between

co-operative of is strife and

and the

competitive pursuit to point

standards, of out one's that

between own interests.

avoidance Adkins

therefore

right time Indeed, also aidos in doing is is his

Agamemnon, and that is his

in

ignoring aidos is

anaides, this out than as

Achilles' 132 weak. Adkins

undoubtedly aidos in

instance that Achilles,

non-existent; too, even before, follows if is he

might

have rather so.

pointed

competitive is justified of

co-operative, we have than and weak; considered their said of

This,

a question of Homeric

what values; the the

rather Achilles thought being

the

structure are

at 133

stake, both of being of weak, that "

Agamemnon this

concerned them because privileges more the

at than

prospect prospect "You in

worries anaides, rights,

charge, and status

are a way

challenges

54 "You a question the material is or feels Achilles and means but that of of their practicality; that powerful behaviour that prize, the not "

the

charge,

are

anaides, of the

does

not. power

This of

is the them;

not, two charges,

however, but of

relative of in itself,

consequences effective competitive able of his to ignore

ignoring whether The fact, of able, to

popular the cothat in be doing of structure

disapproval operative Agamemnon depriving anaides, so by

in then,

sphere. criticism feels are it unable is is of not

his in

conduct fact, his not the to

Briseis, peers

prevent

disapproval,

a question part by of

values of the seen, not

Homeric part of

values the

breaches are

co-operative society;

virtue as

on we have it is

condoned is not has it so is

Agamemnon's true to of he in say his feels any

condoned. a claim certainly to

Therefore deprive true to his

Achilles out that

Agamemnon 134 but do

point

position

to able 135 way.

without

undermining

Adkins refusing for on of the him this

also to to

claims

that,

while

Agamemnon time, however, of it

may is

be not for

anaides aischron us the one to the implies occasion Agamemnon no

in

Achilles' acknowledge 136 do so, The context, and Homer we do actions thus the paucity in Yet of

gives decide

clue usage way or

question,

evidence us to

aischron other.

scarcely know or that

equips aischron

refers that as it to

appearance the situation

situations, will we have and

described and

-and be such seen that both

that

popular ignores on the

disapproval, popular grounds to be do

that

disapproval of say their that it as

quarrels I should that

can

be

condemned

unseemliness; is impossible

hesitate, Agamemnon's that upon the

therefore, behaviour suitors themselves, characterized to find that 3i 00 because

described

aischron. which the It is

We remember reflect Odyssey interesting, they are badly they

perpetrate 137 and as on

aischea throughout

are therefore, condemned

anaideis. two separate %i)/ roc l

occasions

Tc vd

q Kock o
The suitors, then,

-itc x6 ovcw/l w, oavO6 wr, lm. S'e FTcs dh, W /, d-4EKS EQ o3


(9d. 22.414-5,23.65-6) and are anaideis, commit aischea do

f'c E dK4'/E

55

not but

accord are

others irrelevant

the

time

they the who

deserve; poem, condemn that breaches was

they and their

are

agathoi arete is the for does composed coThe not fact mean such anyone's 138

condemned

throughout to give would those the

largely poem as

them; it

nor was

a whole which virtues e is is

impression

a society operative that that as aret it birth

countenance arete by arete which such

of

the

provided

maintained. does so be imagine material for it tim was many affected it

unaffected

behaviour

condoned; wealth, that it

encompasses could the never to severest

aspects, by being disaster. our

and by

disapproval, affected The then,

is but the

difficult

anything of their to

significance lies in

extracts

examined that of the the factor

purposes,

demonstration deprive felt others to of be

considered deserve, led one to

discreditable. and that aidos the

they which

was

acknowledge

status

others. we find is

Turning made of

more aidos with his of

firmly in the

now

to

the of on he aged

Odyssey, the his

that

much

context he meets

youthful travels

Telemachos' to aidos though has not he gather at news the Athene, the

dealings about thought disguised slightest ive age, aid os, is

those At

father. addressing as Mentor, to

3.24139 the has

experiences Nestor, him (14). as been even that

assured way regarded he to has an

need then,

feel which

that is

Telemachos' normal assured that in that no

instinctone it one of is his not

active this

even

when

necessary;

amounts

assurance

his think th and aidos worse of him for abandoning he does that not abandon it by aidos that the shows represented emotional reaction does others. not amount Rather to a simple is calculation aidos is as deeply characteristic to manhood. 4.158-60, Peisistratos of the rooted Telemachos' which transition is his ckk in of

will fact the so /

responses his one

of

temperament, making the

portrayed from

boyhood

Telemachos describing explains:

showing behaviour opi

similar towards E

reticence Menelaos,

at

where,

CTL z

V ((4r

ocToc c. oEviOv, e Ctw TE7t

w'
110,

ckew

r0
i-o

Tr' Wro'I t-rcEcOkuc S


vest.

ava acV&(V

y ' E- cC

56

As we have the sense breaches interesting saophrosyne, the aidos. notions 142 of is

already of of aLSti the to

noted, ou. here; decorum

141VEP both

(1'rAL verbs by

comes refer

very to It

close

to

possible is therefore and some present of in to dispractises of an the

expected association which will and however, except

society. of later

note

the

aidos/nemesis express

a concept of self-control

self-inhibition has no overt as which this the inasmuch

Sophrosyne, other an will force words people, unpleasant wish nature of which with

reference popular one who is

censure approval sophrosvne intellectual emotional do other action

consequence avoid, differs In but from Homer, "good will be

to and aidos.

restraint instinctive, works 143 and below.

saophron sense", discussed

much

as

connote aidos

of

these

interthe 144

Telemachos' and he will may truth Nestor interfere feels feel

aidos, with

as the

we have purpose his him, his

just of

seen, his so

could

go but

too just

far, as

journey; he expects that is to

aidos it conflict about and his

towards towards with father.

hosts, and he

that this, find he

they too, out entreats the

realizes which 3.96 and Sao

purpose, Hence at

4.326

Menelaos ti /n hosts fate. of aidos it is to

/vcSe Telemachos may his the that lead father's recipient such his

(respectively), &0), /'ui)c o(i Attvos that to aidos, here actions, the pedantic

'C kEa 16 VA /, for his details

Cwt.

imagines

concern unpleasant clearly and notion to

feelings, regarding concern could that for claim person's 145

withhold

Aidos one's contains seems an

denotes while of deny fear that for one of its

disapproval, reference

primary feelings.

altruistic

concern

another's

Aidos, Homeric and have some the

then,

is

a powerful his the it it in norms action

influence fellows; of with from their it society.

over is

the

conduct

of quality we have to

man vis--vis enforce seen to be Other on the

a desirable So to far, those

helps only claim subject,

however, who his who their

regard

arising they his

special his family

relationship or

superiors, of of

colleagues. demand aidos

categories grounds

people, their

however, power or

cannot philotes,

57

are

nevertheless consists are largely

felt of

to those at the

be

entitled enter of

to

it;

this

group from

of outside,

aidoioi and who

who

a community those they all

mercy and under so

encounter, of of whom may, 146 xeinoi. philoi

namely to some

strangers, extent, those be groups

suppliants subsumed discussed these the

beggars, the far, do not

heading however, rely but

Unlike or own them one's tim by

one's on on (9d. this their that

superiors, to Zeus, attract their

people aidos of and will

others, epitimetor impart from

lent 147

protector society

9.270). special because

Obviously, status it the to

though, those it to and as who

only

enter

a community that they thus

outside be

regards impulse

desirable

should arises as

protected; within imposed by

protect only in the

strangers be

from

society, those who

should

regarded

believe

Olympian

religion. his

divinely 148

To disguise a masterstroke for that hybris throughout Odysseus make told aidos the that, it the is

Odysseus on only full the

as

a beggar of the

on

return of (as are In by for the

to

Ithaka 149

was

part the of

poet are

Odyssey, by the their

when extent

suitors their for

confronted well

beggar

anaideie which is they

as

and

atasthalie), the poem, to town, of the

criticized Od. 17 the Telemachos alms; the he is to beggar to also feel 150 , alms,

becomes and suitors he is

apparent. encouraged begging exempt

goes rounds

as a beggar, (347; c(352):

from vg

need

S' SwS oth OC


Antinoos, however,

Yaa
when the

kf)(,

4. Vw comes

"ToCeC-cac ask him for

beggar of this

to

shows
This clearly goes at

himself ws its
discrepancy reflects further

to be unaware Epp oc?


in attitude on badly in contempt arousing is

exemption,

exclaiming,

c((L kvx(. SiS -rr(o K-ri s. (449} Eos WAt


between the for former; proper the from that his Antinoos and 151 Antinoos, conduct, of hurling several himself. will be in The Telemachos however, a stool the crux

Odysseus' most

back,

censure the victim

company, of

immediately speech

Odysseus'

i/ Etv5 0&ot C- -rou -r--rwxw/ Fi6(V y- F K4 1. vrLvoo, / OPCVroco 1'CLXf -n-6e YO/C ,o&. -mhos (475-6) divine intervene to exact the The beggar's protectors will kk'

assailant

punished:

58

vengeance mouth own of

most

beggars

are is as the / J, ded

unable these

to

take

themselves; hint of darkly the but at his

in his

the

Odysseus,

however, Antinoos

words

intentions. (he merely is

contemptuous well as

beggar's

complaint comtempt

impious excites S1 0L even

anaides),

disapproval 01 -r vT&S TC-(e should that be

of the others: 3c 11 Vl CJCOA(481 )" u 4)S treated Antinoos' with aidos, fellow

The then,

standard is so

that widely

beggars

acknowledged of its breach.

even

suitors

disapprove

What follows is interesting, 6*1CC-CJvoeC-ovr V, we are and materialistic beggars it was of justification with ( e(.. on treating that the if

for, given

through less

TLS than

VC-WV an empirical of assertion beggar, 152

nothing of the

advisability with strike he is, the the

aidos. for to

Beginning to that

Antinoos affirm

spokesman there is

goes

indeed,

doomed,

(485-7), (484), a god in heaven and continues i tvoi. chhoirrri j Eo ( Ka. f-o ic/ i TES . llrt f OOJT& Tl oitv7Dcs lfDcVro76L fTcW WfL -rt->, C! j , 1V V'rV i, veec, Kai 11 c-vV rwJ oCcvvns a stranger, is based required on it were the the is then, when common evidence regarded; that one may be dealing with folk-motif for 153 the harming a god, if strangers; theoxeny, was with and this at

In so

harming caution

belief, all which however, kindly justification widely

of

held

uncertainty be confident,

strangers that is older is

we may shOdld

doctrine than the

one

receive such

outsiders a a the attempt

justification. however, of in Greek does moral

That

offered,

illustrate thought,

characteristic to identify with

feature behaviour individual

accordance self-interest.

with

traditional

morality

Now,

beggars

are demands have their

only that

a species they of

of wander reasons

the from

genus town

ceinoi; to town; the

their 'other

profession xeinoi security they are may of

any

number

for but, being

leaving like the

xeinoi for

own communities, by virtue of their by the gods. the At

beggar, and Eumaios gives

outsiders

unprotected, his reasons

except

Od. 14.386-9 Odysseus

affording

beggar

protection:

59

Ka o

(v)

O' Tr'ukv-r'cvOE$ ye t c/YEK

Ya-e
acC o/ ti rE
TL' E3c- i

E-v

hha
We should beggar showing or pity,

ocTO! %Q

Ewf

'x

arco/

,xE
that are

/co
fear of

c.

ac ucSE- h

c*cs aJ-ro tc
xenios and pity Eumaios's not the aidos reaction prudential fear of than verb reasons same here. in the and as

h-a c wV.
for for showing There are of fear the

notice

Zeus as is

himself aidos; although two

presented aidos help the these, by one both to and

showing

define aidos the

clearly

strands

context the punish-

guest-friendship, alhuistic, ment these and his are

expressed for be

Eumaios' fortunate by the

divine himself;

pity can the

less

both which

aspects either

expressed god or gods

aideisthai,

the underwrite standard 154 himself is difficult or the stranger It as its object. WtCo. the to establish precisely the L here; sense of eel. refers here to the the verb association with philein, which who cox[rete his Eumaios acts 155 guest, suggests than not in acts It is, be to his will that disposition. in that based Zeus perform ittco, in may the refer entertainment more though, to the attitude status be manifested of from is of as a of Eumaios' two of

may have

conduct should respect invested in those

Perhaps, the on and to

separated, his guest, by are

swineherd's the on special pity, will

towards all

guests which however, it appears

proper important that

the to

relationship realize that,

xenia. this

passage,

the of

verb the

aideisthai action

descriptive guest as is

and

characteristic

receiving

philein. his of is, of and It in

Eumaios, his and

then,

explains to divine for the the

his law pity.

aidos (and

for fear

guest divine however,

terms

of

obedience his own

punishment) another both more than that

capacity

There

sanction immediate the

against than

ill-treatment wrath of for beggar the dogs Zeus pity.

guests, more is

one

compelling to first this

individual's refers his of his hut,

instinct when the

Eumaios towards attack

Odysseus swineherd safely

stumbles him from the

forcing The

to driven

save away,

dogs.

Eumaios

60 (14.37-8);
17 w _/6J

remarks

156
V I Xty o) (& K/S E cvhv 0-0cirT'o

C' Failure lead aidos, hospitality, guest-friendship. strangers being the to to

VJS) Dc-'ICI, protect

elencheie, different but

I<-6 -V if it a guest, "showing up", and from still that one

kt

i L C- 6 ( E-tv known, became thus the into proper widely will another

ev Ka1 might kind of ere of to; be so aidos, can as work of

aS

accords enters that is

recipient the sph

one's of

related, seen which disapproval of of of the

We have an imperative popular any the breach fear

treatment adhered inevitably and

is

this the by in

case, of as in the

consequence now two for familiar ways the

standard;

popular the host, of doing

disapproval, firstly his reaction him who harm, are to

attitude himself, the the of

a concern and and a secondly to they

stranger from for view

a fear of of

withdrawal as take concern a dim

prospect opinion any It the

others, of

presumed which

breach cannot altruistic,

a standard be too the strongly fear even be that but

themselves that and these the fear

subscribe. motives, of and it

emphasized of punishment the in concern is it same

opprobrium, therefore be

co-exist, should not say

within

individual, isolation; for Odysseus

considered Eumaios' neither

would is

wrong

to

entirely

entirely

self-regarding.
the a we honour guest have

altruistic, 157

That protect which is

of

the

host from at

is a

diminished number 158 to of

by

his

failure some for of

to

emerges looked that he

passages,

already. unable behaviour,

Telemachos, a feels if would failure his be guest

example, properly at nemesis of others. his is

concerned of on then the

is

welcome and

because himself aroused The guest

suitors' account one Penelope aroused

nemesis own that to

that so, of

(0.1.119-20); would at imagine, her at son's 18.220-5:

nemesis is

protect

certainly

pu rErk. Ol aJ 6t5 -TdLK

T&L

&v6.5

6L rLJ EVL

EVXLIC, 4 oc. 0U Cf(- voh, MEYaGf l TVX0v1

+4a

FL css-v1 -r SC vo Vvd VOSW


al

/i at ras PCE-c KL(Qv, wEV ( aTwS roe by j Ecu -s-i. cLVO KTv crf-eOLCL E '7rP i 0Lv6 CT6 is

YOB/

. c(Lv'

osc
e

OS

.ep

!W

FT

Of

/T[ GL

61

Penelope, one, arises one's custom and

then, implies one's

sees that

Telemachos' the impulse

failure to

as protect

an

intellectual guests that as from whose Clearly, in

one's

from intellect,

intellect; if but it is

Telemachos sound, out urges him to his does that by he the own one link it felt that

agrees lead is one

(227-30) to act

demands,

points

prevented suitors,

intellect acting as his "bad sense" (232) is then, there is with For our a link

opposed between

good knows will will to the

sense. and be suffice

what that

acting explored to from to as both

accordance 159 below. record inability the an that

propriety, immediate and lobe

and

purpose were and by proper

aischos to protect

accrue impulse was could

any avoid

a guest,

disapproval intellectual of

represented one. Thus and

these

terms

seen be

conduct of education.

an

object

knowledge

a goal

Words passage how the

of

seemliness quoted, and

and

appearances in our

abound discussion could

in

the of

last those on as terms either

we noted of the of

the doer

unseemliness or just suitors, seems if to not the seen but sufferer how

situation the action is

reflect by

described affected as it as not

unseemly;

we have of the

Telemachos other as so. can in this

in

passages, badly on

the actions 160 their we saw, as on that abuse

conduct Telemachos, of

reflect more

themselves

Accordingly, be regarded are Certainly a guest

seems

another's if those disapproval

hospitality who on and act that

disgraceful, concerned abuse of as described

even at

way

always both are

account. to protect 161

hospitality inappropriate

failure

and

unseemly.

The xenia the

courtesy is also but

demanded governed Telemachos has no

of by is wish

both aidos.

parties In to his the

in

the fifteenth his

relationship book leave offence. is perhaps of of

of

Odyssey

anxious to his is cause

take host

Menelaos, Menelaos, itself concern aside, akin for

however, to aidos,

brushes and

anxiety certainly formed part

(which further of

evidence Homeric

that

feelings others' (15.69-71), saying

etiquette)

62

J/

Ko-1 ah

v((i. (X
This of both form action in the

E x
of by

b'

NCvocSoKw ,
in to suggests, of Excess the fact

bs

K,

Ex6a, "
which the nemesis as is

co
the

a d' ai vw
speaker he would seen the rejects feel before, speaker's of attract

xc

p ckFci,

-i. rr-a .
a course at such 162

expression, referring

conduct

another, it. and aidos

we have and the be

universality with here, that

the

standard to that cause

agreement nemesis suggests behaviour. in the

object can to

Menelaos' nemesis

excess one

might not to

reject bounds to by hosts the 163

excessive of underlie the bard's should greatest and in at not heroes Od. 4. good manners

A desire host-guest aidos hides weep. experience at his

overstep seems where, order the that poems

the also

relationship Od. 8.85-6, face in in at had who at

Odysseus' song, see he him

moved his even tears, the return

Elsewhere aidos who of no then, those nemesis that he less The

do not 195-6 over that is se; to

shedding joined did not

Peisistratos, the he fate feels

others from for

a lament explains dead; it Per hosts their one's

Troy, the at

those

who feels as

weep aidos

unlikely, more show

Odysseus it

weeping to with his

probably anything 164 one's in

regards than idea that

a discourtesy satisfaction should occurs to one bewail of the idea to inflict she not

complete one

hospitality. hosts where fortunes hostess at fl.

burden atQd. his

with

troubles expresses feel where

certainly reluctance house, lest

19.118-21, own misor occur other his

Odysseus

another's

household seems join her simply to the

herself 24.90-1, seems to

nemesis. Thetis' on is

A similar unwillingness to

gods on inferior

be

based it

reluctance possible deities).

troubles feels

them

(although to the

also

that

Olympian

Besides should fail

the behave

negative kindly and do the so,


fame

justification towards negative we also strangers sanction find at


good a men good

of

the (the of

custom ill-repute , where


are is a thee

that

one idea, for those

theoxeny

p. 58 above) who to

a positive Od19.333-4,
(men reputation who

but

nonetheless Penelope
is

materialistic,
says spread that by the xeinoi.

justification
of Thus

ut0E$) reward

63

of who that

proper treat xeinoi

conduct, guests report

just badly. on

as 165 the

ill-repute Yet Penelope of

is

the does

lot not hosts

of

those say

simply

qua i ic, is fame hosts, but the that they who vtV WV carry of anyone remarks "knows to all K/. tv/A&V4" she men; conversely, and who I-rIVECs "all (329-31) those that who are mortals" curse i pt1 "; "know from her speech r (e. c although she begins and who the context of xenia, her of disapproval as that she abhorrence goodness, as of the the seems of to believe that society and she one and sees popular the
and

behaviour

their

in

general appreciation popular

shares

moral and,

wickedness accordingly, of the indeed,


on 166 poetic

moral

consequence other.
emphasis

commendation
Plot its of the

And

given
justice where

Odyssey, didactic towards

withits purpose, is the

undoubted

particularly concerned, poem was the in in there

proper be society of Certainly in sharply its a

behaviour strong whose members, much is

guests that

must for a

presumption ideals, matched made the with of if not

composed everyday this the

necessarily of Penelope of xenia

conduct passage.

those the society that peoples of

theme of the by (9.188-9);

poem, it are

and is

particular contrasted from civilized of

those

who'practise who

Cyclopes, their

distinguished and first inhabit types OL c2 sets the (9.175-6): S'tKaLOL,

ignorance out to

themis the he oel Co

lack cohesion of 167 Odysseus when of two those who

ascertain island

disposition to ( k PC ( promote those and we

Cyclops'

refers Y' Ctn ENdt

alternative f/tot. TLS Kati I"( VUOS Er{L/ the observance which can see

-d of

eeovccIS. the a remarks laws of

Thus

the

values are as conduct

which precisely

hospitality community on the

characterize how spring guests their to a Penelope's from in

civilized, of of of men their men to of in

general

can towards

contemplation the attitude is in

attitude those their one who

particular; from and is

enter

communities justice guest

outside propriety

indicative general,

sensitivity who maltreats

and

likely aidos, friendship, in the

to

be

unjust is so

in

other to has

ways. the

This institution of

being

the of

case, guestimportance

which

central

obviously society of the

a role

considerable

Odyssey.

64

Protection should may have materialistic Materialism exchange is of (his at not,

of fallen

strangers be of

was, blind that

then, to the

a Homeric possibility we have often felt in among for himself and In he return aidoios as

ideal; that seen

we practice

however, short

ideal; were

that

justifications also gifts fictitious is quite outright he believes if affects which the was to

necessary. the xeinoi; his return doing even be k to his no form of the

institution the amass norm booty of

Odysseus to just asks the

constantly 19.272-4 for

concerned

Ithaka that

description in

Cyclops seen

a gift 11 360 . to all amount

character), (9.268). that can He is

addition, will

that at hT6os and substantial much to he

we have irpMEeos home with how tend the could a

men of

he

wealth. his aidos of own

matter

posseses, that ill-treatment often be

but while the

experiences all them

a beggar is means

confirm

towards of

strangers without

theory, all too

those

practice. linked,

The

institution in the

of

guest-friendship Odyssey, and, is often to another indeed, difficult we find

is

very code

closely of

especially that of

behaviour, between 168 A suppliant who come also as the refers as a to be suppliants of

supplication,

the to

boundary define.

suppliant and stranger 169 is a "comer", and unpr"tected regarded or the resorting local river is as to an alien

strangers, and who themselves

community, describing

might

xeinoi, to

either supplication. sod on his

Odysseus' arrival in in identifying


oe ()

supplication170 the he land himself himself of

in that

Phaeacians the

a good

example,

etymology of hiketes (Od5.447-50): suppliant


ai p aZos M, 6d 'f' E aifol

Kaa#

kw_/'' avo(N Kai erw vuJ vas s c K1r -rc. ws . a Ei "i rC vw -rro 60V TF C u ' K-S ooJ C TErov . of Er PC U c k c (; C-cvac VP( c -r'oc KL tK ) ,
The in the general the Zeus
V

/f'

ocvo_,ra rL

n EoL'WV
s' n

"immortal xeinios of of xenia

gods"

of

this

passage another

is

particularized of

Od. 9.269-71, and hiketeia171


'rt j'rWC ctvot, dtJ ,0 O)/' Foes

indication

closeness
C(' yL Z C-vj

X1, OCo'4&L! 6I C'TCT GS j

-C

KETaL

KE(PCW

EIVCOs

f6 / -rf, 1oCGL. Jr DC( rCV

E T'Ot EV. Cvwv T 0"rr1S C

65

Zeus, protector find is

then, of

in

his

guise strangers by

as

xeinos and

was suppliants; title,

felt

to at

be

the we

both

Od. 13.213

him obviously

described derived but

another his used is

cult function in

hiketesios, as protector in of

which

from

suppliants, of his

which of

that in

passage general. decide not to

a context

punishment

human

crimes

Since

one

a suppliant other good in in for

might who is a xeinos (although suppliants much In of what

also do was of and

style exactly

himself as do

behave about is and

xeinoi172) hiketeia. between those

said

xenia however, not

also the

holds

a number

contexts, xenia

connexion that these

supplication are not

prominent, host; a to

involved

stranger is

prospective to further appeals his ritual he thus him by special selfclaims the

situations request. his as claim a protege to as which

supplication Like to the which of he the xeinos, seems gods

employed the hiketes on the

specific a'dos, status

to and

rest on

abasement173 aidos and Since may or appeals supplication, with by the as both one an

subjects time

himself; (invested

one

enjoying time.

in

gods)

without to be

appeal not

aidos present

is in

an the

appeal In "full"

to

an

emotion supplicated, literal

which such

may are

individual or physical

often

unsuccessful. the or appeal the use believed

however, supplicated, of 174 opinion the and

suppliant's with an entail force gods general would be that in took altar, the

contact that of outright contact where which protection Whereas, in

means breaking

rejection force,

will of the in

such an

a context, interest, that

popular turn of

reveals suppliants at first full on thought result, or the force

that was sight and

society desirable, it

believed

discreditable. the distinction should may be lead and that to have the ads

then, between effect of the would appeal, These

may

seem

figurative

supplication aidos, a suppliant that of the full it

no prospect at

individual's against the in

using

could divine simple

of the

disapproval, a way

human,

which of the not. a later

rejection

avoidance

supplication, are relevant only

would to

considerations,

however,

66

period, suppliants, space, accept the that

for

although and while for

aidos one the of which by literal

is could,

mentioned if one of there

in had aidos is states

the the in no

appeals time those passage explicitly

of and who in

make the

a case supplication poems been

presence others, a character aidos or to

Homeric he has

in

moved

accept

another's

supplication, In the first

whether book

figurative.

of who that with

the comes

Iliad

the

supplication the suppliant's reaction all

of

the 6TK and the afK that

priest, (1.14) failure Greeks, but

Chryses, shows to both react

bearing is is the

aidos aidos

proper

reprehensible; to aideisthai the away, ransom of as was

other priest, was says,

we are

told to

(22-3) whom (with (16), the that

wanted

the supplication as in the this

Agamemnon,

Menelaos) sent him of rejection as Ajax the and gifts from in also much

Principally Ka Kw} however, compensation of the There and

addressed is-also it was seems frowned

poet

question the upon for

case,

appropriate the disregarding of by he is supplicPhoinix' of bitterly him until Achilles the

suppliant's refusal at the in of his the

pleas, to accept

complains offered then book on, 24,

Achilles' Agamemnon accepts clearly ation Zeus"

11.9.636-7,175 supplication wrong. comrades of 178 their 176 in of

Priam

Achilles the same

rejects the

bookl77in as

personification (508).

entreaties

of spite "daughters

In

times varied in it

of

war

and

conflict to contexts the

attitudes circumstances the pleas


as a

to

suppliants of each impression certainly


for the court

seem case, given in


strongest of rejection but even to Chryses seems is an to

to

have while that


Odyssey

according peacetime that


have? Odysseus been Odysseus' of Zeus as we

dominant be

is the

is
it

right
would if

their.
regarded as

heeded;

occasion at

disapproval Alkinoos not of only the had of power

suppliant

the

harmed; pleas himself saw, But

similarly. (quoted . Agamemnon's a (Q

Polyphemos' on 9.273-8) p. 64 is dismissal attitude suppliant above)

intended of

be

shocking, was have roundly

and,

condemned. in those

commonsense where the

prevailed

cases

enemy

67

begging expected supplication suppliant often little figurative takes suppliant's

for no

his aidos which is

life. from

We saw Achilles,

(p.

42

above) in

that those us for in

Hektor scenes the Iliad which seems real and Leodes, the to be of no

and

spared.

before are acted out 179 In the passion who the kill distinction At knees, Od. 22.310 and in suppliants

revenge there

motivates room even

those for

between the 312

supplication. hold of Odysseus' appeal:

priest, utters

Y, ouvoat., The knees Leodes' said restrain however, kills of him, supplication, any who or appeal make case did the to little on its aidos,

'v(EV however, impact merits: atasthalon, from him although no their on

0 and the

aicSeo ritual who

Kati clasping

'Ek. of treats he never to Odysseus, crimes and act he bard the

Odysseus, the priest but deeds in

instead that

claims rather of the

anything suitors

attempted atasthalie; suitors' in the nor both having who

considers and

implicated he kills

a suppliant is in the forthcoming, same at

very does the already

condemnation Later a plea for

express Phemios, clasped supplicates Odysseus cannot fears

misgivings. utters Telemachos knees,

book,

aidos

344,

Odysseus'

and the (365-70), moved by

herald, are their

Medon, not

spared, appeals, contact, because

because or because because been he he

is bring

noticeably himself of to Zeus,

break but the the

ritual simply

or he of

the

wrath largely are

has

persuaded, that they

through of

intercession crimes of the

Telemachos, of their

innocent

rest

company.

The

case by

of

Lykaon

in on

Iliad

21

is

interesting;

Lykaon

was

spared that this. appeals Now,

Achilles

a successful 180 At 71 he for


O(VTI

a previous 'ation Btjppiic clasps and pity, the claims Achilles'

and it may be occasion, had something to do with knees, (75),


S aCcoCOa

and

at

74 he

aidos
TUl C-

adding
, )

( KE'reCO

LOTeEE,

Lykaon

has and " "a

effected yet sort he of while

full only

ritual to be

suppliant, suppliant, in the

contact "in the may be

of place

the of a

suppliant"; supplication

this of

significant, in battle

sense

that,

a foe

68

might could one

have be who

been that

an

expedient of before was of this

which such had

was

worth

the on

attempt, the to part kill if extremely is or no even of the

it

rejection moments

supplication been attempting as has but still

only of

recipient not normal.

his 181

appeal Achilles, by

regarded course, time, of

understandable, become an

savage indication his is claim

human that to

being his

there appeal, is

rejection which,

Lykaon's

of

philotes, find will

though tenuous, Lykaon

technically an it act has

justified, which little may be hope

nevertheless would his his plea

unquestionably abhorrent; be successful of lack himself of

society that that

himself and sort of

(92-3), as "a

description a similar 182 does out, Achilles' show will but that that

suppliant" as by Gould his and be any to both kill will There justiis. is it the their

expresses points grip this for any case, aidos on

confidence. his supplication

Lykaon,

abandon spear he his and has

relaxing hands, desire scarcely

stretching accepted that but have nor

out

his Achilles' can

does revenge doubt and and

mean

death, would

there killed the

Achilles the ritual effect the sense text

him appeal of

in

neither pity indeed, suggests override has

contact on desire of that must him. Odysseus

any in that any

The and for

tone

passages, suppliants inevitably is no

which

Achilles revenge or be

aidos their surely

compunction. that

indication but the

in

the

reaction

fiable,

implication

The of in the first but was

position conflict, the

of

those

who if seems

undertake weak; if is

supplication there offered the is little which case in little where unknown and rather meet Herakles, the to the

in

situations at stake

then,

appears or as

encounter,

a ransom to have the that and he

pleases on Lykaon's be accepted,

supplicated, meeting in felt practice to In be with it

been

Achilles, seems

supplication have

may such chance

supplication to however, is

contexts of is

resistable

success. genuinely of his

contexts, other in that a "comer" and his where

suppliant recipient

appeal, coincide, of

supplication seems surely by

guest-friendship stronger, with the who is and same described the kind

almost killing of

position would is incurred

a suppliant as

condemnation

69

as for

schetlios the anger between relationship the context

for of

killing the them of of gods (Od. xenia,

his or 21.28). but

host for

and the 183

failing relationship

to

show that relates

aidos

existed the in

This reaction

example to would between

to

the

such surely the

conduct be acts which

peace-time the essential succeed not to

supplication difference in be the Odyssey to divine

similar, of fail

because

supplication in the or (for that no Iliad the

which is greater

and the

those

ascribed with with stranger, treating of

greater of but the the to the

moralism former fact has

concern kills Leodes by for a

justice

Odysseus one supplicated

impunity), as his in

Odyssey, with is of

legitimate (Polyphemos' of

grounds

suppliant supplication in to kill legitimate not differ as the

violence an war indication or

rejection his monstrosity), it is of an is

Odysseus' whereas

context one's motive. in

similar and the the make

conflict revenge ritual situation for

one's important

goal and does

opponents Although contexts, ours,

supplication does, that and

these

Homeric

values,

would

allowances

difference.

Priam's indication in cases told old he

supplication of where that man's should the there it plea ignore must still is

of is the

Achilles

in of deal of Zeus and

Iliad the at it-is

24 provides suppliant's stake. he Achilles should the does,

a good position has heed

precariousness a great will

been the that

that

(24.128-37), such take

almost yet it

unthinkable it

a direct place,

command, and, when 184 At

supplication creates Achilles of the "respect would accorded and here. as so it The

bids 503 Priam formidable tension. a amount of 'c OEoWJS is aware the will Priam oCI o of and since , in this this usage, may be a general gods matter, (on account the gods such a usage power)"; of their have no aidos is parallel, only probably point he pity, Achilles' appeal is as as however, protectors better of Priam's divine man in to since of take appeal, in guests the Homer and the gods are

suppliants, in that is but not that sense that,

words however,

main

a suppliant, that

under an old

protection, a situation is and it the

he deserves to of his

analogous point occurs which already at

frames

own father. (486-501,503-6),

This

70

22.418-22, employ to pity

where precisely and on himself knows the

Priam this reference and his

announces form of to the father

it appeal.

as

his And it

intention is the the

to appeal

Peleus analogy in fate the will

which with same be

has Hektor tragic his,

greatest and Priam

effect places Achilles will Pity,

Achilles, and that his also to

situation; and that he feel

Hektor's father aware avoid

never and

see he is

again. of the harming it

Achilles, need to

then, obey

does Zeus' although of the

instructions he does danger'of say that refer his he

and to

a suppliant, isi the context

when

these

points, them

ignoring feels itself aidos, may aidos by

(560-70). his

He does acceptance as "showing in such

not, of

however, the an

although be construed arise

supplication indication however, on first is of

aidos";

how

might the

a situation, reaction at his ritual to 185

afforded Priam at his

description he feels

seeing and of those

at

480-4;

of Achilles' e /n/3o5 of is their himself they

appearance gestures that Both of the

immediate and

performance this reaction into Priam reaction the simile it of is the

the

supplication, who receive in dread the or

compared presence. are arouse; of blood, blood,

a homicide simile awe in is and the to the

homicide and not

suppliants, this for Priam itself, supplicate such that of one an this somewhat aspect is

uniquely the not, it the

a reaction suppliant

shedding has shed

although has or

and

seems

that

supplication who intends which to to arouses suggest

perhaps in

appearance tense not of seem

one

a particularly It of does awe,

situation, too far-fetched

emotion. feeling

uncertainty, might is be

towards related to at the

a suppliant least to 1 86

ambivalent of the aidos

status which AIDOS in in

appropriate

situation.

LIDOS

AND WOMEN: SEXUAL of context, it affects own category, women, sex, passages whether women sexuality ads while sexual in exist

A number sexual where former men and regarding individual's

which

aidos

occurs between

in the

a broadly sexes, to in role an the of

relationships or to sexuality with it bodily

particularly, or is the

with in the

reference general; social to

concerned latter and

relates functions.

organs

a coyness 187 To

71

take how

the the

first aidos some is

category of women instances with some

first, might of by

we might differ being from

begin that

by of

suggesting men. as We have

noticed in

women

described

aidoie

connexion

specific deine

relationship; or phile in same

usually these qualities aidoie


household of the the woman so

aidoie and would the


of

accompanied

contexts, as it is

the

adjective used of
birth Rarely

commends

when only

adjective
highest 191

the exactly 188 Frequently, a man. 189 employed, and it


190 or the any a relatively for activity the

however, may describe

a queen

the

humble the use of

servant. adjective qualified. application women sets men, men's interest remain virtue standards of to the which

are in

reasons specific of

apparent The of in society

explanation the adjective, and standards the

apparently lies women's those of women, women and in

indiscriminate the r6le Society sets is men for of

however, nature for of

honour. it

different 192 and honour in faithful of

womenfrom required through

the is

main

virtue

faithfulness; have an

vulnerable that sexually

ensuring and

the

women pure.

their under 193 Although may

control women, by to critical standards is any in slight on the

their imposed

upbringing on of adhere are standards them other laid

in without

society, question,

subscribe and 194 be the It

deficiencies they to

women, down and in

ultimately by men.

adhering

these

being

above

her

honour

that

a woman

merits

the

title

aidoi

. helps and about has to out her such

It

is,

as

we might the

expect, guidelines manifests sex. by

a woman's laid itself

aidos by

which society,

remain aidos with but to

within frequently the

down as for is

a coyness example, anxious to for go

dealings

opposite a husband obtains the linen reason

Nausikaa, prophecy from to her the artifice

been meet him,

promised she take her

and father river

leave down for

by the

offering poet

washing.

gives

the

(Od. 6.66-7):

0a. )cc: v Y,. a're oc o


-Trec Once Nausikaa her to her has father's she cannot met Odysseus, but in she there the wishes are company him

ovojvac
to return to be with

palace, be seen

standards of

observed;

a man without

72,

having there who to will

gained are

her

people, comment

father's vlirc-e 4L adversely concludes

permission, .> off, and on her (6.285-8):


de ..
)Y

and the fami

she 1 iar This

knows

that

Tt S Ko-KwTT(oy she explains

conduct.

Odysseus, and i'ci n, c1 iovlw, w3


KOL(

1,

f 0

.(

of)XVr-W
1

ENFL /

K,

ovj

Oc
TL S -r&L0

Ta. Vroc
VTOL

Evocro.
YE

,O

KIri

' k/w'

Ti aTCoS

K1 her desire that

tC

s t l,

C-Sol, o

avJ'coc(L /At4fItzc
Nausikaa prophesied nemesis before should endorse breaking; are her she was led by aidos and expected Her to now husband, to be

-ir
she at words

vrWV her

"

, cor yA
to oneidea with

(-iv.
meet and men

conceal

explains who 286 in in on in

a girl

consorts her own

marriage. see another

feelings, shuns, of the e that is clearly of aidos is have by is, means so far, her, Kothot she

woman she of is her

acting herself assertion her, another the that

the'way the that

she

the standard 195 i1 ir(spite

course only

and TtS Koc1i ireeo5 would would one of act the as they do

reproach towards in is which aware overcomes mixing and the

Nausikaa woman.

admits This aspect conduct might all troubles

passages Nausikaa but thought preference it is that girl's that on and her not

calculative her any present aidos Odysseus that which out. The she

dominates; unacceptable, felt of but her at the own

she of

with

at

knowledge

she

unobserved; the

the it will

transgression be found might_be afraid which her that is

danger of the

calculative however, will place and not an

aspect if we

behaviour she is

mitigated, others unjustified

imagined

interpretation pejorative, as reprehensible,

actions she as regards entirely

that but

current

behaviour

innocent.

The is

modesty not

with

regard to

to

the

opposite women.

sex

shown occasions to

by

Nausikaa we find even others her


on to she

confined

unmarried

On two with on the

married with will

women expressing reluctance husbands doing their and so , At 11.3.410 disapprove. Helen
bed that it It VFrt is is the ((1 rJ S,t kC-V of not the

regard grounds to
and

sex

that go to
goes

refuses
G-(&J the -

husband's explain fears(411-12).

she

censure simply

Trojan right time;

women she

that is

clearly

troubled

by

Paris'

showing

in

the

duel

with

Menelaos,

73

and to that

no reflect

doubt on

the her

sight conduct

of

them in

both leaving

together Sparta. in

has

caused

her

We remember battle to they the will one, as a wife as a of blame criticize and to the

Helen

saw on might

Paris' herself, be

reflection the her women for it

unseemly 196 and related to

conduct her reference that an to a fear for her

leaving as

a good inappropriate after of with

husband of his is

inferior behave has alleged where, it would with aidos who

regard latter

immediately

inferiority Hera's

been reason

revealed. for to

Inappropriateness refusing deceive for open in her. her on sex her to Mt. act of

place at

Zeus

11.14.330-40, claims that having feigning those

attempting be nemesseton in the

husband, return Ida; love to she

she is, at

Olympos then,

slept

Zeus at

beinyseen have seen

the

and

facing

might

Just

as

a sensitivity women, At so

about shyness

sex of

is the

common other

to sex

married persists two

and after female

unmarried marriage. attendants

Od. 18.164 facing

Penelope the

decides suitors,

to

call

before

explaining,

Shyness Od. 8.324, Aphrodite

oLI ovK (- c. /wEr a''c


of sex itself and of the company meet for in while bed, the male gods

" a. cE0/*"of to men combine and , at see Ares

oL EV eIXVTCtt CrE _a vt, 0, oL c Ko-rrI . a.


amount have occurs (1.2.262) these been of coyness to regarding both sexes; (11.13.568), Thersites' there aidoi still are they sexual the but clothes is not are on of can that arouse matters usage is "cover does aidoia by his flexibility in for part, the aidos, but arouses part same = common once that 197 usages; is, ads aidos aischos is is

A certain seem genitals Odysseus' aidos" in way and of a' both as to

only

implied

statement

Obviously the but not here (disgrace)

a certain aidoios cause his

a suppliant

Thersites' his os, anatomy; much as

a reaction used

which

aischos

(reproach).

Propriety 6.221-2,

in where

a sexual Odysseus

context declares

might that

also he

be will

the not

issue allow

at

Od.

74

himself

to

be

washed

by

Nausikaa's r out that and here it

attendants: Oc cEo, s a. L Y -X. ( I (L . trl>6wJ. C-rr)Ok P/c men free, is has are in really been more the than Odyssey motivated a long to is that, time lines in young by washed and be it seen in may once 198 by since 135-6, normal

yvpvo60aCc Some commentators bathed suggest fact, his where last the by women,

KoCj point both

slave aidos that 199

and the

that mentioned wash;

Odysseus' in von 220, Erffa,

however, of the

refers text naked men the

natural one the other

implication should passages is host; not one of not

circumstances, women; women the in the

appear in xenia is not proper which and

before are guest here, to

washed is

context of it his

house

this

the for

case

be that naked by

was women

considered in certain

a man

except

well-defined

situations.

Aidos to in

with

regard but sexual

to

nakedness aidos is

and

sex,

then,

is

not in of

confined women

women, that

nonetheless of any

stronger

scrupulous. or virtue. and to

avoidance

implication a major duty which example, occasions his primary is he

sexual of a husband head.

impurity woman's or father

unfaithfulness In the to father, that she allow general, family

constitutes a woman's group for three of

part to is also she her the

Penelope's loyalty the her to

loyalty his

Odysseus, and on

entails expresses against without a however, as

conviction should her

other Laertes

women to

will_feel go to

nemesis grave loyalty,

shroud is to

(O d. 2.101,19.146,24.136). husband, t'Me then, of as and be the the and twice

Her

vvJ Penelope, symbol opinion husband might

'frortas V1 4A . feels marital agency will for her aidos

duty this we find hv htJ(Od. d(. 'rF for her

described 16.75=19.527) the

relationship, which helps any

bed as husband's 200 popular and for enforce neglect has their her of duty that to

her it objects; does popular

which

condemn that the husband and

duty; two

significant aidos a more

participle and internal say; it but is

these marriage

Penelope's suggests aidos opinion to remain at

bed than

personal people

obligation obviously a woman's the fact it

what which loyal

other

might that

is

establishes to her

obligation that Penelope

husband,

75

venerates the standard


imperative.

the

relationship laid down by

itself society

suggests has become

that,

for

her, moral

a personal

Along

with

Helen is

and, a prime bed,

to

a lesser example of is

extent, a wife

Aphrodite, who felt no aidos with book the

Klytaimestra for the her

husband's

and in

faithful

Penelope aggrieved

she who is 201 Od. 11; at 432-4 describes how her

it

contrasted of act that has

former's her

husband

damaged

reputation:

v
-rt6vjXI1A vigorous should deed that a lack at brought Penelope's of aidos gives also

E1 0AK
v K

>v'/

(t
rt/
G16t1' L

K"-f
iC exaggeration

XI Idos
rvv'b fc, from

E )cev I
ka'a biased

%0t C.rroEJLl Kati


C-VEGOS no that of

0'7[-(d (. J
, but wife's kind we

party, assertion

doubt, his this act

least

accept aischos aidos and it on

Agamemnon's herself; it

is

aischos

forestalls. is to this he

Klytaimestra's idea calls between (445-6), of

implies that at and 424.202

shamelessness her his wvvwirt5 wife

Agamemnon Agamemnon Odysseus';

expression draws the latter the

when contrast he says

LIYice
K! JV'

of

I Kal!!

dE hhoc 0G -T kVcrr1 -t-f- K 04 (tJV 6vCerL 11 4/4". &CL LC SELS< II 1V&X ,U


.

The

passage

intellect, as to producing her

fairly 203 and the the

bristles we should same response in

with notice as

terms that her

relating her aidos, aidos will be

to intellect namely and

Penelope's is loyalty the seen

husband;

relationship the

between Odyssey

intellect, immediately

particularly below. be

explored

The

requirement extends of the

to

loyal the at

to

the

head group it
i ETCt'

of

the to the

household, other 12 of

however, members
Odysseus' with Their master, her the chief

beyond oikos;

kinship
Cis are

Od. 22.424
oCVxd,

is

said
rc ' by for

that

maidservants suitors, offence it is about and is also their

consorting punishment. to their up

these

marked their that with

out

obviously significant anaideie

disloyalty Eurykleia the

but

follows

statement

amplification,

76 1,1 OUT I11, E)1n.t 01 '("1OU6oc( .r1 vcvrJ /-. IlgV401r'E(425).

OST

The

women's

disloyalty, the share. are have their disregard although for the oikos, time with also "poured disloyalty for as they

then,

also

encompasses and this is themselves. Odysseus Telemachos insult in of discredits to by others of that, honour secure as

a failure an 204 offence By their

to

accord they

others

deserve, suitors to dishonour on" an

which conduct (418)

the said

they to

himself and itself, one's

and

oneidea is the anaideie it in may of

Penelope entailing superiors, is the

(463-4); as and, it does

instructions the maids' also

conduct the an is its the

discreditable ruling loyalty members of of one's weakness; of

themselves, that be

failure taken

inferiors the within prestige vulnerable


AIDOS.

indication thus also

notion the of

a community in the less

honour while of

relevant enjoy is also the

household, its through head, its

members latter

important

members.

INTELLIGENCE

AND

EXCESS

We have of the

already Odyssey of

noted differs these virtues,

some from is

ways that

in of

which the

the Iliad;

moral most

thought readily for one of in of

recognizable the co-operative the degree; qualities, society


distinction towards outlook. greater interest other, section. of the and same some provides association, and

the but blind

greater here to the the less peace,

expressed difference desirability scope for

concern is

Iliad but

is there than

not is in

such a

obviously one at

them the
a long of lies have

at

war

_and,

indeed,
may go

between explaining 205 A more degree in the this to

wartime many profound which the men be all, we of

and the

peacetime apparent

way

differences perhaps, the their Odyssey dealings the with end the

difference, gods show of in

in an

the

justice will of

with of this

each

considered however, let how (od.

towards us deal

First

matter of

intelligence; loyalty saw that of her of between us with

noticed

Agamemnon's stressed led There sense", to denoting

commendation her her should, and the that to intellect, pursue then, Odysy link. and

Penelope intellectual action aidos ample as

11.445-6) qualities

the be

course link

her and

aidos. "good

opportunity of terms

explore

The

however,

intelligence

77
aidos that of or poem. entering the At conduct battle the orders to suggested for avenge of Zeus, the is by aidos death is not his unique on son by the and to point so as aUTwS
at S,

I1.15.128-9,

example,

Ares, of

disobeying follows:

restrained Oo(06s

Athene foc

14
0icr'

VU

KaUt

(; J

).. ECTL

VuOs

('

rT'u XwXe

Kai

In

the

Odyssey, and as the

however, this we have poem is is

the particularly

association so in Telemachos, type of youth; of

is the

much cases in

more of the early is

apparent, Penelope, books the of

seen, a virtual

and

who aidos,

personifying he

modesty

and

inhibitions as where host,


CW
WJ TG

accordingly etc.. his

frequently is a good

described example, to their

E l B

pinutos,

pepnumenos explains
ocT. (
rto

Od. 4.158-60 companion's


tIv
At v -t

Pei. sistratos Menelaos:


E lTC vE
TO

reticence
WO

)cf%(c

fr,

d'
kl4

EVL

ET[-6

XV4C

aura
Telemachos'
himself) points here in the 206 out, (through that the

rF6 FV
saophrosyne
are 207 clearly not only

10u

vwC

0Eov
(here

ws To
directed
and as to the takes with imply much it

OL
at
North aidos sense, of this

and nemesis
seen is but the it as is former also

virtues,

Helen with in

associated close

nemesis) designation to

saophron But its

signifies saophron

control on

impulse

outspokenness. through passages commend

connotation and do in other other

largely Homeric which

association does not

nemesis, more than

terms

"good

sense". lack

Lack

of

intelligence in fact, Antinoos to e: '7ro'frO LauKaK those and the in

may the has beggar,


!//111

also example shown and a

be

seen from

as 11.15

of

aidos, Similar aidos with C/Evts to wits at

as is in lack
i

we saw, Od. 17.454; his of words re W


s/

above. lack of him

a flagrant Odysseus

charges
/

vit

cEc

t 1E are

Ka1 assumed

By convention, fine not 5.787 appearance, match and his 8.228,

of

Antinoos'

status claim the that

be of do f..

Odysseus' recalls

Antinoos' uttered

appearance

reproach

78 wS , The aidos which thought and belies are is the criticized their true Kac. f: those for nature; the it C> ')(E have of 1W9 S05 Cacted an that dT without appearance the

E-aL same;

censured possession is

assumed

man of

admirable

appearance

will

possess

aidos

and

act

accordingly.

Just

as

Antinoos of is the a true

is

condemned so the

for

his

lack

of is

sense

in

his whose

treatment reaction his

beggar,

herdsman, of aidos,

Philoitios,

intelligence

manifestation (Od. 20.227-8):

commende(for

0V Kok ", tYv(.. r v-w A man who does


a ron but also charges indeed DVW .(Odysseus aidos, k'

EInt. Cour F Ka. treat

Kot it:wouTXC I a-urO stangers o Toi well


well has with other and by in 209

evi -7r"L I/ is thus 41

frcrt eFVa only

E OIL KA.S, IK Fc ...

not

not
18.383,

kakos.

We might who

compare just

where

Eurymachos, (381)

acted

without with We are Ii"Avo0-rL thus as

OoL6pI, with

hybris, with 203 the namely of agathos of

consorting suitors. kakos which, moral Adkins, warfare,

confronted they differ the birth regard the no are on

usages possession from which

based virtues,

the

co-operative

sharply majority, and the decry "quiet" with knowing would the

those commend

stressed ability

undoubtedly wealth, conceivably but have was noble

their

opposites. usages as

We could

"persuasive would society be for

definitions", that which or which we should the not;

problem way of

that

expedient the such of the It

whether with tone

poem if

composed anything, its all, with

agree general will that

descriptions the Odyssey,

assumes arete

that and

audience suggests two

condemn it one, the might. the other would the not

suitors, seems

conventional we must both simply descriptive A good "noble"; from of some

reckon and parallel one might

usages, and

competitive, purely be the of the virtue find in called spite "not

evaluative, from never family, to English be

evaluative. adjective coming powers of

usage in is as

noble but it one say,

sense beyond by people

a distinguished ordinary action, and speech heroic just or as

describe

noble

altruistic, the in suitors spite,

which

commendable; of others'

remain even, of

agathoi being

disapproval, so a nobleman

agathoi",

79 in

our

culture his

may conduct

continue is noble

to in

be

so

described morally

regardless evaluative

of sense.

whether

any

We have pp. 60-61 guest aischos but

already above)

looked that his

at

Penelope's failure and

statement to would his her

(Od. 18.215-25, protect implicate his him criticism, on his in

Telemachos' lack of sense

revealed and

lobe; to his

Telemachos himself hence

accepts against (228-32):

mother's attack

wishes and

defend noema;

phrenes

aJ'roc (
C'`ex0( K a % eK OrbTelemachos, in be terms aware of of

Er J
rE -ro iOV,

Ovp
K -fic

V06W
xEeKK

Kxi

aiSa

EKad-ra,
&Y

%(L{ k'i then, good the CD( also

Cv V AL ,-L 1r) k ffovrt Covu, rrFs sees and the since for

aC, co 0S "'fra( ^ Va 17rocL, -rrF-]r'v U/VL Jar -Tra vT' iiX 0( o9E' VOL -rra(1 c/ IV (-IC aewro. 41. CSOJK V%. impulse to one's to protect protect a guest of aidos in the characteristic, in accordance suitors, a guest and not is to

sense,

consequences are is aidos to both

reputation with which acting

protecting -concerned, accordance whose and with Now, kakos quality ( akon) do or x,

a guest there with

reactions a good is link

clearly and

between

sense; their

similarly, chief acting wvcWx usages as the 'it it is on the both and of -0d. harmful but is of

insensitivity presence principles, points affect "to x' is

aidos

whose his

prevents are out his say simply

Telemachos' described that neuter on an to arete as

eeofsvmM232). of is agathos most and

Adkins210 do not

thesis of

admired

because, to without do

action say that

agathon to

beneficial the rightness

wrongness quotes, general: suitors as, for

passing any moral of x. " This may be but here the " knows The

judgement true of is $

formulation different to the chereia latter that for even an

which and and may the

Adkins more the be,

wording

Telemachos "think kaka".

implication and prove imprudent, there that certainly to aischos

suitors' that is not their

in 11.6.161-2 example, "thoughts" current will present conduct out. in both for himself is brought Clearly cases, it open is

1.42,211

themselves, this idea of as of but well

clearly

element

prudential as that of

morality the to suitors, leave

Telemachos imprudent and lobe,

Telemachos

80

it

would

be that

to

misrepresent is that him. the he

the simply

tone urging

of by

the

passage to out what him, he

to consult that should it is he

suggest his own in that knows do in

Penelope and good act that he for in one is

Telemachos pointing knows of is

interest is to

replies Telemachos

what order

manner of

expected action considering in the event him

and and own

sense kakon; the act

course simply bid her to to react his for to his treated it in

esthlon his of be

another because able his to guest.

not

interest, being but

direct as In his

beneficiary phrenes

his

would

not

himself capacity that er he

criticizing him duty grounds and his as

son's

intellectual

Penelope has will that failed see he

is

urging in

both fact to the to the stbijty guest andRa o reproach, while Telemachos that beggar it in

people out to esthlon

this knows upon

pointing wishes

esthla his

chereia awareness as

impress that neither portrayed fitting guest; of

mother be

is has

not been,

a guest in

should general,

the

because nor his status

violates particular, should be knows him.

a norm

which it

is is not a

as that

universal, one of is and

because unable what to the

protect standards

Telemachos are a link, and we have conduct an

saying they

that affect

he

society is

how

There society thing proper indeed, interest coincide. either out such that places suggests it is

then,

between self-interest,

awareness and those terms of the of

of

the

values link in is which it selfwill in two

of someis,

individual seen is before justified

this

in

all in

passages expediency; that

underlying behaviour is can it possible stress are rarely

message in

Odyssey with

and It one

accordance to view this

propriety

phenomenon of the

ways;

the

materialism content with is of

Greeks, injunction can point

pointing

that as the the

they "do

a simple or with one

because

it

right",

out

identification code that of morality

morality on a very

self-interest basis the norms validity to link society and that that and morality in

stable to the the

a society own have of its is interest

which to

subscribed observe in The belief

belief of

in

one's would

society universality and

a strong own

values.

tendency of Greek

self-interest

a characteristic

81

all and

the as

stages well as it

of

its

development responsible gives rise and is to

with for the

which a strong elevated 212

we shall streak moral

deal, of thought

being also

materialism of Protagoras,

Demokritos

Sokrates.

"Good"

conduct, of the

then,

that of (loosely

which the

promotes standards defined)

one's of which of

own

good and one That

by means it to is

observance

society, enables

one's been

intelligence and said, lead to is act it the an upon will

recognize

the be

requirements apparent This that does

society. and does however, it to

having intellect mean that ethics;

aidos not, nor

the

same

ends.

that

aidos man the describe in not Greek.

intellectual an which

quality,

imply

Homeric for

adopted words as

intellectualist belong loosely cover and but that one's things"

approach to the

category wider range "knows" 213 in Polyphemos way, there neither how" this is sense with with regarded is the and where standards acute, is

we should of usage

intellectual noos

a much which one

One's

describe sense that

one's if one one fact,

knowledge "knows will

character, , in like

the

lawless act

(Od. 9.189,428), will no is not that be, real there in

consistently person. knowledge and

a lawless if

a lawless between knowledge

Furthermore, and

distinction any between

distinguished one's "intellect" for how to

from

"knowing enables what that one's since ideal required up to likely aidos.

ability; 214 that". to act

character, "knowing It in is in

one society

accordance is both this of combined are

propriety, knowing as

knowing act upon

expects and

knowledge, character; one's situation, will

ingrained is

features relevant, is, to is not will will in act be for, the as

of

and

aidos of any that

awareness profound entail the and and the

society failure one

knowledge that popular to

living the be

expectation result;

disapproval that prospect

reaction

We saw place arouse Society and one

in

our

section in the disapproval condemns of

on

sanctions of refer

that that

the which

terms is

which to

conduct popular thus

category

liable to

fundamentally on the basis excessive of

appearances. it looks", is

conduct this is

"how

consequence

that

behaviour

82

regarded aidos is in has this

as

unacceptable deal it not to is

and do

moderation with

is

approved. of excess range

Thus and, of to a passage it

a great way which is by that

avoidance over any 215 of At how the

operative to

a whole

situations which which it is

do

belong relevant.

categories

particularly now very and on

Od. 1.227-9, excess, with the

familiar, intelligence

we see interact

appropriateness of values

complex with now we the

suitors' should

centred "uglinesses" notice -r(f how

dealt already aidos; we have (aischea 229,14-5 above), conduct 227) and 229) suggests by is condemned as with expect; in other

their cAwS,

excessive that the which possibility individuals

( %)rC' o rE-5 an of such intelligent

contrasted would that aidos.

man

(pinutos,

nemesis(228), excess might

moreover, be inhibited

The

suitors, the

it

need poem,

hardly and

be many

said, people

are

cast

as their they

anaideis nemesis are their 216 in hybris At terms

throughout at their

express anaideie in refer is the

actions. for two

Apart other

from major both of of the

their vices which

condemned and their

poem, to

atasthalie, the three: behaviour

excess.

20.169-71 of all

suitors

described

A trot
it.,

Q
Ei

uxc ,E
1lh ai

E6
w

Ca. h J, &0c. -rc Eac -ro w/S


O5 to indeed operate possessing
poem; certainly in very and at

O k14) A lack of for aidos. are


.i of

cS/o or be there as

aJE accompanied is a strong

0vi t'v by acts case of

of

aidos, and that Thus


to

then, atasthalie, these the


the

may

lead and

hybris saying 217

two

vices of

rough and

antonyms aidos

benefits
theme of are at and its

showing
the

central the

the

dangers

opposite which GI,

course occur p. 32,

stressed beginning

prominent its end (1.32-5,

passages cf. Dodds,

24.454-60).

Abhorrence the in Odyssey, the Iliad

of

excess, although (war in a case gives fact,

however, it is more find be

is pehaps scope similar made

not for

a quality prominent excess notions

peculiar there than in the does Iliad that

to than

more

peace); and,

we do, indeed,

could

tor

the

proposition

83

moderation poem made point he as of at they the

and are

avoidance to the

excess are 218 In Odyssey. conduct of Achilles

of

as

central himself

to

that is the until

particular, his

much from

excessive he

which the

rejects

the of which

appeals Priam. he

of Ajax

comrades appeals Phoinix to hints others the

accepts (9.640), possibility the

supplication an of of him taken of appeal nemesis his as the Troy Apollo are
(xlhIL 4 E EVES Ei

his at refer where time daily worry concern,

aidos the to

rejects, and Priam

(9.523)

and q)

violence describes

Priam his round about and in

(see nature especially Jj cTicc04.1 (v"e(r form even is familiar of the the dragging gods first by
060L lV

22.418, By . Hektor's beginning voice


11ra O"TE

excess the his

has walls

body to

are to

conduct. which
0XGw

their

terms

now

(24.39-45,52-4)':
VOVI Elvt a

OVAC-re

ovT

OC

C-JOtlfc

YVA T 0S

-7T-rOv C1flc. X

tl ( Aof

"19 Ir rrL 6-'-I


L

' d X 6" L-J l( ws N1 J tVNA hC( TiIL',

Qi

EV, VM

Cw Va

rcV
WS GUOE cC 0
1i' 1rC c p0VC

titj
,rV

C(EVS
C T'

G)jFGA/
PC COCS J

a-rrwkJ1
/1/! C rLV Fi

(-Tx

CVVOL
f/11 0(1 0/ew
%

To
'iT(r C

F
VTI

K -C)ch C e1V OV
VtErfJfW

f'

a/`i &LV OV .
1/ OL vlls

/FlwIV
There ones sense violence to to den a wild this are for and our the which

Yae
purposes stress is so hence "aidos It is

LJ YPc. locf t-ck C


points the upon criticism his in fact, here, of of excessive that which the are laid Achilles'lack violence, he with Menschen which is

/wv.
main of

several

important

excessive, von Erffa's

compared reference auch has von led of all,

beast;

statement, die of and 220 Most

passage, "219 Tieren. to his

unterscheidet indeed a lack

aidos Apollo's

Achilles nemesis however, obtain It the in in

present this from the doubly this Iliad

condition, clear. passage and the

threat of standards

makes

important similar

we see both

that Odyssey.

is

also as Iliad

significant a direct

that result

Apollo of

envisages

the

nemesis elsewhere gods feel

of

gods the

Achilles' any nemesis

conduct; the

(e. g. 4.507,8.198)

84

towards have is of from it is

mortals

is here,

based

on

slights it

they seems

feel that and then,

themselves their reaction differ

to

suffered; simply

however, the

directed Achilles' the

at

excessiveness this reaction, feel the at

inappropriateness does not conduct, seen to that compare at kaka has to be which Od. 14. erga; an

behaviour; nemesis a mortal in itself

might that in 221 is

similar are

but

significant a similar be where shown Zeus by

gods propriety

taking might 284, in his

interest a man.

human With

this to feel

we might nemesis Zeus in so far

xeinios as

said of but his that passages purely a. were them.

capacity in is

protector conduct, to infringe is these from reaction, the gods impose

guests only

already as kaka here, erga

interest of the guests natural

human felt

maltreatment however, in midto seems an to

prerogative; he dislikes therefore human development first felt

implication Nemesis in

general. way in its

stands disapproval which to share

development divine because then to

exclusively take place

human

standards,

The

feeling is

that widespread his dike

the

gods in that the

share the

mortals'

disapproval

at Eumaios schetlia ergs

excess expresses and there hand

Odyssey; gods

belief and

at 14.83-4 "dislike"222 era the in to ).

prefer follows in the

moderation assumption of their (see the

(aisima that

From will

this have passages their pp. 54 a

a general punishment

gods two such others and was

suitor*;

reference proper and of the might may be 76

is share above), of

made of

to

failure

accord

time

22.413-5,23.63-7, which, the we decided, second for 223 of their Breaches these

cf.

something aidos, have while been lack for

indicative that which then,

a lack suitors also

states

punished of aidos.

atasthalie, of aidos,

imply

reasons

divine

punishment.

This the

point

emerges at

more

clearly

from

Telemachos'

appeal

to

Ithakesians

2.64-7:

xxxovs o v

rav, TE oLl' 'R"ECcVocCFTC( ov4t. w rt r v' v, -roc ar-re

T'

St

ve(fj8vlr'iKost a Tn, v Oewirou S 'fCEC S c.kcrCo\(a.


-rrOG-4 6 ocecKiwvo j "r ,,, v. v e%Yic R xt .

85

Telemachos of his

asks it

the

people most but 224

to

feel

nemesis directed also at

at at the

the

destruction for who aidos the

inheritance, to happen, for to the their other

probably possibly They

themselves suitors to show that collective leaders, each is will expel other a new

allowing are with

responsible regard of of

it.

are

also

urged suggests in of the their with

communities, had and as in an the

which interest status might point, vie

members honour and for that

community group

communities

a whole third the for

prestige. not

Telemachos' suggest by the that gods the

however, of Ithaka to real

one;

he does

people their

themselves the may to gods In

be punished suitors, implicate Hesiod, punish carrying be that ordinary the but the

failure of The the

that entire

punishment community.

wrongdoers seems similar the all.

thought on an which idea

1DD. 240-1, by means out suitors failure to people such and of

and

may

be

based

that

natural punishment, their aidos

disasters the

overtake target

gods' but

chief

would point of the is

anaideie, and

Telemachos' on the part of the

show may

nemesis in the

involve-them

fate

guilty. (previous in the in could such be as with that

It

also

emerges that case and it the it

from gods was could

this dislike Zeus be

passage, kaka

as erga who deeds

from in

14.284 general; an in the interest

page), latter deeds, seen as

xeinios that the

took in

question his

infringements of guests; is the same

of at more suitors' is

his 2.64-7,

prerogative however, and it as

capacity

protector guest-friendship the gods

connexion unlikely

tenuous, conduct of

seems an

regard The the

offence where

against Odysseus

themselves. charges

true

22.38-40,
.
t

suitors:
-rf wo/TO S
j/

OCVTOU

UT('E NV

k(

t
"17l

)UVlCL

K-K

0U rcoU rc Wooing one of another the nor

B Eavs
-rc i'

v @e & -zrMW woman while

cEC+foc

OL
vE he

ou
rclJ is

ocvoJ C-U(VV
Kac.Tnc still aidos

s/

E)a'v(Ud,
. is

rA E "r e lac not

man's

alive

particular are the gods

offences specifically the in

against

we discussed of are of that the guests both

above, marital and the

protectors way it as they as of

relationship yet the gods

same states the

suppliants, wrath of

Odysseus and

a fact men would

nemesis

result

86 from had and to

the no the

suitors"illicit regard act of for the

wooing nemesis another of

of men it

Penelope. then wife they is

If

the were

suitors anaideis, felt the normal

wooing for

man's

presumably

be occasion of things

order others sensitive of

because nemesis "inappropriate"; is and then, emotion, wider may arouse thus

transgresses anything aidos aidos in can of It men's may gods those cover those is of

which who are

disapprove, to that much is in in anger chiefly this theory and

and than

a range with also disapproval, excite might relevant, scruple,

situations it

consideration would the any gods beach suggest. share of

which assumed and divine therefore yet for it so,

concerned passage at lead into that least, to any to well say

aidos The

divine situation that

punishment. in aidos situations does and it is more one human is aics4 which is

enter is not in

aidos

is

true a few

a religious (those (9.1 of

only

defined

guest. In result of disthan to

friendship other from other approval for be of aidos hated one's cases, the

and

supplication) divine of that is aidos, aidos seen perhaps might in is the still it

& &ovs may disapproval

although breach

disapproval the

same

with

human of by

beings the (aidos the gods

concerned, as occasion this to

while for fear, the at that, aidos

the fear

might gods as but

accompany one of true open

since disapproval

leave case

fellows, above,

Odysseus to say

Od. 10.72, outwith is not the

pp. 23-4 special primarily

circumstances concerned

we have with the

considered, gods).

To

sum

up, to

then, one's or of

aidos own

in

Homer

is of

an the

unwillingness standards it is of

to

act

contrary as with also, parties of in others, a whole the

perception peer for

society

a particular concern relationships

group; his with own

associated but both

individual's one's

reputation, affect and same. It as that will of that

because to the and

others status the is

relationship, the proper in both

with reaction poems, it

the to and is

reputation is an in be ads this and

important most

concept circumstances, the Adkins, virtues,

regarded recognized by aidos

desirable

although restraint in

some

situations

provided the "Naturally,

undesirable; other quiet

explaining

weakness to say

writes,

87
distaste, in must so no have have the far quiet no question be such as it virtues quibble seen of of their ones; Homeric as aidos far is as

this is

aidos, not to

is say

weaker that holds it

when does

the not

quiet exist;

virtues and together, of agathoi itself. "225 it

are

aidos is held at with

which together, all the

Homeric for simply of sound more failures emphasis held tell together, us, this, appear to if a

society society destroy this

in with I

would

substance there are are

statement; reasons about about strange; that itself; does reason even in if some as hold for it it did their

we why

already characters

that the

practical concerned than seems

poems

criticism co-operative know at then, society stressing, present situations, emotion or in that least

competitive but society the Adkins' is poems for would its or virtue of of

we not, if,

destroy aidos be a

responsible this minimizing, individuals by

together, not some

importance, ineffective its own

is

not

critical an

whether as a result

nature

practical

considerations.

Aidos initial Achilles and

is

also offence himself

important against lacks

thematically Achilles aidos a savage him chief to in is his without normal

in seen

both as it,

poems; anaideie, in until

Agamemnon's but his anger,

persistence human is aidoios higher of

becomes to the

virtually aidos restores

Priam's In anaideie, excellence and concept of ancient the major both Greeks, in the

appeal Odyssey and both the

society. their par relief the

suitors' of lack

characteristic as an into and If was of the by aidos

appearance their the of accepted, the be the

Odysseus of aidos

throws

demonstrates the society is surely to

desirability poem. as benefits it

utility

didactic generations form

purpose of of

poems then lessons

one

learned.

From

what

has

been from

said its one

about

aidos

as

a fear it

of

popular of terms

disapproval connoting amounted disapproval, element of

and intellect, to

association might of the suppose

with that

a group

simply society's where a' os is an

a calculation and this we have is present.

effects seen But even

of

courting

certainly 226

passages where

88

combined actions the it

with is

a calculation not of synonymous a given be since, inhibit be set

of

the

consequences the calculation,

of

one's but the rather

with of aidos if

prospect indeed,

consequences represents. in the aidos of one's is told to as by say is their

produces

emotional aspect, prospective conscience of that

inhibition will

which

A calculative application or one's the Nor is of moral consequences aidos no one any

inherent one's in

check, is action to

a course clear

action, mind.

must

always will fate, internal reason.

calculative; think yet ill (24) emotion Nor would of his

Telemachos him for seeking is still

(Od. 3.14) ascertain strong; his aidos rather aidos is

that

father's is an

aidos and it is be

governed true it for to

instinct that

than always of the

self-regarding; Greeks to expect

even

though

a characteristic favours of according that and

a return of the not

material others the hope relationaidos of

justifications are found, it or

desirability necessary to

is the

suppose of for

reciprocity ships another hosts = 4.326) to in suggest order to constitute

justifications the sole the out be of reasons aidos c&ern

co-operative showing Telemachos aidos

to his

human may show can

being; him

which for

imagines (Od. 3.96 be

hardly

self-regarding, who saves (Od. 15.373),

his feelings and it would a portion does so of for his

churlish

that help

Eumaios, aidoioi

income reasons of

self-interest. if does to that is a

In

what

way, form

then, of like to

any,

aidos Redfield

internal is "nothing

conscience? conscience, the expressed "

approximate 227 writes on, norm "Aidos of the the of form a form those of no

an aidos

yet

goes

vulnerability the man ideal norm " internalizes Aidos to is

ideal

society; self, on 228 as a

is

directly the is

experienced

within

anticipated therefore an but advance tradition

judgements internal not on

others of

himself. according This those who is suit view

consciousness conscience. mainly

this at in

definition, least the an

of

scholars, internal his it is

writing claim that of external

German man

Geistesgeschichte, standard, conduct in this to

Homeric decisions

possesses and of simply society;

incapable the

standards

adjusts 229

89

sense

that

conscience. more or will than

aidos 230 an

is

sometimes

called conscience,

an

external however, that in the

form is little

of

An external even

absurdity; will both damage

to

recognize status

a given eyes is 231 of difficult Those Homeric no

action others and an

occurrence demand of how the his

one's

a subjective standards of of these theory to his also of power the of of

idea society, be

of

one's and it

own

worth

awareness to see

the

either sort conduct

could which

external.

who man

propound adjusts for

suggests and point of out

that has

environment tend type to

capacity the

rational and

decision choices the

that

reactions describe, conform, suggests, external, surely reflection The

individual and and the

they pressure to this are

given are

convention

automatic, not they of

instinctive that are the deeply

unquestioning; being observed since entail

however, but observance and that

standards

internalized, would automatic is he he

external

standards rather than

deliberation that for

response. not has no distinno concept to us, the since

232

observation from moral

Homeric does it

man morality not mean mean that

guished internal of

conformity233 conscience; as but personal and than its one that

may

that from not

has

personal of

morality society, of one, later of uniquely on with to

distinguished this should of only the

adherence surprise is at

standards the

development

codes which of

morality occurs Homeric

a relatively an age and which much is

sophisticated is less both much

poems

certain

inherited a feature guilt may

conformity based and one as

system of values. of "shame-cultures"; also morality values to produce in to

Neither

explicitly when will dealing have

conformity, any which sort the rather different,

values 234 of culture,

popular those would

consider or are

culture than

a whole

conforms which

like to

conform, of

principles usually

unique

a number

educated,

individuals.

Aidos based this

is, on

then, an

an

internal

state awareness become of

of of

conscience the values

which of

is society;

internalized will have

awareness of the

internalized values and it and will

precisely of the have power become

because of popular

uniformity to

those them,

opinion

enforce

90

internalized however, personal disagreement disapproval above, it by based

through firmly

education on and the the

at values

an

early of

age.

It rather

is, than some popular pp-31-2 in which

society by Il.

principles, with or, denying is aidos not one deprecated as

although of

characters society at is of in no the by it his is

express ignoring

values

does its

Agamemnon applicability there prospect accepted is but so

14.80-1, situations case where

generally is is

applicable, at it the

a character a standard where

experiences which aidos in the

breach peers; seen

of

generally

because

as

natural

circumstances,

unhelpful. prospecting in Homer, of is of approximate conscience. aidos has done to

Aidos and as

is

also "I does of

exclusively cannot express of the what ideas, I have in it "bad" that "I

in

usage "

such or

am ashamed done, the that

myself" say, if

am ashamed encompass standards the for

it

conscience of society,

sense does not

awareness to pr There can be is

the of

notion a case

retrospective saying, however,

or

guilty

prospective that of his one in

based

on

a retrospective and which for him the than anxiety the the

awareness feeling Greek disapproval his own which

something by this

discreditable, awareness,

anxiety fellows of "a bad

occasioned terms is himself), conconnected for of a

articulates of

aidos more may

(because pressing be similar "235 future period have the the

sanction to the

disapproval we call

science. with of the the

Explicitly, disapproval covered greatest idea of of or by

however, of this of guilt the/oems remorse,

aidos others in

is

always

Homer, find trying This is

and

most the

study difficulty or

we shall in

that explicitly not that they to

Greeks to that

express the

remorse.

say which

characters call which it those guilt to

we should words would describe it is with

do not experience 236 that simply the as emotion the in feeling is from coincide of its

have which we then,

no

articulate

a form which

designate in

unambiguously 237 While terms. to be does concept distinguished not in

aidos

internal, our concept with usage. all

nevertheless in that of that

of the

conscience applications

it

fully terms

91

OTHER

TERMS

On pages which in the

23-7

of

his to terms

work aidos

von in

Erffa some express for not, Most is

considers of their an idea

other usages; of

concepts these,

approximate main, with they response for gods238 resemble are

which of as the are in of

inhibition status; in of the the in sphere verb reaction sense reaction inhibiat it

together most cases

a notion are, to

respect

another's operative examples with the 239 In

aidos divine.

of man's hazomai, to does to the the

example, or their

concerned representatives. that its it object, of, with the is

proper this

aideomai status and its

an and that

inhibitory it inhibits Its is

special for, and

disregard tory force

maltreatment connexion Hektor

object.

numinous

shown

11.6.266-7,

where

explains:

xEer o'fopxcHere but than used that linked Cyclops the the to in verb

VtlriOLIfW

A(A

>

t[ e(/
a similar

001x& Gtl
to

OLVOV

clearly

operates to it

in

way scruple,

aideomai, rather be

exclusive reference "other people", sets a context is the divine where one of

religious apart. might which It

can,

however,

aideomai those in

also aidos

occur, is

provided

context to

specifically to OtKw OL. the

sphere:

hence

Odysseus' 13

warning Gvl,

(Od. 9.478-9): oCfEo E'WE% J& OUK vuvs 6xCTiL1) ( Z c'u TtraTo E (O bCV r Tw

Ka. (

O6OL aA

The to

opis denote

of

the

gods, anger.

their is that in the

originally 240 If in

their a connotation the term, the

all-seeing of then opis it

eye, "seeing" is of highly the As gods with not the may which at god at x..

comes or

"being appropriate

seen"

retained one it can is that much in as

aideisthai of with Opis does

(Od. 21.28, hazomai, popular opizomai, imate normally 283-4 proteges. but seems to

context

however, disapproval, works aideomai occurs: might amount Opizomai to

guest-friendship). fear of divine is

anger,

of verb, approxads Qd. 14. his

concerned, and 241 hazomai. it Thus contexts of Zeus in xeinios the

those the feeling used

religious wrath dos with rather

fearing to is

towards

and

a human than

connote"fear"

object "respect".

22.332,

92

Closest is sebas,

to

aidos and this

of

all is

those a concept of our

terms which study. the in

considered we shall Like status aidos, of the to or denote the cj tA ,

by have

von to

Erffa

consider reaction and to of which be used another

at

all

stages can inhibit the

sebas people

is

which can of

acknowledge action; subjective of works material it which may

other

Homer

noun some of the

seems special

always aspect

reaction objects also

person, in later

a situation, quality in in others. (Od. 3. sebas acknowand it to to

although the In other the

person formulaic {with feeling

etc.

arouses 6e$as participle}, or

reaction c

expression feminine of special do with wonder or

i Ct fo(owvToc

123,4.75,142 seems ledges have virtually to the to/a

6.161,8.384) which object,

astonishment in at its

something little as possible to

unusual but is

a synonym; mutilation

aidos, iri sof

11.18.178-80 Achilles body: Se 6-f ev,

appears react KE6(w

urging 6'6((a

Patroklos'

-TFPa e Khoo ro
6 The prospect is if of for lobe, se

1CwrL
J At Achilles and as, sebas then, it of the

KvriJ
KEV -L should is can must it to be be

XWPJ

1 ihOx /.
VEKUS his be I(lvl+I, friend's his reaction aroused to be

vJ

ycve 60a. c
wos body to be Choi. dis-

figured prospect; prospect as with the being

that by the as of usage of the well

a feeling very must close also own in 1 1.6

disgrace,

aidos;

a feeling to sebazomai to that of

wonder individual's and

a form The

anxiety of the

reference verbs,

status.

sebomai, twice

confirmsthe inhibition in the

closeness (167,416-7) at doing

concept former to

a' as

o; might

expresses, of refrains Achilles'

aideomai, status;

harm

another

a particular from se bas killing

former

passage and from in the

Proitos latter his

Bellerophontes, him to At the x. refrain 4.242, of

causes his

stripping it is

victim, which used implication this at

Eetion, comes an

of

arms. to to

however, aideomai in battle:

sebomai it is

closest

meaning

when

in

exhortation

-hoc.
The marks looked the

i We0L
of cowardice to aidos can

E kc

1?

Ees

greater

effort

,
as

VV
in

C-iSEEcelenchees to conclusion of concern clearly those that for we

contained sebas very and the

exhortation in which of sebas

similar the

was

urged,

feeling

express

idea

93

one's to and and to be as

own

reputation of can but it relate of others, of

is

inescapable. which produces range and that for fear; sebas,

Sebas

in

general from very it

seems withdrawal, awe little does and for of

a kind such

shudder, cover to does to

a momentary reactions there is

a whole respect seem concern is less than

of

astonishment go on,

although reputation tied to

undoubtedly the the status

one's

explicitly is aidos. three

the

idea

disapproval

others

I till

have

left last, that

consideration in verb three to order may to be

of tackle seen of is

the the as the no in cognate the

usages of with in

of the

aischunomai degree to In

question

which two it it the and in of

synonymous Odyssey practical fact, with refer

aideomai. it occurs

the

passages there verbs, is to

which

seems and

me that Both

difference fundamentally and deeds involve

between to

aideomai. idea; as

same works

aideomai a reaction as aischron, or on or

aischos of

aischros which may one of a derivformatreaction be

commission or the which aischea hand, is it is

be described aischos

aischea invite the other and

may

(disgrace) aischunomai,

(insults) clearly a later to the same would

others; ative ion to of than the

aischos aideomai;

aischros nevertheless disgrace of aischos he did the

probably refers

prospect in

of terms

or

humiliation or aischron. accompany as his

which At

expressed Odysseus gallantly girl's:

Od. 7.305-6 to than town; the

explains he

why

not decision

Nausikaa rather

represents

Here

AAq ,
the

-TrW3
familiar

ov K % oc. 14Xl

Eho v"3
with

&Cas M
fear

TE' ('(vroh/os rav`CL 6Kv'Iacrr0 c, xi


and the reference to out

connexion

Alkinoos' as

disapproval with which

(1ifcoKVifac'i0 aidoumenos, Odysseus and refers earlier of her aidos.

) mark the (307) fear

aischunomenos of popular that terms

synonymous to Nausikaa clear 21.323-9 the object,

criticism which were At

is

exactly in

articulated

indication

(6.273-88) 242

which

aischunomai participle and the

is

even

more

obviously

aideomai; as its

governs familiar

y rt\/ fear of

a synonym of 4 oeVSSZv yvvx (k-WV 15Ka Kw---reC' S

what

94

may say At the and to 18.12,

is

expressed, however, Odysseus the

and

summarised seems is being he

by

elenchea less clear; to

in

329. Iros him tells away, were the with

situation

beggar goes be on

that ait'XV'(0 to

urged

drag

equivalent to be and, that that

aideomai Iros is there

C Et"rrvs . Now, if here, we should reluctant is nothing to treat in but such hand, for thus

aischunomai expect a beggar the if text Iros to really his that to become

meaning violence, indicate taunting out is of

indeed, this is

Odysseus place,

the not i (Y/6CKECw\/, it on it might the

meaning, 9) then be other

is seems

compunction that believes

although Von he Erffa,

suggested himself

scruple Iros

feigned. that

means involved claiming this which diverge

considers so it fit menial is

aischron and dignity it

with that to

a task, his but

insults to expel

beneath well, is

Odysseus 243 him; of subjectivity does there we

by

seems

very

is Even

a matter if

interpretation from aideomai difference such find and other slight that that of of the

preferred. this in the

aischunomai mean the but that

here,

does usage

not of

is

a fundamental shall we shall contexts, one by or meet

two

verbs;

differences two verbs to are which become

again,

generally in unique other most to

interchangeable at first seem to the

even tend

usages

them

attracted

a process

cross-fertilization.

95

NOTES

TO

CHAPTER

ONE

1.11.21.468-9, 2. Obviously,

Od. 146-7 then, Mnem. it

are operates

similar. negatively, 2,51. arises and its from Von it inhibits; see insistence of its Erffa's

Verdenius, (5,40) effects, 3. Aidos that

1944-5,47-8,49n. is positive

aidos

a confusion

usually of this and topic for

beneficial, kind cf. and in is pp. 56 these clearly and

operation. see Scott,

altruistic; 88 below. see

1980, 4.

p. 25, 42-3; J. K.

On this

passages, from (ed. Scott, the

Pearson, Greek and

Popular community, Shame, p. 150. is

Ethics see 5.

a parallel Peristiany see in

a modern 1980, thymos Scott, 83

Campbell

) Honour p. 14;

Cf.

more 17.254, 6. 7. and

x. 13.121-2, and , frequently situated Od. 1.119,2.138,4.158); Murray, von Erffa, p. 118; Rise of 28-31, aidos

nemesis

I1.2.223,16.544,

p. 26. and of 89. Nature 11.21.74,

See See

the

Greek and is the

Epic, remarks

Redfield, at

Culture,

coupled

with

pity

22.123-4,419,24.44,207-8,503,0d. On pity in Homer in general, see

14.388-8,19.253-4,22.312,344. Scott, 1979,1-14.

For

aidos

and

words

connoting in

fear,

see

11.1.331,3.172, and cf. below,

15.652-3,18.394,24.435, pp. 42-4, 8. Pity on aidoios

Od. 8.22,17.188, combination fear by right to the see e. g. with

deinos. Od. 17.188 Plutarch this was seem on to (see account belong

e. g.. I1.21.74, were athetized ) may be

(1.1.331, but that certainly

9.458-61

Aristarchos, assume lines von

OCT app. crit. of their

shocking On their

content; substance, pp. 74-5. pp. 93-4.

here. 10. 11.

Erffa,

p. 5. (O d. 15.

See See

below, below, are

Other important.

instances

of

the

phrase

468,14.239) 12.

less see and

On nemesis 115-8, etc. ),

von

Erffa,

30-5, 1980,26-30.

Redfield,

Nature

and

Culture, 13.

Scott, at

LI. 2.222-3,296,3.156,410,4.413,507, . 5.57,872,6.335,351,8.198,407,421,9.523,10.115,129,145,11.543 Nemesis occur (not in codd. 649,13.122,293,14.80,336,15.103,115,211,227, 1.119,

16.22,544,17.93,100,254,19.182,23.494,24.53,463,9d-.

158,228,263,350,2.64,101,136,239,4.158,6.286,14.284,15.69, . 17.481,18.227,19.146,164,20.330,21.169, '285,22.40,59,489,23.213.

96

14. proof other 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. see Iliad in acts aidos 21. 22. 23. 24. cf. 25.

These of P. 30.

would their of

be

a valuable On the proof, 1980,

trophy

for

the of

Trojans, trophies 132-7.

and and

success. concrete

importance see Finley,

means

WO,

On these, See The below,

see

Scott,

p. 26.

pp. 38-40. is that of Adkins, E, c. 3 passim. for the gods becomes

terminology

Od. 2.101-2,19.146-7,24.136-7. It is frequently directed at the suitors, etc.; of their number correspondingly, by von nemesis Erffa, is p. 33. said to example; in the involved a god be who

Od. 1.228-9,2.64,17.481,21.146-7 feel human in e. g. Nature P. 35. 1.2.296,3.156,4.413, . 117-8, Redfield, nemesis strife the manner when Il. one

5.757-9,872;

condemned see

without

I1.15.115,129; Od. 4.158,22.489. and Culture,

p. 117;

cf.

Scott,

1980,

p. 26.

Od. 1.119,350,18.227,19.264,20.330; Scott, 1980, p. 27. cf. Hohendahl-

1.10.145,15.115,16.22, . Zoetelief, Manners, 26. 27. See For below, an 72-3.

Od. 23.213; 22-4.

alternative see Scott,

explanation 1980, p. 35. p. 29.

(which

seems

to

me less

probable), 28. 29. 30. Paris' Menelaos; occurs aeik6s), 24.326,433. at Cf. See See von

Erffa,

below, Adkins, conduct see fl. 19.208,

pp. 38-40. ME, is Long, p. 42; this does not for on it mean, its however, recipient, Lobe by also that

only JHS

discreditable 1970, p. 133 (where (note

11.3.46-51. is qualified

3.42,9.387,11.14 Oc. 18.347,19.373 forms

Verbal

("disgrace", Odd. 23.15,26.

aischea), "insult") whose as as

20.169,285, occur situation at at 11.2.275, I L24.531. at is

11.1.232,2.242,13.623, disgraceful 11.385,24.531 31. 32. 33. 34. ME, See Cf. p. 42. below, Long, pp. 61-2. JHS also may be

One a lobeter,

described elenchees)

as

(note

or

lobetos,

1970,130-1. occurs at 11.1.291,2.222,251,3.438,9.460

Oneidea

97 (p. 10 above), 11.16.498,17.556; in than 35. usage; as see that below, to referring the dos cf. in to reproaches therefore 11.2.262. one's p. 126on being of the the

20.246, at

Od. 6.285,17.461,22.463; 0d. 6.285 situation themselves. denotes In later that which attracts aidos the oneidea which behaves leads to

oneidos like reproach,

at aischea rather in appears of others; is

aidos also aidos

this

literature which 214; trait morphe attracts in at

character

h. Hom. Cer. a character man whose are and do this not act

Homer

aidos

comes where it with 11.15.129, to the see von a

nearest a quality eloquence. 24.44, quality speaker Erffa, 36. 37. This The

Od. 8.172, has no

a god have

crowned at

Characters Od. 21.171), which has 38-9. is the they a specific

said is

to

aidos

obviously but in

a reference each in case

possess, of

misconduct

mind;

formula more and

interpretation v1t4kCoi. common; cf. see

of E'7rEEt

Long, / is

JHS

1970,

p. 131. and Lf(/ "is The also a

comparable,

slightly Od. 18.326

11.22.497, . 11 c-rTF neuter E rtd e4 is to substantive or vac. (E-Cov (internal combination nvOof 11.21.393,471. is significant to at It in JHS fight; failure is also that his which Apollo aidos for 38.

1.519,2.277,16.628,21.480, . v-tcF(' where either be "understood".

accusative)

occurs; It invitation the to his cf. 39. see 40. aidos arouse.

strongly his uncle aischion that is Apollo "sensible"

resists (468-9) in

the outweighs 437 seeks that 462);

Poseidon's

interesting to p. 132n. of fight 37. aischron

implies (saophron,

conduct Long,

refusing 1970,

On Adkins' also See Long, 1..

treatment 129-32.

and

its

deficiencies,

1.341,398,456,4.396,9.495,16.32, The is, in proof it notion to

340,17.130,131,19.550,22.317,416. in this use of the adjective obviously seen as dishonourable, I1$, p. 42): 13.275-91, diminished

04.2.250,4.339, . of'dishonourable me, only to Death (contrary example, die in to the

seems

secondary, violently battle implication 22.110,24.214, that one's is

although will not of be

many of

circumstances

inferiority. however

always Adkins, and cf.

see, where by

for

11.15.495-6, implies

Idomeneus wounding or

ae

is

not

death,

98
(on See

provided passage, p. 136,

one's see Griffin,

wounds D. B. Claus,

are

honourably TAPA Death, 1974, p. 96.

received p. 16).

this Long,

further

Life

and

41. (his 42. of

Od. 14.199,24.250 lr4(l Il. the ), and

(his 20.259,24.228

clothes), (other

13.437,17.197,357,18.108 items). At 22.256 LSJ will the sense

16.545,559,19.26,22.204,24.22,54. fut. says arms, aftKcw that, but is if will clearly he not defeats maltreat physical Achilles, his

(pace he body,

s. v. ); strip him it to

Hektor of the 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. etc. his

returning

Achaeans (.. ME, e. g.

instead.

9.70,15.496,19.124. P. 43. 11.14.13,19.133,24.733.

Od. 15.236,23.222,4.694,20.394,22.432. M$, 41-2.

Od. 3.265,4.533,11.429. p. 130 and n. 30. i OKv crw , M. Scott Ot KT in Homer in Acta Classica Cf. Long, (tw is only once used "It only of " was says by of is

examines 1979,6-8, the as if death the placed is aeikes is

the

usage and

of

oiktros that in Homer. in of under imply

shows

oiktros

of

a warrior in

On p. 7 she oiktros peculiar Homeric that 51. is

concludes, aroused

feeling

involved a position failure it

people

humiliation, arete standards. death p. 41) that (ME,

especially If this also

shameful accepted, for alone, the

would is

Agamemnon's Adkins he in the Long, position Hektor for is is

himself. but speaker this here,

Telemachos

because he 52. 53. is Cf. The

assumes

Telemachos

as

repetition. p. 136. of the aeikea (. 7.. them, to body this as patient, the enemy danger or rival dishonour would by have ergs which Achilles Achilles the gods, and committed is yet his

against condemned intention and not

similar

22.395,23.24). even his by

committing clearly

vanquished suffered

opponent, mutilation had acts reflect

indeed Apollo

Hektor's prevented described

supernatural or the the may

means. excessive, is more of his the

The may

themselves, on lies both agent

unseemly but for

and

agent honour make

immediately patient

condemned, in what

while an

of

sufferings.

99

On Achilles' 54. link The idea

ergs of the this the

Life Griffin, and see also "making "showing obvious" up", two given meanings separate idea elenchos of "exposure" notion to the of "disgrace" public latter, in i gaze see

Death, is by will has may the

p. 85n. 9. common s. v.. As important forgotten. aidos.

between of

LSJ be been

a result long At 55. all Cf. after

Homeric exposure

periods, Il.

arouse

2.235,24.239. Manners, At rnuvtvO(. and P. 134. answer see where p. 62; { 93-4

On the on

Hohendahl62-6. wrin 323, and

Zoetelief, 56. cf. 57. seem 58. Note,

P. 10 above Cf. to But Long, me to not all:

ocrcJ below.

elenchos cvrew

general, YV, (4, 1971,6-7)

Adkins' this

reply point. (15-6 foresees where chariot

(JHS

does

not

0d. 2.85-6 Hektor

above). Polydamas' criticism is and to p. 33, to envisaged where of

59.11.22.100, his leadership, Antilochos the result

23.342,408, lose of the

elencheie race, failure ME,

should it 60. is

Od. 21.255, the bow.

Eurymachos' see Adkins,

draw Long,

On this JHS

passage, 1971, in in the

p. 125, objections failure This, given if context left act 1R, is to

Adkins, his

p. 8. to

Adkins' point as is if it

reply out that

Long's Eumaios' in battle. in

remarks

MR is same nothing; mean where

described however, this does

terms

failure is to be

proves not

a word tied would

used that

that

context. he to if (cf. at the he

61.11.2.285, Troy in the without manner 4.171,

Agamemnon his as

elenchistos i. e.

defeating described where of his below,

opponents,. aischron is to at

were Adkins,

298

p. 33), of the called 62. occurs Phoinix In

Agamemnon failure 30-1 urjs.

concerned

prospect (and to win is

criticism war)

protect 17.26,

Menelaos where

- see 6Exi0$ addition twice urges in

and

Menelaos

to the

the

forms

discussed, "expose to (to

the

verb

elencho At of to 11.9.522 the return

sense, not they

ridicule)". the mission

Achilles presumably At that host is

elenchein would be

ambassadors; without tells the

embarrassed having does a tie in

success. Telemachos between a tie the host's

Oc. 21.424 his and most is

Odysseus, guest creates evident to be

beggar guest often said

drawn bow, the thC-yxEl him; not of collective in failure

bond

honour, which

which

passages by

honour

committed

100

to

protect of See See Cf. See


The Kw

his the

guest guest etc.;

(see could

below, also p. 22.

59-61), implicate Scott,

but the

apparently host.

the

failure 63. 64. 65. 66.


67. U,

MR,

39,46

similarly

1980,16,20,23,31.

Havelock, Pitt-Rivers

Justice, in

Peristiany

(ed.

) Honour

and

Shame,
8-(V

p. 29.

11.13.95,15.502,16.422.
exhortation aXk is &sf repeated v-ro( at EMiGe 15.561-4, ajc'w Ev.

replacing

68. 69. 70. 71. and 72.

Cf. P. 6.

von

Erffa,

p. 30. p. 53. interpretation favoured by Redfield, Nature

ne m. This Culture, On the is

1944-5, the

120-1. community see of honour (ed. in modern Mediterranean and shows to our Shame, that the 35,52,89, notion and not

societies,

Peristiany Dover,

) Honour

119,179,245,249-50. is widespread to

GPM, 237-8 applicable

confined 73. Cf.

and natural, "shame-cultures".

society

Od. 24.508. cf. 6.431-2; Redfield, Nature and Culture, p. 33. 1979,

74.11.6.446,479,8.285; 75. 76. x.. See 6.523-5. especially

cf.

S. Farron,

Acta

Classics

p. 22. 77. 78. Farron, Above, p. 26 16-7; the comparative aischion also occurs

(21.437-8). 79.
80. Adkins cannot which to

Verdenius,
MR, 48-9 here, say, is that

p. 55.
(Many, but 'Don't the his 31-2). criticism worry, Homeric opinion. it Dover is isn't (JHS of 1983, his true"') does not p. 40) criticizes ("Nestor his meaning, able

expression not feel

warrior

himself

ignore

popular

81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87.

Adkins, Verdenius, See Cf. See Cf. See

MR,

p. 49 p. 53. p. 2.

(cf.

Many,

p. 44).

above, also von Il.

17.415-9. P. 33, Homer's MR, p. 14, Scott, Iliad, JHS 1980, p. 127. 1971, p. 8. p. 26.

Erffa,

Thornton, Adkins,

101

88. 89. 90. 91. really 92.

P. 11 above. See See fl. Claus, n. 40. 3.88ff., insulting, The 6.325ff., 13.768ff.. Hektor's words are only TAPA 1974,16 and 20.

variant (23.494). breached his cf. is

however, in the first of these passages. V d i1 149)c(-40 (6 k' phrase ar}Chw seems to be a d KXkw (e. g. ) Kati Tov, rts Tbc. au1 VEpe of es, Such is expressions and suggest that the that speaker the standard is Manners, first own person of with justified 11-13, the the being in

re

(EJ(

universal see and 15.69, the

complaint; Od. 6.286 used,

Hohendahl-Zoetelief, where subject's the

and verb

implying of P. 28 society. above.

agreement

standards 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. Cf. Cf. Cf. See It

Redfield, also below, is Dover,

Nature GPM,

and

Culture,

p. 114.

p. 238.

pp. 3 3-5,551-4,562-3. that since is elencheie other may passages Hektor his have aidos be the result the to of idea have prevent the elencheie been

interesting to retreat, itself an impossible but

refusing that caught him he 98. 99. p. 59, 100. fellows rarely see 101. type retreat in

stress seems would

disgraceful. situation;

retreating, now faces.

retreat

would

prevented

P. 8. See also cf. notion is an the discussion below. the individual's one the terms passim, in the of esp. our responsibility Iliad, enquiry; 6,9-11,17-32, but it for is to his of this passage by Verdenius, 88-90 of

and The

important in

only

expressed Roisman, cc. The of

a discussion, and Kakridis,

Loyalty, 1-3.

Amitie,

verbs reaction

nemesaomai here, conduct;

and namely see von

aideomai the

thus

refer and

to

the

same of

rejection p. 33. this the

avoidance

discreditable with that the aidos general

Erffa, of in At

Verdenius but of its

agrees points out

interpretation from esp.


comes contrast

usage, manner

differs (49-50,

nemesis 49n. 2).

operation
present (von

24.4.158-9,
close to p. 49n.

however,
aiTK( 2); there in

the
sense is,

VEtTac Erffa, p. 54,

extremely Verdenius,

102 i 6XO hJshows and the

however, that sense of pct act, the is

an

important of

difference; vep (. cTaL has is

the to

participle the present, upon

reference that

Telemachos

already

embarked aidos that

a course himself; had so. yet At and injunction for less an to

action SELrx and

he regards of which as a breach Ei'a'Q-ics VO. 4x(V(4 would mean that his aidos JTt from is was preventing best to the his taken

in he

doing as

Od. 2.64 so a reproach Redfield to or that to last 36) the of feel active) the their two . At anger

probably

reflexive, (Verdenius, an

Telemachos and be are

Ithakesians p. 116) although

p. 50, to

Nature nemesis would words nemesis

Culture, the

them

towards equally

suitors possible; to to the their

(passive it suitors own seems as

middle likely appeal (the

addressed with regard are yVt&A, gods",

conduct by Long, " he

interpretations Od. 1.263 of the the

p. 131n. feared fear that

considered also OC-QL'S FTO clearly thus, as to is

means

and

a prospective aideisthai only in found Homer. in in

disapproval,

context; of

oLi'S'& tGXL supplication Amitie, Amiti,

contexts 102. 103. Loyalty, 104. Cf. See

verb comes close 06-v VJ , however, and guest-friendship p. 8 p. 96, hetairos (further Long,

Kakridis, Kakridis, P. 17.

examples). p. 124, Roisman,

Kakridis, Loyalty,

65-70

(on

in

general, be clans 61,64 p. 3L, to even if all cf.

see

47-77,

Roisman, 105. own One's 106. that his

p. 6). 56-8; hetairoi simply also statement is to the far more be the might heads also of members among etc.. J-IS 1971 who the Greeks his they are do Philoi they p. 4) is of one's themselves.

Kakridis, clan (52-5)Yor

hetairoi Thus Adkins'

may

one's (CQ closely who is

Philoi; 1963,

"Diomedes

bound not, that,

a Lycian during the

than philos War, " deserves Troy too. are as 107. are

a Greek qualification hetairoi,

Trojan at

Diomedes'

they can arise,

are

presumably but when and

Admittedly, regarded such; Von see Erffa here; is is as

disputes disputes 51-2. 19) is

between

philoi,

condemned I(

below, (p. Scott

perplexed

at

the

use

of two

ou explanations; master, divulges

-#ce&ovT#e Eumaios or he

(1980, the by pain the

p. 47n. 33) of naming

suggests his that if

avoiding influenced

long-lost one

superstition

103

a name, control avoidance of

the over of

enemies him. pain

of Aidos, Per

its

owner however, in

gain is

some never of

kind used

of of

magic the the the pain

se by

Homer,

only

avoiding while since

humiliation explanation the an

caused can name at

others' be To

disapproval, correct, the of lines Eumaios'

second

hardly 144!

Eumaios as nothing for he still

pronounces more his feels 108. than master; aidos Cf.

me,

appear

exaggerated he for is saying, despite

expression somewhat his

respect that

rhetorically,

him

absence. is posing as Achilles'

I1.24.435-6,

where

Hermes

therapon. 109. See above, is p. 13. obviously by That one's aidoios one feels is he the superior; and cf. Od. 18.314, for the of old because be valid. I1.4.402, where old von where aidoie on the

110. A king o(ftX EVS is is used of of on

qualified a queen. their

aidos

grounds p. 11, aidos

superiority where, authority distinction of P Ali to the V toll suggest the allowed work)

assertion

Erffa,

11.22.419-20, of This statement AIQ15 is not its

believes, pity well

age of

attracts its The most at

because

and may

disabilities. explicit Od. 3.24, 111. term This here; as of

claim

the old rc-C vtCrc y(-(D of that phi also (Q os (who is

to aidos comes 6JECE6(0sc(. merely an a kinship

clearly is her

adjective by and Kakridis Adkins

has

affective philos especially on

meaning, pp. 1-46 Kakridis, 112. 113. aspect

discusses see

1963);

5-8,15-17,

Adkins,

p. 33. cf. O(iFO, von Erffa, is (her the in aidos in of x. p. 11. using breast) she wishes some is place to the emotive

Od. 5.88,10.114,19.254; In urging of the Hektor-r&dr mother-child for the real herself. particular is object; 1980, extension is Finley not still (Yet only used cf. p. 22). of the

Hekabe

relationship object of Similarly, relationship as (.. the object

metonymically arouse, feature felt of (see 114. namely of the

other

passages which the aidos verb in

appropriate a personal Scott, The

9.640,

16.75,19.527,21.27-8

terra

Philos feature; able to his

to

those cf. say

outside Finley,

the WO,.

kinship-group p. 116. hero's

a primitive feels was

to

(28-9) )

that

the

responsibility

family.

PAGE NUMBERING AS ORIGINAL

105

115. Loyalty, 116. 117. feeling

For

a full 5-22. 5-6.

discussion

of

this

episode,

see

Roisman,

ibid. Scott, of

1979,1-14, sympathy, among felt

distinguishes often iloi associated (11-2)) the that, each and

eleos with oiktos

positive (p. 11) aidos (pity etc. iloi combined (cf. were they constituted do

(a

and

appropriate with revulsion,

towards 12-3, to and shows accord

humiliated, while other that eleos, eleos

n. 50 not so on

above)); explicitly a recurrent of 118. 119. an 120. of in 121. BICS his the

Roisman, obliged basis, one

concludes philoi.

part

duty Roisman, Philotes

owes

one's

p. 14. thus the act refers of BICS on not to a condition in 630, but to

action, See

philein. 1960, p. 31 in and on this point and (and cf. the rest

Adkins,

article

honour/time

general) p. 24, and Popular and at time

Pitt-Rivers GPM, see 48-50, p. 231. Adkins, on as

Peristiany On the 1960,

(ed. ) Honour connexion p. 30, time and and

Shame, time

Dover,

between cf. arete. p. 24. is at

reputation, Ethics, are

Pearson, Aidos a bard

reputation, the recognition Adkins, Thus, p. 12, 122.

associated von Erffa,

accorded BICS, where can be honour very

o d. 8.479-80;

stake, this which

circumstances is the will affront to mainly status help true and

and of one-

intentions to-one of the

important; in the

situations, person or not the other it

however, delivering the recipient

intentions

affront of will the have to

determine to for honour, to is, to regard other take commit example, as the people action). and where on seen, the often a

whether his

decides consider, his

honour; the aswhether as consider see

individual person would of

whether well affront will

meant be

diminish decision that he fail (ed.

a proper (whether, should Peristiany

a matter him

honour

dishonoured in the is

On this, Shame, generalized conduct do 123. which not

Pitt-Rivers Outside people"

),

Honour

25-8,33-4. "other of individuals, cf. is regard

one-to-one making p. 64.

situation, judgements we have

intentions, Pitt-Rivers, normal as

as

matter; Nemesis they

the

reaction'of or

heroes insulting;

to

rebukes Hohendahl-

unjustified

see

106
1 precaution, p. 116. /41

Zoetelief, 124. Cf.

Manners, Redfield,

cc. Nature

1-2; and

hence Culture,

the

'r.<.

125. aidos on 126. and

Scott, is weak

1980,

p. 17. it

Adkins is not

also

frequently in p. 31, of right. Achilles kU/ the

claims every JHS 1971,

that individual p. 9 etc.. 88-9,

because see view me to cf. anaideie will not to

effective BICS Rise

every This he

occasion; is the to

RR, 45-6, of get Murray, it

Greek

Epic,

seems

exactly where claims look him that aidos look

127.11.1.149,158; to as Agamemnon's he is, he thus

9.372-3, and dare be

again O5 (= in one as with in some

refers anaides) face.

that,

(Achilles) even when

the

Achilles as has is

seems would the

saying

shameless one the reason he face for with

Agamemnon wronged; a sign and of the

experience ability at seems to

faced straight

others when one

anaideie, dog

least to (note in the be

has

aidos,

shamelessness: are see commonly below,

11.1.225 manifested p. 75 and

particularly 4Ikacrr S, -ads eyes in the is with cf.

associated and 1.159 anaideie Kvv&'K

and Od. 4.145,

n. 202), other

3.180,6.344,8.423,21.481, passages but insult which context levelled Agamemnon's him hybris p. 82). with and a human does on the

8.319,11.424,19.91; called make of it "dog" clear may be

being not

is

relevant, the

always

whether In that

grounds we hybris anaideie

shamelessness. notice

connexion also Erffa, suitors

anaideie

should

Achilles cf. in von the

charges p. 19); (below,

(1.203,214,9.368; are 128. 129. 130. 1980, 131. 132. also MB, Cf. See combined p. 61. Lloyd-Jones, Adkins,

BICS

, 1960,

7IZ,

12-3. p. 31 (= JHS 1971, p. 9) and Scott,

p. 16. Cf. M$, 43,45-6, above. MR, p. 127. 1960, above. the Odyssey lose of a free some man both arete, and Eumaios (17.322-3) because because her and he Penelope loses husband, the in p. 31. p. 37. _JZ, BICS 1960, 26-7. p. 31, 1971, p. 9.

133.24-5 134. 135. 136. Adkins, Long, BICS

137.14-5 138. In

(19.124-6) status

Eumaios Penelope

107

whose gone;

arete see

she Pearson, since of

shares

and

on

whom

her P. 49.

aee

depends,

has moreover, is a

Popular her her very arete.

Ethics, resistance

Penelope, to the suitors

exaggerates, manifestation

139. 140.

Cf.

n. 110

above. eventually overcomes by of the means boldness at Hesiod, of his tharsos and aidos aidos (76, is (below, in this cf. one 0a(C10: we shall 5

Telemachos and The he

episode, ibid. meet In (P. von 141. 142. North, 143. ).

does

so

opposition most part runs p. 41). n. 101. as notably of

again,

WD 319

pp. 117-119). of ws .c ... aidos (cf.

addition, 412c) Erffa, Above, On aidos

pseudo-platonic u1roXwe1r(5

definition CKour c(te

-rok1(rws

a forerunner 6-7, and cf.

of

classical Greene, Moir

sophrosyne, p. 20.

see

Sophrosyne, North, 3-5.

144.76-81. 145. 146. Cf. Xeinoi above, are of and See "he Cf. cf. p. 9 and aidoioi n. 3. at Od. 8.544,9.271,19.191,316. in general see Kakridis, On the

institution 86-107, 147. as 148.

guest-friendship Finley, BICS

WO1 109-14. 1960, p. 25, who interprets epitimetor believes weakness

Adkins, imparts

who

time". 1980,19-20. Verdenius not they are and the because unusual aidos (p. 52) of their that as there for

Scott, are but something arise

strangers outsiders, may them status, of on 149. theme People 150. which opines here bility is Cf. any the Cf. of be

accordedaidos because in from or to harm of this, an

amd mysterious; which their lead one feels origins, to

might

uncertainty which Cf.

about could

intentions impulse ambivalence Havelock, guest-friendship Themes, where

character them. the

inhibition

Finley,

WW, 111-2,134-5,137

stranger. 161ff; in the on P*Om the as importance a whole, see of the

Justice,

Thornton,

and

38-46

etc.. asks Eumaios to whether enter the usage of it is aidos and flexiErffa

578,

Penelope

causes

beggar's the reluctance s s ,. The Kac! cic o. oS oiit41 . unique of usage. in Homer, On the and analogy is of

house, of

active

aidoios

evidence this

a certain von

passage

108

(p.

13)

believes claims of (meaning his

that that tale, that could the

the he on just far

adverb sent his his

in

Od. 19.243 the w_S) is

(the fictitious also

disguised

Odysseus Odysseus sense but the of in Cf. 151. is the

guest,

way aiVoi showed well be number would would ($, then be

active his

in

host as greater sense he 4.

aidos passive of

towards or

guest); on

sense of

proleptic,

analogy the such Scott, Again, seen as

the

adjective. a condition 1980, "daring" an

The

instances passive "I be, him away sent to other people. "

that p. 33n.

aidoios

(O. Ce(V-k of (I, aidos;

here cf.

coupled n. 140 to that not

with

anaides)

antonym one might

above. be equivalent is ever to the

152.17.483: aischron, case as in but Homer,

expect 43-5) that failure; and, For in other to

O'

KXX 4

Adkins claiming

denies kalon this any does begs

this

commend large no which

success question,

aischron aischron to ) may in Long, Cf. the

condemns is failure. equivalent rare

a very has in

since reference (etc. also see 153. 154.1) of both

case,

intrinsic 0o Kock-FV

passages

be

aischron

(including of

Od. 21.312-3, the beggar)

context p. 128.

of

Antinoos'

maltreatment

n. 148. object xenia 2) Zeus and or the gods and the objects

hiketeia) object

11.24.503 the

Od. 9.269

(in

the

context of suppl(14.388),

(context passage 11.21.74. .


p. 91) below, failed 1

ication). and
At table

personal of
the host

present 112,344,
(see Herakles

(context
Qd. 21.28-9 of his

supplication)
opis are of the

0.22..
gods

and

the

in and

killing n. 113 of

his above, the

host; on dos of the

cf. the

11.9.640, verb

cr(MM opt ci some for of Gould, _CQ the xenia

c)0 "1 central, table cf.

to aideisthai 01 kot ee E

governing

emotive as the

feature central

relationship; relationship (and

feature

Qd. 14.158-9, p. 97).

17.155-6,19.303-4,20.231-2 155. 156. 157. See Cf. Cf. Kakridis, P. 23 in and above. Pearson, altruism, active he to 41-3,

TES 1973, 1963, p. 34.

Adkins,

general Eumaios' Eumaios'

Popular

Ethics,

62-3, Justice,

and

on In as of where

14.386-9 that it his is

Havelock, desire to how aidoioi; help he

p. 164. important, part

passage at income

is

15.373, as

where available

describes help

reckons 14.56-8,

cf.

109

he

states

his moral

obligation imperative

to

help

xeinoi cf.

and Havelock,

beggars

as

simple 158.

(themis); Manners,

P. 163,

Hohendahl-Zoetelief,

p. 117. cf. pp. 21-2 above and, generally,

On Od. 16.106-7,20.316-9, p. 95.

Kakridis, 159. 160. 161. beggar (=

pp. 76-81. See 14-16,21-3 that it above. was p. 58 is o) ou Koc%toc for above) to Antinoos at another's to strike the 20.294-5 guests. Cf.

We saw 21.312-3) above. Cf. See

(Od. 17.483, it

similarly abuse

KocNo/

n. 152 162. 163.

n. 92

above. and (p. 19) as the cf. Scott, 1980, p. 23. T(-To 86,0C; y i

11.1.357

164. Von Erffa (i he'/ cSc& u.( ..N in as see 165. spread 166. 167. 159-60; and dike Cf. Cf.

regards only

instance a ptc. with of aideomai IaiJKAS SEro in fact, but, the accusative OL, Homer, governs %Cl in many other wV is used causally; passages, while Verdenius, Cf. p. 48n. 1. where the beggar Odysseus promises to Od. 17.415-8, Antinoos' Havelock, von Erffa, fame. Justice, p. 36, Popular custom, 161-76. Long, Ethics, "how P. 139, 43-4, things and these believed of its that by Havelock, shows are both done" Cyclopean The Justice, that in the society poet or was and force themis

Pearson, represent (cf.

Odyssey emphasizes poets of

Havelock, the importance Odyssey one which by

179-84), of

contrast. that their of

the

clearly virtue is

society themis as the

a civilized dike, which 168. also with dictates

possession connected

aidos their in Die

intimately

observance. general, Hikesie, and role Gould, of see Gould, JHS 1973,74-103; Hermes, Iliad, of

On supplication Kopperschmidt,

11-53, Thornton,

Stagakis, Homer's on the

Einzelschr. passim xeinos Stagakis, A. A. M. Gould, 169. Zeid (esp. and

26,1975,94-112, 119 hiketes, 109-10. in on the see For Peristiany Thornton, CQ 1963, p. 35.

aidos); 79,92n. from ) Honour Iliad,

closeness and cf. see 254-5,

94a, 93-4 other and

parallels (ed.

cultures Shame, 170-1.

98-9,101, Adkins,

Homer's

110

170. does is and felt

Odysseus' not make

supplication the ritual to the

is contact act in

"figurative" with its see the fullest Gould,

here, supplicated form; 76-7 etc.;

in

that which "full" cf.

he

necessary "figurative"

on

supplication, 20-1.

Kopperschmidt, 171. 172. employ 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. Iliad, convincing favoured Iliad, IZ, poem the see 179. we do Lykaon by 302-3; p. 6) in theme Thornton, See hear in Griffin, of 11.21, and the of Cf. See the Gould, Gould, Cf. Cf. Cf.

Od. 7.165. Gould, 93-4; not and all gestures strangers, of it should be added,

language 94-6. 78-85. Lloyd-Jones,, Finley, above,

supplication.

p. 17.

WO, p. 130. pp. 47-8, of (cf. on their appeals passage, JjZ, rejection Page, p. 116n. they are, to see p. 16); of History 17 and in it. is fact, On the and its philotes. Thornton, Thornton lines the Homer's makes (as Homeric a

On the

importance

this

114-121 case

Lloyd-Jones, the p. 6,

against 1,

these and cf.

Dodds, see shows form in

Thornton, that which

Lloyd-Jones, to the of stages hand, on

central four

we have in the

importance

supplication 121-4. Life suppliants and cf. and

Death,

p. 91; spared; ibid.. p. 80n. 38. "like

on see

the below

other

being Gould, Gould, say he is is

(p. 67)

180.11.21.35-44,77-80; 181. loc., with does does the him, which an Why does believes Achilles; not not philos although may exist Leaf of it as will broken Lykaon that he is

a suppliant"? claim to

Leaf, philotes

ad

he

only as

to his referring "like a suppliant" a philos. But one in of

because

Achilles

recognize make of one the

him

being does not to

a quasi-philos have to be

a quasi-hiketes; person addressed to always any be tie

order philotes

supplicate or 76 charis in making as natural hopes that they p. 79 to

reference will his

a useful

argument in

appeal.

obviously use

explanation regard Achilles have

introducing accept bread on his

Lykaon's takes i it seems of avTL , but the grounds on which appeal, namely occasion the (see

more he fact

a previous

Gould,

111

and

n. 36,

p. 81, this follow to

Scott, claim from

1979,

p. 11,1980,18-9); at that in 106; it however, as a suppliant is in his it fact

Achilles does would full it not not

acknowledges necessarily be entitled of the word. some implies legitimately that this

contemptuously this,

Lykaon the

see

himself his as to use

sense or may

Either doubt be

of AVT(one

insignificant position seems that of his he

whether as

regarded should until

a suppliant; from the

more has appeal (see and

likely been

doubt adversary

arise the of that that

Achilles' than 1980, 182. 183. 184. 185. real 186. from

commencement his Parker, Lykaon and this. the rles claim has that ) of to

the (I

ambivalence now see Lholds

philotes p. 182 real his

Scott, n. 207, full acnow-

p. 18). P. 81. Cf. Gould, The

Miasma, no

claim use of

n. 154

above.

Lsuppl., Lledges inverts p. 96. square of

to (vri

79-80,96. simile thus Gould, certainly that " das

the

parties

in

the

situation; This would

with whatever in ihrer

Verdenius' kind

assertion arouse aidos " as

(n. 148 a result p. 96n. simile 134-5, protector of

above) of 111, might believes by

strangers Ungewhnliche that a horror the the

Erscheinung. the spectators Parker, of

Gould, in the

suggests imply that

thambos of pollution; be 124)

of

Miasma,

supplication might an is 135n.

a prospective for a minimal about the sort

a homicide but thambos in the (p. is simile

appeal sceptical to be

purification, that

argument as described

a reaction may the also

pollution. relevant of the from to

Supplication Ajax'

assertion accept see 187. Dover, Zeid

(11.9.632-3) ransom in from Peristany Greeks' 205-13, Maculate above, 42-5. his

that killer; (ed. attitude Parker, Muse, ),

relatives for a parallel

victim N. Africa

254-5. to sex in more general cf., terms more see

On the GPM,

Miasma, 3-5.

74-103;

briefly,

Henderson, 188. See

189.11.2.514,21.479,22.451, 18.314,19.165,202,336,583. 190.31.22.451, 191 192. Greek; " aci This see O(4 Od. 18.314. Tsc ftt qis true of Pitt-Rivers

Oc. 3.381,451,8.420,10.11,17.152,

Od. 1.139,7.175,15.138,17.94,259. many in more cultures (ed. than ), the p. 42. ancient On this

Peristiany

112

phenomemon 193. See

in Adkins, (ed.

Homer, ibid., ), 45

see

Adkins, and cf.

IHR, 36-7. Pitt-Rivers and Campbell in

Peristiany
194. See

and
op.

146
cit.,

resp..
p. 67.

Pitt-Rivers,

195. Culture, 196. 197. 198.

See

above, p. 116.

n. 92

and

p. 62,

and

cf.

Redfield,

Nature

and

I1.6.349-51, Cf. See 11.22.75

above, for this

p. 34. physical and cf. and p. 25 sense Thornton, n. 52. of aidos People (p. 15 above). and

4.49,252,10.362-4, 40-1, Scott, 1980,

Themes, 199. 200. 201. 202. 203.

P. 18. Cf. Cf. Cf. Cf. nn. 113 Roisman, and 154 above. 55-6. and C. P. 47-55. above. Popular Ethics, 48,219n. 2. Bill, n. 127 CJ above. 1932-3,202-7; also

Loyalty,

Od. 4.145,8.319, (generally) Loyalty, P. 54

Roisman, 204. 205. 205a. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. morality see For Dodds, an Cf. Cf. Cf. See

Pearson, 11.6.350-2. n. 101 and

pp. 55-6 16 and

above. 154.

Sophrosyne, Cf. Long,

P. S. 126n. R, 31-3.

Adkins, IHR, P. 31. See The Long,

p. 123. of Sokrates' in Gould, Homer identification has often Plato's wrong been of noted; P. 7. is

foreshadowing and 91, self-interest p. 17,

Development that

Ethics, conduct

explicit conduct, Dodds, general).

Homeric see ibid.,

statement 0d. 22.372-4. Pearson,

imprudent 213. 52-60 214. 215. See in

Popular

Ethics,

p60

(also

Pearson,

p. 224n.

21. moderation 135-9, 18-23. and cf. and excess in Moira, Homer, p. 20. see

On appropriateness, 39-41, Greene, Long, Thornton, cf. Long, Moira, p. 136. Homer's Redfield,

Pearson, 216. 217. 218. 219. See Cf. See P. 36,

Greene,

Iliad, Nature

p. 142. and Culture, p. 211; the lack

1 13

of

the

peculiarly is the of

human only boulders

quality

of I

aidos can

by think

reason of for

of

their the

inanimacy designation Od. 11.598). 220. this context of be Apollo line in

explanation and rocks

as

anaides

(I1.4.521,13.139,

also is

comments

(45)

on

the

ambivalence in but the and its the

of

aidos; other

certainly it

much occurs in Homer

more (Hes. is

appropriate WD 318),

which "interpolation" that or Iliad the that

question we can hardly

a vexed has not

one, in

sure

Hesiod line given Nature

passage 45 the and did

influenced stand

that

under place

discussion when 221. 222. the Cf.

present it.

was

form

in

which

we have

Redfield, Jc N'ou rte/, Ou Amiti, 24.351-2, have Cf. suffered

Culture, of the

p. 213. verb in Homer; see

a unique p. 40. where the

usage

Kakridis, 223. suitors 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. Cf.

Laertes reward

is of

of their

the

opinion KtK3ahaj

that

the

n. 101

above.

IHR, p. 46. See esp. 71-2 and above, on Od. 6.285-8.

Nature Pearson,

Culture,

p. 116. Ethics, a personal, explicitly aidos, Snell, see p. 223n. 18, also this states to P. 56, das C. Early Voigt, that of 1980, im berlegung and

Popular

Homeric conduct, 229. 13-5; Dram und

man possessed -but does not on see Philoloaus

internal relate Verdenius, und

standard aidos.

Specifically generally, , Entscheidung, 24-5,

Scott,

Aischylos

Handeln

85,1930,141-58, H. Frnkel, und 2;

passim, (= Dichtung cc. Wolff, 208-10 p. 188n. I, p. 14. about subjective; and Shame cf. and

Philosophy. Snell, this

75-85

Philosophie, for criticisms

Greek Poetry 283-94), of views Dodds, Z, 9-10

Entdeckung4, kind, see E.

1 and

of GI, (with

Gnomon (n. 3), 41). P. 8 (Eng.

5,1929,386-400, Lloyd-Jones,

p. 20n. 31, further 230. p. 50, 231. honour, (ed. 232.

Pearson, reff. at

Jaeger, Scott, To be

Paideia 1980, sensitive is

trans.

),

cf.

Verdenius,

one's see

honour Pitt-Rivers

entails in

a claim Peristiany

to

which

), 21-2,72, Singer, or

P. 30 Guilt, are

above. p. 64, points out they that operate once auto-

standards

sanctions

internalized,

114

matically. (cf. 233. Justice, 234. 235. See The Frnkel, Redfield,

For

the Early

view Greek

criticized Poetry Culture,

here, and

see

Scott,

1980, p. 84).

p. 13

Philosophy, cf.

Nature

and

p. 116;

Havelock,

p. 123. Piers best above. for of example, Patroklos Redfield, at Acta believe (Il. that 18.98-126 Nature and Achilles etc.; Culture, shows 1979, shows so remorse death Lloyd-Jones, p. 22) something p. 17 (cf. 30ff. of to or of 21-2 ). the that in Piers is and that Singer, of Shame Hektor at and x. Guilt, 22.104-7, p. 53.

example

pp. 37-8 236. at JZ, that that on 237. ways which language shows, is not the

Some,

p. 22, Helen's emotion 24.764), Seel, in

contrast (so contrast Zur

self-reproach Farron,

11.6.334-8 Classica

Hohendahl-Zoetelief, ..., characters 302-9 express and reasons of our it

Manners, gives ideas as examples close to

VorgesAichte Homeric call fully I absent

which

we should cannot convincingly, totally for us,

conscience express believe, from not "the for the the

why

Homeric He

a concept that poems; Homeric

conscience. of

concept is,

conscience only there a is

however,

concept a difference

and

characters; is the

concept of conscience "the from the poems" and of absent characters " The relationship have a concept of conscience. and to concepts imagine it is that could such an intimate could in one have words. that it

between

not poems do words wrong

between would of be

a society not express

a concept

something

which

238.11.1.21,5.434,830. 239.
240. 1 11. ,

Od. 9.200.
See von i161,41 * Erffa, 25-6.

242.

See

p. 72 Erffa,

above. p. 23.

243.

Von

115

2.

FROM

HESIOD

TO

THE

FIFTH

CENTURY.

HESIOD.

In

comparison to

with

Homer, the our

Hesiod workings terms 1 The

provides of occur do

us aidos, are

with and either

little many for of

opportunity the passages or

observe which

in

insigexample, 44 and

nificant frequently the children

uninformative. occurs of as

adjective

aidoios, epithet;

a simple

honorific

is Aphrodite 2 Kings poem. in Homer aidoie usage

Ouranos and iJ KAhq an ai(a are aidoioi is of at a favourite aidoia

Gaia are a ytvo$ i 6 -oS at line 194 fr. 43a. 89 Th. 80, epithet at of

at Ih. ro i we ev/ , of and 3 the the fr. 361;

same as

women. in

The form aL Kou of

concrete the

occurs

WD. 733-4,

injunction:

-rresr-ahartkos
C(Tt F1vni-PIKoo\/ "ifa( .

4aw/At'
part

)Ck

f
of the

/rEacoO'

This deals and itious these

sexual in the

tabu general

is with of the is

found proper conduct major outlined of which

in

that conduct which

poem one's

which neighbours or unpropof reveal opinion

towards may be

avoidance (707-64-); standards

unseemly breaches which popular

sanction at the 760-4, importance

against lines of

Hesiod's in for his

appreciation society and

suggest

a corresponding

importance

aidos:

w C/` hxoL

&, iv " Seoiw fk Ftov /c-'1 Tc- Ka Kv) c-hFToc Xxrr C- c 0,h, a aka
0-j rt S lr, c, h-irroc da hid u%t

c)cJ

-1raA&L'e

7h,

/.

L(( auEf9c .

I Y`r(-V k -vo

J1

0 vrl. k3 eA% ,
disgraceful aidos
K4 9F)ii

BFOS
in would
? T'

vv

res
as

E (TL
in

h<acI avTq.
(WD. such
Ocvnii-

Defeat 210-11)
prospect:

or

failure

is

Hesiod be the

Homer to

and
PCwq

presumably
0 S

reaction
KE OVcs

a
` ((CL1'

CS

VL
Moving might parallels individual to begin

RI

S -rcimportant Ih.

(-r c-e F-ra L

`' TrrC 5Tal


of the which

i Nr J
relevant affords involve and both

hy(-x -rAryKFc,
terms, interesting an we

more with with who

instances a passage Both by the

80-93,

Od. 8.169-73.4 is favoured

passages gods,

deal

with

116 but

aidos, eloquent

the

Hesiodic the

is

longer

and

more has the

specific. following

The

man of

Odyssean

passage

characteristics

(171-3):

ai
The in

GL

ttE-kcx
vet/ r a vo(
.i""

o tl ariAXEwj &-& cS TeFtr'-t


a ru A -Oq these a different good at WS all in is elements context, speaking, his rather is

aroc"K ceo, votcJ u, i


E 160 C0W Sfl,V, them butt. employs and but speech the

6xa, Hesiodic a different is like

version form not one

has and who aXk

subject king, (86), /t4. of

Homer's with Aidos

os 4 eeV, delivers 6Tree(lt4(90) Hesiodic his V version

The a king. rdhCS Olio property

but i &LXtx(1. the

poc%KOtrt in but the of cs)

than not the AAC

speaker

ibo oc
In and is the both the that king

k ^C- c. t1C FTc 1A, . the passages subject enjoys


respect respect receives to of the of other mortals, ly described his of aidos" but explicit. recognizes designation "deserving the is possibility so also aidos similar be is itself; aidos to that usage the the he that aidos of

EVeJ

audience ;, f. ( yi

(91-2): e FV

ws

the

favour only as in aidos; and king

of the the

the

opvo <<c .
gods

Hesiodic aidos and in its

status the at that to that

authority, as aidoios In the of

corresponds normal from the sense

line the of

80.

passage the

Odyssey which

reaction their aidos that

spectators, counterparts, be ruled out, of

Hesiodic should place 5 not as if a

might but

classifiable only the mentioned words

as in of other of his

quality character the aidos as

the reflect of it

speech the others

the

Homeric people, speech and is

accords quality as

reaction then

also aidos

seems The certainly in an in

a quality in the of is the just lines

can

attract from two, the but

a response. is

aidos

Theoaonv speaker's explicable same former is used 6 quality

more

orthodox example to has to latter in

the also

the

aidos as

Odyssean reference Euryalos

readily of the towards the aidos the

oblique the words

absence directed

Odysseus, must in

and be

it the

seems model

illegitimate for the

conclude simply the one

that because than

a more

traditional

sense

in

other.

117
The best known instance of aidos in Hesiod is that at WD. 317-9, 7

a passage

interpretation has been much discussed. whose ww a 8v o'V itV ; S( 6' 1ra, ". oc 0K KFx, oh, cEvod 1. /", ii , .i, > a s, r/ o vL, a/w dT. foS Acs csws Tul -rr 'fr`o. s 5 avo)y6C' reproduced that of k the here 4jEtV passage (see order 8 with in at"; and of need is is to is that be the pp. that the of West, and to of fully L f" k 5^ I aidos agree in in

L ,

The with The

text him point

preferred inefficacy 8-9

317.

certain the sense its those for is it that who, and , need All its

circumstances "good

infinitive, of

above) and this requires i its dominant oc-sOl may have reading basis, a basis the it line shares aidos moreover, violence meaning. reading lines tragic of is the in poet's Hesiod's be must QcKay9 to at ouic ot( in of K' our aidos, both done to loses with

traditional passages a man an in in

proverbial the

Od. 17 on

inappropriateness-of Occ some

(347,352,578); and an been had but

awkward order Ko as tfbt Cook to

expression, obtain have 10

acceptable the these the

argues

must shows, fr.

known mind

Euripides, Hipp. 383-7 KK KGs and

Erect

*j-Y, c may not these harmful

. be verbal imply

365N2,

that

reminiscences 'e4 OJ K deal in enough with certain in our

attributive ambivalence

, passage. and

and O'

passages effects clear

circumstances, passage without

and the

these

aspects q Ko/.

are 11 {.

reading

Having in 317

dispensed we may means good the lines that to likely his all the at

with agree same looking poor are have

the with in

notion NUcKay, 317 as in

of 13

"bad against

(or

false) Hoekstra, construe:

shame"12 l4 that "Aidos do both tharsos. harm * 15

aidos is and The not

319,

and man; the it

after their

a needy aidos, disjointed,

can their it

good; three

rich and

somewhat three are

seems

highly

probable adapted most above, in the

own

purpose. to that the of

has Hesiod that maxims proverbial 16 The original sense of 317 was of the Odyssean of initiative might of examples and affect cited boldness one who

similar to spite he was in

referring poor that of low

necessity the aidos an who

which excess

imagined for one

showing and

self-confidence feared the reproach

status

therefore

118

of

others;

318

will aidos

have such

been as 17

an

expression in been have their

of Homer,

the and

traditional 319, by as which aidos

ambivalence of + Kay plausibly the in poor contrast consoled to

we noted may with

suesests, themselves their

a proverb (positive) . tharsos.

own

betters'

(reprehensible)

Hesiod, on 317 in which is asking

however, his not

has

adapted concern who is or help

his is

material focused, to but effort; work

to

the the his

situation aidos inhibition to be of

immediate that of for for the one

and ignore

forced charity, without that

others preference to whom

a reference it not be must an is to

Perses' Perses (311) regarding beneath retains that general Perses, of the the

wealth

observation and an he is

oneidos of to as be

is

addressed, work his its poor and since not as

presumably because

thought work aidos regrettable

oneidos (hence
;n 311

dignity negative cling

his

aidos). and aidos; related it

he considers 18 Similarly is this to seen as

aspect), to their

reflection the the any the more situation positive kind of but,

must of

be

specifically Perses model does of as has to not this

show maxim,

either or to the

a'dos aidos in nature of

putative might be

which Hesiod's the

seen

appropriate so. led the

poor,

view,

regrettably verses

No doubt poet is to only

gnomic general kind line

previous the he in

reflections. relevant of also do has

Equally to Perses;

reference is being

tharsos to hard the

indirectly positive but the a class resent

asked to that quality general

show_a toil, poor

tharsos the better social in is this

buckling application imitate the

down

general to

as they

would in their

which and one the

superiors. passage, both and this

The as for

particular expect and its in for

thus a poem

mingle which

indeed its may

might

intended

named contribute

addressee to

a wider difficulty.

audience,

undoubted

Hesiod for of

is

thus

being form positive

deliberately of tharsos

controversial and of 140) against tharsos where it is it is

in

arguing form

a beneficial dos; the (p. 55

a negative supported is also is in also

connotation with aidos, in character, note

by Qd. 3.76 opposed frequently to

above,

inappropriate negative

but the word 19 as indeed

the

119

proverb of this

which negative tharsos

Hesiod

adapts, by far the at

and adding 320 poet and -)

the an

poet

shows

his

awareness

aspect too tharsos

injunction

carrying This note leads


the

(vaTO( with

against A S'ovx 20 rc, crii violence for kerdos subsumed


aidos. and would from theft here The its appear and will of Pa general

excessive xc-(st one's


generic

equates with

(321; which in

and

cf.

191-2) astray,
of negative are

a desire of these are


away anaideie and refrain means. status to it

Woos
anaideie between to aidos

and
324

all
which

drives and

connexion opposition that the be the it pursuit either victim is

tharsos thus leads apparent, one to

aidos of lack of

which wealth of regard

by

dishonest for or the failure and

Anaideie and take

disapproval into in account

dishonesty of

society's

disapproval

theft

dishonesty

Further are

examples of

of the

anaideie familiar (327)

are and is

given

at

327-32, the familiar

and

these of as a as the (331-2), a

a mixture and of

unfamiliar;

harming to us of and of

guests form

suppliants

certainly the of

brother's such also

from the Odyssey, anaideie and el be a grave breach wi would a breach poems. of of aidos the in last terms of Equally an aged

seducing philotes values the series involve specifically, of breach is assumed is

the of

Homeric

example would of and, the

maltreatment of the by aidos children

parent, i

also more

neglect that in

proper to does indeed will to own

among their not at

owed 330, in

parents; appear as

harming

orphans of aidos a that thinking of a seen

however, Homer, and child obligation of one's

a specific

fatherless of the

1.22.484-506 it . be harmed; perhaps the 21 or to of orphaned perhaps maltreat

Hesiod children it was the

protect family,

member as

simply helpless.

excessive we are use of the

and in

discreditable a context

Since the and

anaideie of good

we should sense

twin

criteria (1

also Lys, jCx (A

notice 330)

appropriateness in Homer; the

contexts himself reflects in general

from /K K%(, c, (, 329) so familiar such u (33-4" Hesiod Zeus goes on to say tha also offences taken Odyssey. by outlined the gods in in 327-32, human and this

punishes the in

interest the

propriety

120

These instances vc IKA. dike, poem,

offences of This the and

which anaideie, suggests

Zeus for that

punishes in there 334 is

are, they a link the

however, are described between first of in

not

only as C'c YK

aidos part the the of

and the

concept this of of be is the

which

has

dominated by of an

confirmed collapse civilization. to goes


f

examination standards iron age

poet's current,

description iron us, age will

moral The

human

ungrateful and

their on
OS S

parents, :

men, he tells OC-1-4 o it-IJ oudE


/E K.

J Ctt rc-S (185-8),


xF L 00`Kc&1.('

(189-93)
CT4

) At

. rica'Tra

0U

'rL5

cu

o(KaJ /(c"

tS

arrKl-(-

adc

i Kacou

-'

Ooh aYac

uTvrov V oj cFK e
r(Eu x
To also for this men. lead observe to divine is Lack to the the observe anger because of aidos the thus the opis

ChhaJ pv.

KirKWd

v(a Kct

'. (V

(uIl

g' C xFCCL
parents the aidos share and idea once the divine for in the be be children of concern' and gods; with

iSws
is

proper of

between the

coincides gods are failure of civilized (XEted(5' values and dike the felt

more, standards anger the

to to

of will

aidos breakdown

and

consider procedures

settlement reversal in place of of

of

disputes

zl,

189)

and will will

ensuing honoured by the

civilized the just unnatural 1

hybristic aidos

and

overcome to S

violence. climax

More

disruptions s (4(1 "c i\ v KO(X .

follow, J OC-T io

leading

(197-201): i Ka TOTE Fv Kocld

cc

--C a

xo

4v

AFVra

LO*

UQ Eys 1 1CJS0V

F"

6cO I# TwJ
i w KK
ev1-r6L Aidos with final dike dike to ful link proper (with dike stage is in also its and of its vU(

F (as

hi-4i `
" T
Ka KO' is the in in an

E
d' thus world

r F vd trS -Ti' o t; rrvt'


i t 1-Tc EK
ly as linked the of of

v
.

'c

crirot

art) Nemesis) from

OJIC explicit is

E r'fit(

a>K1

correlate departure

seen

a moral

collapse Now, out the 22

which

the

abandonment study refers in the and the

prominent. points the of dike poem, disputes, and of in

authoritative the word employed explains property in

WD Gagarin

that process and

primarily the peaceclose the

a process settlement between

thus of prevail

the wealth

questions which

acquisition

contexts

121

in

which

the too, then,

term is

is

employed; in is the this

we have economic impulse the

already sphere leads of

seen in

that 320-4.

aidos, Perhaps, susceptible however, sense to then with do

involved aidos and is to to be

which process to the

to dike

observe restricted

one to be 23 dike; if, "Iliadic" have nothing 24 ,

narrow, and to "proper

of with

"arbitration", the wider, also is in arising sort believe, in the of

"settlement", "Odyssean" that sense, where of a dike which that 327-34, in

behaviour" interact observe the to in a dike.

we must it, it

suppose the from

aidos

does to

context

readiness or would dike as of

adjudications avoid I do the not

determination involve one so

conduct however, WD; propriety

can

be

narrowly various of it passage of

interpreted

we have under

seen, the guests them;

offences against Of ` K ,i i1(4, and StKxCOJ must be renders the rights that Gagarin's of

if to

it

is behave

are I riKOJ properly

placed to

heading etc. this violator any

maltreat towards that, no "...

assertion a suppliant or

(p. 91) a guest,

no of

doer

wrong of a properly thus us is a rle of now not as

except violating process towards separable believe. that

litigation is ever connected with spoken 25 .. totally is still invalid; dike c)u(I1 .... 26 in Hesiod, but it is the process of acting as well as that of litigation; as Gagarin aidos dike can it would and does play to from the its is from have dike have

others

popular

morality,

The much

close

relationship to understand; behaviour, renders inhibits one

between since aidos sensitive

easier to proper which which

reference as the

normal values values.

force and

society

departure

those

A clear ment that the they but of dike beasts do

indication disputes separates are not is

that given man

dike at from

refers 276-80, beast;

to

more

than the

the poet

settleclaims out, 27

where as from Claus man

points simply of

differentiated a system do not have which, for the in

because disputes, of to from Hesiod by humans the

not

possess they

the

settlement qualities

because man,

civilized the as 28 of Odyssey, different

dikaios characterize barbarous does

qualities civilized

served

communities the general Cyclopes. sense

races from

like the

Admittedly, dike possessed

argue

122

to this Von

its

concrete does not

application restrict its function these is aidos

in

legal

disputes to litigation as the

(280-5), in major this man from to with imply, in

but 276-80.

reference of lines which as von less into dike and

Erffa29

notes quality where not has it

the in

civaizing 24.40-5,30 this that or does aidos that

contrasts

I1.

separates Erffa important one in

beast;

mean,

however,

seems rle which for

society

or a different has "developed" Hesiod by in the dike has and,

Hesiod, is

justice stressing

more the

important; part played of men of

particular in any

reasons case, it dike is which

describes not primarily

the

behaviour the

a civilized standards That and the the function

society; of society is of the

awareness

produces by the aidos, fifth in age

civilized Hesiod of its in the aidos any from anaides (311), men as

behaviour. in Homer, also

performed dike aidos in

absence of

entails

absence not,

which

encourages the climax from without if we need man

observance; lines world there confirmation beast, is and the to the 197-201; is

we should the as

moreover, of Aidos in evil Hesiod at lion. Th. 312 to moral

overlook and (201). "still" and

departure the ultimate against in look applied of a

Nemesis

seen is no

collapse; And

defence that aidos only

separates 833,

we need

adjective thvmos

Kerberos,

where "raw-eater" the

A word as but there the its the the

on

nemesis of

in

Hesiod; and

at

T h. 223

the

idea of

is

personified anger,

daughter other the notion of

night

a manifestation at is Wp. 200 that of is to is not

divine the same;

personification personified aidos, told, and would has the if have the verb it and will

popular not woes

disapproval, element;

correlate absence,

nemesis lead were

a divine and

we are

unmitigated be its

KKKoJ for presence nemesis Homer; is anger

mortals, which generally at WD. 756 at an of

divine effects. significance refer the to gods

such same does

it anger would 31 in Elsewhere as divine themselves divine the is in same shared the it does

Hesiod in but it

anger, (the anger poem by

offence the in at not

against

profanation human nemesis but this

mysteries) general. who the does

rather At 303-4 not

than of

at the gods,

wrongdoing of men

one place

work firmly

the

does

term

divine

sphere;

1 23 it

still

refers

recapitulation, the sons of find 70.27 we Is aV6Cwir'w/. suitors work

fundamentally ce ocjCy j incur the

to popular disapproval, vccos (311) t) shows. the OavlTw4 w the and of nemesis TF oaths shows? mutual of O Ewq men, V /Efl\/ on and

as At while fr. at

the 197.8

Amphiaraos

similar 204.814 Fr. with ,-deals by Tyndareus, of Helen a group EhuLTO -. 6 on p a basis '1)

fr. w\/ 0 v1 i

1"

imposed idos security:

the nemesis

within OcQTUs Tot,

`S oe ; CJ vdCWV
T
cp

vE(-rL\l

(TO()F(ro
XXEocS 0e/

Kds
I

alcw.,
eI vx

T JV X'1 T04 -rra 'S


qI this of it, fail in perjury, the manifest one's of he is the and an 1 oath others; to break

/VWyE1/
makes

EVOus. each of their to be aidos like the suitors honour broken should this on to or in way the to take as referof of the would which the to way the he one by would the

By

imposing

Tyndareus all it have or to perjury

guardian swearing be to

committed allow the in of here own it

obligation because

others; a case

prevent entail had

contradiction honour; nemesis to if his

a statement might refer

staked

reaction nemesis himself "rejecting ring terms to of

a defaulter would feel

transgression, to act

another but aidos" others' perjurer the is

were

contemplating, nemesis and of the

simplest to regard at the

nemesis any

the the

prospect oath;

nemesis rejects

breach

thought

nemesis.

THE

HOMERIC

HYMNS

Most

of

the

instances which are

of found of fact, the

the in

terms the

with so-called

which

we are Hymns need minor detailed passages we may covered then, by his we from be by are no

concerned unremarkable comment; hymns comment the fairly this find mother by hymns with is

Homeric which in the

usages such, which only to in

adjective all the

aidoios passages be a few which,

are in

we might required and

otherwise the case both within the

concerned;

of of

Demeter were 32 To

Hermes,

confident, chapter. that at deity line at

composed with as same

the to

period Hermes, used of Apollo's

begin

hymn

addressed 156, the

phrase

as has

is stolen

Agamemnon cattle, fact; 119 above);

Achilles

11.1.149.33 is

Hermes

and his anaideie theft was described

to be presumably in the same terms

to related at WD. 324

that (p.

124

but to

although his crime to which show his

Hermes' and to

anaideie his rascality of a source status superior theft (a the of of

is

undoubtedly in general34

to it of and It he

be

referred must his this at his as


U/S1

also found failure proper 381-2,

relate out, to

disregard be the of of of his


'vtoCX

consequences discredit, his status further victim. that

being to is feigns of if

would for

aidos for the the will


C-iCl

regard denying anaideie, false,

a deity charge denial reveal


UN JF

example which,

responsibility disregard 01 OCIOCOlrC for


i.c

exposed of
vKS

the
l

opinions
C(ICYv...

others):

Kd1
He claims have of his ijo between respect Hermes' time, other respects, recipient others. that prevented philotes 3used that for

(F
aidos his of of

tAw
for

woc(Totro'I
the Sun the his that and the theft, fear the of

O'Tr%Zc.

other and Apollo's

gods implies

would the same

committing Zeus and shows

anger; relationship the latter's however, his by in direct of many own the

Apollo

proper

be based god and Hermes on should former's the is, It greater power. to ultimate In pursuing test that view this power that aim the the it he rights possible and be is to the 36

intention with gods.

assert

acknowledged anaides of the disapproval

considering of his actions

neither nor

At

h. Cer.

64-5

Demeter

asks

Helios

fQr

help

in

finding

her

daughter:

'H -' ) La IC irFI


For Helios her to accord the aidos (and deinos, prospect general discreditable the status prospect in aidos, of to be

tIA, rra i E I
FPYW CL to accede and the Demeter

;6 t ES -r-o-re 0VWCI O Koe% KeaOUV/


goddess' asks in special who has cf. for such request aidos would on the it the be

cv 6 c.

((-U
VOC . to of basis seems, individual may be

return is we

past felt

kindnesses; for that the one

examples, of

status done P. 45 one above)

remember philos of believes not of one's ignoring

a favour and society favours to have Von at

and

aidoios that it while is

the in and that

person's proper it is one produce

request; to also who return easy does

that to,

imagine a special Erffa37

disappointing eyes might

aidos.

points

125

out is not

that

the

sun as that

god's

reaction

to

Demeter's line is 76,

appeal but

to this

aidos does

expressed suggest

L and utoc. either can herself equally but for of

F hEK CW at these verbs Demeter asks for may

synonymous she on her, the but is

with a of does

aideomai; goddess, her not At ance past ask line on

Helios but she

hazesthai only

because aidos pity of

basis she

services; for pity, of the

Helios the hymn return the

a favour. Demeter's f l, of unusual status, 8

190

same

effect C C >

of h>\

appearS Gi >EV.

is described: Metaneira (s 9' TE o'Eaj 'ti -rl, / Metaneira Demeter can see that but the she words does used to frequently sebas could in which here; which in the life attracts upon the is to those its it inspires objective of the not of yet her know that

TE is she

a being is

a goddess; the

accordingly of aidos also all the an and

reaction we met contexts a similar word describes awe;

describe the

response of

inferior deos how

a superior; in such

combination 38 in Homer, reaction. in Homer, to first

describe the

and saw 39 As in sebas some is quality

passages subjective another the word in

occurs

a response probably sense (that the

in of

instance arouses in the awe)

which preserved where is 40 the At to

comes

eighth of

Herodotean xeinios to bear

Homer

epigrams (Ep. 8.3-4), his opis it. and but

pseudoof Zeus brought

the

sebas 10-11

aidos who

and

sanction h. Cer. the the

disregard of gods "occasion 8.17.336-7 aidos are of usage,

sebas

describes which slightly in the

response entrap

men there for, and

narcissus term of has sebas, in situation the terms which both the and may in be twin passive described and as both cf. each as enjoy a " as of

Persephone, sense,

extended case examples of

cause 01.3.24; the

aidos sebas

at and

these one in

designate appropriate; and it to

which

these flexibility (and and

reactions

considerable allows se bas

is be

this used

occasionally objectively; and That h. Cer. Demeter aidoiai aischea, which 1 and and at her

aidos) we might and arouses 478 (note the

subjectively usages senses as h. Merc. both of of 552)

compare active sebas sebas are clearly,

aischos aidoios. as at

semnos,

479

and and

daughter 485-6;

described since

aemnai

h. Cer.

126

sebas power, this divine

and

aidos it

can and seems than

denote semnos that is

similar are semnos very is

reactions close more in

to

another's but of at

aidoios stage

meaning, used

readily

majesty

aidoios.

Metaneira's 213-5,
,X

first address
i"lV,

impressions her
I) #C

of

the

goddess
i

lead

her,

at
TO

to

as

follows:
0 %) fF 1<0CKW 0e'T C.0X Trx K VI W cYi

LvVV PC

ETC-EC

Et, C-Vx)'
Ki XAC's
manifest

ws )
in

Ya AwJ ' E-ML nL


E -Tie
eyes causes

eEC
Lfra7['kwV
feeling one's

,
of

a rJl
x((A1W).
shame and

is d,,

TE
because one that

&e/

Aidos or it in

is

the

the avert

inhibition is the therefore eyes aidos as

naturally not should and

to

gaze, of

remarkable become charis of

proverbial. is important, pouring phi 43 os, where here downcast o b is more Iii.

the 41

situation The

aidos

association 04.8.18-23, on and his head 42 and

between where, shoulders, and

recalling charis deins

a result Odysseus of with the

Athene's

becomes same book,

aidoios, of

169-77

possession Demeter eyes, related must that

aidos show by

is

contrasted her of

lack perhaps but to

of

charis; by her ai much to three was

demeanour, showing and aidos,

shelcapable any specific a are as to is

her be her in

not

to like i)hjts;

action quality described we have the

appears likens aidoioi seen, of one of of too, birth;

a quality, =V'VXo(

charis, kings 44 and,

which as just

passages part at status, of. 190;

ofrHesiod, Metaneira's the then, aidos arouses

aidos the

reaction which 45 so

appearance in

goddess

apparent ponding significant, with again noble in

a certain aidos that this and in

a corresIt is

feeling

those

they equates

encounter. aidos is one

Metaneira identification the tragedians.

readily meet

we shall

Theognis

Before few in

leaving in

hexameter the of

poetry

we might

first which

consider deal already with

a aidos at

passages the context which

Homeric guest-friendship. the

epigrams46 Zeus for

We have of as aidos to since

looked of

Ep. 8, and

mentioned an in 2.2

role plea the

protector for meet the

guests,

Ep. 1 is

unremarkable and 6.6 to

a needy men who context are in

stranger; aidoioi

poet

hopes and

with

respect

strangers,

127

both it

places would

is

one that

of

the

proper is for to

way be the of

of

receiving in Homeric

strangers, the active parallel flexibility in the is one's

sense, is in

seem "showing

aidoios

construed only

aidos", 47 of again, these of

which Two

Od. 17.578; the usage are as aidos, to bard

evidence terms. brief

considerable passages at fr. 4.2

further

epigrams described parents to pay failure the

worthy aidoie, and keep for his

comment; the (Hes. in )

a mother to 7 anaideie the promise

suggesting at 14. (=

obligation 302) case

accord

refers to

a promise, services.
IAMBIC

this

LYRIC,

ELEGIAC

AND

POETS.

Here elegists, back further of

it

seems

most

appropriate and Kallinos,

to

deal both

first of whom

with

the

early us us

Tyrtaios the martial

transport giving

to

atmosphere to fr. observe 1 (West)

of the 48
-

the role begins


Ko

Iliad, of

opportunity Kallinos
Ls "" TEO

aidos

on (1-4):
B

the

field
v,

battle.
/ 4A-rX

thus
ae>, 1< /,

kqcTa

1cEtCOE

ETE

of

4(e 1i(ea. This


the his

>

VE OL 'iy E ,D T0((

S' Sct66' aL) oci OL&vr&5 ;G L5 appeal


imagining

orr 6c-rrcec ie vvv La. / is


on to will works in

KTLOVCS a KEC T cue --" from


accuses aidos, is no

ra. aidos to
himself and seeks people way aidos

or7[-ocCOer/ familiar
the arouse say". in Homer, this yet field, their

kind
Iliad; colleagues

of
the

hortatory
poet, of

slacking, "what in in other the

urging/to essential from its

consider difference operation

There

passage von

various

passages

Erffa49 and finds

contrasts significance are are urged asked

Kallinos' in to to the

expression fact that, each for city show for

with

that

of

whereas other,

11.5.529-30, . Homeric the fellow members one own

warriors citizens of other the

aideisthai show i. e. aidos other to

Kallinos' of in for their differ the their

the

opinions

communities, warriors and is but in in are the

states; concern of

case

urged other and is

reputations This, two indeed, passages, live in

that

community. in Homer's Kallinos is live the

true, this scattered state;

the not oikoi

argument necessarily while of of the

does

because those the Iliad of

warriors dwell

a city

the the

situation heroes

participants do not

undoubtedly

different;

128

in poet

the

same gave the in

kind the Iliad

of

society its idea

as written of

does

Kallinos form might of involved an own such be

(although have), honour is of to but in

the

who

epic the

even all

a community were find we do of

which

the

members

of

one

contingent and

considerable with other always imagine individual fact, regard

importance, to the

appeal community appeals

aidos vis--vis

reputation at Od. 2.65-6,50 It warriors in and the

one's and

communities have that been

must to their in in hand.

possible.

would are same

also not way

erroneous about Homeric; go hand

Kallinos' reputations

concerned as the

personal

honour

collective

honour

Tyrtaios

10.15-8

w vFa c
& hha

offers

, v6
```1

,kk 10115

.c am. o')ceth
-Tr 0L &IT Un t-r'

a similar

kind

of

battle-speech:,

js ff a ix(

-rt"ae'

c'"-'
j rt (vi , Tyrtaios, use

IX

tc
Ev

/1'

-EYDCV X0 and is

iC cc rv6

JCesi .

vt vrs, 4i o oo
vV

iVJ

-vo(. even of it in the is the in

Flight

is

"ugly" form, than is

brings much

disgrace; freer with broadly which is aischron front is in the this its it

fragmentary aischros similar and

the

adjective used Iliad in

Homer, to those

but, in

speaking, is still that ranks found to

contexts Its at killed

Odyssey.

primary 10.21ff. fighting and it as while is

reference it

physical an older the reflects which between is man

appearances; should younger badly primarily ugliness the older on be

before obviously

warriors, the young,

situation

external The

appearance relationship

described and man disgrace (to his

"ugly". is apparent

at

line

26;

the

wounds

of

aidoia)

are

I C a r" 1_, V( TA
Here re. Y0 older there for the stress OKk5/K, ols. man are should young on The not

4axhAL3 Y,
physical scene have is to could ugly fight take to

" Kau vcC-N(T


is the in up the that eye, front position, and,

oV

cGCV,51
by an

appearances

reinforced

because ranks

while occasion to people

men who

disapproval

(nemeseton); aischra etc. which only is in of

nemesetonrefers secondarily, perhaps precisely than

explicitly in that

disapproval, disapprove much more rarer firmly of

that

ugly; Homer

aischron because in

is it

so is of

than in

nemeseton the sphere

appearances

that

129
disapproval.

popular

The is

extant a duty flight; will On this "Bei aidos

poetry of the 52

of Tyrtaios y& ofys(GoS flight, to von sehen

makes to be

much brave is

of in

the battle

idea

that

it

avoid such, it.

we have arouse Erffa54 wir Die ist

seen, the writes,

aischros, of any

and to 53 and, who consider

as

be

liable

aidos

topic, Tyrtaios mit der im " to

zuerst alte fr

einen

Zusammenhang aidos eine

der = das

arete. Kampf

homerische Tyrtaios

Standhalten der I find arete. this to hard

Forderung

understand; his arete

the and disgrace it

Homeric is is can the to

warrior mark be of

is

also

fighting to show as is

preserve in

a kakos in

cowardice in Tyrtaios,

battle; and aret in e. battle but and 55

avoided, reputation,

Homer which does than more in

disgrace It is, with

affect true much poetry lessons

crucial bravery

to

however, arete

that more is are

Tyrtaios explicitly also much

equate do the

Homeric

poems,

Tyrtaios' the same

explicitly by

didactic, indirection.

furnished

Homer

If

aidos by

has

a negative of in the its

rle avoidance recognition. arete

to

play of

in

the

preservation it having also has

of a

arete positive the goes brings the him

means rle that to

disgrace, In fr. 12,

expressed Tyrtaios who his (23-4), family dead, city and after he enough by
XX! -rC-

view on

martial the

is

the

most has

important, on died family his those for

describe arete. to city his it,

rewards warrior

attendant who and (31) his him, and, who is of is

manifest

this fame

The its

people and

own

entire (27-30);

mourns fame (32). a and

honours

and

survives The escape for the


,

though fortunate honoured life


i pE

becomes to fight

immortal bravely community,

warrior death rest


vwS

also his
VE UL

the

entire

(37-42):
6L

IrXVTE-$

4tV

TLf/rtV

-dkk/k

re

e-rrv

wV 6FaL & -rra/


E'r'7C' ETEC

Ns 'A
OdE Tls

V
a(cTY

KwJ Y`7 oder koc-rt'c our -TravrE-S EvOW

TGc. ft cS4 OC Kot 4t. V

A;

orEof-

ck
UTO\

Gt KavrEKX

'C'1 S

a'r- ,. 5 V&O . oc T7- Kar'a

E -ti 'aha C6rtc 0L,

130

Again here brave in

we see used of he as 56

a relationship the as, is held, community's too, it is

between recognition dike; the as

time

and of

aidos; the of not are the

both e of respect

are a

soldier, fate

a result hero of does a fair one and one's which

which

seems,

suffer in time to

the in a

same dispute. the

Hesiod, 41-2

being appear for

cheated to the giving

settlement way the seat is which they another

Lines of are the

describe warrior up one

aidos him

people manifested;

accord is an

obvious at Ar.

mark Clouds

of

respect

and

equated

with

aidos

993.57

The battle,

fate

of

one

who is

does very

not

display

sufficient as we can

arete see from

in

11.14-6:

however, 58

different,

roc kE v v 6-W T -roe -rra o cSE$ vv O(', aixC). ; c91,


Here of the aischra "learning lot refers aischra" has c to cowardice is loss lost his Koc k 0,1 of in aret arete: CVZ, battle, e.

1.

Ev vvr -c oa evCIei ktKo'. 'raC


and 10.1-12 the result on enlarges L6(. 'Ero

of one who T'C- dv C /, l

'Ti'(o

VTK

v e'
-rrrwxv
'7r"i
XBeOS

a 8 ov -rc-(
TP

VI -TR-r tba
cv Koh

roavTu0
vi oro. TW
-Tr it1T IEO dt .11 "T !XAkW.
kkkV ' '7CE-VC

ohL-n-aV TK

cL% -r' v.rtJ


vod
.rFrUv(.

((r'
KOt,

6-(U o1-S
VTC
(LK. ra

v
K0 VL

UvTL^
o '

if lu cAC
KOCI

t< ,

PL L6L

M, 6

EToC^OUS O"TV1&

fxuvC-c -r-E -voS


f
r'a rC da -rC c.

Ct2?

"WW c-

xTc
K4 t

SOS he()c 6-4 6 De< o


tact k-o rSE 7R-Tx

Et d'

ou rc., S LV Frak 0JT


that failure the woes to act

Cs -rOL ws cuT aC
of as the beggar described forced are

kXW

voU (LJ OI
have 1-2; leave of which to fight the

4Et a .4t rFvFas


he own has

It to

appears do with himself

here in to

something either his

shown

a coward he and utterly his

and

been

community which be best has

or

family defeated, of It is his

survivors something failure clear

a community might to also the is

been as an

taken of

his

indication 59 ability.

also

that

beggar

131

to The

be

seen

as of all

one this costs,

who

has

fallen is it

from intended to

previous to be the promote

respectability. bravery of this in one who in

whole at to terms, lost defeat, of aidos is

fragment and the depict,

battle section vivid has of

seems of fact, of said, with the

purpose or that defeat befall

depict to

disgrace in Knowledge

cowardice the the is defeat reaction in kaka disgraceful likely as of the

his it those

arete. need who

consequences to arouse the

hardly are

be faced be of that of

aidos and

a real Tyrtaios' way he of a way act as

possibility, describes. the which his poem

would to the

certainly prospect then,

audience It is

suffering the having being


for of the

significant, in the

coward/failure acted unable


example, warrior's for to appearance his

placed should
might (9),

position and
He of him. breach has

in to

aidos
aidos family

prevent,
urge in

of
has, one

shamed

his

fundamental poverty parents, suffers. and his In and to be an is

60 commands; now wife addition, s1 unable and his

he to

exchanged his

prosperity

fulfil children;

obligations even his act

having

failed'to

as

aidos

demands

Owle

s yB4S" more and

he

has

no

claim counterpart

to

the in

kind

of

rights he

possessed receives

by no

his time

fortunate no aidos.

12.35-42;

It

need

not the

surprise aidos of aidos in life

us

that

a beggar just as

is the and,

described Odyssean even his belong and utter possibility defeat loss aret , of but stress, concerned like 61 in the

as idea that

being that poem,

without beggars often of the

others; was

deserve ignored beggar's beggar, than of of

idealistic so Tyrtaios to

practice, in however, to the that world seems of and lead which epic; no to the of

stresses

ignominy

order does

reinforce seem to

warning. more to the it and than is also it

TYrtaios' real is total does world a feature loss to the

Homeric he portrays

fantasy, that

perhaps defeat

a ete

a more no doubt total heroes

present utter

heroes Homer,

doubt

possible could, not in

in

a severe loss of

reputation these and for all not to are

theory,

eventualities the

themselves acutely looks

although their his

Homeric

characters none of them

are ever by

reputations, arete in the

losing this is

way

described

Tyrtaios;

132

say

that

the

values different,

of

Tyrtaean simply world

and that in

Homeric the

society of

are Tyrtaios poems

essentially seem do to reflect

fragments that the

a real

a way

Homeric

not. however, earliest fr. 3)


ir&-e V1 ro. /

It of

is this

not

only kind

in prevail,

Sparta and ideas


il t oC . x

and we when
7V

Ephesos, find he

that

values known poet

Athens' says
PCX at(x/aS in

expressing
l0 /C-d

similar
j lEe'rS

(Solon
r0 rt-4-vol

dM o%T one the

xh-involves

oe-lr746'd6VOL aischos, poetry there are to is of ford of few our particular Solon Solon instances as

To for deals of

be

inferior

in Although more or and One

war

Homer. with aidos

much less not

of moral

surviving topics,

etc.,

much

that however,

is

relevant (fr. 32)

discussion. interest:

fragment,

'TfaTC c cas

d OJ Koc
oJS .va

ba 'rvveYV M, eS K c. oc d'E o
in

Jgo

cS %<
aW

cis

<
vt K

c " -rt'X&oJ

OVS Eos oxt OKw C


CEtv
by

'IXtx

o%)

Toa
The taking to the use of the kind to than

i- oc S
aideomai phrase of his

vCw-rc-uVS
this

,
is best explained k) o as referring with

fragment

Kd)(/j ltM. oV4.5 Kit judgement made by Solon's not it 62 to as I become-an his own view

contemporaries absolute of the ruler,

regard rather of "If

decision explaining

conseqences then,

setting I defiled

up

a tyranny; and " disgraced as

should "If

paraphrase, by not not

my reputation to seizing I did

seizing and " Under rhetoricthat he this would he sort is of the

absolute disgrace first ally, causes be not of that

power,

opposed by

defile power.

my reputation these he

absolute Solon is kleos, second but were

interpretations has diminished while, he the has latter, in done if his the

admitting, denying adopted, therefore

him

aidos, that

saying ashamed;

nothing however,

shameful, would be

sentiment

to

express

a conditional

a strange 63 sentence.

Von

Erffa64

regards

this

passage

as

the

first

retrospective

133 but, undeniably is where that not

usage lack the

of of

aideomai, it) is

although related

Solon's to different an future

aidos event from abuse which Solon (whose the same is in

(or the

rather past, in Il. based will

the

position

essentially Hektor's he has aidos done

that is others

22.104-7,65 his awareness

at

on

something here

consider accepting quoted indeed, damaged that with lack out of he von of that others in

reprehensible. the fr. charges 33, stood fame, no which before and aidos; his still it of

Similarly his be the is this

momentarily are and he may, has

opponents part present primarily is not, ,r(also of

taunts poem that

may

have his feels Erffa regret aidos

passage) at these

criticisms to disagree the to the internal poet's point

however,

that over is

O* c$E,, O tst past

expresses but simply to an

conduct,

explicitly

related

judgement

while of the

nevertheless character of
this is acted

encompassing one's conduct.

awareness

The

real

importance direction;

of Solon he has saying about situation Adkins66 here taunts it is of feel

fragment, faced in a with way

however, a relatively

lies

in widelyhim him, on and his this no yet own is

another held credit; he feels

belief people no of

that are aidos the

that

brings about

unpleasant this, and (note claims is of that others in certain no of aidos the itself no Solon may relies line one

things

evaluation something The the and crucial effects his

instead ioKtu), before not upon that even his aidos

which point the status; in the in example

does

Sokrates. consider reputation can be

does have new

not

inactive characters notable

face Homer being

reproaches; when suitors;

numerous reproached, but the the suitors most

that

in not

most

cases67

simply damage

ignore their

reproaches position or in that cases

which even their

they

know reputation,

can

seriously they disagree

because do not

are

powerful with they those ignore to an

and who

admired say in

other their where and

respects; conduct the to is

they

dishonourable, of others are effect which to affect he

them; gain wide of

reproaches have a

likely on is his

currency object's by affecting

serious about also

aspect

their

reputation his reputation, not

sensitive, material

and, position,

Homeric

man does

134 (the opinion classic 68 however, Solon, others, is not it the was long or how they with that his his

feel

himself is

able that of believes his of not and is

to

ignore

popular in taunts and he but I1.8). of

example not might own action care

Diomedes the

does

who

affect conception was

reputation, the truth;

instead believes that in

content only

dishonourable, will be proved

honourable,

so

positively 68a term.

+he is to who not subject archaic poet another 4v (P. fr. 14 115 thus: E-Aki reads above); power of Hesiod's 4 At, G-riviftV pEXECactvcJJ ru I/ 1S Dcc. oF oc ( -1rA ah -rt_ui\k of (/% (-(o E vT. 'A. Archilochos that throwing We reme")er, too, away his admits Archilochos shield value of in order his to save his life though of that His that his such (fr. 5), contrasting one, saying is popular he simply is not absolutely universally opinion, ignores to dispute he one's is, (fr. 2) only the

shield, with the

which, that fact

a good life, an and action for for Solon is

irreplaceable, nothing considered however, the its does shield, however, can afford as about

disgraceful. differs from of it ignores that that

contempt of Solon,

disapproval relevance; not say he just

others, is

whereas then, not those one he

ventures anaides; throw it the is.

Archilochos, that

simply to that by in

disgraceful who who he in his job, that has say lives

away It

significant to admit

spear

acted feels terms

a way the

commonly disapproval values, or his

viewed of will ability an puts another idealized. his

cowardly; even of

obviously a failure affect with his with for in which

that of

others, not

competitive Position attitude

significantly to get on contrast reputation respect

material and of this the all; of the

provides warrior, this poems who is are

important

Homeric perhaps

valour the

above values

Homeric

Archilochos' in evidence

iconoclasm in fr. 133,

and where as in

disregard he ventures in

for

convention to dispute 12.23-34, after

are the that death:

also

conventional those who die

opinion, bravely

found battle

Tyrta*os honoured

are

69

135

OUTJS ,Ci ccto$

t'
O (ro( to

CTZ4
hhof At accuse (thus and

o
Fl

It
1U Th)

4 IT't-(
OOU (accvavri, who no has

9/cvL'
Jlwkau. yLV burst for the of by this both as -.

YVEfoc, 0o(!. Dl
, In into fr. 124b. 4fhe a symposium of but it (Kritias is the the disapproval anaideie, posterity for time the Kritias as those is

t 'X

j#(v

KI<t

ventures uninvited

a friend showing legitimately which chief

regard present) is

already his

own anaideie 70 B44DK), and the loss for of his shield; and

remembered of of

example disapproval is an

contemptuous popular

reward for the

success

punishment to

failure, mainstream.

exception In the and the

Archilochos 71

important

collection of other and is 72 in a' os Theognis

of

poems we have terms itself with most is

which an in enjoys that important

has

come

down to

to

us

under aidos of corpus

name the

opportunity action an in

witness range in the

relevant aidos

a wide

contexts, which poems. occurs that

importance it in in

comparable One the was of the

accorded areas friendship; towards in the the that proper same Homer is not there in

the-Homeric which we saw the in i, term Homer73 and,

corpus a proper does philotes ilo' in

that reaction occur and

of

one's connexion modes all of

i in

although the concept

aidos of

not

Hesiod,

conduct aspects a reciprocal a an intrinsic

towards in that

one's author;

remain Hesiod as but

essential is

in it one;

philotes necessarily may be and

relationship calculating pleasure are also in or

(WD. 353-6), materialistic (357-8), (707-16). as

giving

stressed is

friendship is and that obviously it is aidos

regarded not

and forgiveness 74 Nevertheless, 75 fundamental, there the is to

constancy of 76

reciprocation although the to reciprocity

everything with

relationship, return a favour 77

frequently is concerned,

obligation in

particularly has and where this the Kyrnos little

Theognis.

The

complaint one typical his through

that in

friendship

not is poet

been seen

returned as

is

a of

frequent aidos; despite tality

Theognis, is 253-4,

a breach that, of return:

complains the aidos gift in

having song,

presented he

with

immor-

receives

136

ct wd VO-ro f a kk' w`"d-tra e 1263-6 IT is similar: s C-' OUSE rL5

qjs

6Fu uu TuYXXVW aI "Ti'ae"c ' r-ii'oc TS. hoc i ooS M, c KLO ! Tac, c KdKV
d wJ

ZS,

E,

CSavTL 1>>na%%
D(Vt

trVGw
E r-ri iS pc, t

LV IQCd 66l

Da

Owv
Two return at to 1272 the passages

SEI mac

k 'flo

KOS

fi

V e C- e,
of for lead

illustrating show boy both whom the

s'oVs BTU, OV IL5 0V o<;


the consequences to have to the do of failing to clearly is said parties (presumably that to so is an to ignore become aidos; 78 at aischune while philotes O C-WVd behave in men. properly relationship, unrequited) urged to one and

a favour a greedy friends a boy to

1297-8

threatens i-ir rrrc jio towards and The lead aidos

A%vL ilol, the

is to Hades author jCV tocv8(wtwJ. Failure then, can of to one's where 399, implicate both i gods of K; we

one's to

disapproval is owed at the the of Iliad is

aischune 79

which with

associated to be

arete duty of but

is explicitly 4tovs SwocL find no such by is The with all that ail K that idea

is explicit the the of at

said

a basic in in

agathos; impression philotes and also to

statement on also aidos holds

Homer, the

created in epic

stress same

context in the

good and

Odyssey. combined sum EM. itl up

reciprocity 1329-34, said

gratitude which so

aidos

a passage

seems

we have f/ ) i TEw WVTI .

on the subject 61vt' hui. ire-r(-LV ' oc.

far: ETt Koc) oI 'wi De

L--TI W rac

ai vI

ai

icv'w pv
if

i -rr'a Ir'

% Sc. Co vs xEi

-MOTC- K tr

sw vloE
0L

Kv-rc-eorE-vaU3(St :> of h
o

So rTE vou
tt voi C,
it is not

Sic \A%Aoc 0cwV of

TwJ
then, is

oc3rw'I
is owed; to This to

ETrC W. oe'vTC-rlX&tV
and aischron is to all to give charis, moreover, is common from as did

To

return

a favour, a favour with one showing not men at

kalon

recall equated kinds boys Homer, ado e,

aidos. only (we have

obligation relationships the where of truth Thetis of

of and

philia, older deserving and

erotic seen

between this is

especially

11.. 18.394, on

described she and once von

aidos, from

account like

a favour 6480),

Hephaistos,

passages

h. Cer.

137 (p. 71) is in to derived these return

Erffa

is

therefore at 253,1266 elders; of the

wrong and the

to

say

that from

the the

aidos respect is wholly one on

demanded owes the one's failure

1331

stress

passages a favour.

addressee

We also terms adjective to similar

saw denoting

in

Homer

how

intelligence,

aidos 81 that,

was that in

frequently one of

combined these aidos as was was is the

with

saophron82and ideas 83 In hitherto at 479-83: of Theognis

general,

opposed classical to an is to

excess

and aidos

self-assertion and An rt(s sophrosyne explicit

sophrosyne. extent be found not

meet connexion

encountered.

`j

'

VIC(cc
E WV is

X>J -rrc
CiTviocvet
1. important is of to

ot I<(TC

KElvoj

-r S
C-LrsCt
-ro The to one but, of in the notion go beyond loses to as the take of -rFei\/

oarou k`wrrS

Kaf r pO$ ouce vo o0 J


Toi VJ Ott -xV v-tact 9u'i
V7Cc0S passage and (479), sophrosyne; l and

/"-r6dV1

eWV , 'TOTE in discard (480), this

excess the metron control on

aidos

also

oneself

begins

positive with still or is

connotations v qTt'tus "sensible" is aidos appears the shows, or the

sophrosyne and thus 84 of "self-control", dominant 85 "prudent", the ally and that ugly of in of aidos. which to is and sense and, as Again

antithesis

adjective good

Homer, the

sense

prudence between conduct but object,

we see aischron; arouses proval state, found drunken a sober clearly the odd

relationship the drunkard's disapproval, not

others, disapdrunken is to that and

their does he at

prospect because,

their his idea

its worry Crw d ^surtt where be in

627-8, man man the one

ocSV "86 A similar is it told that we are the in both the denoted look right company the of sober of

be a that

aischron people inebriates;

should should experience out,

remain in it is is

company cases would

be

unpleasant of the

for

and which does

unpleasantness by the 86a word

situation a scene

itself simply

aischron;

such

not

The in

alliance passages

between in which

sophrosyne moral decline

and

aidos and

is

most

apparent are

social

conflict

138

the the

main

topics. of (749) which it is is

At

41,379 87

and and both

1082a hybris, refers aidos

sophrosyne along to and from the with

emerges bie of both which not and

as (835),

antithesis

hybris, and

atasthalie excess of which, vices of while is

hyperbasiel by are At who the lack 83-6 have

notion in is

opposed claimed,

sophrosyne, a world

absent we

these

flourish. men at blamed hybris: -ri TLiJ alive 289-92 on a

learn on

that their state and

there

one

shipload 88 eyes, society anaideie vvV

aidos

tongues of

topsy-turvy of aidos KaK%C

contemporary of KaKOI. (W

a preponderance tv' 1a( (ekk

and It

yaAZJ

oivcewJ

avvTol

CK'r t/ tS 6"4 Ka
G men" is GX eL . are few

S'

crwS
V LK16a. Similarly attended examples, at by 635-6 gnome at

V Yae
fa( we (= learn

owd
/ that of and sentiment KcToC -jrar the ads of "good

Kv

who

sophrosyne) the

there 291-2

are

now

while

647-8

reiterated:

v cc 1
The dike the iron to departure and

vJ

PCi
aidos, of

1ws

6J

dv

I., oLdtJ vOC PccP


a lack

? LJ % -V,

avrC
of a surfeit (above, moral not

vcb`
then, hybris by but in

'1 acaJ
means and as the

E'rcId. r {ET

(
no the

of

agathoi, exactly of

anaideie, the poet

almost culmination of

situation age depict

envisaged p. 120); decline

Hesiod when thoroughly

1135-50 terms, it

chooses is (1135-8): vF6Tt, CocJ iltirll.

HesLodic

sophrosyne, 'EXiCLS or

aidos, Vo fsv 1U Xot

he decides that W'><-t, v"i 6L /


Jf -VIVI'ovd

to personify rexi eF1s #o XL-r4vts


21 1*

wXr-o
Z) It the is also

Tf'tins, f 'vt, 1 XX(ITEs


0ICUVi , that, which is and human 1140, significant affairs sophrosyne gods, to the

q. J* ch w4
'r the just as sequel be

5 &-b S, w_xT vow. E


tE to -1v this statement, to man's which the failure refer

.4

in has seen

state

of of the

attributed of terms

departure to respect

a result of to those the

a number response

specifically appearance Moss to the the area divine of

(P,, rAL 1144);

fEPGwV1141,

divine make their S1142, [-sf C-VrFLSFWV almost could here, exclusively work however, it seems in

hazomai, we noted, 89 but sebo/sebizo sphere, relationships religious. in

refers etc. 90 this

human

Homer; From

eusebes

seems

primarily

passage

139

that of that aidos the

sophrosyne, gods, implied in the can by

a term

not

primarily refer which do; to

associated similar the same

with conduct was true

fear to of

nevertheless those terms

Odyssey.

At to

399 /ci

(p. l66nt

136

above) we saw that 91 t )t whi le1289-92 ovs the of ascendancy aidos and (ibid. similar importance more r the of the

it

was

a duty the

of-the of with and

aciathos the the anaidei of

(p. 138) kakoi of said at instilling it

decline

agathoi destruction similarly the which young

and

coincide hybris to be

hegemony is

at

635-6 We find to the once

) aidos

a property a passage in the

agathoi. refers

thoughts of

409-10, aidos with arete:

, gc o D(
crucial the

and

which

associates

v tavr
vj here, of are virtue social

-tT-aciV
arc f t however, who

cocTa
VcCAIL centres possess

erH

the in are

a Ou The for question designation as agathoi it seems agathoi; by

KV'V on aidos

cvc.
E7tE-rac reasons these they In class the aaathos some gains agathos etc. 91a

those they of

passages simply places the kakos must In

morally their change, can in birth in

good, and which

or

rank? one render

that over versa

ascendancy and be other vice

another,

itself and than that it

(55-8,1109-13), rather it seems (most us with agathos, the by to the

there morally is

socially places, one agathos

descriptive however, or do not kakos allow

evaluative. moral qualities otherwhich some a case seem in to

render passages to point social are

notably decide,

145-8). while

simply the 53ff.; but

combine is

descriptive in 57-8 in

evaluative; and deiloi, failings, all

esthlos former

d eilos now

refer agathoi cheating,

class, chiefly

59-68

characterized and seen as unreliability breaches is that by are it and it

their as

moral friends, Another

faithlessness could arete is be in

of

which regarding agathos elsewhere is

of it success be

aidos. sometimes

problem that while 92 in Where view it

Theognis conferred or to of assume wealth success social this;

appears

a title

(165-6,797-8), (315-8). moral, arete in the but in fact, relevant

success not tied

irrelevant nay

arete of is the hardly that of

confusion safe either to

moral seems,

53-68 most

likely portions

the

poets

who

composed

the

Icorpus

140

genuinely morally deliberately identification have should unfamiliar met

believed good and to

that their imply

the

nobility

were, morally

as bad,

a class, or they

also sought the one class that is we

inferiors that as the on this an idea moral

is

the

case.

Certainly virtue is

before,

of ads 93 and

aristocratic that a given is

social not one

have

a monopoly 94 to us.

goodness

The

Theognid

corpus

does is fear this

not said

offer to be

many unable the is of

instances properly nemesis man or without divine an abuse feel 1179-82 at to god,

of to

nemesis; discern we the out but own -ro(

kakos the at 279-80 f6cKwk, to and not , are use the only not of told

(hazesthai) nemesis the

come; but ruling 660,

whether sovtevo4 might as the

suggest

latter, is at

former in

a possibility. of gods, the gods' ;. Ot6ty -rC1ewC and

Nemesis anger ,i, t1FsTI. T*

sense (the

of

their

prerogative if one swears of that

plrrm aidos the lines them you in only

TeXOS Errat). At

resentment the

appearance suggest (Teubner) is urged

in close proximity might nemesis form a (hence Young complete excerpt such); ciot&Dy or the in and the first couplet that met such aidos Kyrnos aidos for or the aspects 6rO which for gods seems divine as the informed we have of in the

Prints e 4ou5 asebeia but a"

as K)i

prevents gods

word in

deed;

before,

contexts

supplication with those As to the is in 95

guest-friendship, Odyssey of it human seems, in how the

although interest could that

we saw taken by more is and that

connexion gods

affairs of

become it way, as

general. possible regard

a result, use &i mt

process, general

now to

OFouS ads oneself upholders in this

a more but of

conduct

prevents as

not that

simply which

which

discreditable for the

exhibits The

disregard adjective

morality to have

(asebes). a special itself later the into to as in here moved refers the gods the

asebes to the

passage but 96 dominant itself that has in

reference has literature no such the of

sphere, reference, is the

Homer

sebas

exclusive religious terms meet usage because and at the it

although one; now

two

groups

aidos seems superior context.

the the would

religious same sebo of idea etc. ads of

sphere, awe in

aideomai power Again of

a similar fear in

we see

combination

and

141

1179, ideas usage greater

and are of

again not aidos

the

combination while category

itself nonetheless of "respect

tells

us placing for

that

the this of

two

synonymous, in the

those

power".

The and

first fear

couplet, of, that of the the the 4, a clear

then, gods

expresses

the

idea the is matter be of not

that second

aidos

for,

prevents of

asebeia; the gods no that also is can

(1181-2) by is justified enemy the

maintains overthrow achieved; against of the

nemesis AJ), iv implication enemy a whole. link up the asebeia to " The

aroused how this is as gods an

TuC. cw&v,

violence seen the of have

a political people seem taken gods is of to of will and and not the as to

who The with

nemesis the idea would

might in mean; 1179, "Aidos

therefore and, for but wealth rule point which abrupt, precept, separate divided, purposes divine relatively an exclusively if the it

aidos to

together, prevents asebes city. the stanza

lines (and of

avoids one to who

divine is

nemesis), consuming the be main the

dispose injunction is be the

aidos

will and of any

then the

which the get

following will of do might as the attraction does main the have be

the

exception,

legitimacy but air of to the

method does moralist's seem

rid

tyrant, the better West. point of only while concept. both

connexion

1179-80 so it

a genuine see the how lines the

as lines for

two are our

distichs, however, is sphere; few the

No matter of both ads in

couplets and that nemesis area quickly

into on

the

aidos

will

operate nemesis

occasions, religious

very

becomes

In

a body

of and lines

poetry desirable

in

which one exalt

ads passage the

is

constantly out of in love

seen sharp and

as

necessary contrast; symposium,

stands

1063-8 the

pleasures (1067-8):

the

with

conclusion

-r TEe-InW\Ij
Wealth enjoyment to is one's is probably of revelry these Aidos,

Xu ir. S rF t.t a "T F CoVv,


because in to must no one's relation here

<g

K (St. S i

VL K
seen and are on the as

-TTp

-o< 6 UV
stands pleasures hand,

unnecessary

love-making simple other

riches;

which be that

wealth which

irrelevant.

142

would perhaps, might revelry aidos hindrance

conflict of arouse one the

with who

enjoyment did not

of wish of

these to others,

pleasures, in who a

the way thought again to be we more

aidos, which such see a

behave or 97

disapproval or

"unseemly" as an inhibition a

"inappropriate". feeling which is

Once felt

than

help

in

certain

circumstances.

We have of the

already adjective aidos etc. however, or

discussed aischros also occur;

some in

of

the

more mostly the be

important in two

usages passages in occur

Theognis, even still could as to be where

which together, any will pective the act

do

not

there

will

a connexion, as aid os corpus, a battle without (ww E, c

because aischron in a prosas in

experience be of or is such

which a kind In to or,

described

also Iliad, to part

occasion Theognid from still,

agent it

patient. aischron for it,

the return worse

with even having

nothing taken

show

(889-90): Nv a '1ce -rr'a E-or c Ka w Kvr-o 4'oKtbevi' etc. in the cryloivi, ,. however, the is comparison leads one c

Most have

of

the

instances to c' do with

of (, way, in is

aischron the martial either to aee, aidos, as

corpus, at 1177-8

nothing of in those avoid

context; as agent and the part or this force of


in

avoidance related, with to

c( i i>o,

patient, bears which 98

a general passages

which seen

aischra,

also

ae

Elsewhere contexts, the unjust (383-7), wrongdoing endures kaka, to refer lies poet to

aischron that takes live are of Zeus

etc. poverty to

are

often and that for

used of

two

particular At just just, some we and he are are 373ff. the goes led told, many seems whom on into

dishonesty. the are and poor

task

allowing many poverty, the who

1v TKUr` forced to its his deceit of all

I4oL(q; , / live in

under against and first

compulsion; will and to aiixfK strife the

man, and

ir6>)cc(388). (389-90). indignities

learns here for

Aischea which one

ao the

is

unseemly

(391) action

is

forced

to many

suffer, who the are

and

secondly by

to

discreditable are forced are

which take; as

constrained of aischra, deceit the

poverty dishonesty

to

although kaka rather

crimes than

and

described

143

context forced to

seems to

to

imply form in

that part

the of the

kaka

which

the which

poor he

man is

is

commit to is that goes on be in

aischea which The

forced to does act

endure;

a position aischron.

in

one poet,

is

tempted

dishonestly not since moral in time believe he

itself poverty to claim the good

however, to dishonesty, that (393-4); to injustice.

necessarily that it is is not

leads in

poverty

the even 99

character of need

of the

individual man will

revealed turn

Another work

passage (649-52):

on

the

same

theme

reveals

similar

ideas

at

ai"?

c
6'
(/

tk,

rev1t,
Kar
t (+ 4' O<c

SL/ ,
c$ I< t vaoV /ic7 v, f# T6-6 a -T'o%oc

eL(xUY(.

C The and refers and esthla although signifies of life; in deprivations his

l(V)

echovsc
tJ
of required suggests disfigure

czskcs

.. of

/vt. c-t'
poverty the

rvOe
inclusion

R occ KOCCh
a man's nods, to which act that

c -IL

crf

c-VuW,

appearance100 normally prudently aischra and

intelligence; to the moral

intelligence with convention, and proper

accordance refer it to is

improper also

knowledge perhaps, For we. might the the as idea

respectively, conduct C(GX KA' Kaci that C ... possible and dignified of a more prosperous in the it previous is 10.1-12 atimie It be himself 101 many. example, in (pp. and both itself to

f'-1rtfEVaJ way are be

ideas

present. poor where receives that

that TYrtaios

aischron

compare suffers from in

130-1 kakotes from

above), and Hes. WD. 717-8 for should seems

beggar no ad could although from gone such

total others. itself

appears considered holds

poverty

grounds that one

reproach, refrain to have

Hesiod reproach; by

his

injunction,

however,

unheeded

There the

appeared discreditable

to

be

a suggestion of other in

in poverty

both

these lead

passages one etc. and to are disby Works which

that

condition conduct;

could

discreditable frequently honesty, means Days. is used and

passages of the theft, pursuit of

aischron deceit of wealth in the in

of

the

offences for attitude

the

distaste of are the

improper and Theognis

redolent 27-30

Hesiod of this,

Lines

a good

example

144

implicitly tcy sense rc with (29): K ie1rVuro

equates arete

the (27-8)

avoidance and ie/ iCav&wJ -r-wJ OcI r pleeioc

of

injustice relates

and it

aid-) e; c to '' good

explicitly

cS
vet

Ea-W

Cu
Or-7r6

u-rroe1'rarscc.
xOI4-ioccs G-V GAKEO E()V^o4 tic oLf LV .

oc a-IrEc
CT C Wq r(. 1 Oc

cc V703
Cec. Ot9CKocTc EIvos .

T(PC5 465-6 and

1c$' /vS are

1147-50

f
M

! -11 41I
F

similar:

9o, -Te c

Woe -rai
KF I

-To'<

((t4

cA E TW
6J 0oV Ff

Vc. KTW v6ft

dos

taia

catKh

-Kohcv'

octEck

of

E3 F4

AxvDC-rW\l OUR1J
Kd KOts

-Trx

VOL

Oct EJ
From of the first to in the

C1r

%AoTec

CDC
of pursue second these arete

(S kr. ci voL5 'crO%s r


that it avoid which or in at both to aischron is least cases that is, is

c- %.. X0u('. V0q/`'` a 61 4, c K< oxc


is a requirement kerdos102, consists of is

it

appears and

justice the

while of

conduct theft

aischron the

a proclivity goods or of in not the

towards by

acquisition that is which

another's dikaion Pursuit vice and

deception; is sort at D. related of

adikon wrong and aidos; aidos into to

which as

kerdos it at which is of

aischron. 103 we saw, a major with 83-6, anaideie the one 1148, leads again propriety idea made there of from is being however, one how,

Hesiod, to of kerdos

323-4

equated

opposed

possession led it to from may by is

similarly AM that conduct which anger

Theognis, would aischron; the gods we see of

prevent at which once human The profit kalon; is

failure

heed and

the adika,

commit the be

aischra Odyssey

and the

thus

onwards, with also fear

observance divine in

equated kerdos is said indication (as often distaste Achilles

of

punishment. where and not

aischron lying liitle in itself

occurs aischron, the

607-10, kakon that in 607),

to

be in

Odyssey to lies be to does he hates that in

lying and his from who

discreditable in but a

it

appears tells for says

Odysseus own aims,

particular certain where and

further emerge a man it is

deceit that

11.9.312-3, thinks to one tell thing lies, 104

says

another. does

The become

notion common

aischron

however,

fifth

century

literature.

145

At

197-208

it

is

Zeus' (those the are

way whose gods

of

punishing conduct do not while punishment of prosperity to death case to note as refers is

those described

who

acquire in 199-202)

wealth which

unjustly is described;

punish some,

wrongdoers it seems, die must is

immediately; before be still however, clearly rather anaides by entreaty their

some

punished, the or loss point of this

punishment; like The the ruin important designation in

envisaged, while for anaides to opinion; of its our

then, one purposes, in 207;

something alive. is the than

adjective to

ruthlessness death being in is this used of is averted

insensitivity there being is no

popular feel

because or the objects

possibility to

persuaded as wild

aidos; seen, 106

application inanimate

adjective, 105 and

we have beasts.

also

Many only are the

of in

the

lyric,

elegiac and those

and

iambic

poets instances far

refer of

to aidoios in

aidos etc. which

passing, Of

uninformative passages not

common. relevant 136D) as


on

so

discussed are the to most

terms epigram, but that


ws

occur

the

following by reveals cowardice


eJ Errc 1 I

interesting.

A sepulchral (fr. aidos

attributed later, prevents


i%Fj

some the in

Simonides of
B Fa 0-1 (ov

probably which
K P(Ev o),

persistence battle:
j 06C

-TT'eox V&

Qre

vac-vr

rocyC

Oocvcrov

eetw Dt
Sappho not 137LP BEiIW Oct WS shows Tl kalon:

10,

Wd

vroc
aidos F(Trbp/

Nox

y-%

'TaTjo3

SE

\&(-VVO K,
are

how

inhibits

utterances

which

T'

oCic>co(

&

KW%V6-L

vnx&s
Kati Ttj
The of surviving relevance;

EfhwJ
E`-ryl re oKf

i/nxpcv
/. `w!
w

v
f' C

Kockw
WVKoc KKaY
(h! -i-

Ak
poems the

kc Fs t 'E C -t' offer of Bacchylides


passage worthy

Sc K. !

remarkably of comment is

little 5.104-7

only

(Snell-Maehler), Kalydonian boar is described the where as Y#cto because, like death 207 K*'Xjj, presumably at Thgn. (above), it be persuaded to show quarter. cannot

146

PINDAR The be occur concept found and in of the a aidos extant wide is not poetry range of crucial of to Pindar, the but There the are of ethical the are views term three is for towards among in the philoi the often does to

over

usage. in which

immediately found; specific victor also familiar is occurs; firstly,

identifiable since the

areas epinikian the

concept written

odes aidos the aidos find

athletic important; and, context of

champions, secondly, thirdly, sex and we

others proper the term

also

sexuality.

In with is

two the

passages attitude to

the of grant

adjective others Diagoras to

aidoios the

is victor;

used at

in

connexion Zeus

Q.. 7.89-90

requested

kt

-trot' VwV.

r-twl

KI

-TToT

Cas feel passive Xeinokrates primarily, recognition seems poet

is aidos,

the quality possessed 107 and the adjective A similar as may is these of coexist the

by is idea

one thus

towards used at

whom others in its normal, where ;

significance. described words

occurs

0 cc0' os be taken success,

roZ5 """c as referring but an

1.2.37, wc4cv to

others' notion for the

victor's the on

active

to

with goes

passive to praise

in

the

adjective, for

immediately

Xeinokrates

his

hospitality.

Two philoi;

passages at
M4Y

from. 145-6
M 0V 0LS

E. 4 illustrate the
Ote"Gl ai

the printed
r1 1lccic4+"tl LYT

operation by
" Tts

of
C'

aidos

among reads:
T'Fi1E

text,
e(w

as
d"ai

Snell-Maehler,

In and final

the

Loeb

edition,

however, are divided It .ct c'p"r (loci out that the and this the the family

a comma as or to

is

printed j eS oc after associated at

after

014-4 r"VOts is Kt

commentators Mo after points through

whether

consecutive are

IeKku G AA&t 'TT'4 F-'. with childbirth but their is they on the

Greene108 family

Moirai their

Eleithuia and

attendance explain withdraw, not prove their and that

(Q. 6.42,2.7.1), either association interpretation with

might Moirai does

aidos, so it

147

who

experience with

the the

aidos family, favoured

of

146.109 von by Erffa's Greene,

Yet

because

the

Fates

are

associated the is

interpretation nothing to invalid, hide does strife the

for reason rejecting 110 that there namely with family "The good sense. "The strife, Fates So Fates in the between present the more aidos under is withdraw too, withdraw, end, it

rendered ... however, ... is For philia if only our to

connect 111

the and '

goddesses the thus translation, makes

their the among word-order

aidos, rival kin

interpretation, conceals which makes it and is this the is aidos, the link "

and,

latter

likely. and either

purposes, which is

however, important,

interpretation.

At form

line of

218 aidos which to parents

of

the is the

same mentioned, charms

poem

a much the aidos Jason debt of

more of by aidos

straightforward Medea Aphrodite which . for her were one owes and

parents intended one's Hes.

taught

overcome. we might 13

On the compare

11.22.82,0

20.343-4112

WD 331-2.1 . 9 aidos

_E. relationships; on the

In

makes at

an line of of

appearance 12 we Apollo the pair learn and is and this. centaur,

in

the

context Aphrodite mortal girl, and for delicacy who

of cast

sexual aidos Kyrana

how the

yvKEeKi The s,

EvKi union of

(Cyrene). of a'

idealized, respect Such

the

presence in however,

a form

restraint

decorum is, informs

sexual general, Apollo

contexts, according (40-1): Kost ai cE0vTC</. oc

illustrates to the

Cheiron,

c -q T v) to

-rt- vEOt$ re V GzqT

TUvTo Ec oC 1r distaste but if there first ji-ov

I<or%oeLAfflOLS U C- Voc s. for open the

oft:

j$

This (cf. 7rewrol to

may fl. is

refer 14.330-40, to have at

a general p. 73 any

lovemaking of -ri

above),

inclusion must be towards

significance, the crucial

a reference a sexual

shyness

taking

step

relationship. Other instances with in Pindar and good to be linked by

of

aidos

seem sense;

an

association

foresight

a difficult

148

passage E
e%1

of

Q., 7 relates Kc paJ

aidos F' xixT'

and

foresight e Ercv g' XFC0


OPo

explicitly

(43-7): os O

RkE
%c

vOec"nr/pari
7L 1. / F<A( .

1r(o
i

ai (I"S VEO
f

c7rL

(XKE

acvEc

ATEKa(rK
cS

? ['PaMTW

1,

e w1C The and clear; ing), lead to meaning 41 not7CK, ads, brings them light of

EYW/. these as lines, Wilamowitz to do if we take suggests, with but particular aidos 114 as is the subject forethinkcan

reasonably (or

something men astray ae (thus to

forethought

and 2c^( on the

forgetfulness

fires

Athene). would

difficult; is unparalled

Jebb115 and, like genitive ecr; of

forgot they occasion Jws, &0S however, is '7r Op. Al lrCo/. such a genealogy print 9ES, but difficult Erffa1 without suggests that the article or 11CCoj. a 96-oJ

moreover, von the

something is the

and translates, adjective "the ", but is surely forethinking this aidos of a man ... it impossible too for the context; specific seems equally, for here, to take Cv%scO&&j as the genitive of the neuter, masculine the article "foresight" foresight" that of to in the Jebb, the spite seems necessary or "forethought", seems best since required of the to make of is sense, absence the little those only "aidos, of the in order and, in to give It is gets related orOvy4rI 8.5.27T'E'rrpv more obvious) the any 117 case, sense "aidos

far

too,

towards

sense. considered one which

seems, the us

then,

option it

interpretation close to (an enough

which article parallel, makes

is

foresight", absence NOS-

which 04v The

Gildersleeve's alleged J OvPc7E(ic lI otsfrcj, only importance of neglect in the

of

this

passage, with piety

however, (aidos is to

lies seen the to

in as

the that just fellows) no ads force of which as

association prevents it and matter and the sight does with

aidos of case

one's of and is

obligations obligations associations

gods, one's are

one's these

foresight, how the text

present between

interpreted. relates to in inhibit order courses to

The the

link

foresight term; will if be

presumably aidos required of different is

prospective in the the future,

action to

fore-

envisage of action;

possible such

consequences

if-one

149

course be then

seems

likely to

to the

bring set of At

discredit values to

on

the

agent, he of

or is the

to

unacceptable aidos will

which lack it

subscribes, aidos that also

associated intelligence of one's

N. 11.45-6 1-1 lack C-LK , and with of rco^ which one to foresee enables actions sense. is indispensable 118 to

intervene.

seems the in

consequences its prospective,

aidos

inhibitory

Aidos the those

is tone just

again of the

linked passage

with

good

sense

at

N. 5.14-18, from

but that

here of

differs

considerably

discussed:
4V

aic

rc"c
cfL KK

c-irrci
TE
*I

KF KLV(U1

VoJj

-rt'ws
got tW

di
N(

rt-af ?i

G- e' eac

1J<OLIL TCS

vac 'o/, f
us Xn/sN 6)c (d-& V,

w -rra ii 1 PC (op C"o . c Kies -ru'.. or kx6 rre eiL ai vag 1rK -Irc w- rod S. E 1<6, 4Kai (L 5/-1O)SxOI<S fTL 0ro ACVOpWirw Vo'jIraL Tacrt, J , 1.
The deed which the son and the Pindar of thus wishes by poet relating might of the to his conceal two is the murder of Telamon as feeling actions as distaste his the aidos Phokos, and aidos of for by Aiakos, the of aidos half-brothers, himself discreditable be seen

s OCVSr. }l/ dIV ACS

Peleus, at

represents the perhaps

prospect and his

others, the K\

unpleasantness T based rLyK on / 'TToXX a fear This event he

he yet story; Trr. Fm. f V; is, C(S iF. unpleasant be clear, to the

explains then,

poet's he

scruple tell allusion reveals the

of

consequences case, since

should the

story? to that the

can is

hardly quite

which

claims

in fact, the and, 119 In reality, conceal.

poet the

passage
victor; from deeds, deeds at all, his is

is

nothing

more

than
to

elegant
expel (c/, poet's not some have any

and witty
disreputable which craft, mentioned for his

praise

of
ignoble

the

Pindar

pretends

elements

victory-ode, contrasted but so it he he must is

and Tb with need have the

conceals which the making reason

makes episode the

noble

immortal; and

reason that and

allusion, literary

and one,

most

probable the clever

involving

courteous

a "suppression"

was

150

of that lest

unsavoury the his is poet

detail must

and show refuse not

a sly prudence to pay

literary in him. his

joke,

to

the

effect of material, passage,

selection aidos of

patrons manifestly

The

this

then,

genuine.

We have anaideia 43-8,

already and reads

had foresight

occasion in

to

mention the

the

contrast passage,

between from

1,. 11.45-6;

whole

as
"ra

follows:
Cit, IK U" A. LOS . (VeCt /FEY rr6(s 6ocE5 acs &T'4(OrTG cEC vT Oux re ER T flvo/. a C. r/,

K/, TE , /VwVTeS txe V E rr. o(XX T4 G" K 'irc .iK(, Toe Vst,
G t. o t, 1C'TC y w, o(

Kit AcVo C o

bCAs

W%00'#tc t, CO P aG

ocTeo'f
This is one

kh/ c

PCvo-W
the in the many

1 ee rzuV 81vrEexL
in of Pindar

/AtaVLccC .
in which is moderation,

of

passages

particularly

enjoyment

prosperity,

stressed,

and did with

one in

of

the

few and

in

which

aidos in the of harmful for to the

has

a rle

to

play, is

as

it

Hesiod to

Theognis, acquisition can no be

restraint.. wealth. when metron it The

which striving

urged for

regard it

the

wealth, and when,

appears, having it from

becomes or the danger the

excessive, possible of kerdos

regard one and

consequences, is of the familiar the

leads Hesiod

anaideia; as

the is

Theognis, of erdos and the from

association while excess in were

unrestrained of Homer. idea

pursuit moderation Pindar of only to divine the get of the

with

anaideia, of however,

desirability in the of of

dangers Homer, of

apparent stressing an idea

differs

resentment germ above gods is present (see

human in

which humans

prosperity, 120 The epic. presuming i LOCL

tendency upon is the

themselves,

thereby

prerogative

in hybris, most often encapsulated nvztGU t and approximate. n-tS of IL. 11 . 44-6 Apart ads and the
ZEv

1.. 5.14-5) E. 3.59-62,. . 121 w tgh to e A&Ey^hav0C

from only

its enters

appearance into of Q, 13
c',

in the

the

passage insistence other find


Kdt

just

considered, on moderation in prayer:

poet's in 115)
Ca

dangers to
-r

kerdos (line
ai W

two we
OL

places; the

conclusion

following

-rpo/
the victor

-r&-rrvw YaVK4ca,l,
is to receive

Aidos

could

refer

here

to

the

aidos

151

from the that

his rest it

contemporaries, of is the the line victor's regard accords at to refers

but

it to

is his

more attitude with

likely, to

given his to pursuit such as of

that

prosperity, others of and wealth we

own to

aidos the

regard and

particularly that have is to is meant;

with it looked as

disposal with beliefs that if aidos in god by this

well imagine only be Zeus;

those

already be seen

enjoyment is present.

possible is

prosperity 122

A similar the the but context people the

notion of of

also

to to

found the

IL 9.33-4, is reminded

again that (32-3), to

in

a prayer Aitna are

uncorrupted (33) that

possessions be hard

poet

concedes

may
h-

believe,

explaining,
aIcJ3Y cc 4 EPEc e 1K t-%i 60 JsCJ . L)

-173

oK1

v{

"t

Kit

E"fi"oc

C,

Again, concern allows the 34-7 enabled still as, of poet

is

a for it to

brings one's

about reputation, From to that the

resistance it renown of his keeps of

to

kerdos, one's doxa

and,

as and

intact

grow. moves on how to him

the

Aetnaeans, Chromios, a goddess aidos,

however, and in 36, is context, passage lines

patron, as in battle; in from is said for of

describe

aidos, his

personified ground

stand which also (24-7), flight

then,

the indeed, the

force might ode to

promotes be

courage

the an that Thebes,

martial earlier

concluded it battle. 27) of is the in Zeus.

same taken

where in the

Amphiaraos, was saved in the

having from back the 123

disgrace by ads of it for the

(aisXv-113jp4/, intervention

being 123aThe

wounded relationship at Argo the tone P. 4.174,

between the sons XKK*V; passage be

and Poseidon

courage join be mean, it

also crew keeping

apparent of the with lest the and

where

would this and

hardly to so

of

the should is

"ashamed that

their warriors'pc> they and

cowardice Ky

exposed", as

seems

treated as Two they

a semi-personification, a person of greater

accord power.

would

status

it aidos 124

instances at the abuse fr.

of

the 140a.

comment; manifest to an.

seem worthy anaides adjective ECY 1. 59 to deeds cLc refers of their agent, while at in this case death

of

brief

which with is regard

anaideia of

hospitality,

a. 10.105

152

described occurs removed Cuj it is only

as from Dem

anaides, twice its p{ seen while in epic t

as

at

Thgn. and of

207 in

(p.

145 places

above). it is

Nemesis far 0. $. 86,

Pindar, sense K#(XW VL

both

popular It V

disapproval;

at

clearly

as at and

a divine P. 10.42-4 battle

reaction the and to

to

human/overare said to

prosperity, be free i t'i(ytrL$, human angry" from

Hyperboreans thus to escape in

toil

t Ir(, 4't Ko for sense "be the

where injustice. at I. 1.3.

nemesis seems 125 The verb

be

divine occurs

punishment

nemesao

NOTES TO CHAPTER 1. than material the It is not

TWO. assumed much in the our or even Iliad that most and poems; the the latter form 46-7) in Homer of the is earlier

automatically although

Hesiod,

traditional will in predate there existence we have for for the that elegists belonging of literacy; Homer's to of them;

incorporated of possibility former in of mind Hesiod, the are so were West

Odyssey

composition the the this

Hesiodic that given

nevertheless, were which argues 214-5) the earliest

remains before with priority Homer; and the cf. Iliad, 2. 3. and 4. 5. Cf. Ih.

(Theogony,

Havelock Odyssey, all following roughly the

(Justice, Hesiod,

probably

Archilochos century Seel, or "Zur

contemporary, reintroduction ... ", p. 310,

Vorgeschichte

Thornton,

p. 23. WD. 257 572, (Dike), 300-1 (Demeter). fr. 195.14 and 46 (= Scutum, 14

71 DD.

(Pandora),

46). See above, is towards (Q is . the p. 97n. 35. thus contrasting with cf. of the the Euryalos' von first by von Erffa, group Erffa, direct from aidos lack p. 47. of scholars P. 47, and cited Havelock, pointing by shown of by aidos his towards

Odysseus

exemplar a guest 6. Such ad

others

8.159-64); view and

West, p. 215. out stock is 7.

loc.,

opposed argues may also in the

West both

himself passages but

against be derived the

dependence, a traditional of the

that of

ideas, traditional in Particular

that

application passage. 1901,341,

language

more See

Hesiodic Cook, C$

A. B.

T. A.

Sinclair,,

153

CR 1925,147-8, Entr. 17-27, 78-83; 8. 9. 10. 11. Cf. Fond. E. cf. Hardt Valgiglio, von

A.

Hoekstra, 7,1962,141-2, Maia 48-9.

Mnem. 1950,99-106, K. J. MacKay, D. B.

Verdenius, AJP Claus, 1963, TAPA 1977,

1969,169-74,

Erffa,

Adkins,

M_RR,P. 157. p. 17. WD. 11ff., support rx04 317 does attributive that harmful, than, there now not emerge lend

op. cit., loc. It cit.. might the ad j); even

be

claimed of 317 the in the

that

the

twocCt4-S of Eels,

at

expressing to "bad 318. u'6 from sense are "bad "the in that 1977, AfKel/ that is 12. 13. the is 317

idea s" but

ambivalence Verdenius, of two kinds t-o"If(, 318 that does aidos in I man, " a needy (certainly (also) to the some t

(sf.

comm. of

on

idea

aidos an say now

of ojK two kinds if aidos aidos

the reading with y. G4 ; certainly of aidos, to after looks but keep

and not is 317,

helpful;

pressed looks which

t< V-%f"

rather

a needy after

should is not

translate, good, "the " Claus, oxymoron, still but be this C-tv. " i. e.

man

particular bad for an

circumstance a poor obvious man

not, him, the would

aidos TAPA ou K

fosters mitigate passage

P. 83 #< aidos

attempt of in

the meaning LkS .); is inefficacious which p. 48, is much

circumstances, with the . reading

a meaning Von p. 18. Erffa,

clearer on

1<rt.

Verdenius

317(-scG1 _

14.102,106. 15. 108n. 16. 17. 18. where In On tharsos 151 See loc. This ao above. N cKay, cit.. interpretation leads however, in the outlook however, the been life of itself; 1-iesiodic which clearly his but social this a poor might be supported to reject not by E. fr. 285N. work. be esp. the later, passage. to may not 2 14, p. 21, Claus, 1977. p. 81, West on 318 and 319. as an opposite of aidos cf. pp. 107n. 140 and

nobleman labour

physical felt to

general,

manual see G.

was is

degrading 217, where

Nussbaum,

CQ 1960,213-20, contrasted the work, his mean with Euripidean and prefers

attitude may does lie

classical Perses, live have

behind reject

superiors; does not

attitude that such

typical,

a view

1 54

could 19. West, 20. 20a. see 21. 22. 23. 24. 82-6; 25. So

not See ad

have

been

held. (p. 108n. 151 above) McKay, 19-20. / SF; 1977, Claus, cf. in the context below). of 11.21.395 (cf.

Od. 17.449,18.331 loc. ); contrast on and 320

Verdenius

p. 83. taking by force,

On aidos also So CP So

anaideie fr. on

WD. 359, Verdenius 1973,81-94. Frnkel,

(p. 123 204.82 ee f 330 It Greek and Justice, too at have reference Claus' p. 93 of example his Poetry "Iliadic"

Early

and

Philosophy, dike

p. 121. see Gagarin,

On the cf. Gagarin

"Odyssean" Havelock, concentrates dike, itself

sensesof

cc. 7-10. closely the on expense interpretation of the of adjectives and 1977, dikaios) claims which p. 77). and that have can with the on the be dike? separacontrary, mine these the

substantive, dikaios thus Gagarin (327-34, usages, nothing described Gagarin tion of give and

adikos

which

a wider (see

reference Claus, (270-3, but

dike does adika) which to do as

a wider discuss on he with dikaios that behaviour close

article, to how proper can

admits dike; or

relate but adikos

behaviour, which to do

conduct nothing behaviour;

have passages lawful

contends proper their Havelock, aspect of the of

these and interaction.

demonstrate

theyshow 26. the See moral

Justice, of dike,

216-7, and notes

where that in of

he

also

recognizes personiway, conduct; the cf.

Hesiod's a limited human

fications development Claus, 27.77-8. 28. (with 29.52-3. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. crafty 31-4. P. 83 See

concept justice as

foreshadow, a principle

1977,

p. 78.

Pearson, and

Popular ref. to

Ethics, Od. 9.175-6).

p. 82

and

cf.

P. 63

above

notes

above. Glaub ed. (with as see of 1, p. 350n. h. Cer., 1, Verdenius ad loc.. Richardson's p. 52 above p. 3.

So Wilamowitz, See Cf.

n. 127). of clever and wickedness the Comic and Hero, Aristophanes

On the

h. Merc.

a celebration Whitman,

anaideie,

155

35. this

On opizomai enquiry to

cf. treat

p. 91 such

above; terms, aidos,

it

is which

beyond only

the bear

scope an

of

occasional they obvious 36. Cf. will

relationship only connexion 172-3:


Kai w -r iSo (Peerlkamp; iSAV for line r

to taken into the

systematically; when, our Jt


r0Mncc

henceforward as here, does .1


Ee crit. us inclusion -47-0 ) as to 116 of WV.

be

account terms
E'Trl

an exist.

with

of c

enquiry ^
iSapp. refers but the

1S see ! rQ

36a. against as ws a in

OEacd

OC-oj Ludwich's

Richardson's (OCT); emendation, Allen

parallel that

Ludwich's makes all the

difference.

37. 38.

P. 23. Cf. pp. 9,42-4 above.


I. i. 224, regard the epigrams as genuine

above.

39.92-3
40. archaic

Sckmid-Sthlin, poetry.

41. below, 42. 43. 44. and 45. 46. 47. 48.

Cf.

Arist.,

et.

1384a34,

and

cf.

pp. 138,165,167,213,227,252,328,406n. Cf. Cf. See 374 Cf. Cf. Cf.. P. 44 P. 115 (Demeter Richardson, P. 125 n. 150 and (pp. and otherwise. above. p. 116 and above. cf. p. 103n. 110.

p. 106n. 127 above, 142,508-12.

p. 97n. 35,

above, and

See

also

h. Cer.

343

Persephone ad loc., above. above. poets and

aidoiai). p. 116 above.

n. 40 107-8) elegiac

Allfambic

cited

from

West,

unless

indicated 49.61-2. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. other of his the of Cf. For See Cf.

above, the

84-5. sense of aischros cf. 11.19.

physical

10.1-2,11.14,12.1-20,43-4. 12.17.

P. 61. In stating kinds (cf. 2.1-12) of his preference Xenophanes' Tyrtaios ae even is for martial for arete over all kind does of a different aret , nor from that

preference not redefining differ there arete kinds

arete, notion Iliad bravery

martial

essentially does of not ae

(although in battle);

solely are,

consist as in

different

156

this

also (4.725-6,8.244-9,13.45-6); Ethics, in

passage,

envisaged on 8, arete ): I

in

several in

places Tyrtaios; MR, 70-3. cf.

in

the cf.

Odyssey Pearson, role PMG

arete Adkins, in

Popular of 789 aidos (last

48,75,231n.

On the

maintaining C5th.

battle,

Timotheos,

quarter

Ecr@'
56.12.37-40 passage, 57. 58. that the to See The they results the fact exhibits above. is, for see below, lines

a. csw cvvTrov
also occur at Thgn. Gagarin, p. 508" immediately endurance in are the before and CP 1974,190

FTas

Coe tp.
on 197. dike

X)(oJ
in this

935-8; and

these cohesion die von

resemble in battle with the

11.5.531 (explicitly reference host and as

in

commend of that

aidos more these

Homeric saved than cf.

passage) when Erffa,

whole pp. 25-6 59.

qualities;

p. 60

Tyrtaios

of

course, severity pp. 420-3. (with

a Spartan, towards of n. 73). his arete above), disaster is not it universal (as bravery it on the

and those

the whom

Spartans they

were

renowned as in 60. 61. cowards; Hdt., Cf.

their on

regarded at Sparta

descriptions

fate

of

cowards

see

below,

P. 28 above does

Eumaios

lose

half

losing loss can to be

his of

freedom liberty is arete; In

(Od. 17.322-3, exactly in the Homer world one the

n. 138, kind of

pp. 106-7 material alone

and which

destroy do this. to as was is the

disapproval of Tyrtaios, is it of arete; by one's the wealth

sufficient might

however, to accepted that

possible

regard arete, many

who

subject was

opprobrium presumably in battle for in

without not only can for by

provided sectors

society) obviously taunts or

important be affected

one's of other

reputation people of birth .

bravery that,

a way

example,

nobility

cannot.

62.
63.

The

latter

is
note before.

the
in

view
passing

of

von
that

Erffa,
%a ut ..

62-3.
. c. has not been

We should ibid.. Cf. MR, See above, p. 155 pp. 15-6

encountered 64. 65. 66. 67. totally

pp. 37-8. and n. (d). and to p. 99n. 58; of the their suitors conduct. are not

above

insensitive

criticism

157

68. 68a. he

Cf.

pp. 29-30 fr. the which Solon enemies. Frankel, below, Whitman, too, that gives the elegiac are

above. deserves collocation a mention of in the Homer, to his for the way in which and

Solon exploits

13.5-6 epic

adjectivesaidoios for a different and deinos

deinos, purpose; to 69. 70. 71. know, citation 72. early the (West, of If his Cf. Cf. Cf.

complementary to be aidoios

wants

friends

Early P. 573n.

Greek 49.

Poetry

and

Philosophy,

p. 139. 37-9. but losing

Aristophanes Alkaios us no clue (West, least no (fr. as

and 428LP) to his

the lost

Comic his

Hero, shield, on

We the it. of of in date

feelings preserve p. 59), than 1974, do not fifth

Theognidean poetry are at p. 77, and (all? ) of for the above. of

corpus

does Studies, later Cp

a selection and if most

excerpts Studies,

century then

Gagarin, dating passages period

p. 193), greatly will

questions us,

authorship most

relative the

concern be legit-

since imate 73. 74. Phili 75. 76. 77. Cf. Cf.

considered discussion.

evidence pp. 38-49 47-9 (in

under

On these ,

aspects

philotes 46-50). Ethics, Fraisse, see

in

Hesiod,

cf.

Fraisse,,

general, Popular 2, Thgn.,

Pearson,

86 loc. Fraisse,

and cit..

88.

Pearson, On philotes 85-8. is

p. 245n. in

Philip,

50-6,

and

cf.

Pearson, 78. This

the (cf.

first von

instance Erffa,

of p. 73);

the here

noun it cf.

aischune appears aischos), reaction as an

we have in its although to disgrace.

encountered regular later On the cf. 73.3 cf. 79. the (on it sense, will

"disgrace" be used, like

("ugliness", aidos, of elenchea below); of

the

figurative Homeric

description usage of

a person (above, also Ar.

aischune, and . 855 Thuc. (oneidos, 8.

p. 22) $c

Hyperbolos,

P. 489

512 below). p. Eiro7rt job oc,. is and properly dictates of so

used

here close to

of in

a reaction sense anger, to

to aideomai; which governs

human

disapthe factor c.v To vO(knrNP

proval, verb which by

comes refers its

but the flpc f

divine here,

is

use

and

only

a kind

zeugma. p. 45 above, h. Cer. 64 pp. 124-5 above.

80.11.18.394

158

81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. by (as

Above, Above, Above, See ibid.; This a ptc. in is

pp. 76-82. pp. 56 p. 56. Sophrosyne, p. 18. and 77.

North, cf. the

431,453-6,497-8,665-6. first the example verb does 164 we have not also and met of aideomai a direct 1.2-3 followed object (p. 127

where We have as well it future (those for

govern Kallinos

Od. 8.86

(p. 109n. now

above)

above)). + ptc., these

usages

+ acc., encountered aideomai + inf. and , as rci crt r. xc c-t (Sol. fr. 32, P. 132 above) ; from (a) beclear that will one can feel aidos conduct passages and (c) (often); cited in (b) which concerning a pres. past ptc. present gives (11.22. the

concerning conduct grounds 104-7, 86a. Cf.

aidos); fr. 32). excessive 4; his ugly". 16-8. in the or

concerning

conduct

Sol.

502; (0 "look North,

drinking conduct

can becomes

V, LTict(XuVott aischron

one and both he

previously and 87. 88. and 516 89. 90. 91. it Cf.

On aidos one's + 518 Cf. Cf. Cf.

eyes, one's

cf.

P. 126 in

and

n. 41

above; cf.

on

ads pp.

YhWoc, on Ar.

voice

general,

below,

Knights,

276-7,637-8.

above, above, 105-12, with 1161-2, with a reaction

p. 91. pp. 92-3. where the where the cas the ingratitude-of of agathoi. is not similar, a quality if, aidos of is agathoi, one still de o and kakoi is

contrasted 91a. In

language but who is are

associated rather does

education, to ads those

aaathoi; to accord acJathoi other

however, one will their

possess

the follow

appropriate and

Presumably due. 92. 93. cratic 94. from World, See Cf.

convention

aaathoi

Pearson,

76-7. 213-5, in Thgn., p. 126 cf. above; Fraisse, and cf. on Philotes as 50-1. Ferguson's in the parallel Ancient an aristo-

h. Hom. Cer., virtue

Philip, J.

Lloyd-Jones, wisdom

Chinese P. 39).

TZ, p. 47, .. literature

(Moral

Values

159

95. 96.
97. that

Above, Cf.
Cf. aidos

83-6. above.
above, be a where proper the passfies response quoted to the seem excesses to suggest of the

pp. 92-3
P. 137 might party.

drinking

98. 99.

Cf. In

P. 139 line

above. then, of affect fr. his gift for his than and dike other in o their the A cc. S and 1t OA# 4 05E and of the vw4 are so

393, because

described success cf. 100. 101. poverty criticize he is thus do

moral

qualities,

wealth

and

not above.

application (pp. on the 130-1 the

adjectives;

P. 139 Cf.

Tyrtaios, bases in the

10.9 advice of

above). fact and is that so one wealth shoo his or ld not

Hesiod is

gods, that to

another urging rather this that mainly similar by

something audience simply

beyond

control; and above. p. 193) is in

consider cf.

circumstances pp. 29-35 (CP 1974, it of of

intentions 102. From

results; Gagarin is, the as proper however, is also is

passages Theognis with at 27-30,

concludes Hesiod, in and unjust. dike forms are not the

he

claims pursuit pursuit as to in the

concerned passage dishonest though, to

wealth; prestige and that other example,

status

means

seen right

aischron maintain corpus; for in later

Generally, refers of mostly dishonesty, described (cf.

Gagarin

economic such as of Popular

behaviour that dike, between as Ethics,

philoi, are 86-7).

in

terms

they

literature 103. 104. 105. 106. 107.

Pearson, above.

pp. 119-21 See below,

pp. 185,248-62,352,443. 219 above. however, not others; as (explicitly) cf. aidoia

pp. 112-3n. P. 122 See

above. above; in 04.8.169-77, does towards qualified victor which the man who attract p. 97n. 35, at the Q. 6.76-7, admiration

p. 126

(implicitly) aidos, p. 116 again (envy) 108. 109. Fates' but above; as of Moira, So

possesses rather charis of shows is

charis it also the

a quality others. p. 71.

attracts

Burton, association

Pvthian with

Odes, the

p. 159, family,

who but

also takes

refers

to

the

j xt as seKk

160

consecutive. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. And Von by Gildersleeve, p. 75. above. above; cf. WD. 185-8 3, rejected (p. 120). by von Erffa, is 77-8. followed by ad loc. (with further reff. ).

Erffa,

pp. 45-6 P. 119 Pindaros, JHS 1882,

p. 336n. p. 155; ad loc..

Jebb's

interpretation

Gildersleeve, 116. 117. (Leipzig 118. that P. 78. This is 1821), Pearson, sophrosvne

the

interpretation 171,178, quoted Ethics, above all,

of by p. 85 the if frequent of for aidos

Boeckh, von (on ability this is Erffa, Thgn.

Pindari ibid.. 1135-46) to

opera believes the it of aidos goes and

Popular is, of one's

recognize

consequences some ing aidos 119. 120. of the way to

actions; the as that

accepted,

explaining (as well

association and other a further 50-1 (aidos

sophrosyne intellectual with Cf.

terms

signifyof

qualities); good sense, cf. fr.

association and

52b.

euboulia).

0.1.52-3. Moira, of p. 20 divine suggests resentment another p. 36). E. 2.28-9. . loc.. from fr. its a wound 11.19-20 of this type, 51). at where cf. the in following a minimal might as indications 11.5. . be 111.7. .

Greene, concept (cf. See, for

form;

440-2, 446ff. 121. 122. 123.

Od. 4.78-81,22.287-9; Adkins, example, disgrace (p. 97n. also 40), occurs Many,

example

Q. 13.9-10, ad

So Gildersleeve, For the

accruing Tyrtaios, in aiiXto. said to

1.1.15.495-6 123a. P. 4.264. the victor's aischuno The

(p. 155n. physical at

primary, also occurs uglier"

sense 1.7.22, his

comparative arete is

be

"not

than

appearance. 124. Cf. von Erffa, p. 80.

125.

On v t- Ee-dtkoS,

see

von

Erffa,

p. 82.

161

3.

AESCHYLUS.

Moving difference and

from

archaic of

poetry in

to while

drama the

necessitates nature often as etc. in in in of the major their the tension themselves of tragic

a considerable speech detailec in the characters of the aidos to is in in a the the focus

approach; individual instances will the rle in in be of each these greatly; in

song,

especially of

Aeschylus, passages, of the their of the aidos

requires Pindar, tragedy the

elucidation most of our involved piece is the often concept as important

attention and

motivation aidos three but

meaning tragedians

a whole; crucial differ important of those

respects, in the

approaches concept and

Aeschylus of find

frequently motivation tense and

creation who

characters situation.

difficult

Before we must less occur, relevant 42 the force them the

considering carry out to the

the a brief

major

instances of

of some of the

aidos uses plays for the

etc., which, in

however, while which they of 800the

survey

crucial are

interpretation valuable period speaks and under of of

nevertheless terms in of the

evidence discussion. the the of


,

usage Pers.

At of the

ghost in at

Dareios (808,821) the (809-10):

hybris punishment their

Persian awaits

Greece Plataia;

that

description

crimes

includes

following el 0C
"1

lq

/k

VTES

EhkK S OU t W FTC
de ou -fr
this

vouvTo
dos that men should such as well to

rv)cac, J
have

eKvzc
sacrilege, arouse gods to aidos one's

VEws
it the

.
appears; in of be and stress the human

prevented will

conduct as the

presumably of to the

condemnation might still

anger

related reputation in the

sensitivity through

damage

self-image but led the to

discreditable the lack rather it. the of

behaviour, scruple than Aidos on should is the which the

text of

is

on

commission and divine,

sacrilege which is by aidos force await "wrong", now, is which because

sanctions, have have to by "wrong" is so is

preventedthese known men which and men that to 1

crimes such the

simply conduct

perpetrators that it

should offensive standards to this it

gods

who, live; the

lay the

down reaction dictates

should whether

conduct, popular

that

162

opinion, Also excess to lead in show to, those

the apparent

gods in

or

one's

own speech

personal are or seen the

moral ideas daring times may

conscience. of (831); before, be described antithesis of a son hybris, failure may

Dareios' and as we

(825,827-8,831) aidos, or be then,

boldness have

many which a Dike a

terms. aidos and

with, conduct equated 2 530M Fragment presents and excess; a "IT'


(ws

general speaks

between of Zeus

the (o to
S"Ovk

goddess . 4(31
pVL6 G V+1V

Hera,

-T-C-i<VO41 4 o'1 &Ti.

c(vroce

4"I/

a'

Sv kk -it'o
C Ets vaLwj

cra -rwJ cSa -r oe`wV


Kr)

k1
(32-5)3

Also the death;

in

Persae of

we the

find warrior

the

adverb in battle his

aischrs and account its of

in

the

context in

of

honour the 1

diminution the vrLV massacre

Messenger with the

prefaces following 1ff(V

of

Psyttaleia

EerwJ

Orolirf-(

(441-4): cK/GNociot.

VXh
oc i rW el,

-r
T

rOL
Of VAC crL

WrVrCV&
-ire
-vi

r rLV

&V

%1
'fip

G
1.

Kate vrt ais


wios (rL .11

A -re vac tv
The and which die badly by any contrast is

;S a. X
made between

the

previous slaughter to show of because 4 their their it

L valour, in

strength

loyaityandPthieirnsubsequent gave nobly; on them the no very opportunity unpleasantness precisely on their part.

circumstances qualities or reflects mitigated to

deaths was not

themselves, deeds

noble

In of hate

the

Redepaare is said

scene to (409-10),

of

the

Septem the throne this,

Melanippos, of in turn, Aischune is

the

adversary and to

Tydeus, proud

honour

words

and 4aseems for this primary to

explained

by his
(411); terms warrior, aischune surely Argive lines

freedom
to and at to the he

from
his

aischra
concern

and his
to his

reluctance
assume personal that

to
all honour

be kakos
these as to a

Winnington-Ingram refer

relates 5 683-5; the moral

Eteokles' reference of the of

desire here, defenders Amphiaraos); the bravery

avoid is

however, to their the of

superiority the may

opponents (especially

(with 411)

exception well explain

163

Melanippos, him does from not

but Tydeus, also

his and wish

worship we have avoid lie

of no the in

Aischune reason disgrace Melanippos's impiety ?%" Is

clearly to believe of

differentiates that Tydeus the of 6 It his

to must

cowardice; rejection

difference, opponent's be use noted of

then,

overweening that aischune we have and 409-10, not not which as

pride, A 'rah "disgrace" before

and Oe" as

excess.

should the

implies a synonym must 7 already of aidos, have

but but

a usage been

met

which

known,

quickly
both in Eum.

becomes

common.

The is in

motive frequently the

of

honour, adduced at

personal connexion 95-8

and with

collective the need complains for

(familial), vengeance to the

Oresteia; Erinyes:

Klytaimestra

sleeping

Etw
V 0VCrt4

r
E

NJ

w
O{1 C KTavaJ A&L1rEToc. C-

66

vFlCJJ ITULI

a. rxews
Vengeance, but without to then,

1' ckw.a.
should the speaks the dead, given might in manner by deceit (430-6), (479). wife and it is similarly, another shows, Cho. of (494), and his restore victim of the and, the the is time of the victim, here and bonds be and disgrace she dishonoured; reproach had strong she

vengeance ghost among dishonour, the family,

Klytaimestra's has suffer such within for him.

a living, of

human collective of

avenger, honour aidos on the killed burial one of

conceivably Orestes their he

a source

Certainly

Elektra death; receive unfitting

dwell he the for was

dishonourable aischrs, due his of a king status his

father's did not was

death is at to both chorus also

Agamemnon Aigisthos; is used lawful of the

adultery as

an Wischunter, kataischunteres, at $8.1363;

whom

dishonoured by the latter the is described Cho. 990 8 kill, and a similar Aigisthos reproach at and Klytai-

term, mestra for last it his

Aigisthos As the

shaming of was wife, 9 these felt

(aischunon) passages to even be

man's and to as

bed is

Ag. 1626. in a man of the the by

implied

others, seducing

discreditable the ) an primary is to

dishonour reference

though etc. for

terms by honour the was

employed cuckold.

(aischuno Revenge

the

disgrace done to

suffered Menelaos'

affront

164

presumably at Ag. 399-401 xenios

the

motive the for

for

the state shaming

expedition that Paris (yXvvE)

against was the table

Troy, punished of

for by his

chorus

Zeus host.

(362-6)

Of of the how

all aidos,

the

plays and this

the is of

Supplices so because Danaids below, in the

is

the of the

richest

in

instances placed consider usefully both adopt the on

importance we shall here we may

supplication aidos the and of affects role after

the

at 10

Argos; but

Pelasgos of the aidos crucial immediately not the opening take

examine before part even 207ff. the

chorus'

supplication The Danaids the at the

decision. on up entering

suppliants

orchestra, altar until of their in

though do they 11 and despite Argives; in is and


V AV

position of of the
C sc K1 GL W

absence lines towards they


(c

any the

representative play, to then, Zeus

the

supplication particular,
TQJ / 1t'VEVaTL

directed at 27-9
V )( WC

gods,
r1J

pray:
r ai8'

C1 O JOIJ KS

This aidoios not the

is

clearly must be aidos,

an

appeal in it

to

aidos, in it. rare,

and, 28; 12 the

this

being

the XJ

case, does of as The

active

sense

-g Vev

attract adjective see, are

manifests been

has it

hitherto frequently of the father,

The active 13 in but beside of the

usage this play,

we shall chorus

coexists importance who, in

passive. in their to
J&tS

reminded by upon the


ws

aidos

supplication to climb

their altar,

his

exortation
XC-vKocr&

them

urges

(191-6):
Kxc

Kkk

TXEofTK

aOCT&

-v. PW. o. 70( ws

aI6S i, xyx LITICC, C0tcoCOU ON r 15 C- E (. t(wJ VUfr. WV 6 )cOV LO) vws


i K. 677,1

&vauS a

cSc-6Aws r1k as -rt-EwwEL (ufgS TAr OV401 MocK-MVS , uvarac.


in it Zeus", significance these is but lines are possible is the no invested that reason to with ai(dCJ reject and,

Both the dto$ an

instances fullest means additional

of

aidoios

significance; "reverend active

always there for

adjective,

165

indeed, quite could semnos, adverb a way Whittle manner, present and this "

the likely be

parallel that

with a term to his

line normally protecting

1,

aphiktor, applicable deity. 14

shows to Like passive, the

that

it

is

suppliant the

applied derived 193 to (ad is

aidoios, and "in so

from most the ),

sebomai, naturally sebas of in an (of

is

normally taken others; in "

in as

the Friis "in

sense,

such and

arouse loc.

Johansen a reverent is also also aware),

however, feel that

translating active which

clearly beside does the not

connotation they Holding are

passive seem the of

impossible. are in to

branches and liants, the not aidos of again

semns, the the of use

Danaids the will but

utter is

the suppliant errl i fog oc c ... as to suppas arouse speaks

adjective speak in to they the his will

ambivalent; a way lines but of they

maidens others, reaction

such

following daughters, encounter; avoid be

Danaos their are (197), nor are to that

others' towards as befits in in

behaviour speak

those newcomers

to appear

(195), (198-9),

boldness

composed reluctant to they their are

countenance speech

neither all, this

forward they suggests

(200-1) hosts aidos

and, (202); as

above all

yield

prospective to manifest mention that in are aidos the to is

particular, given fested words

it, as attract well OexrV and o/%/. wroS -1t, of TG AA h ,4, frecntly to boldness opposed makes actively it very and likely passively that the aidoia.

in and, V1vxdJ, and mani-

eyes, be both

Danaids'

According supplicated and be the thus, correct

to

Danaos' are

precepts, to

then, show aidos

both in

suppliant a reciprocal at to of an both the was altar,

and manner it may in

expected

in to

connexion say that, ... other the

supplication with "aidos is common is characteristic hand, in by other of Homer the it

parties encounter

encounter, or "15 On the itself. is owed to

only

the which

Idos was is

which

suppliant and the in

supplicated too, supplicated.. the after in suppliant his fact, that plea

mentioned much more

explicitly, regularly supplication, feel in any dos making aidos for his he

places, the

aidos 16

reaction moreover, his plea may feel, protector he

In

personal perhaps accepted, overcome

while

might has been or

must, in

disclaim the self-

order

166

abasement take for the place; one's possibility

which one own

is kind

essential of aidos, and kind 947-9.18 also

to

personal at any rate, would

supplication17 namely actually as, it is who of concern

can

reputation of this

status, of

exclude indeed, unnecessary carry a city, those to element in ambiof out it

supplication, While, in to are then, those the gods (the pleas

threatens to deny

to that

at

E. Hel. is altar

aidos at when an the

required dedicated

supplication especially will behave suggest common any be better properly), that to both

suppliants to does might in it in it

women to be the an as

supplicated of who

disposed

accede seem to

exaggeration a reciprocal relationship that is the

aidos

always the far

exist supplication more

parties way;

schematic of

seems the

likely

valence Aeschylus' the

aidoios

passages and the that

discussed his

a feature

pregnant "how question, with the

style, will future

Danaids action of

for raising reasons behave? " are thematic, trilogy.

connected

the

After his ledge they but the

they subjects the have the

have the citizens' been

been

granted sing at

the in 641;

protection praise of

of Argos,

the

king and the at

and acknow-

Danaids aidos shown by

a reference must not also allow (adopted and be exist us

to

aidos 490-1, sure of is loc.; to is the lines, might 19

Pelasgos does

text

in sense;

that

place Porson's by can

to by

be

precise

e6c&04-/-"K Friis Johansen to

Page) ad

convincingly if the general as

rejected sense the best in

Whittle

Pelasgos presumably king

Danaids' taken his as

be assumed o_Lo5 -ire ai active,

a reference aidoios the aidos these ad s")

vos then to

referring ("deserving senses may

showed an

speech

immediately

preceding

although also be

honorific and

application the two

possible,

even

coexist.

In

Eumenides an

aidos oath the by in to ai

occurs

three

times an swearer thus

as oath to

the is its

proper sworn

response publicly it power; disthen, 20

towards and is and

(483-4,680,710); honour the of gods, must perjury; OCs? .i the and have for oJ

commits also sworn

observance; of their it was

partakes that these highly

society

general commit S&-t"40

believed all seems

creditable the phrase

reasons, appropriate.

167

dos

is

also

operative and is

in

the

familiar between male

sphere and

of

sexual in

relationships Aeschylus. modesty; at It

encounters particularly

female of

characteristic explain their

feminine presence thus:

PV 133-421 the chorus i k-rV-Trov xbr ae

)C wxh
`TewV Ta / The of most the natural abandonment O yt* to

vos
vXu/ cfrt

SL

C'}E a cIuJ .J

-1/

way by

take

these of

lines their

is

as

an

explanation feminine

the

chorus

natural

reticence commotion. B122.2DK) avri-01 aidos been ; the

in their desire to discover the origin of the 22 ( (elsewhere is E tE, a rare word only at Emp. S - /Efr1os, Otxe#S but Hesychios by rws, glosses Oceanids' manifested by eagerness connexion compare Danaids their the composure, in their of eyes then, or a product facial hammer of eyes above) the is of their has their

and

expression, and

shattered

noise to

Hephaistos' the and source the

subsequent again and aidos the

discover aidos 198-9 also to

commotion; apparent, the

between Supp. was

we might of the of

(p. 165 be The

where in the

manifested appropriateness

composure for should young

countenances.

of again

aidos we lines.

women is asserted '. notice oLri.v and (transposed enquire she, about admitting explains it; her

at fr. 355M. 23-4, o/7%w,, two ro5 in the by

and

previous

At the

Ag. 1203-4 chorus and was

Hermann

and

subsequent

editors) with relationprevented by an event

Kassandra'a that that aidos at as the aidos is future thus

sexual nature had of

relationship their

Apollo ship her in

sexual, of but

previously

speaking the past, is

occasioned reproach "delicacy" to one in for the

directed seen her prosperous 22a

conduct chorus (kftVV4'rlC. the C),

which

universally interpret to condition. 991-1009 although the

discreditable; as but not

immediately appropriate pitiful At

ads

prophetess'

Supp.

Danaos the

effectively term is not

urges

aidos

on warning

his them

daughters,

employed;

about

the

tendency

of

people

to

speak

ill

of

outsiders

(994-5),

168 he bing

urges to

them sexual

not

to

shame

him at

(V#TKrWv 1008-9 he

996)

by

succum-

temptation;

recapitulates:

v' coij xoC ' T(xs ors s d /41 " ,


Danaos, his this reveals through passages Aigisthos however, at that all; 25 they own then, is concerned and he that under which to feels is about afraid is honour control; Agamemnon. it necessary have in the that that 26 24 popular of the opinion mockery to is and of about others; and 23 reputation, that again women As. said in is that his are it at an

suggests once the in

himself the their

sensitive of men

aidos vulnerable

we might adultery It to seems make

compare with

those

Klytaimestra's

shame

remarkable, his speech indication he shows had in be

Danaos daughters, liable is

certainly, to behave

given

no which

manner his his other this

deprecates; that he,

commonly did not to

assumed believe

advice daughters

least, aversion

conceived the the play ultimate

suggest

that

but all men, have they although of that if their

passages might 27 it his men, not may,

explanation be possible even

character; is not on wrong hate this

however, in do may this they be

Danaos they do

about all

daughters neither and than it his

passage; need that such the (although

detailed passage

advice characterizes be

subject, rather

Danaos sure for what

daughters

we cannot

purpose).

Aidos women the

also at

occurs Ch o. 663-7, says: it.

as

a feature where

of

encounters knocking

between on the

men door

and of

Orestes, Tw ,,,

palace,

T5

cn

, off, s-rs E u-rr veoc E-rE cS " VV7 -r-Trac)Co5 ,a GTia`Y (--(AaL6iV CV dw ov6 ous ai VC 00cC'1' XOpV)
S TlkltV_ cvCK Ei j'E j V1 PC

V K;cr11V4IVIthat it 30 aidos can Once and be more tends

TE19. aC, OcEs


to be present when when plain i (Ooterf(ij) is close Telemachos aidos in parallel is order first that he

28
the

We have sexes speaking as

already 29 meet, is

seen and that

a hindrance boldness

required. to a' s,

seen

opposed be

31 and

a particularly where to

would advised

Od. 3.14,24 not to pay

76,32 attention

any

1 69

may

speak

freely,

then and

expresses

his

ads his is

which inhibition desirable

prevents by means here.

self-assertion, of At tharsos; Supp. 579 as the by tears"

finally

overcomes tharsos Io's

in

that

passage,

chorus the touch

sing of

of

release she
Fl

from her
`Awv

her

torment;

transformed aidos most that an with Friis it of

Zeus,
6tc PCTCu

"sheds
-tT Ev8

natural Io loses

'wew/ interpretation her of aidos her by

sorrowful 'cfw it i ); to her is assume tears not

the not are

of

these 33

words but

is that then,

expression regard Johansen would of it may other need to by to

aidos. or

weeping, 34 Her less

aidos,

shyness

her and

more Whittle

Zeus, union with sexual as (for, suggest as they acknowledge, for a woman at the at by to Io is at to lose of (their trans-

inappropriate FL) such

lation but (the no

air'oarxf

aidos

moment her FJW); her last

conception), condition is,

encompass possibility reject an human

embarrassment suggested application form, and

present there past able both which

however, 35 experiences; to at is weep, her itself and past a

having her

regained self-consciousness and of them of this piece of her (she her is

embarrassment, condition, and for the virtually

indignities product from because tears; able

at past is

her

present

experiences embarrassed

inseparable and out an in future a flood and of

present burst

previous not only

sufferings), plausible, it

is

acute

remark-

psychological

observation.

A different is found in as

kind fr.

of 228M,

aidos, where

though Achilles

still

with reproaches

sexual the

overtones, dead

Patroklos

follows:

tocs N
Male important regard accord complaint Thgn. be the 253-4 object his the

iJ e0. (rt cvrX


love that is context;

O(

VOJ O')
of

ei 1h
philia, grief to

'rPVV -rv-VW'J
a branch Achilles' as those It and these a failure

Two.
and leads show the the charis him to and his is

homosexual in

friend's charis is similar and of

death whichare to 1263-6.36 aidos,

aidos and

appropriate addressed is interesting

among to

philoi, tew/.

evo$ at can the later in

that to some

sebas

we shall two terms

have in

discuss detail

relationship this chapter.

between 37

170

In

number the or

of chavcter is

crucial

passages involved often in the the a

in

the has

plays, to make

passages a difficult

in

which choice is to in

more central

generally to of of the

stressful of we see and

situation, the aidos often character at the work

aidos and deep

absolutely the the

motivation play;

interpretation conscience in more and would type, than crises be

individual, direction,

emotion

works turmoil Septem of this

one of

indecision. to provide in view

psychological producing 38 imagine One might much of von evidence Erffa's for

that aidos 39

unlikely

particularly

comment:

"Fr Brder fest die

Eteokles kmpfen berzeugt, Vaterstadt Seite

spielt soll, da

bei aidos

der

Erwgung, keine mit hat Rolle.

ob Er

er ist

seinem vielmehr auf seiner

Polyneikes

seinem und da

Angriff sie auf

dik e verletzt steht. that has no " Eteokles role in his

eigenen Both tion brother both that the the that are wants he same fT E

assumption aidos

deliberates resolve does and is sees not it to

and fight

the his

asser-

questionable; to fight do as so; is his 40 shown


fE/Ot,

Eteokles brother but by


TtS

deliberate; as inevitable by aidos

he

should act,
EC Ir

he

also

motivated

to

683-5:
I OC1rxvv1s aTEC

KPUK(

l)'c W' 1Vt.lv&v c1F Ka e

IC

(O5

iv,

OV 'f'F

dct/,

1CxK6ZV

xswVl

Eteokles, warrior; disgrace have This met motive 41

then, he

is wishes

motivated to avoid and often to

by

concern

for and his

his aischra,

honour the

as

aischune preserve to is his

of this

cowardice, concern is

reputation; it to as shed

we aidos. his 42

enough one, must exist as be

recognize desire as

a personal and either is still desire that the it poetic it), these they

brother's with case matter the if the

blood, curse;

seen

somehow in own the

combined which no

independently, for 43 for through holds his or his

Eteokles how cause this the of notion is

responsible may affect and gods him,

desires, curse

curse his

concern work

honour, personal

may be 44 and, human

motives (although, normally

accepted, lacking

presumably omniscience, with the

good ordinary that

in

every men do

case not

recognize

result

the

individual

171

is

still of

liable

for everyday

the

consequences values; on motives the for

of nowhere

his in

own

actions is

in it out

terms

Aeschylus is cancelled 45 gods.

suggested by the

that belief

liability that all

human come

level the

from

Eteokles' important gave his the and no

concern element indication

for in of is

his his

honour, motivation; in Erffa among that

then, in

his

aidos,

is that

an he to face of

claiming his been of is to the the

aidos von

declaring may have

resolve thinking same horror replies in terms of the

brother, aidos it is

however, which certainly by of him; kindred terms We do of not the must

proper true

members aidos refer

family, disof the

this

totally

regarded shedding firstly the curse.

when

the

chorus

blood personal know brothers, surely of quarrel the

(677-82,718) honour, the rights but be seen

Eteokles secondly and wrongs

in

of

quarrel familial indeed, existence discreditable, their

between aidos the of

Eteokles' as

disregard

of as,

discreditable, the regarded condemned c(Lavaior importance scene as of in suppliants, but ). mere

reaction the

chorus

suggests; be are

would 831 both

probably brothers

as for

and

at

murderous

intentions

(wkovr'rtSci

We have in Supp.,

already and is constantly in

seen46 the

something play's central the king's to 332 the is of 491; the only 340

of

the

of this

aidos

decision

importance appeal does From both 333-4, and (-347) with the is not

even him entry and the

greater; to the

Danaids, sense give

aidos, to of their the

his requests.

aidos

lead

immediately until ancestral, theme until of is

Pelasgos' immmediate however, to the

origin the

Danaids, in

central is passage wrongs

issue; reintroduced, of of

supplication in this and

dominate question Aigyptioi in 337 47

stichomythia the the quarrel Danaids' in his but will of is war, already he

rights raised

allusively, of. their

and

evasiveness this desire soon involve which will connexion. to

is At

chaateristic Pelasgos' towards do so to

responses indicates

question the their

behave

properly that with the to

suppliants, satisfaction the as theme

recognizes conflict concern

their city

opponents; of Argos

a whole,

172

introduced, relish. the

and Against

it his an
V

is

a prospect to aidos

which go to (345):

the war

king on
IrTE,

does their

not behalf

reluctance appeal
ire vM/K

Danaids
A"

set
SOV

to

nEV1%/.

Pelasgos reference
(346), this protector it suggests

acnowledges to
and

the shudder
the

force he

of

this

appeal on
he the

by

his the altar


explains of is Zeus, the

the

experienced
or of

seeing
himself48 wrath

either in of

chorus-leader of the (347). power

shudder

terms

suppliants an instinctive thus be

Pelasgos' to the clear the

shudder act of

important;

reaction akin is the decision; involve by respect to

suppreaction of

lication aidos; no

and less

may

inhibitory statement he the can city

important of the king's and

of choose in a

the to accept or be

consequences the he supplication, can risk

thereby of in this Zeus

war, to parallel-

the crucial the

anger

allowing is both the are

suppliants obvious

maltreated; ism between

two

alternatives;

oe v(342,347)_

These

ideas

are the

developed chorus stress this, 1rc

in

the their

ensuing suppliant to

epirrhematic status the prospect then vs5), to the city of its but

section (348-53), of reiterate once (365-9),

(348-437); and war; their more but Pelasgos -rwV

accepts (ciract rote ov to aidos

but

returns The

j (358). esp.

Danaids

appeal Pelasgos now his the 366); of by

(359-64, to not his so

362pct.

refers mind is

resonsibility much (war) on as the on

consequences those takes the the the of

accepting (miasma the altar

supplication the the any must Danaids' city's pollution have the into war are in their

rejection before be

supplication gods, and since from 49 of From ignoring

place city will

affected the of has citizens Zeus",

resulting say.

supplication, general the girls' pollution; the people claim up of "wrath plea

then,

consequence the now both. the more the The people and VPCMO.

crystallized or

definite

idea

of and

pollution will that his be he

alternatives, chorus (370-5), warn him of reject but

involved must it

the they

king's pick

consult of pollution, KYos (375

mention

the

dangers

inviting

In

answer

Pelasgos

restates

the

difficulty

of

his

choice

173 50

(376-80), his The but choice Danaids Pelasgos he the

and

declares as remind not yet to be

himself a balanced him willing evade the of

unable

to

decide;

once two

again evils.

appears then is

antithesis the to anger decide of in

between Zeus their

(381-6), favour; hoping claims would they from Danaids, in clearly will the

instead that

attempts may the

decision to pursue (387-91); is

entirely, their he that him The

chorus with decide, to

persuaded of Egypt

accordance rather be not

nomoi and

probably the altar, of danger

he

hoping freeing 51

persuaded of Zeus are

leave the

thus pollution.

anger however,

and not

impressed

(392-6).

To the is for the

the

difficulty of

of the

the

choice of

the the is the

king people the

adds

the

idea

of and it

importance here and that against

views how

(397-401), balance in and or his

we see

complete of his of

mind exact and


1%".

acceptance between

supplication, to accept

how

parallelism the
0K Et'ItuV/

impulses either:
v%K -/1a ou, -rrce / P('TrWX4 why to

reject
1! e r'cft

between

consequences
c KCvrO4 CSe . C. ' Sac. S -r4 Kai VJ

t<et, T 00

tai i&v(yov K(KT ,'1

'

CV E

hC Ole

"_OTE

c-1 -rr1 if, L/


c irvl Here it does which censure their of ibility be what concern His choice, it, for the of uniquely their in is Pelasgos not not will of that wish affect the

X&wS,
,u T

C-c
WV exactly obliged sole whole in the

I.

/
he

I
(KS

-ru LOV -r
must consult

OLI
the

52 demos;

explains he to is take the people his j1.22.104-7; the ruin of

consult

them, for himself; disaster, is

simply a decision he fears

that

he

responsibility city event then, Hektor city, the may upon of

the

and to

imagines that

reproaches; Hektor for at

position, 53 his for

analogous his does his, and expresses concern in to aidos sorts of Zeus is not

recognizes Pelasgos ruin of Hektor

responswish fear his identical. or of aidos; to

responsible fellow-citizens terms then, but of is

both

say;

dos, not

and between the and and

Pelasgos' giving demands for aidos the at of wrath the

rejecting aidos rejection

between

two

suppliants the appeal, disapproval

inhibits of the

prospect

greatest

popular

inhibits

its

acceptance;

we have

174

already called here to it

seen for, inhibits

how and

aidos that both it

may can of

be

undesirable to of

when

initiative or diffidence; and leads

is

lead

indecision alternatives,

a pair

complete

amechania.

From remind and 37), gravity

402-54

the

position of the

remains other of the side ignoring importance no not not

unchanged; of the their of coin,

the

Danaids of Zeus (402-6) (418and he hopes the

Pelasgos the he of he best,

of

consequences stresses the

supplication deliberation he decides

and

conseqences, rather does

matter it

what and, (453-4).

(407-17,

438-54); for the

would he

choose,

though

expect

The the altar with

Danaids king's and the

now support Pelasgos injunction

realize they

that

something to

must hang

be

done

to

secure on the

threaten in. The

themselves their

gives (455), lcou(Of adjective epithet

Danaids JO(W bears

preface X/ the

threat

-rroMAwJ and once (cf. threat more 54 the the

Th

T' aidoios

txi

or WV sigin is the

fullest earlier so it

nificance; play the

has

especially is an end

o: u K; of a(oi. but, show speak the ads formal

been ambivalent t-rrl in 194), and t hciY6t to in the the

here; the is so

sense

that

chorus the right

abandon of they they

their suppliants, no no longer longer however,

appeals more

aidos it

which is

pertinently,

because father,

Paradoxically, XOVOLallows of the heeding there and is suppliants, mo ; the no he the

the urged on them by their aidos. wS 6 rgNucf. s 'fi"CF'rt(195) . Danaids' abandonment of aicsLot for the his wrath aidos for of Zeus, the protector of

king's to still prevail

over the

opinions of that it (472-3), chorus

stesses

terrible but he up does the

consequences now not words realizes heed of the

appeal escaping (478-9,

(468-71,474-7), miasma picking if

concludes

in

347,385,427):
OMwj i/KTeo pcdotVKvl V , t0lfos Z1v, A oS 6V OcGflios lel KoTuJ aoj .

Aidos in the

is full

thus

central sense of

to the

Pelasgos' word, for

decision; it results

it

is from

a decision

175

consideration the ibility tedly, recognition king's aidos, consequences the the

of

two of

alternatives, those will does not alternatives, bear for

and his

from and

an of

estimation the respons55 Admitthe the

of

individual decision of the which of both

decision. spring this is

immediately 56 but consequences, is produced of can the by an

from because of him finds to to it

evaluation leads that of the that, of he trying

the impasse; so the

consequences it is precisely to difficult decision tips the of the threat, Zeus, the 58

courses he to also

action, decide extent

because do so, it in speaks the their of threat of even is

evade threat

entirely; scales he but

favour, the is

true 57

that and

Danaids' as

a result the wrath new; this of 478 the dis-

of

necessity not (473)

heeding entirely but

something inevitable, as

it

makes prospect regarding not to

prospect has the always plea form that of is

miasma

been

evisaged

a consequence and ana 59 e in but to

(366,375,429-33) external imposed that the

refers virtual (a) (b). by his gods him

some

compulsion, upon a man of

compulsion by are the

ordinary of of

sensibilities

recognition much decision to a war he when

consequences than those

alternative alternative for of and the leave rather of city's compulsion appraisal

really

more

serious been

Pelasgos' twin and open they ceivable will is the not defile

has avoid which does he which, whole but

elaborately and harm forget that. it his the

prepared anger

concerns, to to avoid

pollution will not realizes because is from now

people

censure;

these the defiles imminent. king's

concerns, prospect the The own

coalesce, pollution the

inconaltar,

city, arises

absolute,

the

of

situation.

This

is

not

to

say the

that play

the

decision

is

taken

in

absolute human being of descfor his the

freedom; acting difficulty ribed choice dently king's happen as to of in

since

presents situation (a

a recognizable with a full which be

a plausible of ananke be the his in choice

awareness is also

difficulty it would to exist, on in be

439-40), free,

impossible as it side life that also the were, and

absolutely conflicting

indepenof not progthe

claims decisions

either real

own like

character; that. Let

do king's

it

also

noted

176

ress logical

towards realism; of

decision 60 he the this any

has would

been rather

portrayed not produces

with choose, aidos, and upon but of who

great because which desire oneself, one is who subject

psycho-

recognition to avoid the that the amechania; bringing mark he not can,

alternatives aidos, unpleasant who one fear cannot might of this

leads to is knows to

uncertainty consequences decide, almost freedom.

of of

one one,

say, 61

existentialist's

This called and that

psychological "carpet-scene" its the importance workings of the

realism of variously of aidos the

is

not

confined has 62

to

Supp.; much too, as

the

so-

Agamemnon estimated; give us

been here,

discussed, we find to the

important invitation notice is does to to in be

clues to the a key

meaning purple line what divine this to that her our her plan

scene. at 905,

Klytaimestra's but we should phthonos as is it

tread foregoing word in and in relevant wish but attract

begins }d vo 5J follows, disapproval scene as

a-rr4sTw , for and, referring (and to which of of

both an it

human ambiguity will be the

there of these

frequently is meant),

discussion praise in to the her

aidos;

Klytaimestra will is not

expresses attract that;

Agamemnon to come

phthonos, to

scene husband.

precisely

phthonos

The

invitation

follows, between the that comes of

from meaning which at

905-13,

and

ends

with words

deliberate have the he for

ambiguity herself latter's raises going (918-20)

Klytaimestra's they have and for almost

alone refusal questions on

and

Agamemnon; immediately

914-30,

appropriateness to reject to the oriental idea

and

propriety luxury and


i

(916-7), effeminacy

vehemently before
IFtJ)
`/

coming
% v oc , AEoJj

of
cirL

phthonos
"o

(921-4):
.J

'f woc r' T'L E /M4V' -t-GttdE v tz

'rlA, E 1'

C. l

-rr'o

KXO1. s (,/L

7
O

XLVC-tv

o acs

Tl, vTooC

ock46ZV Ki%rc vEu

) (&WV,

OU.

To and,

tread since

the the

strewn contrast for that it

purple,

then,

would Agamenon's emphatically

be

to

attract

phthonos, and there king the can has

between gods divine is

mortality drawn, which the

honours be no

proper doubt

the is

resentment

177

in

mind; of does

as

a result as to and evident surely "Different his

of be this

this wife

conviction asks, as and is

he

recognizes But wish be of does

the although to be

danger he

doing wish

afraid. he

not

honoured concern in be, the "Fame (Denniston is the

a god his

honoured ledged the wipers rather and is will is

(925), also must

that following shouts

success lines,

adnowwhich foot),

two aloud,

sense and

without ad loc.

embroideries"

and of

Page, the

than, 'embroideries"

ring ad loc.,

words

'footmats' Blass); it

(Fraenkel for exploit. his own

following which

this go

concern on to

reputation

Klytaimestra

Stichomythia argument the idea which that

now

begins,

and

Klytaimestra form an for act of

resorts sophistic varies the same

to

an

prefigures the and are and character 63 agent; used alo to etc.

one of in,

relativism, according Dissoi act and can kalo to Logoi be are

circumstance such both "the arguments aischron same"; of at

example, that that the

prove or

aischron not of to if the the

here the

Klytaimestra act, but she to and he at the gets tread 935-6 to differs he fails pomp relativity only too in do;

exploits variability Agamemnon purple he it from to only of clear, other for do; admits is

variable agent that vowed it to and the

character situation; not gods readily out is his that. not be

933-4

agree had

would the

discreditable 64 to do so, do his Priam what

one that for

Priam

would to that point he

fears

Agamemnon in 933 and he

situation and of this oriental the be

that nor lines the and

does before; act they to

rejection

remember 65 to the agent recognize or for

audience, and that other situation what

however, will may be is

both will

acceptable not acceptable

circumstances Agamemnon.

people

At

937-8

aidos to

enters walk in for on terms his

the the of

picture; purple Phobos has honour

Agamemnon vestments, and also to concern been reduce

has and for

shown has

his

reluctance his yet in reluctance his these

expressed

phthonos, and

concern lines by

revealed, the former

Klytaimestra to the

manages latter:

concern

appealing

178

ka.

, i "vuw

-i- vA, A vj

%t

11 Ec 0V

0,

i SC

r67SiY'4'"

A"
Kk" The to with here; relates husband prospect is pointed, between have he earlier allow

tt
ac

c' /4AVTOL
-rS to to '(

1/v 0be0 $ /t: `.


ot1K a irtStlAos have them been as

/(

F f9 E .
. enough only to and her at the ocvOCAnrtto distinction 922-5, might which do

'frC-Xc general concerned

references one who wished and

phthonos to is regard what

human she this

envy, interprets aidos

this

Klytaimestra reluctance as

chooses aidos,

Agamemnon's exclusively by his reply having for is direct not disapproval, to

popular he is but

disapproval; concerned

indicates of others' and honours out

that

Klytaimestra's a proper gods in

Agamemnon, appropriate that it no

drawn men only reply is by his and

pointed 66 fears.

human to not this desire

disapproval

He makes that one and finally

Klytaimestra's resented argument to attract his that that it is the fear of is also that

observation not his to be

whose it is

success clearly

envied, are envy as

scruples

allayed; his has with to walk

positive critical which be fear been afford quite of

proof of 67 he resentment; instinctively for reproach to him of imagine

success been the on

outweighs persuaded thought

aidos not has can

arose right the

would merely he

the

vestments mortals, of his

other, that 68

inferior one

and

encouraged to ignore

pre-eminence

such

dos.

Agamemnon disapproval takes of used as the off

gives has his

in

at

944, dispelled,

but

although traces

his of

fear ads on

of

others' he

been

remain; the the to

shoes

(944-7), attract

lest

his

treading again possible

vestments word regard or to is it an his is

gods without

(N-w- 1946) qualification, to a residual for as of

phthonos; and fear it of is

referring

human

criticism at any

instinctive undoing explained of

concern his in shoes terms

divine

resentment; avoiding

rate,

a means of (948-9): dos

phthonos

k
Agamemnon thus do is the vestments

$e/OJToC

ade

i s ic, caw%
-rrhvio/ his

(waraJ pcr

"Td rc .V "s e etvv1 that what he is

G.

s, about walk can to on

shows inappropriate;

awareness then, that

although, and he believes

he now wants to disapproval popular

179

be not

overcome, equivalent it to is do of off is to

his to

aidos the

nevertheless calculation, that all in he but is terms hopes the he is not of to

persists, can I get

because away that with

it it? he is

is

Rather about beliefs taking aidos

a sense is

well, the mitigate

what and

dangerous society; shoes, that

values his

religious by to

his his

offence

effect doing

reveal

this 69 wrong. of in wrong of in

concession

Agamemnon's the place builds Kassandra. committed surely criticize finished into latter prophetic connexion "En peur mais c'est donnee ce the play; at as the

aidos a sign

is

therefore that of on

important is

the it

scheme takes its

of

something a crescendo and

begining this It has real upon king point been

apprehension the had the the

which of

from

culminates 70 that, maintained in it is but this true scene, that

paroxysms Agamemnon chorus would do not

any comment the

offence it; openly, the lines pick by

chorus Klytaimestra

immediately accompany apprehension aidos, their and hearts

has entry

speaking palace has

which up the of

Agamemnon's which sing of (975-87). the the In

they

expessed fear de which Romilly71 sens, on

means vexes dire

now

this

writes: peut d'un que, par definition, d'un des elle s'appuie. sentiment peu toute malheur; viellards, est la Et, si de

un est ce

annonce qui rend

malheur,

prediction la crainte

'prophetique' d'etre sur cette laquelle corps alors pour est qu'il n'etre "

qu'avant premiere

prediction, celle-ci du quelque soit

trouble il

meme du faut peu bien raisonne

l'me, et sous She sign goes that assez

assez

conscient que

d'abord

sensible

cette on the 73 to

forme show order

indirecte. that of the prophetic

fear is

universe fear further, this the described the creation Supp.

be taken 72 upset, and may

as to

demonstrate hysteria. aidos that Phobos at the is

how One

the could

chorus' go of which to that to was

prefigures however, chain, king and

Kassandra's an. d Agamemnon's place we should at as aidos; is notice 923-4 the therefore as

the

beginning

apprehension similar of as

describes in 948 of

contribution considerable,

aidos it

tension

in

180

Agamemnon's error
description parodos. he and ship is to can do

in

for concern "carpet-scene" the


of His what his choice would, his alliance that in which

his

reputation, is also
to matter is

which ev
u

leads in the

him

into

ident

chorus'
in the

decision74 in this in

sacrifice clearly

Iphigeneia set be up his out;

either

sacrifice of the

daughter, and,

normal 75 as

circumstances, or he sees he puts the can it, choice both give desert in

unthinkable leaderIt

(206-13). terms similar are

noticeable those

Agamemnon Pelasgos sees

his;

alternatives

09 is

(206-8,

cf.

Supp. cf. as

342,347)76 Supp. 442); or see in

and

both

will

have

serious then,

consequences not presented because (simply but both

(211,

Agamemnon's painfully effects positions; over as before

amechania, is Pelasgos' our and the just other the scales eyes), as

vividly not

as its

we do

characters comes of the by to to

are favour

similar

Pelasgos result are be

one threat, for

alternative so his for

as

Danaids' his concern the


ujKAt

tipped right

Agamemnon 77 reputation. in 212-3

Fraenkel -

may

call

rhetorical
I

question

h -rT-ws c-Eva.
" "impossible; it is -/but of desertion rejection It is >ru'vcvs, envisages his loyalty honour, itself, anything position, audience$1it against still so, at his unable perhaps, a breach of of post"; to this the else) may, is only is impossible rejected part moreover, as by of

YE Wb"*%tc.
VlgJV

for him, the who Lesky

Agamemnon; not by

the

Aeschylus, of the

possibility 78

and

its

simply

motivation chooses well he his

the

character. term , he deserting his his word be of his by crime while the

Agamemnon, "by the he the

which", disgrace thus family, aidos

points would own this

pejorative 79 out, incur honour concern of can in the by

and

shame to put

chomses 80 (for

before for

and,

while the of

despite fear entirely have leads We saw was for well the by

absence disgrace

self-conscious may be

hardly one

understandable been viewed him that to the to for

indeed, nevertheless

sympathetically commit king two his a great in kinds Sup p., of

own to is

family. decide,

subject aidos have latter the

aidos; aidos at the

Agamemnon, philia, may until confirmed

daughter, aidos

balanced

prospect This

disgrace, is

eventually chorus'

prevailed. of

impression

designation

Ihis

181

delusion will kill have

(-rrgeoeocr9d, known of as

223) well

as as own they family, he do that and was

(222); it that is

Agamemnon aischron to would prospect.

a member lead

one's to aidos

knowledge with form the the

presumably

when

faced

In

the

next

play

of when

the he

trilogy too not


breast83 feature of

a similar is faced kill


and the

of

aidos

affects killing
Klytaimestra aidos ship, the for as

Orestes one
this does

with (cf.

whcnhe
bares

should
her

930).
to

prospect of 82 At 896-8
her son's relationis both family, to all phi (899): the oi. of

appeals

emotive Hekabe variety, at

mother-child aidos of is which one's related among and


aG

Il. to

22.82-4,84 all that

general

owed parents,

members which

especially requirement This appeal


/1

one's to

and

show

gratitude, Orestes'
jODGJ

appropriate resolve,
; h f1TE

destroys
t/hOC / '1"(.

he
blW

asks

{%CVEI

This

question in to is not

is

all

the normal

unthinkable intention Orestes alternatives, being horror undone of its

any

more striking 85 context, Unlike in

for as was

being

absolutely

Agamemnon's however, between is of in the two of

kill

Iphigeneia. really involved a decision face of his 86

Agamemnon, deliberation made

rather in the

already recognition There Orestes spare his of in are is

danger full

consequences. in line he Pylades not do in of Ag., is 899, free of

two thus

deliberative clearly although, enemies other of the faced

subjunctives with a choice; by he does

and to

mother, making all the

reminded gods, we have

the danger 87 Yet as so. this the some connexion, ignoring believe

passages the

considered

particularly of that aidos the is not

"carpet-scene" to go without by that that deeply it is is

intended

notice; ads the what held never for

represented more sure the true likely sign most that

mitigates converse he is about

Orestes' is true, to do

hesitation 88 but guilt, that is his aidos in it

it is

is a of

wrong and

terms is

traditional claimed of his in moral

beliefs, Eum. that

certainly

Orestes' neither in his the Orestes third in the

hesitation nor play, Present Apollo instead

a sign

innocence; circumstances

pleads

mitigating on the ads

insisting however,

Justice shows

of that

case; Orestes'

instance,

deed,

182 89

regardless values. produces sign that It his

of is

its

dike,

is

at

variance of is these

with

Orestes' aidos, is not and

awareness his aidos

traditional 90 values, which instinctive

a clear,

all

well.

We have danger is of

seen sign;

that now

the

rejection consider although from

of

aidos more

may

sometimes in difference 1-22F uses

be which fr.

a it

we shall

passages

explicitly emphasis. as

rejected, Snell, for

with Greek of also

a certain Drama,

Scenes the

225M of in line enough (lines

a basis development

delineation which he

a particular as a new beginning sense the

feature element of is each

Aestylean the in

tragedy, of is

Greek lost, as ivy

society. but printed the

regards 91 The general by Mette,

the for 9-14) c kk

papyrus our

clear

purposes;

fragment

wS h c-rv rLf OL ci. CX I KX vr icrc uv 1T'C wQd h " -re o-rrV ra ra v'
Coy 0d
es

reads: ircc Fi Fis

I. C-t

'. EYW '.

%i -re( 'TacYt_
5-rrO

TO -rLS

WS (PC(

Oc TULO

6 VOCIL TOvs

S0K (uVN

4ue/ere;

R-x ALL KW QT/fla . ws R E( E(. . Ep-4 )

OV

'( Ovs

1/ PV

Gt 93 what my

WOL

Kack

arT/ACTU

To6-uMocTi+C

92

According "I have against do

to not done,

Snell, care by

K you

ws think. I and "

FL

(12)

means, stand carry by it what I

shall shall

convictions,

through

your

resistance.

He thus tendency without in fact,

sees

the

fragment subjective to the of

as

the

first

indication of one's of of in

of own

a conduct as, moral that

towards reference an

evaluation universal the that

standards

society,

indication He recognizes

development it is not

a personal itself new

conscience. someone insouciance have are, mentioned for

should over

reject the any of

aidos loss of

(referring his of "I shield)

to Archilochos' 94 and he might in aidos; Homer these and say the

also who

a number do

characters to am not

whatever however, lies

reason, not of

insensitive say

characters, therein not the

ashamed", people who

something are of usually others

a difference; either are trying having on

"I effect

am

ashamed" criticisms

to,

conceal 95 them, or

seeking

to

183

oppose other possibility does mation army was as as also aidos

their people,

evaluation and of Here himself clearly

of

an in

act the

or latter

a situation instance one's own his the

to the

that

of

subjective Achilles and which his is in

judgement is clearly

of

actions own estito however, to 96 act The the

arise. of

setting against by others; where is be equally admitted, his his

prowess demanded the Iliad,

loyalty this, refusal apparent. is own

a whole his for in

position his the in the fragment, Iliad

comrades

demands it Achilles by the must

emphasis different; himself to to his exult the

somewhat of seems he

wishes other of his

opinion here

to in

be his

validated own of

Achaeans; worth be

knowledge others;

without

reference that

opinions for in the

we cannot of his

sure, was that

however, not he at

desire

recognition play, of he of his rejects two tell scene he leaders one the factors; from in has of owes and

prowess notice to the

stressed manifests 11.9.348-55. to a great Argives is seen to without 97 a

elsewhere similar The either boast, in as all that It the aidos or and

should value this

awareness which both

own in

army may

fragment has

relate

Achilles the descriptions that

uttered of the

we can

Redepaare

Septem also the

such

boasting superior he is

discreditable; the other

declared Achaeans, peers of

himself and or this thus

aidos may be the

which that extent somewhat

one's purpose from

one's passage the

superiors. was

wider of

to is where,

reveal certainly until anger that should thus

Achilles'

anaideia; that of

situation Iliad,

different of as

the

his was the be

rejection regarded other stoned

appropriate understandable; have already or

compensation, here it

Achilles' appears that (line he and of then, his that Snell's is face of the we he is 1)

Achaeans for firm his in

threatened his in desertion, the face

treason his position his

remaining

strongest should attitude position certainly popular be

disapproval aware as does that

from this

fellows; may

while, characterize also weight; admit

passage deal his own

reprehensible, carry a great up for .

we should of

Achilles in the

standing disapproval.

principles

Snell

is

also

right

in

identifying

other

Aeschylean

passages

184

which is for the the

are first Solon verdict

similar author 32W, of

in

tone, to

but

wrong passages already is

to

assert with

that such 99

compose

Aeschylus 98 a tone; in which to is,

which popular

we have opinion that

discussed, disputed behaved the

and

opposed

Solon's if

own

conviction a clearer

he

has of

creditably, Snell

anything, than the own to

example Bearing present variance similar from 613-4


ws

phenomenon then, that

discusses is not

225M. to at other,

in the

mind,

Aeschylus of we may

first conduct examine

subjective with popular in

evaluation opinion, his work.

one's go on

passages in

Snell mestra

cites is the

the

following speaker:

Ag., -

all

of

which

Klytai-

-ToL
o1C

i'b

o wo ios'
IKIf, cC 1. S

1k7$
yvvi.

ofxloc. -cs
U ycvvoeLv iloC C '/,

855-8

/i/i i/ OCVDebs

'71-6)7-r

'Tt'p&4r,

0S

'

(r(wV

TacIe,

of K i
TO -r

#CIrxVvo

*c(,

'-

V.S

os
c /S osavOO

E xOvw
K'G cI ol/K E'JC'a ir

c c.kr `SKS -rCrrus

-r

vC,

Hr1roc o-ww.

and

1372-6 '7ia'kw ( T, wx 'T o Co6 vr c'ir&v f aCit; W/ o vtJ\/ i

1tws
ac
The in but loyalty and first that of lack

t^S
VO$

EA

co KaIrt V

CI vocL

S CxA S -t<o vv .

os

-rth/ v KC L ((O Je
is

)CMa-T OeJ (I K-rkj l'o s,


similar is to of her the to 225M, a boast

these of

passages

superficially

inhibition has been the while prevents meaning it it to of be

regarding feigning virtue there one may

subject; husband, woman that and

Klytaimestra is a good precisely wife;

loyalty expected be some of

a noble

suggestion one's words own is is,

modesty the boast, credit, expectations

normally

speaking

virtues, her her

underlying assuming because of

Klytaimestra's true, that wife. as she says

that does

it

reveals

she

has

fulfilled

society's

a dutiful

In

the

second for her

passage husband

she

prefaces his

a speech absence

explaining with an

her assertion

longing

during

185

that

she

will

not

be time matters.

ashamed has

to

speak her these is, but is this

of

her

love

for with the

her regard aidos at it is

husband, to such

because private Klytaimestra of for an the 100 of with

blunted In to both ignore

inhibition passages on the

which least, lines was

claims

surface of are these lies;

insignificant meaning well and of the

kind, play at will her deceit. emerges conduct to the right

the that time

point they that that

probably

established the audience conceal to which her

deceit

aischron, denials aidos of does her

realize more 102 is third aidos

Klytaimestra's lack the of essence here have the passage subjective but which for the the is more still in turn need may be she

aidos101 regard

significant It this,

anaideia, attempt with duplicity as of of her an the aidos lack to

in

the

passage; might

prevented to fight

justify reference with

which of and

retaliation, so the

duplicity, of the

considered appraisal her lack

instance situation with of

individual's convention, lies, and

overcoming regard to for as her telling

suggests limitations effect entirely reprehensible of

aidos on her

husband is

imposed all without than three

a woman, is cumulative; for a man.

evident;

passages which, is for it

Klytaimestra is possibly

aidos,

a woman, 103

The that but

conviction one is

that wrong, bear in

one at

is

right, in

then, terms even if own of their of

may

actually insistence is

reveal values, of 104

least that, on indication clearly one's far

traditional the rights

we must and

mind

Achilles reprehensible language one's "what Two safely Snell of but In play, the he the own

Klytaimestra and an

their

morally the argument that than time. neither Aeschylus; account of in the because play, apply. Sophokles' that Prometheus' 105 may

a aAeia, that is in the

that

they

use of was

implies conduct unknown

evaluation say"

more

important

people other be

from

Aeschylus' but of his end does the the

passages used as

reveal evidence omits

a similar for the

outlook, practices from of similar as she the

presumably doubts includes

Septem

1029-30

about pY Antigone she is not

the 266,

authenticity to which

reservations

former 106 that

argues not be

much to

ashamed buried,

disobey in

order latter

Polyneikes

should

while

186

proud that

admission he is in not

that

he

willingly that term he idea others which

did

wrong should

(14"K(riv) mock in him

reveals for more 32; to the Aeschylus, though 108 in both his

concerned the his deed

Krwc; readily these judgement they perhaps becomes show

choosing to

his

enemies Solon is are

might fr.

apply cases of that

resembles of if first trace in right both

a subjective others, the and

opposed later in 107

even

than Solon,

phenomenon without fifth

observed Homer

not

entirely in

and

Archilochos,

common

century

literature.

We have Aeschylus; reserved and in its similar

now

covered comment

most on in which, to large in

of

the

instances

of

dos has

etc. been

in

some order as those

passages, that we have in which taken the degree the terms

however, we may already our over takeover of have overlap in observe

until cognates,

now,

how often are of not which

sebas occur

seen, terms many is

contexts have, of and us to to a

regularly the complete, exists

found, functions however, allows

extent, Aeschylus;

aidos the

considerable what

discover

common.

The -704:

most

obvious

point

of

contact

is

to

be

found

at

Pers.

694

Xo.

6Ej ONlxL
'r 0/4L d,

-rr
vT

orttFact
a / Ll

r//EV

)(aiw

-iE

JJcI " . T..

h oc .

X)
1 Tt

`-rr[
K. ct

k
o-K(,

rt

iAE
rTYf

vI i Ago t,' v ra S
Vo&/

X
T

F as Irf-rrE cI, c VO S

C-L1

'Tr(. cPC, ty.

(V1

". 'J

evVTVtoV

ErWJ

w S ai . E

L ON', 0. L
it C / s Se

41
CV fXP

vrl
L-T K

OC

4 ArOx .

4
The arises Dareios on to

Dc.

chorus from

r F-G Fo k%A a S -akx%J %. ? w4 kT -rjV "+. first describe inhibition


their their "ancient paraphrases their 109 reserve The
"respect

aC'rtv.
C rVM#
as sebas,

v 9i rrecrac
which

dread" it as in

of

their

former before the

king,

but go king

himself reiterate as
in the

aidos, terms with


for one

chorus the these


status"

of

fear,

which places

desribes
usages

deos.

connexion

fear
of

category,

superior

187

in

which

aidos to

is look

often Dareios'

found

in ghost

Homer, in the

while face which

the (694), is of

chorus' indicates often modesty, which manifesis to all. found

reluctance that in this contexts

characteristic which or to we should simply

shame-reaction, describe also the the the in occurs similarity range can of

terms in

embarrassment seem tations presumably Most important inhibitory association to us of

shame, respect; across why

contexts of the usages one are dos term the and

involve

inhibition one force of reason for of both our

these

Greek here,

apply

purposes its fear.

however, to

sebas, with

closeness

the

In

other

passages in identical. 'Try vi iV f

we find contexts

that

aidos are,

and to for Kai

sebas all

are intents

used

almost and

interchangeably purposes,

which

We might is vag crw/

compare, -rwvtjr

example, L &-V

Sup

222-3,

with

line

345 of the same play, v S'0 ,U at ar -r-C Vi "VPCV - [-UX EcwfE aidos is the the god the same of response response to at may the

. 5A>c.. CTv-1 but at 641, suppliant 815 (cf. Eum. 151). One's be aidos (Supp. 478-9)

&

Similarly, sebas reaction or sebas

describes to

suppliants

(671-2).

We

are

familiar such

enough seems L. ( 16 J -r-, x to t

with be the FVLO-V

aidos aidos /

as of ACi .'

power;

_a the jaV

reaction chorus " -tl

to at

another's gg. 362-4:

T J

AU jo' -rr' pl C 0 VT oct

i-ea v
...

r -LVoyTa

-TT'pC

Tb$oVI

Here his of than the recurs

aidos power, Paris. aidos collocation in

is

not

general

reverence been

for

a deity in is the

but

awe

at

has power which 110 In Aeschylus, in such of applications;

manifested sebas in Supp. in x. that at the

punishment more for common

however,

much

755-6, the 912

example, passage

YEv6 e to be

8owJ xS, ovs ae to curse.

sebas and cooles A 6e(-1 -n- kVvV and to -

fear

found

Persae

at , while it is clear directed

- o c1e / t/SC Orestes' is sebas power of a

akin

fear

be

mother's

188

Two

passages in

in

Ag.

show the the


6J,

how

sebizo of

works inferior
do, rf/K Ixv1l(00

as

did to

aideomai (mortal) as

in

Homer superior;

describing at 258-60
I/ CEWV,

response chorus
K%VToGt

address

Klytaimestra
OT651 01

follows:

vjKW

Er1-tyVV AC K"EC

4wros pp
they E
07&V"05

Tt, -G'
De 0V .

0C-I to 1YnW .

Similar

are "rrws

the

terms

in

which T'ws

greet CC-

Agamemnon

at

785-7:

"rreonror-J;

Kto
The in an presence Homer, equal to ads or exist of

xCLTOS;
Ti4LV could in 259 is instructive; another's idea of we decided tim that, be he be a reaction to ill and a similar

a superior, in sebas.

, "honouring"

seems

Both

aideomai in "favouring" to

and

the

verbs where

based ideas and

on

frequently or

contexts are

in sebas, of "honouring", sense in

fact,

occur "choosing"

present,

their

such Cho.

contexts 106-8, for vy) (ici6oo accepts his

seems example,

approximate the

to -fL1%av if

or -jrCorL that altar, that which

V. At she and

chorus-leader tomb At as it Eum. 760 ^it$

explains were an claims Orestes G4tS

honours Elektra became

Agamemnon's her aidos.

Zeus Verrall

saviour, "In "... the pity

-'rrKy"JoV of

my father's of that respect Zeus of says is the

lt"6of, " and fate, shame preferred,

translates, paraphrases, death, " more but

Gagarin112 at his father's

a sense point

and has

i. e. to that l fu

considered of Klytaimestra; of

important, similarly, tw o /s c

death

Agamemnon (at 739-40),,, -r-e or yi cw, v

Athevne

vV ocKoSoJ J's'1 k- roc vo

o'd

&fE-!

(r C rcrtro v/

and the

the words

chorus

recapitulate

sense
of ToKEas) "putting "death", In all
regularly

-rr cr oS -Trco. r Lq between aideomai and Teorl,, ^&w


and (governing fpvos ocs "portion", passages,
in

the Zcrvs

argument while is

of

Apollo

at

the

similarity
to

640 with in use

confirmed
Eum. 760, if

by the

Teo-a"144

-r o lcfwq together fate it


aideomai

tPos, at

equivalent 545-9. or, the the


it

ai 4o, wrvos then, means mean not 113

my father's but these

first", "honouring seems,


when

w! Cos may

paternal portion". idea of "honouring


governs a personal

present

189

object, is

transfers used in

the a similar idea

verb

somewhat sense at

from

its

normal and

Eum. 715

usage; 114 749.14

Containing the 55-7, power, although which lost fear positive at once the of reaction

the to

of of it

"honouring", superior does of power, the royal not

then, power; simply it

sebas appears

is

frequently from Cho.

one that new

however, for not the

respond and to have thus is

to

naked

regime in to

Klytaimestra is said house, Sebas,

Aigisthos, lost to not the have simply encompasses Similarly, has sebas already for sebas

lacking belonged

and then,

respect the

of

the but for

people. rather legitimate despite

powerful,

a reaction authority. the fact to urges


-roy/ Kea

admiration the chorus, of

which 115 he any chorus,

Ag. 1612 the

that show the

assumed Aigisthos.

place At

ruler,

refuse

PV 937
-Treo(Exo)

Prometheus
i c.r r&

6E'ou

ToLYC

PC&C .

and, the

although weak to the

he

clearly strong, the an

sees

-ro ec-&t%/ of

as the

the

reaction of that

of the it

regardless with expression

character shows one's

latter's must for also its

power, entail object.

connexion active

flattery of

admiration

Aidos, common and in se bas, one the for are of

as in

we have relationships which is

seen

on

numerous one's strangers.

occasions, parents, and

is family,

particularly friends in 707-9 Aeschylus, it receive of sebas which is

with involve in

those too, the

guests; At Supp.

found

these of Dike"

contexts. that at

"ordinances of their

parents Eum. 269-72 are all the may

should lack

sebas the

children, or

and

gods,

a guest by -r, 15 examples

rewarded as

parents one's (L ei-JcK, Kv1 s and of anaideia.

offences easily be

regarded seen116 perished to their

Likewise, were must refer

we have said to

already have

that Eteokles and Polyneikes SLaVOK c this rkp(, L and , lack of familial aidos.

fundamentally

As

a reaction is also very occurs from

to often

those

of

special towards

status, the in

sebas, gods; this

as

we have aidos it

seen, now

directed greater and

although connexion, literature,

with Aeschylus

frequency other fifth

appears

century

190

both used Supp. reveals,

poetry to

and

prose, man's

that

sebas Eum. 12-3 the much inversion

is to

the god; and are

more see

typical Septem

term 529-30, also to sebas; and pattern. it

designate

attitude

222-3,921-2, paradoxically, a god, that however, Aq. 925117), sebas on is its an first

Cho. 960, that feels is too an

897.541-2 entitled for the amount not mortals, normal of be

gods sebas

Prometheus, is implied

this can and

of

Mortals, e. g., that since, such ation dussebes religious right have also which and such

attract it should

a proper certainly religious in a result the

sebas inferred particularly bears

(see,

exclusively appearances As however,

concept, 117ait Homer, of the

no associasebes, in

exclusive with the and the

reference. gods,

frequent eusebes,

adjectives most can often refer

corresponding nouns 118 they contexts, although 119 (particularly wrongdoing, an interest proper or in human conduct)

occur to the

general gods they now can in

because and

hence

desiribe the gods

improper

behaviour interest.

have

a particular

in contexts 120

So

far

we have of there whereas to in

used terms is

sebas related frequently

and to

aidos these

as

shorthand in of the usage

for

the

complexes however, the two;

concepts;

Aeschylus, between

a difference sebas or denoted some often object refers

in

Homer person it

individual's which to that aroused quality is an ; *O d(, WfOXL his

reaction 121 awe, which obvious OkiS'W is as the

another Aeschylus such found.

most

occasions example not

in others; a reaction EKVrwV ZGu$ (&L-rML ff, --OP is In this sebas sense, the gods is PV 1091,122 described sebein. the relationship the to latter relationships sense, there is can no

Eum. 92 (j often c5

spoken x. of

of 644;

possession at i. e.

of Ag. 515, that

Supp. 396, as t1v sebas

similarly, heralds, designate at and Baas and fr.

Hermes

which which the

heralds one

Elsewhere virginity between we see

sebas of

can

anything 145M. 5 and in like sebas, is,

Europa Achilles that

Patroklos

homosexual 123 from 228M; relevant its objective Sometimes objective for

both of

aidos, in

philia, aidos

that

attract need to

whether reaction;

oJic tratlltu). ... L is the sebas at Eum. 885,

decide

quality 11 example,

or the subjective Oots rEocs the genitive

191

may

be

either ("the the to

possessive respect altar the

("the which a

majesty Persuasion

of

Persuasion") commands") and be an

or in object at the which be the

objective Supp. of 755 gods men older, develops see these was 55-7 royal respect must, properly exclaims: felt (p. 83-5

respect of the fEuvet. fFf ovrlit

is which SoLVv%oies, 0J things, the that, "that

r(t,, or be the to both;

S may

same or ;

play the

mortals ea'p may

similarly which gods, to the

things the

belonging sense meaning In not be both be

since

subjective from which the

appears to mean, in the at 189), all,

appears "awe", awe", many

term we as if Cho. in the that it

occasions

a process cases, such made, this is

beginning last,

h. Hom. Cer. distinction and the sebas arouses which now at

10-1.124 will

clearly of

clearest must the "stands Cho. 243, has

example the of

where which

quality

house itself, however,

respect

aside". in

the people and 125 A distinction that her the brother text

be

made

order

be and

understood;

Elektra

recognized

-rcLr-rrrS
It is important attitude Orestes' but /

9('45 (O' (. 1,14


to see to its that Elektra; most these 126

E(05
words os imply means

C"'q
nothing not "loyal" 127 about

"reliable",

normal

sense

in

Aeschylus,

and

'' "bringing upon now worthy equivalent 39)).

L- W4 me your and that this to

means

"bringing "

me something Elektra for him means all that

to

sebein", she has

not relied she

respect. felt he sebas has, (it (on

Orestes realizes of

these

years,

and

by

his

appearance, most see likely Goodwin,

regard i'' I(Ox

seems which

shown himself (O( is that Moods and Tenses,

In what

other is

passages required; for at


the In

the To ...

active

sense, (t

"respect" at ,S while their


to usage the of

is . 707

unambiguously must of to surely the the


6Eov1e

TEkovT14 parents" is clearly


(equivalent then, in the in

SUP the

mean

"respect

one's

sebas

townspeople
power in 749). and more of

Eum. 690

reaction
T +v of the of 128

Areiopagos conclusion, differs, than

K cILfF

the that duality the

substantives sebas nor terms is is there belonging

sebas much

aidos regular

duality aidos; of other

complete

correspondence

usage

192

to the the

the

same is

groups; not being true

while of,

the for

usage example, in

of

the aidoios

verbs and and

may

overlap, latter refer to has

same former

eusebes, the

normally asebeia

passive or to

sense129 however, provided its cognates

normally similar only explicit concern and where in in

active; kinds of

dussebeia, anaideia, and to

may the have

conduct for in own

latter no or

a general reference for the both

sense;

sebas

Aeschylus reputation.

popular In general aidos

disapproval in only object, "respect"; followed but in Aeschylus, overlap

one's other take

tragedians, a personal both or may

sebas be etc. like at sebas king; and, even from from with the that the

and

quasi-personal rendered could aideomai, ers. is the in one sebas image of 694-6 based two as be

that in by an

is,

situations as

Homer, infinitive, we (= are find

where 130 we saw, and thus

sebomai behave only

Aeschylus above), sebas of terms may but will (the is be in found. if and

this the

happening inhibitory their very some be its

(p. 186 on their

there

chorus' for

respect) obviously be is be to in

former close,

groups there other, it self

Homer, to at of the all, the

already aidos surely "ego conflict

contamination distinguished concern and with image

ideal"131) with

prospect the

action is

which to

that

distinction

bas and its.

etc.

are

certainly and plays,

more instances Supp.

common of and is the Eum.; not

in

Aeschylus former in the are

than most

aidos

cognates, in closely two

numerous works plot is

former

sebas since the aidos

with on linked an

aid os, act with of

which

surprising and of the the the and since,

centres commonly is

supplication reaction with to crime There of these

while

the

supplicated, gods, whose Iniiu . and, 20 instances been of the the new on

sebas concern sebas occasion, of

particularly for suppliants

associated is mainly also the central with

ritual. deterrence, some have two

is

concerned dos etc. and at justice in

intervenes. play; of the At many rest 482-8 she is

are

sebas

already passages that down will

discussed, trial process involve which the scene of

most Athens.

occur Athene about and the (483-4).

in

explains to lay

which and will feel

evidence jurors

witnesses, aidos

thesmos of oaths 132 The chorus,

for

193

however, not have

are the they murder the of the

concerned deterrent worry will murder

that effect that, go if

the of

new the

method old, power

of and is

punishment in their destroyed,

may song

(490-565) kindred to prevent

their

unavenged, of mothers of is on the this

and and guilty, point

there fathers

will

be

nothing The

(490-516). is they

example to at deter 517-25:

punishment and it

then, that

necessary enlarge

others,

k' i 4-i f eCe

CEVWV / 6V

vw 'fKirroV Kc B j VOJ

weovECV TC K0" ,v v a\(V- y coca// E JV wV ocF ''

132a

The of and more, are to

utility punishment to sebein but, not suggest


/'

of

fear causes Dike;

(41V (-Tb one sebas in to is

'I ) check thus

is

thus impulses

explained; to

133

fear

transgress, with fear the once two

associated with Cio.

as

we saw 526-30:
1' ,
lrl

connexion as
LUV GJtW

55-7,134 go on

exactly at

synonymous,
v Oc (FiiioJ
S"

the

chorus

immediately

icrc !

T
iVF oc

ToGv

Tl.

,`v`

w-rr` rkV
Fear of of punishment, coercion; (534-7). next stanza is (538-49) taken are up again then, despotic

/10-PA

%W

. TL

c 1.

04.1Vj

(I fro S

>c
is not are

hka
to be rewards

/ E
carried as

c-6L
to as the extent well punish-

there

ments In the

the by linked w

thought

L%LICO (522-5) the two concepts Teo5

Ti S ... A ietc (539), -l oci'j'(oK. of 545-9: EfKs ! TeoTwV

EvT oe V ((floc, and

at

"raS'F/TCS FVOT"U TI. 5 j

TaKw

K a% OcI Here Fws fo

05

C il ocil,

W. vu s are virtually synonyms, 135

Er 0' -7r( irCwVand

194

and

the

specific

virtues upholds, by sebas, the most the of

commended but 136 which Respect

are for of

those

which can also

aidos describe and and kept for it in which like to disregard punishto of thus

traditionally as maintained are

Aeschylus one's Greek that fear which in 137 less but and

parents virtues,

xenoi would force is see aidos ment fear the both that of

among that

canonical believe by the to by that

appear by their

chorus dike,

these of they 541-3; for

are

kind by

punishment would to this related also used and

maintained is, is in to fact, be

example; related

aidos punishments kerdos, no 138

distracted then, than

awaits; of

aidos,

seems sebas,

closely both are

punishment

reverence imply the popular

accorded more than

properly simple fear; of not

constituted it aidos mentioned; for is with

power, noticeable, the the

however,

frequent disapproval concerned

connexion is with

consequences Furies are

uniquely The for Furies' justice on

respect

auth1ority. the

song and the

concludes the

with

two for case to the

stanzas its

on

rewards and a at to which she at 690-1 just

punishments of the she Orestes' matter now

opposites, follows, judges until, and in

debate 681ff., them she

merits puts

Athene their had duties; promised to allay

explains (681) effect,

describes at 483-4,

the

thesmos and, by of views sebein of it

to the fear

institute chorus' and and, the (cf. and just sebas that sebas at

attempts the

fears as 696-9, are the

point a means the to efficacy that

point;

necessity is

of

promoting

behaviour find

affirmed,

an exact echo; 'Tt (E. -s-vTo,. uvod p4, (cf. 517-9), stated which ionalizes but it is makes mortals fear also in lie in that (700-6): Tot.
F

citizens 526-7), it is (cf. and

of the chorus %r TI veccXo4 Irb 'rD is only in EtvW fear institutthe state, been utility is

assumed 520-5). gives

Athene, them utility have

then,

and shown the their

these

qualities of justice; their of is

always new of it is

instrumental seems partiality clear old to

maintenance new

their lack for be 01 '/? aw71fC0J


Oyt

in the

objectivity, of of a court justice

context system

law, to

made to

the

new

superior

oVt v,
GI, T)

Toi TE
PCV

TCovvTCS we ocS
OL61

CVCKws
CCVOCWIrW'/

Ka
OuL

195
I A0-rc5 DeVTION/

dUf KE/W/

KV

bj l

Ovft '-0VTV,

CV

TlTf

005

OCOLKTa-/

A l"co GYP

&-4 dAugU CfC"


IOJ O 0

4d rwJ
ys Kort'

--rr
it is will to be that the the be an

Here object but are

sebasUlrefers of which not to awe will to

to the

the

new

system of

itself; which this mere will they

citizens, be aidoion, ruled

afraid, we

also be

and by

suggests coercion; deserve

imagine will

a state incorruptible,

Areiopagos respect of

and

the

people. for they of seems of on

Fear which Furies which feeling,

of

punishment, the power

then, to

produces enforce and, picture, the by it, in

sebas be view it

the the 539

agencies avenging and 705, that and this in the in

have or aidos

a homicide also is the enters

court, the

that

too,

aroused stress, far

forces is

punishment and term The found in if

deterrence; accords sense of in it differ there ional ultimate must in the be contexts sense with "respect with the

however, greater

sebas, of that

the for fear fear of the

frequency special

those is is

of

status". and is and person; many in in cases,

association in contexts in is which to seen,

aidos which is fear

traditional, fear of of (and disgrace

those aidos as

power at all

another in

from is no

sebas practical

we have

difference might to that be oneself such aideomai and the is an found

application), the contrast in is aidos rarely

a provisbetween (though expressed object, reference of fear, 139 in the it

distinction reference admitted in

contained a reference takes

which "respect") it

a personal

other-directed enlightened of of superior power

se bas; based

sebas, on the

seems,

form power, and

of yet

acknowledgement upon the nature

contingent to is it; with if the it

that

one's for

reaction it is have

is

concerned

with of with

consequences sanctions

oneself that it will ultimate

consequences rather than and

concrete the effect

concerned, on one's

punishments which is the

own of

status aidos.

reputation,

reference

196

The out, aidos "good not

utility 140

of recognized

fear

in by

the later

state writers, their

is,

as

de

Romilly

points Plato, and is state prevents aidos Platonic

particularly to play in this in the

(and fear"; simply but

aischune) for the Plato, respect

have

part aidos

however, which the fear this not the of in the

context of the

institutions of may explicitly fear inspired terror 42 disgrace lie

command, transgression, which is the we this in

the traditional 141 and, while in also Eum., shows counterpart it that is

which the

behind

occurs healthy

mentioned. by which and the Areiopagos

De Romilly the

the

affects with which, to do; as

characters earlier 143 Agamemnon's saw, sequence Eum. has of imagery world crime; we have beings quite the of been the distortion shown trilogy. of order, the aidos already that right. guilty there In the

trilogy, has in Ag. in

aidos

a certain Cho. several

amount and of the

resolution imagereflected disturbance fundamentally of the chorus

to

patterns in in from which human is not the the

occur 144 The

varieUs reflect which and

disruptions the results the fear the

trilogy a disturbance of

also

Agamemnon at some

looked is his

represent disturbance, of

instinctiveiof that something which antithe have, of as dos

presentation at Ag. 179-80)145

the

fear

torments cipates

(e. g. and

Aeschylus of who use

Demokritos'

Antiphon's which

descriptions affects 146 those and in his act

psychological we as with these certainly ence, not 148 well should an say, instinctive one's are

disturbance a bad

conscience, that

sense

a contemplated of own moral or o

conflicts whether 147 of all

internal described shows but, is not who as his

awareness as one's

standards, of society,

those the

he

recognition seen, to look by the on, gods; this the

phenomena that is is

consciis

we have restricted merely

awareness agent, but

diffused ultimately does has which particular form uncertainty 149 of is not

among regarded present

those as

and Aeschylus, as such, but

inspired

then, he

conscience the

unambiguously phenomenon convincing; of often use of and

recognized psychologically how his

presentedin notice

a way in

we should aidos to as an

representation which to his

instinctive and realism.

conscience is central

leads

indecision

psychological

197

NOTES 1. I

TO do

CHAPTER not use is that

THREE. the also it word the is "wrong" reaction inappropriate. in to any exclusively which moral is wrong

sense; in the

aidos sense

conduct

2. army

Dareios

hybris applies 9eKr4% (although in probably of many c. 1, its critics Lesky, as unwise

etc. 831 to

only refers see his (Gagarin, GI,

to to

the

conduct and as

of it

the is

Xerxes),

therefore the actions

remarks

explaining Drama, 47-8),

although Studies, Dareios' the other 3. in the see 4. conduct

commander (Dodds, Greek an

Aeschylean

P. 39, Poetry, revelation

Winnington-Ingram, p. 54) of of do the see nature the play's of

Tragic

comments of both

inspired and the

Xerxes only see (ed.

army, grasp.

which

characters fragment,

have

a partial Lloyd-Jones, Smyth, of Zeus

On this Loeb

Aeschylus of this

H. W. child

J-iS 1956,59-60, and 2) 576-81; 11 on appendix and Hera (probably Ares),

identity the On the latter text

discussion. of also the 444, see is Broadhead at not for frr. clear, ad loc.. The (Snell's Achilles (cf. (by 228,229M) stoning) the been idea of

dying

aischrs

occurs

225M. 21 but

restoration; means or, which disgrace cheated 4a. 5. 6. 7. 8. in Law 9. to likely,

sense he has from property). is in

perhaps him death 309M deceased

reproach

Patroklos

deserting of him) that the and the

more the

speaking mind for fact

army arises of his

(where has

the

Studies, See Cf. ibid.. See this in Cf. Gagarin, matter, Classical Dover, and p. 98 below,

p. 31. pp. 170-1. on 409.

Hutchinson

Aeschylean see MacDowell,

Drama, Ath.

188-9n.

29;

on Law,

Athenian P. 77,

law The

Homicide

Athens, GPM, p. 210; are and

114,124-5. in the Od. as the ae actions ea (cf. describes while by the gods is of Klytaiand

mestra n. 48, seduction learn conduct; as

Aigisthos above), of

described at Odd. 1.35 as warned that

pp. 20-1 Aigisthos' at 37-43 his be

Zeus

Klytaimestra was directly

we

that

he clear

about to

signs, for

surely, the

adultery

regarded

discreditable

adulterer.

198 10. 11. Poetr 12. 13. in the 14. von in Cf. Cf.

pp. See ,

171-6. Kopperschmidt, p. 63. von Erffa, p. 87, (pp. (Homer) both and Friis 150, Johansen and note (pp. P. 146 on an `( I using some of the examples cited both active So" Ji' and also 126-7 above 1 and sense "c3 Whittle, the above); on adverb on ad loc.. Die Hikesie, 55-7, Lesky, Greek Tragic

Od. 17.578 and of

107-8n.

0.19.243) coexistence See Erffa, 192 might to JHS as see Friis

Ep. 2.2,6.6 senses, cf.

P. I. 2.37. and cf.

Johansen p. 87, be who

and suggests

Whittle that 815,

192, for

aidoios

supported 1973,

by

fE 0(-v

(addressed 15. from 16. Gould, Supp. Homer;

Zeus). p. 87,

his

evidence. above; Sophokles, pp. 217-8below; Euripides,

64-70

363-84 17. 46-53, abasement 18. he See

below. two types Suppliant personal 301-2 to avoid his to of supplication, Drama, supplication, ; Menelaos self-humiliation reputation and he as the does 1,4-5, see see Kopperschmidt, 75-8; on self-

On the

Burian, in below,

Gould, Gould,

79,94-5. Theonoe, that Troy to it clasp as but

supplicate he feels of

attempts diminish knees or (=

would her

captor this

weep,

expresses

inhibition

aischune 19. 600 20. Erffa, an for 21. Attic this. It Aidoios (used

aidos). also ocurs as by cf. that but a simple, his wife). and &i to 210-1 below. Von been may have be no honorific epithet at Ag.

of

Agamemnon and oaths,

On aidos P. 95, legal

suggests formula,

p. 123 above fK' d`1 T-1 t oL there appears

evidence

seems this with Griffith, most

sensible chapter

to simply

treat

the

few of the

relevant traditional not

passages

in

PV in ation (see seems (Griffith, usage

because it of that legitimate not for it

associby him it date

Aeschylus, The likely, p. 253),

although Authenticity however, and so

is the

probably

Prometheus fifth century for

Bound); in the

is

evidence any

general about

of

the

period,

though

generalizations

Aeschylus. 22. So Griffith, as comm. ad loc.; or von Erffa interprets which is the disturbed

Oceanids'aidos

a feeling

condition

199

by what 22a.

the

noise kind of

of

Prometheus' or where sexuality speak of his however, Garvie, have they any are; might Danaos'

binding condition Orestes when is he it

(91-2), might drawing claims liaison

but be. on that

fails

to

say

feeling

Cf.

Cho. 917,

traditional he with knows is ashamed

shyness

regarding (aischumomai) to of he If is it he

mother's and

Aigisthos; exactly

speak what 23. it

does, see does who it

Klytaimestra

means; Danaos

ad

loc.. Ex 9Coc. in not mind at 1008, his take would wives;

specific probably be possible disgrace,

not

clear

Aegyptos that even they though

and could it

sons,

although

just in

a perverse entail see 24. 25. 26. and p. 66. 27. reff. 28. (his affect 29. ad 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. and Cf. loc.,. Cf. See See ); For that further P. 163 Cf. See

pleasure of Friis above their

prospective Johansen and general

daughters-in-law Whittle p. 71 III, and p. 290. n. 193).

and

(cf. p. 68.

in

Burian, Garvie, I,

Aeschylus' P. 32, III,

Supplices, P. 290, 215-23 and for Lesky,

P. 222, Greek

Friis Tragic

Johansen Poetry,

Whittle

Garvie, cf. the Friis text

Sup p.,

a discussion I, see -roTCx") 30-3. Garvie, in

(and

further

Johansen and for

Whittle

preference the

interpretation, rr -r" bc(?c e3 over our purposes). (also

ad does

loc. not

664

passage

for p. 73

Od. 18.184, Gould, JHS

above

pp. 71-4); (also IH

see 1980,

also

Garvie,

1973,

p. 87n.

65

p. 56).

pp. 8-9,55-6,57,107n. pp. 107n. 55 140,108n. above. and

150,117-8. 151,117-8,165 above.

pp. 8 and So Von The Friis Erffa,

Johansen p. 90.

Whittle,

ad

loc..

interpretation by that Friis aidos of Io's

of

the

scholiast, and found Whittle, of

followed ad loc.;

by

some their shame

edd.

rejected

Johansen is not

objection,

retrospective by an event as

(in basic the sense befoye Euripides is invalid; pasta, Kassandra an Io's that event ads it must at in

shame aidos (p. 167 cf.

occasioned could above); be for

in that used

the of of

the

same aideomai

Ag. 1203-4 the past, arise

pp. 37,132-3 past to guilt.

above; sufferings

simply does

because not mean

may be

from'her

tantamount

200

36. 37. 228M 38. in

Cf.

pp. 135-6

above. note i4 . that the 01 S """ ii(' ' deYV&. 1 of /,,.. in 229M. 4v rF-js r iA had an interest Aeschylus psychology, gral to plot, so be it. and

Below, is If

pp. 186-96;

expresses this approach

as .

im- -r&jV rw-l that and

assumes

individual and

characterization character tension he on 77-81 did are in not topic Tragedy, (against

Psychology the hardly its own creation be

inte

action it need

of said,

Aeschylus, indulge in in

although, characterization

for

sake; and and P. E. P. 141,

this

general,

Aristotle Poetics) contrast Studies, of

Greek

30-3,37-8 characterization GR 1973,3-19,

OO see Jones, (on ethos in Arist. in A. ), and

Easterling, Dover, Septem, it. JHS

Winnington-Ingram, esp. 69; the and approach has

1973,58-69, is less

Hutchinson, to P. 96. For is his commend

xxxiv-v,

tentative

much 39. 40. it

desire with the

to

fight

Polyneikes, in that the the

see inevitability

692,718-9 of is

(where the determined the

combined for curse,

a belief belief

conflict); by the

confrontation never his the in ), considers

653-9,695-7. that urge he him then, 16-7n. the curse might to do often 3 for may

Eteokles not so face (698); brought reff. work

possibility the and chorus

brother, question here not (see

even of

though free will

compulsion, Studies, however have desire; more curse; face his

Winningtonarise, that with would force to of refuse and had its it

Ingram, for, does his be the to

does

really assume conflict

(and it

we must not

objective the relevant Prima brother

existence), question had facie (see cQ effect is to to of choice

does versus to

compulsion resist for the him

Eteokles it is

wished not

impossible on

Hutchinson 1959, of the p. 86,

653-719 says scene, despite at

(p. 149) that he with the another Greek

contrast "no

Lloyd-Jones, the tenses,

who

choice"); of

Redepaare that, himself JHS

mixture Eteokles (see Poetr

suggest position (also PCPS

curse, gate Tragic Winningpp. 104-5) to make (Lesky,

could 58,60),

choose 1961,8-10 R. D.

Lesky,

1966,83-4, (esp. (on did 369-652, not had

, ton-Ingram, not clear

Dawe, p. 24;

1963,33-7

37),

Studies, believe whether either or

Hutchinson Aeschylus the postings

does it

that all

intend been made

not

201

Dawe) Ingram), think 41. Cf.

or

that but

some

have

been

made, has

nevertheless the seventh gate Aeschylean

holds

(Winningtonsome not "the that audience must been allotted"). p. 124, Winnington-Ingram,

not

that

already

Gagarin,

Drama,

35-6,39. 42. where So Hutchinson aidos disgrace does but, of concern at 716-7. p. 33 and rightly in curse is is the more argues rules passage; important out more for out coincidence the he possibiseems than fully the by to of on occur; wrongly, imputed for 653-719 Snell, (p. 149), Aischylos, that but success comparing p. 83 Eteokles that and of glory, I1.6.441-3, has the same not

comparison, the

believes cowardice,

fears injustice;

Eteokles' resurfaces 43. Class, and of human lity imply, personal Stebler, combination keit 44. 45. wirkt,

military

however,

Gewissensregungen, divine motives,

a Gewissensentscheidung however, motives, Entstehung of gibt that and the this

brought

und

Entwicklung, but remarks, Mglichkeit Studies, of Gagarin,

motives, es keine

the who recognizes p. 35, "Wo magische Notwendigdes 36-40. Aeschylean Drama, 6-11, Entrinnens. "

So Winnington-Ingram, See the etc.. above. Greek Johansen probably on miasma Tragic and discussion

17-8,20 46. 47. 48. 49. 1973, those esp. 50.

pp. 164-6 Cf. See This Lesky, Friis is

Poetry, Whittle,

p. 64. ad loc.. see any Gould, come JHS to

a legitimate as at the an result altar,

distinction; should see Parker,

p. 89; who 185. On his

harm asma,

supplicate

182-6,

amechania P. 62, Ji rwJ

here, Lesky, 1973, (399)

see Greek p. 82 is

Snell, Tragic this

Aischylos, Poetry, tactic. taken the of for and

P. 60, 64-5.

Kopperschnidt, 51. 52. sive decide and he and not of does cf. See eint Gould, -rC&e

for most

naturally has gravity decision

as

concesto

rather for the not their

than himself,

conditional; but such of see on Friis

Pelasgos is the his

power the the

matter city ad is that loc., thus his

implications want to;

Johansen

Whittle

notes by

365-9,368-9,484-5. constitution,

Pelasgos

constrained

a democratic

although

202
statements somewhat see 53. on 54. 55. Burian, The 401. Cf. pp. 164-6 above. of Class, Pelasgos' decision, see 30-3, Snell, Lesky, JHS by of his his power subsequent Drama, is also at 250ff. stress 53-7. made by Friis Johansen and Whittle, are on certainly the rOle of tempered the demos;

Suppliant

comparison

On the

importance 52-65,

Aischylos, 1966,78-80. 56. 57. 58. 59. that cation. 60. 61. 62. See Cf. For the. Lesky, Lesky, Lesky, So the Rivier,

Gewissensregungen,

JHS JHS 79-80.

1966, 1966,

p. 80, p. 79.

Rivier,

REG 1968,18,34-6.

p. 18 and somehow

Stebler,

p. 94, to

who

seems the

to

imagine suppli-,

gods

force

Pelasgos

accept

important Aischylos, contrasting of the of the

remarks

of

Lesky,

JHS

1966,

p. 80. (on (on

Snell, two

p. 143. views, Dawe, see see Fraenkel 1963, on 948 2 gR below, lines, p. 92. p. 92. the the p. 48n.

importance unimportance 63. 64. ad 65. 66.


67.
69.

scene), scene);

PCPS also

Easterling, see these Studies,

1973,10-1. pp. 568-70.

This On the loc., See Cf.


See
cf.

is

"non-sceptical" correct interpretation

relativism; of

see

Fraenkel,

and

cf.

Winnington-Ingram, P. 13, ibid..

Easterling, Easterling,
Page on 931ff.. Crsf0r(y ,ib; (,..

Winnington-Ingram,

69.

Cf.

von

Erffa,

p. 94; such

regarding by an

aidos infinitive,. to (i. may does e.

in

unfortunately (where phrases

he the

persists noun is (p. 29 "there of

in followed above)) is those as aidos faced to do

cf. airlCiJ the

equivalent to with x", 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. do x" it) aidos By La

11.17.336 and c(rL ; although arouses thing

Od. 3.24 to the as in say, aidos "it is this

prospect to the

come not PCPS

mean 1963,

same "disgrace" p. 48n.

aischron

context. Easterling, 10-12.

Dawe, Crainte,

2;

contrast

73-4.

P. 78. P. 75. The chorus describe and his Agamemnon's eventual consideration for one of over two the

alternatives,

preference

203

other, have

and

so

it

can ananke

hardly in decision 218

be

maintained refers

that to

he the

does

not but point ananke

a choice; of does "Many if that, it

probably (Snell,

necessary

consequences even out may arily

the

Aischylos, p. 65) in and who (introd. is

p. 143), right to not that the ed.

(JHS 1973, Dover not, T Koc. I. are resistible a motive and circumstance, Those Page and

principle" does claim to

encompass imply

necess-

absolute has and no choice

compulsion. include

Agamemnon Denniston 99, does Stebler, of anyone esp. have

of he

Page, Rivier,

xxiii-ix) but might,

Lloyd-Jones, recognizes lack do choice. the of

CQ 1962,187that (cf. the JHS case 1965,

191-2;

REG 1968,9-10, stresses however, his

a choice, p. 53); faced one with points can however,

freedom in

same Hammond, say that

a difficult out that "no

p. 47, has no

sensibly choice

those real his

who

Agamemnon hardly austerely the of

only in

mean treating

choice". choice is far from liable his forth decision; that is

We are an for

justified, philosophical sacrifice choice retribution Aeschylean (n. 18) is

perspective; of Iphigeneia no and the p. 197n. idea as he

Agamemnon matter his nature 17 that does). (but act of how calls his

freedom

restricted, whatever Drama,

Klytaimestra's see Gagarin Gagarin, also

notice

rejects to act

the

Agamemnon

absolutely

compelled 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. Gagarin, P. 172 See As

p. 92, above. JHS believes p. 81. p. 92 1S of and cf. p. 66. line that mother, it his for is Orestes wrong own which, however, is thematically see Garvie, his deed for is in probably any is normal that, circumas the will morally ad loc., be Stebler, p. 53. 1966, p. 81. p. xxvii). (introd.

Lesky, Page

JHSS 1966, See See The Gagarin, Dover, meaning he to kill for wrong; that with for what the he

1973, this

although stance retribution initial a sign parallel and, that

recognizes one's for

justified is words and

Klytaimestra's, the audience, vengeance of that about his his

him, the

Orestes' that view is

mother; here is wrong,

Orestes to do

expresses see

realization Popular

Pearson,

204 (cf.

Ethics, 83. Or,

p. 20 (Garvie, Gagarin, 28-9,

Snell, the ad

Aischylos, actor playing In. 84. precedes p. 31), in his

p. 120). her See the but his makes p. 46 play's resolve for some equivalent above.

probably,

gesture 85. Cf. 86. (Rivier, at several

loc.

). (with n. 113)

Orestes'

P. 99. "decision" Stebler, notably

beginning is the strengthened view only that at

points, fully realizes ad but divine not the yet

the

kommos; decision

Orestes 899, 87. cf. Snell

what loc.. 133-4) wrong forces entered same end

involves

Garvie, (Aischylos, choice,

is to

thus it Class,

correct as p. 44);

in

stressing in his

Orestes' heart Erinyes Erinyes introd. tains Garvie by that 88. 89. Apollo

see (cf. the

a struggle

between have desire p. xxxii. that on

Klytaimestra's Agamemnon's Cho., mainof laid down shows

equation, Apollo; (cf. but of his the cf. Stebler, see

and

as

Garvie,

Rivier, has very Orestes is not no

25,28-9 choice, disobey impossible Tulane justice

p. 91) remarks (271-96) p. xxxi). 3.3

Orestes 899; should the

the

mention

punishments command

disobedience e. g. W.

(Garvie, Review, A., see his

Arrowsmith, retributive etc.. act is thus

Drama in

(1959)

p. 49. 25-6,

On dik e as Orestes' of

Gagarin,

76-80,83-4,146-7, 90.

in

conflict of his

with society,

internalized his must aidos be seen

awareness arises as p. 91); that but in his Apollo her work a form

the

standards from

and which

instinctively of conscience stresses

this (Snell, Orestes' is at C. G.

awareness, Aischylus,

131,133, yet divine

Stebler, maintains compulsion; Earlier between

Stebler personal does (p.

Gewissens-Not, overcome least Jung's reflexion which the the terms distinction to the that not by

conscience not 1j)! compel, quotes "moral do not helpful, aidos make clearly

absolutely.

distinction and is

"ethical deliberation, ins t the is

conscience", and I

involving

conscious activated to in latter a'dos make itself cate-

conscience", know that but

nctively; distinction Orestes' could

used

are

valid; ancj gory, one always, implies the

belongs the

a case

for

argument to "other

even this

when form which

explicitly of conscience; arises

related this the

people", perhaps, that, avoid when

might, assumption

confusion

from

205 "conscience" Greek literature, is

is

mentioned a private,

with

regard personal,

to

Homer

or

reflective has been

classical or "ethical" (see red.

conscience 91. Page, Smyth] against still Poetry, he draws The

meant. of Pap. but III, the fragment 136-41, Page's disputed Aeschylus arguments of probability Greek and deserve the Tracic analogies to be is Lloyd-Jones,

authenticity -

Sel.

II2,590-3), are that hardly the

literary/dramatic the balance see Lesky,

conclusive; is by

fragment certainly other,

A.;

p. 101; with

Snell's Aeschylean

argument, passages,

discussed. 92. Snell (Scenes, (for striking, he p. 8) is but restores to KctC"t/M' be the which , speaker) would lack of make aidos

Achilles' the if of be 93. more he the read line

assumed his

o/6 EIj (attributed

apply would still argument ; P mark at a question with 0JK Fc by Lloyd-Jones to Schadewaldt)

even the end might

a better P. 8, cf.

restoration. Stebler, p. 69, Sept. cry, who, "Sticks like Snell, also cites to Ag.

him, 1373 and, unlike 95. ffiA Pthe child's 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. Cf. P. 53 See 47-8,53 above. Scenes, p. 9. above. on in ME, above.

1029-30. and stones ....

pp. 132-4 See

pp. 142-4 later

deceit than

in the

Thgn.;

cf.

PV 685 under

(which discussion);

is

doubtless also 101. would occurs aideomai 102. The Adkins,

date

passages

p. 181. in and, 856 expresses in Cho. 917 used. also have first gasped of on hearing of K """ adultery Fraenkel, good reason on to 856, do exactly every (n. 22a case above), the same where sense as

aI rxvvovxt ^%c(etYam. in A. might audience 856-7, (Ag.

indeed,

aischunomai

1373, be may thinking

Sept-1029)

also

t1f wt in with denies so). 103. 104. 105. Cf. As

Klytaimestra's P. 122; is no

Aigisthos the double

(cf.

Snell, meaning, 1373

Aischylos, but there

Fraenkel Snell

on

(which Scenes,

he

rejates

to

856).

recognizes, topic, see

10-11. on 1005-78, Lesky, Gree k

On this

Hutchinson

206

Tragic Lloyd-Jones, 106.

Poetry, CQ below,

61-2;

for

an

argument further

for lit,

authenticity, in all three.

see

1959,80-115; pp. 22S-4.

See

107. accuse should

Paris him be

in of noted

particular slacking that he in

is and

scarcely cowardice his face see of Paris

perturbed (pp. own 33-4 skills

that above), (the criticism;

others and gifts it of we

defends the to

Aphrodite, may 108. be

11.3.64-6) intended,

Hektor's as

however,

a bad

example.

of

pp. 134-5 above. LiarwA 109. On Wilamowitz' see Broadhead on200-2; suggestion (t , -dA ft. (for that from MSS tf-c.., K, arising A ) is a form c likely do either the to be right than seems more assumption Sicw, it is the that on the analogy middle of and means "fear" i 3. i , 14
sfJi. I v/ v. u, or Hermann's suggestion fear is the s. v. c t Fwc("I in any speed" "I flee"?? ); by in A. 59 the 065 see and connexion in 703; Italie, 111n. 1. this Index, with is, only and case, instance de Romilly,

See

guaranteed of La 46'4&3 Crainte,

certain cf.

110. 111. 112. 113. sing Italie here more 114. sense, 115. the (58-9)

Cf.

von

Erffa,

93-4;

on

Paris'

crime,

cf.

pp. 163-4

above.

pp. 48-55. Aeschylean Von Erffa, Drama, p. 92, p. 78. interprets the which mors mean as the "portion", is line the correctly, same as dismisVerrall's; es,5, but "death" is

Wilamowitz'

translation, only could

(s. v. ) gives and likely For cf. Such point were by sebo at 640 at it 739. etc.

meaning

of /n

although in

meaning

"honour"

a more

straightforward

Supp. is

1024-5, the yet to of the

A_g. 274,779-80,833,1612 sense more draw of

clearly be

would

rF(S. S ... made emphatically the contrast and the but

and Cho. 637. ;S v' V if oEirw the which makes difficult, J '*rts

intended the rule to the it both to which

between fear this

sebas is the the

attracted people's connexion and, fear of 116. 117. on

Agamemnon new tyranny,

response with balance,

words is cause the

immediately more and likely effect refer;

following that of it the see is

Klytaimestra's withdrawal on 58-60.

(perhaps respect) p. 171 p. 177.

people's Garvie

chorus

above.

207

117a. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 157-8. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127.
127a. ing the the

pp. 92-3 e. g. Sup Sup i. e. Cf. . . 941,

above. As.. Eum. 532. (supplication), aidos; similar see p. 92, (of Cho. 704 and the cf. (xeria). 338,372, Cho. 122, Eum. 910.

340,419 like

125-6. dead Agamemnon) at Cho.

the

vocative

Cf. See Cf. See

P. 169 p. 125 Garvie, Roisman,

above. above. ad p. 112.


545 of (1GKtWV parents" parents Ce aS or deserve. GV3'Ir[OTI'S) "placing " due may mean "honouron importance

loc.. p. 107 and contrast Garvie, ad loc..

Loyalty,

Roisman,
In Eum. majesty

respect

which

128.

Although 35,116,120 see

aidos

= that above -

which but not

one in

A A..

S-c-Zrct

is

found

pp. 97n. 129. 130. 131. 132. 132a.

But

pp. 164-6 above.

above.

pp. 92-3 See Cf.

p. 2 above. p. 166 above. of the fear most La is what is wanted p. 111. in 522 (cf. 699); likely Crainte,

The idea c-v 4 vw seems Cf. Cf. Cf. Cf. Cf. Von de

emendation.

133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138.

Romilly, above. above. above.

P. 189 P. 188 P. 189

pp. 119-21,144,150-1 Erffa, by an p. 104, the claims latter's

above. that aidos and with is to sebas fear are of not to to be

distinguished punishment, share; and those aidos 139. 135-6, 140. La it neither, appears who and show sebas

association which is aidos

association however, from no this sebas

supposed fear of

equivalent that who and

punishment, awaits both both to punish

passage and to those power,

punishment show the no ability

aidos;

respond fear" in La 112-3.

demonstrates On "good de

power. Eum., Crainte, cf. C. W. 113-4. Macleod, 1982,

Romilly,

Crainte,

208

141. 142. 143. 144. F. I.

See

Pl.

Laws cf.

647a,

699c JHS

(aidos), 1983,

647b, p. 135.

671d

(aischune).

P. 114; Cf. See Zeitlin,

Macleod, above. p. 138;

P. 179 Macleod,

cf.

J. J.

Peradotto,

AJP

1964,378-93, J. A. Haldane,

TAPA

1965,463-508,1966,645-53, T. N. Gantz, JHS 1977,28-38. on (pp. these

TES 1965,33-41, , 145. See Class, 146. 147. 148.


149. etc., if so

and

Gewissensregungen, Pp. 546-7,561-2. example, p. 95.


to not sebo other leave etc. similar etc.; 652 see (pers. obj., p. 102), terms hazomai are

35-41

lines.

See See, Cf.


With we aideomai hazomai as

below, for Stebler,


regard should and

Aq. 948,

Cho-889

178-9,181

above).

which entirely

are

close out identical of

to

aideomai account; in sense,

frequently ideas Pers. obj., _ of 589 = fear, (abs.,

expresses do sebo Sup

respect of

and to in (abs. "honour",

honour royal awe with

obeisance "stand Eum. 389 obi. =

power), of"), fear, 884 cf.

. (quasi-pers. von

"respect",

"respect"), 1002 (pers.

Erffa,

"respect",

"venerate").

209

4.

Sophokles. Sophokles from does use our from with aidos approach that von Erffa and its to the relatives younger in the diffpoet previous has not as the of along in over be terms that with the in need

Although erently not differ

Aeschylus, substantially

employed that in feel that, the

chapter; same

we might connexion with (although of in the Snell,

agree moral

aidos

responsibility also

Sophokles under importance so

Aeschylus1 influence concept his

we might he has

exaggerated not,

latter); that

we should we have to no

however, as

contention

opportunity, operation Aeschylus, of rle characters, for of the the the

we had of aidos

Aeschylus' the course

Supplices, of first an entire of all

the observe 2 as in play; the with

we shall relevant the concepts and thirdly

concerned in they with of the on the individual

with then

meaning the of

the of

passages, in the

represent the

motivation of our and of the

implications plays as a whole;

findings in all

interpretation plays, values with based

extant of

possible aidos can

exception make to our

PT,

complex

a significant, understanding Sophokles two based over of what the is sides on

sometimes of belong to every the

a crucial, drama.

contribution The idea place, people subjective people loom aware find large that

extant that and may

plays there

of are

to

an story

age

in

which

the

became

a common- that have that communicate -

problems differ ideas it in

sophistic of and

relativism words, what is may true, to

meanings right

difficult, his work. often that

sometimes Sophokles hold they views interpret one in his

impossible understands or attitudes events kind work, of if the us at what of

partiality, that and aidos and his are

people and

contradictory to suit

situations is characis, element depends the tragic essential on and of

themselves; set have of of of against only action

accordingly, another a partial it dictates; often and seems

frequently ters what in the force conflict the often course plays interplay in

grasp (to necessity, to me,

aidos

tragic least) of on

Aeschylus freedom it

much centres

Sophokles, of values.

an

210

Our but not

terms the

occur passages to

with

relative are of

frequency largely the drama.


TO

in

Oedipus

Tyrannus, and Oedipus are

concerned the
ov

heterogeneous, At
d"C-

central
GVTWJ

meaning of
c&6

354-5

accuses

Teiresias

anaideia
j

'S Crk%VIro'S

and failing

his

outrage to accord from false; of the

seems him

to the

stem

from

a belief his status accusations would of be in then

that

the

seer and, soon his

is

respect that anaideia (disgrace) may and on easily Kreon their C-Ira his

demands will lie in

perhaps, proved regard against Iokaste, following the city:

a conviction Teiresias' consequences which Oedipus based

be

dis-

making

accusations At 635-6 the of delivers

a superior finding reproach,

refuted. dispute, of

neglect

the

ills

Ov

t! x vv/G-6O& c of

uvrw
Her to words work the they in refer its right fail imply when Il. of

vveovsIs
to the interests of to where its do so;

Cctoc
duty in of time

'1 S
i<oc the and their community seem to

kLvav'rrj the of to leaders trouble,

members the

criticize thus recall nemesis Meriones Iokaste's

betters passages like reaction in con-

lines foresees and 3

13.292-3, those who

Idomeneus see than himself in it battle. is

as

the

might

versation then, personal suggests evidenced for the

rather indicates differences that in charge the the of

engaged , eIfi'oc tfx (aischron?

vYI-f6<r. ) to put and

that

discreditable the good concern of for

before competitive quarrel failure

the

community, personal to

honour a concern

should in

be

subordinated

co-operation.

We have

noted

a connexion in the phrase is oath but object the OC- v). to

particularly 4 ides. The asked itself to

between a' tcf&it KL found sworn by Kreon; of gods his who In at not 0I.

os 'r'im

and

oaths

already, the Eumenis the oath seems

eo"(Ko' in where

same

phrase an

647, by

Oedipus as of in the

"respect" passages, is to be the

himself, the and power this

Aeschylean

here aidos, are its

power

to that analogous of C Ifv KOJ aitEdEt j other grounds on which

guarantors gives for

(note Oedipus aidos for

648

Iokaste asking

aideisthai,

21 1 (presumably the chorus

herself and for

on

the

grounds as

of

their

marital might judge

philia) his

( who, conduct up the both he

bystanders,

present, then feel in is the

excessive (652-3) aidos past for and in the this take

adversely). appeal, because is with the aidos accorded supplication now and he "big

The ask has in but

chorus

themselves should worth Idos

that

Oedipus his Again it is the

Kreon, because

proved oath". now which

operative of In

connexion oath, case to not the that and

oaths, oath felt itself, for

swearer aidos. broadly swearing punishment case; the in the

commands seems the divine in each while himself element reaction swearof his his both of

the

individual in sanction

similar of an is

suppliants; the

oath invoked,

albeit is protected invokes

slightly by divine nevertheless, and both by the the

differently gods destruction the may from

suppliant of of an his

harm on

swearer the event

oath

perjury; situation, addition,

divine be and the the

signifies to ing that of

a powerful power. an in to on oath In

aidos

supplication placing suppliant of an oath its oath

create of while question believe honour

tension stress; the of one or swearer its who to his may

structures abandons commits fulfilment; is to to 5

honour claim honour to refuse

a position honour, the to his is to

veracity has sworn it

and an

challenge opposite person's 1078-9 not yet

consider honour, be

worthless; and to

do

the

recognize or time,

recognize as aidos.

another

honour,

expressed his

At but

Oedipus, of his

having true is to

learned origin, be

of

status that

as

a foundling

imagines to
j 1w that son he he more the

Iokaste's at % his low

hurried birth:
k

departure
`ir

attributed
or `l V X(

shame
YvN

c rw

bof

Oedipus of be, such a slave but

himself rather he

is

not than

troubled the king's

might believed

be

the

child to

himself about is one based

things.

imagines that may be women 6 It to although seems me, more than Sprachgefhl, that

sensitive opinion is

on nothing which

this

passage

in/aischunomai perhaps

is

not

could

aideisthail

interchangeable s own ones

with dusaeneia,

aideomai; but the

one most

212
interpretation surely be "she I " ff Tk1

natural would

of respects

'ff my

cv low

evELa birth.

T'%

v1r11/

Dc

The

normal out of

identity at 1424-8,

of

meaning where follows:

of Kreon

the

two

verbs

is,

however, to a

brought group

appeals,

presumably

attendants,

as

cckk' t-i 9vv-rwd -r-O(

Ka fo L(xv

E1 i t-8'
Tr

Y(F Vfekx .
A Ka. CC vrc, ov
VtvT

Tiv'

G. )V

'Ti-Vi"a

% Crdwvur4N

JAO(K

OUT'
t F(s

ELKVwac

'rv
ws

G05

There two

is verbs

quite here;

clearly true,

no

/44 effective
a divine,

1TE

Co6E

E14L

distinction is but used the with roles pollution

between a human could with to feel are men

the

00 KaTatrXw tt&6 with The the disgrace attendants their fact they that are own, felt of then more his his of liable

and have been

KS'fLfO& reversed. to which are for the so the be the of all ever 7

easily

and are yet

the

reference (or aischune)

expected it is may share they be

aidos

not

who by

responsible by the Sun,

Oedipus to

seen

and or 8 to

and

any

reproach may duty that arouse. it is

revulsion If keep himself no word aidos Oedipus

which is to out be

exposure reaction sight, the

pollution those whose expect feel

we might to lips.

Oedipus in fact,

would of

aidos;

aidos

crosses

Oedipus' reproach. denial his

ills, Kreon that he

however., prefaces has come

are the to

quite

manifestly quoted to reproach

also above

grounds

for

remarks mock or

a with SV4LAZrJ (. 1423)

misfortunes, 1494, daughters for the the fact

especially that father laments are has do, his

while Y(, S*l (. and , be taunted will rest that of their he " men, it is has and not or

Oedipus

(see himself at 1486-1502 VCoLSC-4L6e& ) 1500, recognizes with the deeds at the say to in is to that, speak order thus be of. 1407-8, acts which since of or he to he their

lives. committed goes kalo put to

He also, "all to

aischista done he that should be his is

among which be seen own

on

either death,

concealed again disgrace, both

that quite

may never aware sight of he

(1409-12). and in

Oedipus wishing

removed and

from the

exhibiting

a classic

shame

reaction

213

kind Much related shame. by impu]se same he'was pect as city also that and

of more

aidos his

which desire

Kreon

urges

on his

the

attendants

at is

1424-8. also to his and

importantly, to

however, for

self-blinding and are therefore very the

concealment, and him his unseen

Conceptually, himself later

unseeing of drives sight

close, same At the that the (as entire others repeatedly of the the may

depriving which time, driven of that of looking of in

Oedipus to seek

expresses concealment. he to in

motivating to that upon to act his look

self-blinding, his inability and mother

claims face Hades the

by father

proswell is

having

Thebes)

(1371-83), shame

children upon his 9 and inability we have related associated also

and to face seen ideas with

a classic shame visibility, also, (so as to is

reaction; closely

in

general and

to

seeing eyes. people be (of his

particularly

Oedipus of Thebes

however, says the of himself of it is

to to be shown wishes Ej YrF, \os this at 1287-9); the complexity by exposing of his himself need to

regarded desire or as

a sign

psychology to motivate revulsion) his

punish

a consequence or perhaps however,

Sophokles' both.

entr-

ance; It is

not, troubles form of

simply his

the

prospect in the

of

others' often

reproach take and

which the he

Oedipus; the strongest horrified

words self-reproach

exodos (e. g.

1337-46) (1357-61,1398and of

is

clearly he also

by to his which disgrace y be

what

he

has

done (1409-15),

1408); expresses (1419-21); so has his If much

wishes over

punished wrongful is but so in

even

remorse his in fear in and his in pain, of

accusation vividly his he " of

Kreon lies of what both at is what not he in 1347.

presented, knowledge is "wretched the chorus his

done, fate Oedipus'

/4v his

Ka1Cw4(1318); of is it,

knowledge then, internal so,

say

reaction, on this an being which unable live

one

shame, of the is guilt.

shame of

clearly he with too, he has the that has as

based done;

awareness his reaction call his ideals the

horror also 10 is

compatible We remember, this because he fears

emotion he is to of failed agents of shame

we should to up face to their In we

parents; or

because

them itions

punishment? quilt

and

looked

definpsychoanalytical 11 at earlier punitive

214

parents (and quite gressions and and the

were

said

to they

be

the

focus of Oedipus'

of

guilt,

loving feelings. are by guilt formed both It

parents is transimperatives

example

provide) that

shame crimes felt ideals

clear, of

however, the to again most

profoundly to the

traditional set other

a failure so once

conform the

people,

distinction of one's others)

between punitive role the is of be the

(the and by shame

internalized (based ation gression Where actions difference ribed state rather as on with the

interdictions idea of and

parents)

social as

identificof transus. own desc-

parents and failure internal concerned between guilt, and

concomitants of little help of no shame

respectively awareness there anxiety it that would will

to one's

one's is

character

virtually as

effective that to

described be entirely is

and

arbitrary from

categorically than the other.

Oedipus

suffering

the

one

The with are

Trachiniae which of

does we are

have concerned, minor of

its

share but importance. Nurse go

of most (that in

instances of At it search it these, 65-6 is of is

of as "fitting" his

the in

terms OT,

comparatively the 56 that advice that Hyllos

Deianeira, father) of

recasting &%K j, in rather

the

should failed here

stronger Hyllos The fulfil

terms, has

declares to clearly

that

a source his in the and family in father's son's thus

aischune whereabouts. failure arises At 448

ascertain lies his father, of Oc*fneohI

disgrace his duty of

to from we

towards the usage Iole of is

a neglect find that is a general she not "12

imperatives of as 'Tv

loyalty. Deianeira's for which and Iole well which is

assertion that does the jointly be she used simply can to find Athenian sincere bears in which me no use of

regards at all This

"jointly kind way

responsible and to put that it, hold may for

a shameful a very that sense, does as odd

harm. "&"r

tri `c suggests . in some that she

responsible in joint the to most suggest fault; law it saying

Deianeira 13 although not here; regard

does she that The

responsibility general that is of Iole unlikely has

aischron.

adjective means which

senses

Deianeira with is

done that

nothing there

she

regarding

concubinage..

any reference 14At 1271-2 the

215

adjective the end of

aischra the is The said lie play,

is

used and

of this,

the

situation principally be discreditable gods are

as the

it

stands death for in of the Hyllos'

at

Herakles, gods. eyes and Zeus the the

(by to in

Hyllos) which their in

to the

disgrace to

liable to human as failed created TL (WJE it tSEV he

seems perhaps has

indifference the his would fact son, protect at that, has

suffering, sees live by it, up to

specifically failed to that rhetorical protect he

to

expectation chorus'

him 139-40

(e. g. )

question z

E'rFt TKVUIL important in to /OU%ud

1 15

The play

most occur

instances with Herakles' with

of the

aischron nature love. At

and of

aischune

in

the

connexion win back go ahead

Deianeira's she affirms

stratagem her resolve

596-7 plan,

to

her

secret wS ovirer' a paradox and not

explaining:

( KO-tw aiixvvI in be of these -rrC, dy. words, in betin

KO N'e There the is idea just that and idea so

eoc a slight one there of can

-rr; hint do

a((JS of

aischra to which be

implicated a tension so, or not, of

aischune, ween the of the deeds aischra this

seems

something are objectively knowledge when others

aischra are

whether and them. that

described only

public so lie "doing

which

become seems to of

know

Behind

passage the it. only

a particular wrong a school the thought in

contemporary secret" of of and thought popular that could remained which held similar Deianeira views, and how which disapacts be

controversy, to held proval which prevent that

problem There was

certainly and from

punishments deter people or

could were

wrongdoing, as discreditable they of

illegal

regarded

perpetrated undetected, employs and here.

with equanimity 16 is this and it Perhaps these the they Deianeira many

provided sort in the did action the test wrong.

argument

audience not at sound which in

probably at but and

sentiments of put is the to proved

particularly they rest were of the

shocking uttered, drama,

stage are

the

Her

mistake

is

emphas}zed

at

721-2,

where,

having

seen

the

216

effect

of

the

poison

on

the

tuft

of

wool

used

to

smear

robe life her

and with deceit

fearing her will that secret one

the reputation involve she was can do to

worst, her

she destroyed. in avoid

resolves She

to thus and

die

the thAh

rather4endure that her her of deeds be deceit the remain sure

recognizes that

aischune disgrace One

conviction remained idea secret of the that thus

could

provided

ill-founded. as be of one that their to be likes

qualification one's can The in its

provided beings 17 even has the

seems

human actions. flawed then, with

never

consequences is thus

immoralist own prudentconwhich expressed will in if serve to do;

position ial terms.

shown

Deianeira's and she

deceit, cannot her live earlier be not

disastrous disgrace

sequences, result; the it as her be per the

thematically, request that her she of there to and aidos

misgivings, secret involved what not to the but her fall she in

plan should the

kept be of

order in

that,

be an

aischron, indication

disgrace, about

dubiety she should

was in

concern related se, same

that with

aischune of the ignore is about

must plan

regard she ignores, time

execution she cannot

this

aidos

impulse

a second

when

mistake

to

become

known.

In

the

face and indication The as

of

Hyllos' is her

accusations probably conscience also aware

Deianeira right of that to her her and see own

departs this shame will (813-4):

in silence and be

silence, as guilt. taken an

Class18 of

chorus of

are her

silence protest

a sign

-rL
If Deianeira's accords

if r

ferr

culpability,

rt$ i"
the

vv
result of

I<'V
of

&. de'

& (3VvV&Ka

r -wr. c -r
silence
c

KaTi
aidos 928 fragment

I'll;
then the sent-

is

iment

well

with

that

(Radt):

i ws oc
With
In

TV
Erffa19 oc
cases

KaKAV

0U

iw cc
Vj ocxos, 528N adesp. Es KeaTCA
is in the the that which and, of from general, need for

this
both

von
these

KaK
prevents this aidos. is 20

Kah ovvT4 frag. compares well S EVcC 'r\/ac, X1


the type on of aidos own one's for passage, the it behalf,

condemned

outspokenness the In usual the ground Trach.

deprecation is clear

chorus-

217

leader's Deianeira defence perorated distinction 1122-3. than herself in i

words could would in

that make be

she in

believes her on own a proper those at

that defence,

there and

is

a plea between

which this acts a at rather on acted

obviously intentionally, by Hyllos results

based

distinction committed 841-8 and

ignorance by the

and

made Deianeira's

chorus

shame, and in this to

however, she whom is the

considers every argument and in bit

intentions, as gnorance from is

as that the

hard she stichoas kill

Herakles, is

meaningless In

(1124-5, representing with she did the not

mythia concerned must

1126-37). with results

Deianeira knowledge, intend his rather own to

more she Herakles, in an

than that not

which

have

possessed, is, however, "results

Sophokles Adkinsian acting discussion Herakles like and aidos from as

revealing but do. 21

origins

culture", people often

portraying concluding in by from passing something the sight and

a woman our that very of when low by men he a

real of himself in the his be

Before note

this

play, seems to

we should be to his motivated be

his scene

desire of

removed at should to the

triumph that in fact, he

799-802,22 be brought

expresses mere himself woman,

resentment reduced,

status

of

a woman

(1062-3,1071-5).

The

Oedipus of

Coloneus supplication find, dos The

is

a suppliant provides the

drama, play

and with given

since its the

the dramatic close

process impetus, association to our

we do of enquiry. are

as with

we might that

expect, process,

much suppliant

that 23

is

relevant howthe one

standard in complex

motifs and not

of unusual as

drama, and as

ever, role might

employed aid os is

ways,

of

accordingly

straightforward

expect.

Oedipus to this left at the the

himself stranger, respect to he

does to is to which

not the an

refer chorus

to and

aidos to

in

any

of

his

appeals in fact, appeal

Theseus; It is,

already in

atypical her

suppliant. a more typical is plea, aidos; in

Antigone point from an at the

employ

suppliant danger at of

expelled tially

country. for pity

father 24 Her and for

being is essenare apo-

237-53, the chorus

appeal

218

strophized requested at 242,

as at and

aidophrones25 247, while wretched The about Oedipus now is and makes of that instead the the

and Antigone state chorus have his

their pleads of do not both feel been

dos for

for pity

Oedipus for is

is

herself stressed but and this

the

suppliants pity (255), dispelled, of

(241,244-5,246,248). their is why doubts the 26

latter The result

famous

speech of abandon

self-vinditwo, very intention their

cation. different to king expel

combination chorus await the

these their of

appeals Oedipus (294-5).

arrival

The their

expectation plea 27 for the his common is at

that protection king pity

the

suppliants before at basing (567-9); that form of it 551, his

would Theseus, recognizes

have

to

repeat is disapand

however, Oedipus on

pointed;

enters (556),

expresses ion but of it

sympathy is impossible

a recognitto be sure,

humanity least altruistic recognizable

possible

particularly more play says readily in that his he

is subject to a Theseus 28 However that may a dos. of aidos as to have their at of parts 636 he

be, to

forms of Oedipus

acceptance will for his of allow

suppliant; out and between that responses 902-3,

Oedipus as which

remain

sebas protege and we

((EPL4'96Ls) and saw sebas ants. for in the

status xenia

a suppliant exists

divine them, aidos to

tie

connexion virtually Aid os is

with

Aeschylus' interchangeable

Supplices as in

and suppli-

are 29

also

in his

evidence attendants of

lines to free

where and fail to for an continues he

Theseus, Ismene, protect one's important actively In only with basis Oedipus, reacting the

despatching speaks those reputation motive to protect of whom as in the he

Antigone

danger has

ridicule into his is

should care; very

taken

concern often

a strong ensuring the

protector that the 30

supplicated

suppliant.

scene detail which for he the and to

of which is

confrontation need twice concern charged, lies second in in

between us his time is

Oedipus the at latter's 863, to lay

and

Kreon anaideia,

the

first attempt at

where hands

the on is and

charge for his the speech

960, of

where his

Oedipus parricide

denunciation

219

incest. ation to of seize

Both

these

passages with person, hybristic, bris;

reveal in

the the him in the

traditional former, as Kreon's

associthreat to two anaideia rather a ideas

anaideia another is clearly

treating and Oedipus that his

tantamount latter Kreon harm the of

slave, are and than

explicitly hybris, their but

related; suggests

accuses insults
i

himself

intended target: ' X CC 'CC cS5

T UV

Ka EJ// l EtJ

!<6 Ls

It
Although their the

OTCe of
the does to the

c.

ov
of

1 c-(QVTCS) I
these that, lines in is

'a'vo,
hardly

dE ; -ro
unbiased,

speaker

wording attempt to

suggest

dishonour discredit is

circumstances, certain (Ka. (v4Etf) someone can else of the in person one making the passage, affront. at 978-

rebound Kreon's 80, where

anaideia Oedipus

revealed 31 asks:

further

rC

-rih^, , oJ

aidos 32 of out, and

E'lcatl1(v Yoc, ,US


ococKajwJ
at that Iokaste a sense her his speaking which was of is his family that anaideia.

oves
OLOV s
Firstly, which (981), Kreon should but, not as

o, tvc
Ee ,.
might be have

v 1s
T"DCx ;
felt of,

ice-&. v
that

of

spoken points

anosion sister, shame he 33 does

Oedipus

and(both)out he so should reveals his

of^family refrain from disregard

loyalty mentioning for

disgrace;

propriety,

After been lete,

Kreon seen 35 off, but

(who the it is

plays

the

part of point the

of

the

enemy

herald)34 drama is

has comp-

pattern at son, this

suppliant that a second Oedipus

suppliant at first in on two of of to his

appears, determined grounds, Polyneikes' divine daughter's

Oedipus' not having place displeasure plea


Vi(K

Polyneikes. him, but

is gives

to

see

eventually remark and and out on on of


rE1 dt

noted of

Theseus' supplication

the the

sanctity possibilty

(1179-80), (1189-91):
Oc. Wt rte

deference
C

,rK
As she subjects

rwl
fE in the

u<ewLrrw
drama

Ovre&
k

li

wvnw

51 , ( Ec. VaL

crra-r..

w iTeci rO,

,.,.. -tvis

does

retributive

bears which justice to a higher

KaKWJ &v-rLBeat/ her name, Antigone standard, the

220

em's to dos, which within Antigone imperative, Polyneikes the

of

the of

familial loyalty not the

relationship; to one's is of philoi,

since it

she would for it

is

appealing that aidos loyalty which to the of of is

a sense

seem

though dictates the

mentioned, avoidance aidos will in

relevant, strife be and the (the while also

promotes reponse reponse the be breaches

family; seeks the (i kind to

thus her

arouse

father

same is

themis she mentions), (vrrep&`evarc) will ... of aidos. interesting of Poseidon, While help on such not he his candid is no is it is and

actions

It left does

therefore the his altar sister.

to

note

that to

Polyneikes, similar in his from fact that

having as as to not 36 spontan(1254In the for

appeals obviously

standards interests, his that he father, he is is

a suppliant set a high

seeking value need or that for is

forgiveness the suppose

standards, lead being us to

disinterested insincere his eous 66), face aidos sympathy and and of at he

presented and his sister his he is of

unsympathetically; is quite : faults

father in sign

admitting that

own dissimulating. Oedipus,

there his

previous

ill-treatment

he

asks

1267-9:

E1r TOcca. Toc {-fW


Aidos is rage with in all is here to urged opposed retaliation a considerable things. but in " These they traditional by same in problem

S'ws >>

6rL Y e,
..
with

K \Z

. /

6-vv f9aKos
K T03

vw fe
o acr

L5 1tX(L,
a view for than to

obtaining done it the

forgiveness which is would also

and encouinvested

resentment rather

a wrong compassion;

importance, sentiments are not

"sharing are totally clearly

throne extremely or the

of

Zeus

idealistic, foundation usually members its

subjective aidos is the among is case and need the so for

without

thought; suppliants family and, affairs this his and in particular father, the and

response among philoi; recogPoly-

demanded of the

it

is

norm all also is the

indeed, general

importance 37 The nized. neikes standard Preserve has

human in

that

already

wronged with

aidosto

conflicts one's time,

another, dike,

retaliation

for

confrontation

221

of d. ation

these

two

traditional exists or in

sets all

of those

imperatives tragedies within the

produces in which family.

the retali-

emma which is pursued

contemplated

Oedipus quite

himself explicit

makes in his

this speech

opposition at 1375-82: J(&E v c vT ox

of T' uvs

aidos

and

dike Erw

Tvloard)
v 1Vac. T'

CCCas

f 6, wJ
-TVvs

-j I,

aJK E>& tVCL f &i /1

va K och vVCoe wrof

vdravrras

kt''

aroc

T`J

Cot Tuh

TaT(

-rai

wc5

Reef< ,,d-&' -rVL ae -rv

vroJ ,

a`k
Z

T e ii. K Kxl -Ds


vos
had stressed does but it; the they J uiVErc vS he treat

E wV . v, t YZIVJV3

(o 1$

4
Just of does his as aidos not,

c K

vv -cSeos
and that of first to

or( c+vS voNw5


the the

.
He that 38 him

Antigone over

Polyneikes dike, so

importance opposite. insists T&vs deserves.

Oedipus aidos,

however, the

depreciate to show (or and

rather they aidos have in failed he

sons were 11 { VThU CF(&LJ tflL In of failing tim e to (1378), to him.

neglect a parent

. sebein 39

aideisthai) (Zeus' dike that

deprived a pointed as they

rejoinder treated to

1267-8) In

demands to

them

referring which the

a principle and I

dik e Oedipus appeals obviously have as a understood will audience one, and as they of will the also canons that be have of identtradit40 only

traditional ified ional -r values,

powerful

ur-varotvYic, S EH. J yet it is by no his conflicts biased,

one

means curse,

certain is to the of father "the only

Oedipus'

harshness, His of wrath, Polyneikes,

not for

to

mention

commended. not who her

example, who is

with but also her

idealism Antigone, and

behaves and his

impartially rejection appeal sharply with of

towards

both

brother, formal "41 an contadmirhis in com-

supplication, in humanity then, moral figures; a distinct if all of of

such

suppliant rasts able

rejected the

Greek Theseus,

tragedy. surely to off

character. in with the him

Oedipus, terms these play is of two over

we wish comes significantly, parallelism

evaluate badly though, emerges

character parison before ween

virtue,

bet-

and

Polyneikes.

222

At

1399-1413 and

Polyneikes begs be Antigone fulfilled;

declares to see now

his to

intention his funeral

to

face

his their

brother father's ively, plea ignored; his army

should

curse the that

Antigone

becomes,

figurather is

suppliant conflict Polyneikes back "having

(iKE, r-&vw re 1414), but once again , be avoided family the should within claims once EvrN V, it would be impossible and &V" to goes Cr (1418-9)

lead on

trembled" i Ka

(1422-3): o, I f$ / To T -Ife t-Ir,

ov-rw
These familiar to that for words kind which

y(-Xaiou
reveal of he that aidos, urged human that

-r4
but on his it

Koc(ILtV1T'av
is is father which of a very at would one's

-rro C .
subject different not to the abandon to nature a

Polyneikes

certainly 1267-9 lead own of these

aidos retribution and

another but demands Some 42 hold

being

one

which

envisages as contrast

humiliation one's two own

which

retribution that the

vindication between

honour. attitudes ishness, and he an

reveals yet his

Polyneikes' reaction, one. and his own for his is an about, which 43

hypocrisy and selfessential is a traditional' tragic, though The fact remains, aidos pursuit yet of for his in which and the is however, when dike it his own idealway the 44 in and that

understandable to to familial dissuade of own desire his

appeals

other-regarding father from tim e, and his

attempting consideration when honour ism, which eventual his

injured revenge

disregards

concern overcomes irony part of father

intervene; I and this there comes similarity

partiality, obvious, not the emerges it

then, Sophoclean least

between

son.

If

there

motives ing are" justice, enemies", of the

any in tend, As

is

lesson the

in way

this of

is

that to is

self-regarding other-regard"the way things

things, this

outweigh simply of harming a hero, make it 45

impulses. Oedipus, of is universal act this be

a symbol embodies one's to

that the

who "helping

principles and of to

retaliatory one's becomes likely And and yet, even to part that even though follow:

friends the status seems

elevated order as may he be did the

which towards way there the

men will though it may

Polyneikes. world are other works,

unalterable,

examples

223

those

of is one

Antigone

and

Theseus. in the but of her stichothe among that the to

There it is

only which the

one

reference

to very

aidos46 well it is

the

Antigone,

illustrates degree her to

temperament for 508 issue enjoys maintains is chorus, 509 the glorious, and of the

heroine communicate mythia degree the

and

which

impossible At line the

with,

adversary, Kreon the of and

Kreon. Antigone,

begins of

between which the

support and is is

latter's Thebes. that old her

defiance Kreon deed the

chorus

people in thinking to the

Antigone that he is it

alone pleasing taking to

men of of what her the he

that

simply ruler with with that fact her,

advantage do and say of prefers

prerogative will; at that this, is an

absolute replies side insist ledged

Antigone chorus and to

a reiteration but Kreon opposition

belief to her ignore conduct

their (510):

to

acknow-

To

Cu this,

of < E'Tra however, Antigone's

Twv

Cl We L3 c criis unexpected answer

o U'd2V' ye
Kreon's with question he popular 47 account; opinion,

insinuates

OctrCr/v' -tvS
that that her, as and

she in

(yxVM 6-R-)c
Antigone should is feel with out

df""
of aidos failure

(511): i step on to that

reproaches to women aidos react to to

effect, Ismene, to

conform, inability 78-9). Antigone knowledge one's and of ards. rot "Do aidos of her ional agreed her feel you 48

failure of The were that

did

oppose which to

men or Kreon it,

the who affirmed i c C'akc, act -ru(61-2, then, would, the of if

refers, be of is, based

susceptible others of form it, of with

disapproved and aidos. this 49

on simply qor)duct one s, regardless of course,

evaluation traditional

a recognizable her lack stand"Do you men? " but, her, any

Antigonetxplains to quite from have on in her people, keeping most different is not, these For

aidos, In

however, effect, shame not feel might if

reference she differently what you

thepuestion you shame feel not in on line things is not think at

answers

done? " own

she

would that 511

depend of is being other quite

interpretation and even though traditwould 50 have the

action,

statement values that it

with people

(all

equal, to

aischron

honour

one's

kin),

224

fact self is her

remains what own is

that and

she is not

clearly aischron.

feels 51 rather her

able For

to

decide

for then,

herit which

Antigone, convention Kreon chance

personal the

conscience of attitude, 52

than

determines an entirely

character

actions; and the

exemplifies of their comm-

contrary is slim.

unicating

Similar found lean in role,

problems the the drama

of Ajax.

communication in which aidos

and plays

partiality its greatest

are

to

be

Sophok-

the Homeric Much has been written about 53 between Ajax similarities atmosphere of this play, about 54 the Sophoklean Homeric Achilles, and and between and the 55 that the values is certainly true Homeric Ajax; the and it exhibited background one in to martial the play, and contexts and in that the the Iliad play form does by the contain Sophocles moral "the of a

conspicuous Homeric Yet the

specific 502). in his

extensive 56 passage" in

reproduction (.j.. 430-595, play in are is

recalling

11.6.390-

Ajax of out;

Sophokles' anyone motifs and be

pursuit pointed as whose still for

been as

time than 58 $omeric

much more extreme 57 Homer, and, as has for contrast employed figure is the of Odysthe basis of different,

well

comparison; must

there on

seus, though

conduct related

judged

standards. is to and call

One

of

the'essential by of Athena his tent,

attitudes in line on the 79;

which-the Odysseus of

play begs their

explores her not

expressed Ajax she out replies:

grounds

enmity,

aVc
The of of of supposition one's the

l oLeros Ex0'e S rekacV dis Ylehws


that pleasure we shall the play; and are is to be found enemies, as of see, it notions quite is with one Ajax his is shared

in by

the all

disgrace but polarity of Ajax appearwishes one

chaacters and

assumes of the

a strict importance That his first

friends people

enemies which is

"what himself ance to or

say" he it

traditional. shown his sense, believes and by

shares on stage; of

these

attitudes pleased and for that in

"success" this he is has

and

boast

(96), attitude,

a traditional defeated in doing his

"Homeric" and

enemies

expects

strength

prowess

225

so

will iloi,

be are and

recognized; his the For fellow Homeric Ajax, does of the not social

yet ideal

the

echthroi those in his that of disputes own it the

he who

believes should is

he be phi

has his of is (98)

attacked

warriors,

between time could heroic

compromise. and by he clearly

however, believe apects

paramount be diminished 59 code. disgrace duskleia to their as envy howof

breaches

With affects what believe leader's

the

entrance his iloi; have the

of heard

the they

chorus are

we see

how at are

Ajax' the

disturbed and who they would

they

(141-3) of those

reluctant in

reports

rejoice the a sign

misfortune by the Ajax' great Odysseus of

(150-7), and

regarding simply as

account of if and, have goddess this the the true,

fabricated which ever, an to ai

heart

inevitably badly (that they important of hybris to his

attract; on them, may the in that

disgrace

reflects

considering driven him

alternative slaughter vvKs l for reaction the

explanation beasts), An in s (174). it of is

Artemis refer word to

as /nocrte is context describe (151-3):

hbris, the

terms

chorus

Ajax'

enemies

misfortune

T &V

h a c-us ac.

xs % W41 -rt C Xa 4

0 k- k o

wJ

'MS
Now, see but hybris the. it is exultation is also sense; as

cot. S

hXtftI

1<4X,
term, in they of and Ajax: are Ajax'

a pejorative of clear the own, 60 others that

100,
so the ills the as enemies

chorus

clearly

discreditable, word is not in a of insane the

using

polemical same attack one's majority the to grounds lie in xtrii'/ the kind on fellow

b is for

his

clearly or be the

a violent attempt as

and to hVbris

defenceless warriors, people, for the are the simple drawing Kote story with the t

beasts, might even those

slaughter by a while chorus charge (for those are r'Z who seems is

regarded who of are hybris at

of

disinterested, by whom the the

accusation fact that

those to Ajax'

levelled fOLS hear going thus hybris, it

attention (seems it, to

disgrace at that to least they be an they in

imply

that than know

believe a tale mockery there

rather they

simply

along is and

which of one's

invention); regard as

enemies indications

which

while

are

some

earlier

226

literature 61 sued, mock, enemy, While, matter ulation fortune, and in

that it is

such generally

mockery

or

exultation that had in one's plans his

is

not

to

be will

pur-

accepted

enemies to humiliate (105-17). express with

and

certainly

Odysseus, then, in the

himself Ajax he thought him when he/had chorus terms, not might, be able kalon regard they are if

his

power to up in

pressed to to such only come exult

the formmisnatural, to the one of course, marks from charges were in is a

general

some

is such as "it " they obviously calling to it regard do in bris as

another's as

exultation succumbing in others This, is as who one

temptation might is out its of of this real an the use hybris a type play one. oneself entirely use in

discreditable

what

identical

natural of Homer, br's

circumstances. 62 it but tendency, Ajax' even if the generally that hybris partisans those actions recognized may

which

by

different levelled

where, impartial, be

were which the

not

so

designated as such;

would possibility

be

partial

The the hut when

question chorus-leader and he

of

Ajax' asks the sight this any or

aidos hope of his

is

first to he

raised open will the be

at door seized

344-5, to by

where Ajax' aidos

Tekmessa that

expresses catches for Ajax, him done

followers. can hardly

Given be of

the the be from

chorus' kind ads what to the ashamed When of his and (367); which at he

concern would what has

aidos it at that to

cause he done. up is that has It

pain; aidos then,

cannot mockery this

therefore arising aidos oneself is

seems, appearances, Ajax raging will or

related

keeping hope to Ajax being present imagines he does also not be

pulling

together; this inferiors. impression he contrasts basis,

compose grieving he kind past his been fact only It that is he

himself before gives of his

on

seen does

appear, by with

however, another his of has the

every aidos;

troubled atimia the

greatness enemies treated that served entirely, is concerned, this to

(364-5,418-27) (367,382); with hum bris

mockery he on Athena) fellows.

significantly, he (presumably him with the from the moral the pros-

believes reflect by his

hybris deflect then, and

perpetrated murder Pect of of

humiliation

227

character 63 all.

of

his

actions

is

no

consideration

for

him

at

With second first

the

end

of

the on

epirrhematic stage of the into on he

scene begins same that the to

which speak again with of his first

heralded in

Ajax' at but

appearance going over being is so clearly in atimia Iliad

iambics,

much drawn

ground dialogue farewell of

(430-80), Tekmessa Hektor and is

eventually which

based 6. (440), The

Andromache still of his his

subject he

speech the

which and this

contrasts leads him arms who will

with to (441-4),

eukleia of of be the now picks the who, it is the able the

father slight, who him of he

(434-6), the should (445-56) the

thoughts

original Atreidai to mock

judgement now and be of dead the

of but

the

instead of past; so of

further So much

disgrace for in the doing part father, 64

slaughter (456-80) up several

animals

(453). the raised

contemplates of the points his is the

future, in return of his the

and

first to his aidos;

speech. would unable of sign that (470-2). would troubles that be his of he

Chiefly, appear, to

thoughts very facing (and he is of him to he ends 67 focus

for some

he

contemplate at 65 Troy and

his inability

father to to or thoughts on

without look show his of one at

proof is a

success aidos) is All not

others

determined his on birth to

him nature for by to eugeneia: (479-80) it

unworthy this leads . 66

inherited death, is beset

aischron (473-6);

live with his

when

a statement, devotion W3 h Ka to T

similar his own c

made

by Deianeira, wS iit %t oc v r oc
0V Evr '

of jV
.

v1rVic

xeI

1. After him, 2i wood the but choral that (481-4) says, because entirely because, of 69 the "She he it comment should is the that still turn

Ajax' give of

speech in to

was the to

entirely of As

like his Kirk-

advice speak.

Tekmessa of Ajax, which on she to

presents to

a concept that of on those

significantly not are but the

opposed different to a large

values and duty "68 but she does she which bases Ajax her bases

so his,

suppositions from

argument

extent, of values

exploits which he

contradictory himself sub-

aspects scribes.

complex

228

Tekmessa -90), appeals her the terms his kind he own hearth

begins was him

with to on the for home should his which

fate become basis him, (490-3), be time does

(485-6), Ajax' of and

particularly concubine; their sexual power her to of as

her such

own she

(487

which to

relationship, Zeus, is guardian couched for and from


i
.0

feelings and he for

the but

of in

appeal understand;

which concern of aidos already


/V'X I

liable that

it to

is a

to

she

appeals, greatly
D

thus that

has

manifested
"
r+

differ not (494-5):


O
I^

which

cc

twt
IItI

LY

rFl1/

aBGY

-rwg
The ion, so in from on her the aidos but to

dwJ
which

virr
she Ajax

Ex (3e wJ
appeals, to decide

x-c,.
then,

J c
may

-Ls -rc vL.


co-operat-

promote

should of

a basis attempt

self-interest. deflect which disgrace he Ajax' is

be doing he would co-operate 70 then Tekemessa continues self-regarding presently would and aidos away to he? expose and say her and

to

disgrace of the

experiencing result were herself people


c(& Ciro--W. /

thoughts his child of the

which

dependants as slaves,

to

humiliation, reminding of
KC O'

pictures what honour

Ajax for

of his
yK

will

consequences
Klt. l Al 'MS TI

this

(500-5):
6 En L.

IC' O+Cr

il oo SL
a vTUs

a-r-rwV
,

t-Tt

0/4 COVcm v
C v E Irre

ftr; rrv C. At L

t, o as
TaLocvr'
lat.

A11-6re e. a
c

r6'
t"T7

V'r"
Toa

k t u -r
KWI rw6

aTuJ, .01

cc .

a; c
is transitional; of which the one and There

Line at to the the

505

from taunts owes to is

the of

implicit others philoi,

notion Tekmessa particularly

of now

aidos turns one's

prospect aidos (506-510), of not to in their

one's

parents name it is

pity,

which

she of for

invokes

in here,

the but

son.

a change one, is

emphasis the the aidos

a particularly which relation she to earlier may on it the. is be idea now the

great appeals

other-regarding other she for side sought aidos their parents concern for special is a for of the to

aidos coin arouse one's status duty

only

self-regarding part of both her on speech,

in

the

since

parents and which

based that

respect for neglect;

respect to

one's Ajax'

discreditable

229

his that

reputation he has left

may

therefore open

be to in to she

activated reproach appealing an emotion stresses

by by to

the

thought his Eury-

himself although is appealing 71 an is be orphan surely in

abandoning pity is the for

parents. sakes regarded ignoble (510-13), hero's appeals are closely son

Similarly, Tekmessa as status and it

which both

normally boy's for that a it

altruistic, as

also Ajax'

and

responsibility in itself

discreditable such and a pitiful other-regarding when Andromache condition but which while the to impulse is and in cv1C an she to she at. (514-9),

should

condition;

Tekmessa's impulses, then, in of not to the

to

self-regarding related. recalling

Likewise, that of own

comes Il.

to

speak,

language pitiful pity to the benefit the itself show

6.413-30, it the as kindness is

nature

of which

her she

appeals,

charis, represents a do

obligation a duty is be which to on is of

gratitude (523-4),

(520-2), and

eugenes another knowledge

return to

person, that to

so

may

based it will the

reciprocity ignore;

imperative that fails clearly to

discreditable not charis to be arouse unfitting be regarded of their his

suggesting if he is of

Ajax return

as

j). &vI5

relationship aidos for one at of the his

Tekmessa prospect status.

attempting which would

conduct

The and lict their

definition Tekmessa of values

of end

eugeneia, their

the

idea is 72

with one

which aspect

both of to the this

Ajax confis find

speeches, the that and two, which its

between over over aidos

and the

related eugenes object.

difference

should As

disgraceful,
says,

proper

Reinhardt

"Ajax' respect suicide; as They same do,

thoughts and but for place and they in say: in do

of

his (aidos)

father, are the

his to

home, him

his

son, for to 73 committing Tecmessa

shame

reasons appear .,

precisely not quite the "speak

same

ideas

reasons then,

committing different sequel different is not

suicide

... interpretations is not

on

the

material,

Ajax

effectively, breakdown wrong to

persuaded; 74 " languages. But and so Reinhardt

the is

communication 75

total,

"...
speaks

they
his

speak
own

without
language

communicating,
to which the

...
other

for does

each not

230

listen. lable ... touch This its which chord her is

The having neither or lead

words

of

the her refers

wife

die

away ears, other, or

without and they do

a sylvice not ." takes terms a to versa

reached speech to

husband's to the for

any not

argument true;

against whole

quite

simply from that to for his

Tekmessa's and it in does son on that is him; not

... speech in

argument are they

of

Ajax,

expressed and reply he strike

likely do, in

strike although

a chord Ajax his

directly does answer to suffer

Tekmessa, on

speech those he (560-1) chorus) his son his the

to points

(550-77) she boy and him to

precisely his or aidos; lobe (the that for that

which the

attempted will his (562-6), the not, not fellow

arouse hybris

declares because will will be

Teukros protect able (567-70). set out that for he 76 that

Salaminians confident of he providing denies his they has her not and be

and

is

perform It is by he

function then, that

parents eventualities honour, about.

Tekmessa does not appeal his

would believe to pity that charis he

harm that cas for is

posthumous will he the come no

simply Only

Tekmessa's does this fail express

answer child to his at her

(although 652-3), claim

and to

suggests to show

susceptible to impair

would

euaeneia. in the Trugrede enmity theme Ajax' friends, they of

Ajax

concludes on the the

his

general

reflections of friendship play it is

with

remarks. and and is the over in

mutability of is loss to the

and the

(678-83), friends it also to take

remainder which his of the the hero

enemies not simply

dominate. which of disturbs his for

Following his enemies; his

death but seem At the

thought from

mockery his her

concern woe as

reputation. joy, and and hybris

954-5 chorus

Tekmessa take up

describes this and once with that at idea, the

Odysseus' the mockery they of

lamenting Atreidai

of

Odysseus (955-60); enemies expected of Athena

which equation

regardas the is mockery apparent. echoes

inevitable of It the one's is fully

more hybris, others 79 when

the

already will he

noted, mock; (988-9):

Teukros

sentiments

says

'c, uva(t

-rravTFs

KFt7%. t"vvt. s

t'Ti'fryrr)av.

231

and

when

the

chorus-leader assumes

sees

Menelaos his k

approaching intention
.1

he (1042-3): aV WNWOLs

immediately

c-rrvJ

is that mockery jly%\ 9ecv wT4 Kai. -uve$ strands to may be to of mock found be

IYm
There that support the extent it are is for clearly

l tae

-i in

Tax

eSc MOLT'
such

tv

.11

le

two

thought a dead in the

least to

passages, some at there to

discreditable this that it idea

enemy Iliad,

(and

appears

discreditable over a dead and notion that that

mutilate is to to own The of of in that hero, collective ingly warrior's who be feel they harm thus Apollo possible certain (such as takes ignored, the will its be common do so

a dead and (an one's 77 and idea

enemy; passes

exultation without from and that

foe, it it is

however, is is natural right one's

censure) the their

arising

harm glory).

enemies

humiliation

chorus the

Teukros, of others, that

then, and Ajax

are while

concerned there

at may

the be his

prospect something due honour

mockery

a general this they be

concern they

should be

receive alarmed at

concern, will, implicated honour enough, this

must of such

also their

the with

prospect the for dead their

because in will aidos, is

relationship this also is be

mockery;

concern aidos. a typical woman, of the that she

presumably which not that comfort in battle

Interestmale

perhaps the

attitude, the attitude and lack mock, target in at fl. to vain of finds Ajax but

shared-by the in

Tekmessa, Atreidai they will that not will of it a and time was can

mockery the (961.5); that their fact

accepts will hybris

maintains and this and is clearly too,

mockery

(966-70), (971);

that

Odysseus' the was it of

roughly it however,

attitude which

24.54,78 hold; of be clearly

one

requires honour the

amount may are

detachment in to

from and 79

ideals gods?

found unable

women share.

) which

other

characters

When intend and for his

Menelaos to that the

does

appear Ajax in

dishonour his motivation

that we learn (by depriving doing so is

he him one to

does, of of inflict

in

fact, 1062-6)

a tomb, retaliation on they

dishonour had

fellows;

Ajax which "one of the

attempted gods" not

him

and

intervened

would

232

have

perished

au'r)CeTw

lootu

1057-9)

. to make was of Ajax' his on the nature of 80 (1061), and his in a

Menelaos Ajax' and so

also error; was his at civic

has his

important attack on on

remarks the the cattle lives sets

hybris comrades

attempt 1071-86 context:

superiors; wider,

Menelaos

disobedience

Ka troy
/tnv

^1; Kas: -r-os A


cc, 0 l0v v Tw E

ci
t-tTwr J

d""
KVEt

r. I
.

OV
uv S

rote Vr OL
fta
cl

Tut PCJ,
6Te
o !

aids

V -It vV raVC. 1v'9a Kocc-T K //"I6hIrs

D l,

&X

ws EIL Vw L Koe-x (oc


ot%. 0L(
ETI,

. eC
a-o

k^
K(e LV

J a dayc 1
6Mac6ovj

wJ
I<aKOJ.

KVlJ

^(CrV -TT-r0-LJ w
v(L
a

of

KscJ

S yae
-ru0
TaVVvL(: G OVC

-rr t. -&rtJ
TvI va. ! -(, CS

a, i
x

v1
ow / 'Trl TcT f:

ov .a -"%/tS c-rC-roco J () I (-A cs Cc,


d

61VoS vEaL

hk i hCa, v
In its stress of) fear

6rTovrw v. w vT-rLr(on the a of utility os in

S TL wvrc-S V cr V X vt'w DI. pr,; S


of the (the state arguments makes use of traditionally this in ideas

Kacyec. fjj S040 a


related is particboth

ideas ularly

and

speech Aeschylus' which of in seen in

reminiscent 81 Eumenides, and traditional and of civic the

similar

probably part life of and (here as it one the should familiar, in the is

are the

contemporary the need element synonymous the fear, for

discussion justice be with

nature community; tance the while grace, ity the note rosvne version

the the imporand absence, and in 82

traditional aidos of hybris that makes reflect "why by now 84

may

accorded presence the idea

aischune) of its

consequence of to both state

punishment or military

dis-

which seems question, is the, (1075-6); to to

amenable fifth one be

author-

century moral?

preoccupation with "83 Also worthy of of aidos and his of it; sophconhere feigning

association Trugrede at his Ajax,

sophrosyne,

hinted

rejection

233

the this aidos clearly

lack

of

sophrosyne our

is

associated that of too.

with Ajax

lack was

of without

aidos, any is

and

confirms for the

suggestion85

representatives belief,

authority;

and

this

Menelaos'

In

general, of in

Menelaos' Ajax' his

remarks

seem there is

to

be

justified nothing

as

an "dis-

analysis tasteful"

conduct; observations

certainly

fear for and aidos on the need 86 is probably behaviour, in promoting and Pearson ordered "orthodox his to of the exposition an correct see remarks as 7p. "87 them 604 xx the chorus-leader yV calls civic virtues; at 1091. in Seen in their wider light, as he justification thus his emerges context, for however, uses his own these Ajax' gnomai hybris Menelaos for

emerge and lack

a different of aidos

retaliation concern a parallelism 1087-8: to

(1067-70,1085-90); that which motivated which

a similar manifests 88 up and sets enemy, quite explicitly at

between

them

OwV'

j L- -T'0.(OLXAoc
u6tvrlS V VV

T
remarks as as up a to a bad

VV -rroVra(0V '0
/4,1 (1

In

spite

of sees

his

commendable hybris all, but lives the not

on thing

aidos which weapon

and one

deos, should

then, not one's by 1042

Menelaos perpetrate enemies; -3, and

at he merits

legitimate the

against created

thus

expectation comment

chorus-leader's

(1091-2):

M EV(rh C-, oC, /"'''1


C-La. vros
of 90 partiality

IV

y'Vvj/". tq
U04vewc%
then,

v-ru (,rJir45
V1,1(1 very already

O. 6a s 1 rFv1
prominent, is

89

The

hybris,

maintained.

The are

exchanges nothing

which more of and than

follow

between

Teukros and and no

and purpose of

the is

Atreidai achieved; 91

invective, (1151,1258) and

accusations (1259) aischune origins some is fly, on

hybris

lack attempt

sophrosyne to of for bring barbarian good Pelopidai. the ()y''I44 in denying issue measure, It at 1305)

Agamemnon other by

Teukros

each

mutual the

accusations latter adding, of back shame conduct the history comes for

(1259-63,1291-8), unsavoury details however, that birth, from who the but

the

Teukros,

finally occasion

to

hand, is not

suggesting his own

Agamemnon's

234

burial excite outwith question ever, possibility is also

to the his

Ajax other's

(e1t-xuCXvvH shame but over

1307); over facts

each

has

attempted were entirely

to

which Teukros actions, insult

control, shame it of is

eventually one's own to interpretations

raises the the of dead. what both for it is

the as

of that

assumption, The aischron Menelaos them would by is aisc to

discreditable

different in the

raised

earlier that the people it

exchange, would former learned one who be

where aischron that, he be was

--and Teukros continue aischron in the force jston (1161-2); the for attempt

maintain argument, him to if

claiming that could

be words

wasting it

control and the listen is

controlled that

(1159-60), for him but to this

latter to one

retorting who is

talking

rubbish

mere

invective.

At that 971),

1316 he, yet

Odysseus too, the (1316-7); will And this, forcing but he also be will

enters; exult

we have in Ajax' hopes

been

encouraged he

to

believe

misfortunes that perhaps, can having that he refuses that )coo-'A$ to restates will after he thus not the he .

(953-4,955-60, break seen will to not not do only speech of . to At deny him, personal and 1336at up the take the

chorus-leader the even in fact, audience, more he

quarrel prologue, sides. (1320-4), received, 1332-45 burial, 41 that that bias, this failed Ajax and is he

confident immediately to admit

Agamemnon dealt his

has In his

ct r1c'(roJS opposition and enmity at Troy,

states his that

prohibition Ajax' lead tim him to

gives declares Ajax is, his is was the

reasons, his

aristos time he from

Achilles, distances of Ajax' have on

deny his

deserves; his

hatred, something

estimation and his to the Menelaos

worth, signally dike: of means to force that

Agamemnon bases give in

to

do.

Odysseus is on to

impulses

leave

unburied to trample

temptations Ajax' by arete

dike he be

(1332-5); dishonoured

just that not ocv EvcKws Ovil is it hatred not is not to

Agamemnon to the in

(1342 dishonour gods

it wiff' (1343-4);

Ajax and of

1363); 6IL, cf. Dc-rcKoclp. r laws but him, the destroy of to harm the thus esthlos clearly throughout

dikaion

death,

even to play,

out the that

(1344-5). which has

Odysseus been reiterated

subscribes the

belief,

235

it that thus his

is it

wrong is happens

to-exult wrong to to its to

in insult

others' the with

misfortunes, dead, that enjoys of and his

and idea at

particularly of dike but 1125,92 by

coincide

Teukros greater

appeal of

these

standards

validity

reason

impartiality.

But

what

precisely and arete and

are is the they seen

Odysseus' of belief

principles Ajax? to that He

in responds him proper one. is

opposing to of 93 his

the

dishonouring enemy's to

non-burial reluctant

deprive it is

time, to

and, in

a large the could

extent, time be

accord so

others Homer to seus

deserve as aidos,

is

a Homeric so it M411

To do in

and

here;

answer Odysil o.

Agamemnon's replies
KLV 6-L

question, (1357):
%rote of C G11 th '

h1C

vCKVN((1356)
x'C

T"11 SG

ocsTo

So Odysseus Ajax' that this Ingram of to that This is time. answer there vague one which it arete; is

experiences but not is thus But to are idea little limits of limit this right is to

a positive also deprive in say is than allied

feeling to

of

respect

for

a general of such

feeling respect, and

others terms of dike defined Odysseus'

feeling is "94

expressed right the to term more

dike. "is

Winningtonin and terms seems

that not

presented 95 at all, subjective

which is develops refers

should also in to

not

be

transgressed. one,

conviction 96 97 and with related it

a traditional the ensuing

Odysseus At of 1347 dike, he

exchange which is

Agamemnon. to his vvi. '' that it idea 14 is n These, "standard Homer, pursuit 98 too,

a standard

n. crfLv not x are of

that K"choV, 4^ftruvv when he says of-r& , implication K, )ct, up the and he follows to 'A r hate LCI) Agamemnon urging % KEEarJ T&LJ lo %. -v_XoLs(1349) l . ideas, to the vague related the which that Hesiod one and was can so go prominent too 99 far in in the dead by

kalon 6

traditional

appropriateness" to the found notion in

and of

gain

Theognis.

So Odysseus articulated, response shared by to

is

following but

certain the is other most that

traditional, striking it is

if aspect

vaguely of his

beliefs; the situation of the

none

characters..

unexpected and 100 In particular,

236 Agamemnon stands friendship (1362)), while in the Ajax' polarity but Teukros, burial of what gives in not because says deference to of and then, on and his (he he believes to of his or think own even in underterms of

Odysseus and out in (in enmity of

continues and to their

(1356,1360)

reputation (1370-1),

friendship Odysseus to the do to

refusing spite

allow his

desire at

participate 100a so), reaffirms close ideas his own moral on at ideas should, to convenof

friends

enemies is

play's and his

(1393-1401). i Tc KakoIand interpretation conscience. aidos; 1357, of then, conform, tion, and he and

Odysseus, dike of 101 His describes aidos and clear not is depend right his

isolated, own sensitivity, his I to the which feel Ajax' reaction he own

wrong, also,

personal

response

sure, aee

depends as to the It impulse with are clearly aidos

response

traditionally

excess be

inappropriateness that simply it is this a fear based aidos of on

rejects. an step

is being

not out

simply of

because activated

principles Odysseus

which could popular his

subjective away is on to

instinctively; Ajax' with quite and not ideals rather tVarY body', him;

with"maltreating not ideas the which with a consideration which body may of or are Ajax may

and and

so yet

-"get disapproval is based

aidos his

traditional. its be burial, "new", depends lon fear

Behind then, that on of to the lies

response a realization, in

behave sensitivity

accordance of the 102 disgrace.

traditional

individual

punishment

or

Like

the

Ajax, and relevance

the of

Electra

is

a play in at its

of

retaliation, this emerges

of with

reciprocity greatest and

non-communication, to our theme the

and agon heart.

between It soon of mutual

Elektra emerges, a recurrecrimina104 and

Klytaimestra that the

which axon

stands is of to itself

however, rent tion. concern chief has

representative and one and she death, vengeance of at of her says and her 419-21), is

process, 103 The for

a process background tine, both force; her her father's lamentation

retaliation this is

atimia, own, is

Agamemnon's she alone,

Elektra's

motivating pity for with She

(100-2), she is will per(103

ignoble until

severe -20). describes

achieved father's and

resents (442-6)

Aigisthos'`usurpation cf. Chrysothemis atimia

prerogatives

(266-74, how

Agamemnon's

reinforced

by

237

the

mutilation
too, father's dead father,

of
that honour and

his
she

body

(cf.

the
will while her

chorus
win at own 1153, ruin of also

at
fame

486-7).
by restoring

She

believes, her

herself

(975-83), contemplating imagines Her own the

believing as her well enemies by as that

Orestes of (YE) Orestes her w61

she

mockery is

QCo). OYEx at 1181 and

atimia

recognized

1427.

Out shall by

of

this see at

background work we

of the

atimia ago n. that father's


v

grows We first her grief

the see is

process Elektra her only (352-6):


TL awl

which

we

in

consumed means of

grief;

later

learn her

retaliation
EI

against
oc.

murderers
E oC E C/4,

f o1/

KEre603 TFVaLT' 0C V T'wvcI


ovSW; Kai: wS

XI
" Tw

il
Tl. Her means grief as grief of is Whitman "

urw
5 oc. her and

M-d vU t Cr

E-irotC Ka

DICI yowV. vr.


s tcVic.

Tokjruv
d

wcri
L- cTS(TC condition,

TEfv

'Tr'0 Utfoc. '([T. miserable Agamemnon's

KC-I then, and her are

x o(.( l S. to her a in done; a

restoring thus says, Her a

time, act of one time, has assertion a

persistence for wrong is still

deliberate 105 it concern at her

retaliation proof that

is for

"the her

she which

princess. involves tinge, course towards amount

however, particularly (in line

presumably masculine

aidos which suggested authority, to

disgrace, in her

emerges by

351) and

that

the

Chrysothemis the "normal"

(moderation woman's reaction)

compliance is tant-

cowardice

(deilia).

Elektra, her

then,

lives and it

and is

acts

as

she

does

in

order

to that

annoy she

enemies, their she

not, as

therefore, by of

surprising a similar

regards indeed, as she "the kind

conduct regards the

motivated conduct to

concern; and At Aigisthos 271-4 as

Klytaimestra her status.

specifically describes ultimate the

designed sexual

undermine of at her her

union while says

father's she

murderers describes her in the of to the

hybris", mother and of then,

278-93 she

of (CSOV& her

her thing j&t, 288) troubles;

when

insults her she

(eJ v(. part

reproaches f 4,l. 293) in the

face

of

mother's is clearly

process She returns

recrimination,

aware.

238

the

theme

of at

the 586, rjv

sexual where

relationship she

Aigisthos which refers to it may father is the is recalls to

'r&ic&urxL*cv of

it calls v/CLJ in

between her mother and tcr, i ot. Ccr, c -rk*'vrk, 271, possibly this possibly but and of the she her Ajax Orestes to his

the

disgrace Elektra clear their

Klytaimestra's for she the acts

adultery, themselves, ergs, honour of

distaste certainly that and

feels that

resents diminishes of the

these the

feel

"ugliness" Something at her 790 and

herself. when, that

atmosphere

recalled assumes

794, will

Elektra, react

believing with hybris

dead, death.

mother

It

is

in

this

atmosphere and it is in

of the

insult axon

and that and refers

enmity the

that true

the nature is

agora of revealed.

takes the

place, relationship

between enters unmaidenly at

Elektra 516, and

Klytaimestra first is and "on is of the thus all

Klytaimestra daughter's a result remain argument of the women out is of

to loose" able

her as to

conduct; of "shaming based met here of on

Elektra

the of

absence doors,

Aigisthos, her philoi

(516-8). ideas and of

" This the role also Athens. because the on

clearly

which

we have of

traditional 106 before, women in such

presumably

seclusion

respectable is the but

contemporary conduct, affects to do the that

Klytaimestra's disgrace reflects also takes bring but reflect action shame that of one

point member upon badly which on her badly

that family in

others, it thus in be must underorder any to doubt

her, on is

order

Elektra discreditable (for is

herself; to there Elektra's

Elektra herself hardly

oai rxw&LV

mother J kovs %,

can

intention).

Klytaimestra's afraid of

next Aigisthos,

words she

are says,

very but

important; has no regard

Elektra for

is her,

and

she

continues

(520-524):

E 6'S
Aw, tYw Cr

Ka rtr "tro c( Ire os Ti"ukuS cue. c koLL -tte'oc ct K3s


Koc 0 ve Lj viv V91CA la X Ta a

Yw k
We have

wscws
seen the

Avavfoc .
truth of

-r'C05
this; Elektra does denounce

already

239

Klytaimestra rule against Elektra on the as unjust, herself. makes part her

often

and

in

front

of

many,

does

regard as the

her bs charges awareness

see her and does 107 Klytaimestra's against her

mother's awareness to p. 237

actions of

corresponds

a converse and she in is

of

Elektra of to

(278-93, the

above), in which

also ' k' -KwS conduct and see the

reveals involved, ... process in

awareness and it is

this and for

process that ., _ retaliatory she

refers nature justifies of be the

523-4, of her other, to the

OK/K691. The is of does of and 3 thus

reciprocal apparent;

Klytaimestra the insults also for

terms

retaliation the same. in

Elektra importance reaction) of KA

We should all (the this,

shame disgrace

prepared (the shame are

subjective the result

objective of

Il)%vc. t,J and

the

aim to

state) it1, Kac.Kws of of her

Klytaimestra of Agamemnon duly same

now with

proceeds reference with (525-609). but clear

a justification to the murder of they no that real this of

the

murder and

Iphigeneia, interpretation the dike to is perbut

Elektra of the

responds events deed,

a statement Thus is

debate attempt

of

Klytaimestra's 108 suade, another Both, type "You for in the

there enough

and

it in

is

passage

round

a recurring refer between started "If 556-7 ." I to the it

pattern previous two this were

mutual

recrimination. of the at and always same 552-3

109

example, lines say at me ...

arguments speeches, time the (v way

Elektra y you )"-

cannot

Klytaimestra spoke to

this

Klytaimestra's justly simple because (558-60):


TovT") Gii

argument he sacrificed

is

simple; her

she daughter. j
aV 6-ITCI

killed

Agamemnon Elektra's is less )%

`_, vacrtex
onus OVV yEV&Lr SLKXLW)

.1S
ac f c,w' 44 &I I IrL

These insults for

words Elektra,

belong the

properly two rather dismissed on to argue Elektra

to

the than the

recurrent to the

exchange debate of dike action designate about in

of dike, 560, was

between

having goes in

question her at

immediately not dikaion

that is

mother's pains to

561-76.

240

Klytaimestra's believes grace is is part was, of

conduct but her

aischron, also strategy. because

of to

course implicate

because her

she in dis-

Adkins,
"To

however,
say an to

sees
action justify that but after it

more
is

in

the

passage:
is it, for that to

110
play the ace press of in less fact not of

aischron

trumps: the claim

performing is must all. " dikaio, maintain

one that it.

cannot is is

importance, aischron

We can text, central one to is

dismiss a word to

the may

curious assumption be an "ace of trumps, argument, one's conduct grounds, argument: the to come judgement from in in in which is is,

that, "111

in for

any real conit is not that cannot dike. go But that if on this one's

Adkins' that it on

presumably, one of

accepts justify also an was be

aischron those did it And people commonly of the

other

even if

artificial dikaion,

one that

believe is yet do also

conduct would exist they

aischron does that as of example,

unlikely of or justify more

oneself. which a way terms objective. rT&

there admit

a number have acted yet some 352 (Radt): VV )t K tW

passages may act this important

regarded necessity

aischron, achieving is fr.

Such,

for

Cv to,k

VV VVKE 64 ' EL ire moreover, is

Any

of

c1 rV-(YVh/6TGY those passages, in which aischron, of action be is shows that his which is

(c-cv&\/ Errs of

Tc is

tL by I

CX rwl -112 Koc) oJ. is a great to abandon somea given perform-

%1 Kai 'T-10 1A7 there which or decides one

number, aidos, thing course ance parallel ch kill dike action very conduct . 899

someone the would is instinct also aischron

advised which show does that not

prevents recognition mean the

doing that its

that

cannot

justified. of

113

Perhaps Orestes, that it

Aeschylus'

most apposite 114 whose aidos normally do so on he aischron the

at to of his this own justi-

awareness but who

is to on is

one's and in play, is, the

mother, divine

proceeds a basis there see, at

basis

command, And we shall respects then

which the

defends of her yet

Eumenides. who, in as some

Elektra that

recognizes least,

aischron,

241 115

fies

it

in

terms can, in

of then, other

the

need justify

for

retaliation, which that same fact the this

for they Elektra

dike. recognize herself is

Characters as does aischron so

conduct the mother of

terms; her the point

while part

denying of

presumably

possibility 116 passage.

The on that ion that

passage the subject. Elektra's ... is to to

quoted

above, pages in

however, further

is on

Some words

not 117

Adkins' he goes

last on to

word claim " "solut-

558-60 set by

constitute the crime us been not is is

Sophokles' within to the believe, for done

the say

problem that although

family, with Klytaiso,

Sophokles it might she

intends have should indeed,

Elektra, mestra to but other behind by do to so

that kill was

just have

Agamemnon, aischron. be This, sure does here,

since

Elektra's

position, On the of of authority a husband deed is

we can hand, her

hardly Elektra statement is

that have in

it

Sophokles'. amount murder (Klytaimestra's

a certain that the

a wife

traditionally at tie -0d. of 11.432-4), philia husband here and

aischron breach of if loyalty Elektra of

even the to is in out of

aischron 118 and

being

both all

a fundamental the imperatives arete. token, But wrong

against in by the is,

one's "right" the play,

inherent she

woman's same at its

elsewhere where, other takes breach than

particularly to

conclusion, justice father, horrifying Rather and she

absolute such the murder and

commitment as eusebeia of in her

retaliatory her another aischron. however, aspect: (dike), one, involve but an

imperatives part of solving it insult to one's 119 in philia the in

towards mother,

also

traditionally 558-60,

problem its calls pursue family most forth dike

Sophokles injustice, and to act the pursue which

represents wrong or

fundamental retribution is a powerful inevitably

requirement it is within aischron.

must

Elektra history of at her

is of words

thus her to where

able family, herself. she

to

state 120 yet This

the is

problem ignorant

which of the

bedevils application apparent case for a life,

the

becomes that

particularly Klytaimestra's a life

577-83, on the

recognizes of

rests

legitimacy

retaliation,

242

and would die,

suggests lead she to says,

that her if

rigid mother's she

application own to death: meet

of

these she

principles be first She to dike, as of dike we to thus (583). claim and will,

would

were

with

dike

recognizes, yet who she have herself seen

but

depreciates, acts Orestes on the

Klytaimestra's same realize then, to that principle the with which

know,

hypothesis regard she to

line and in her

583.121 aischune mother. 584-94

Elektra's is very

position, similar

criticizes

At

Elektra her the

argues mother idea of to the

that kill

it her

was

not,

in but of

fact, sex:

dike thus she

which returns conduct: with say for

drove to

father,

shamefulness

Klytaimestra and was kalon essence arete aischron is flagrant some an is it

commits would be for aischron the for

Klytaimestra's ix (586) -9-kvrw4 (593) death the is to even of for her to

Aigisthos, that it is this not The of

retaliation to marry of this in in of her

Iphigeneia; of one's

enemies accusation disloyalty

sake

daughter. breach her the still charges but the to her it

Klytaimestra's her more (a husband; so in that of these values, them of because annoyance to shame

women's

adultery adulterer more have is

itself, the

and lawful It is

enemy

husband thus of clear

sign that

disloyalty). foundation apparent are it is in that

terms Elektra

traditional raises source purpose

equally

deeds she criticizes 122 her, and because mother.

a particular her particular

In

the

final rises, conduct

section it is which on that because the she her this,

of the

her

speech,

however, of the At

as 595

her

own of abandons and

temper her her own

possibility comes to of never only of in is the her

shamefulness she

fore. mother's

argument

nature will

conduct, her that she

recognizes 123 right, a mother complaint awareness abuse aischron, of

convince is is thus she of that

is of her since

concern course,

a daughter's exactly reveals, is aidos the

abuse

(596-7); at of one's she 523-4, the

Klytaimestra's once more, and so

and process

Elektra which

involved; and

mother also

a breach it clear

presumably her

makes

accusations

243

mother mother. her insults

makes This

against emerges as the we are between

her even exchange to the

are

similar clearly the

to

her in the

own

against words exchange of

her of of

more

final the

speech, which

degenerates as

into normal

regard two

pattern

communication

(605-9):
d 1or TE- s$ .' cf >& . oc -it (. l aCS

hC & -r

of (E cro

GlS oc 'yoI

Oc rM

TSEi Oc

G- %J

EC
In urging her

-rt
mother is

-c-t
to to

vka 1
call the

TwvE v)
her charge due anaides that

GUwJ Ka, iaxvar.,


Elektra she is

f
is

csCcs

CXGG/q
presumably the she 612-5 all own It ly, her, aidos is referring which

-rip(

deficient to make her to her

in which at at

properly and urging

a mother, Klytaimestra mother to with another

a charge will denounce regard kind of

certainly and 622, also but

open in

which her

she

is.

affecting and this that of extremely a similarity not the

indifference suggests she

reputation, is the and that both also

anaideia. ironicalagainst the in sayshe

important

acknowledges, her mother that

albeit makes

legitimacy it is of she offering appropriate live irony, her mother but the the two up

charges significant in

she

suggests them;

possibility ing is

nature her the

between mother's

does

kataischunein of rather

Physis ideal, 124

a perversion to to the it men

traditional than of that the the 125 to women,

normally one should

that and to

reputation is to is clear her that one.

one's she negative

parents is trying

affecting shame of 606-7,

because by

imputing irony is

qualities in Physis

real women

similarity

between

a real

Klytaimestra her 615). effect, difficult in which daughter This is

immediately of not hybris the what to are with has just regard involved the

takes challenge, accusing up the 126 VV15 4; (613) a (ft, orreC and anaidei first the the time other that will one say, character 127 and process for other this side. to to any any damage of has, it is conflict obvious in

predicted not they

interminable as responsible of she might the was

familiarity Elektra charge

arguments that mother

claimed her

indifferent and

of

anaideia

make

244

such

charge

might words in cir

do

her

reputation; is, -rk" therefore,

her

reaction surprising

to

Klyt-

aimestra's

612-5 r-rw

(616-21): exi-tq,
OCUJYIC K

u KEA E

vv'/

W K

Te

a ((t..

KJK

EL

T'e

C'(&LKOT

c.

xv a

-e

EK

CI

C(vlMVL-Loc

cer'

'

avcKoc--
ai xea psychology are unaware

/ro-t

FCoci -r

fac

rec
Efri the most full the

4
KI depth

tea.
KETa of . her

The

A. J xC ous 'C complexity of Elektra's into 128 but her even It i own so might

TCoca-T' and at of to their the regard to thus seen grief,

insight here, of I her

condition she be as with is

apparent implications sentence failure

words. ... in

possible referring her such nature Twv S ' status as

ptrvbbcvN to act

vrRKzrac

only and being of her

Elektra's to out

accordance of the that to (=

relatively of doors, not riv%( lack her

minor or for must of

breaches to fact

decorum, excessive she says

simply the refer aischune

air)cvvqJ of of an mother

it were Ex4d, for and for

Klytaimestra's aidos), therefore her is lack aware for and (as, are of taught conduct is is thus of her

accusations specifically does regard in mother. for the lack experience her ideal She then with

hybris aischune

mother. feeling ible, should her need

Elektra that and feel she

instinctive is reprehensshe on to to at this Justify the 523-4): not of the dike?

that,

situation, goes regard

aidos

unseasonable to retaliate deeds

unseemly in effect, by which

conduct did

Klytaimestra deeds; in clearly exploits is

shameful justification Such the of the

shameful is

aischron Adkins)

terms

justification significance

(pace while refuses

possible: this line to do

that, she

Elektra to allow

argument same.

herself,

Klytaimestra

In this

605-9 was terms

Elektra due to

suggested the Physis the education ): and of in

that she of

if

she

was

full her

of

anaideia, mother; it in

inherited anaideia, received both (nomos) 129

from but at

616-21 in

she of

accepts the

charge she terms

explains her or mother's

has of

hands capacity is the

(KitlCeTt (physis) counterpart

heredity Elektra's

antecedent character

education her mother's.

245

The does 622-3

argument the
W

between of
wnrVa.

the the

two

is

about

to are

end,

but

before At
C 7'rl

it

positions
ieE %

participants
6Cvt.

reiterated.
K4C C -r4/%/

Klytaimestra K at / ' in the her aware hears

explodes: T/ '

C-S c.

The tation the no that

exclamation, created heart aidos she of for is

-roc Oec`r'a'Ad4 gets to

GOr aJ (again what is is, her has it fulfilling for child, just

KJ

-Tr"0 K, the expechas

607) matter: mother. of had

Klytaimestra, yet shown her, her she but

Elektra Yet

Elektra that

signs

this, one just but her and

and

troubles to

Klytaimestra ir-ex wrong wishes

only

more all but

reference admitted cannot

4ec. Elektra r%iI. on to both be sides, all is was of


i

that accept

pc'rh10 .c there was

mother Elektra's

right, justified. short,

complaint hand, anger

this: she l' &7r o, rtaCet moment by the con-

KictfsLd(629) of weakness

On the and, she stung again mother's


0%) K Lw

other to

Elektra's once justify (62.1-5): more her

accusation duct with


(U

anaideia, to
(sls Y0 VLV)

tries"to actions
V r

reference
T&L

her

T'4

E-ls

-rvv(YoJ
Klytaimestra's that the words is

-r deeds
again weapons her ergs "do"

provoke

I' E rc TvVS
Elektra's are Klytaimestra's: and the emphasized, is forcefully which and so as her

words,

to the

the

extent of

themselves

process words

retaliation are also of Elektra's describes words, as to is than

made. so

point 130 far

that Yet

Elektra solely is Klytaiimporof also

retaliation, at at 608, 620-1, she right be

consists she that are less

pragmata implication words for 131 and

which

compelled mestra tant

wrong deeds they

and

because

should are

rejected;

the the

purposes audience

retaliation knows that

equivalent, turn to act

Elektra's

will

come.

In

the

agora,

then,

the

theme Elektra Elektra's an the of appears earlier same the

of

shame

keeps

before and There the play's

our

eyes

a parallelism of contradictions however, which doubles lines in

between in at to parodos dos

and own

Klytaimestra conduct. in The comes

a balance is also, action

a passage contributes as the

point effect. play in

kommos to an

which with five (245-50):

end guise

which

a traditional

246

t4i

T_&

JE ht Ot 4 cw(uvf' v-mfoveWs
If

WP_3j

fttK V1 C 1r6
The theme of world of the both one the is the departure a common guilty of and will the of one, troubled punishment recalls passage prevent but these required interesting in aidos ment; of inhibits each or for case, the ax, will this in there

. &Vxrw-rrDiL%0TWJ
aidos 132 from while a corrupt the notion 133 and that values In which the that are kin. and imagines other's is impulse is agents It is family, both this

reinforce Furies may in be

traditional Eumenides. the impulses within in both

arguments aidos committing also be and those that who Elektra,

eusebeia murder, a subsidiary

especially notion

may

qualities, in

perhaps avenge like the rle of for sort be beliefs

especially the murder Aeschylus' of

eusebeia, of their Furies

Menelaos that

stressing be need it specific or it may of the not effect

deterrence, of

the

example that be

punishsimply which in fear

mean, may,

however, example, of crime for which

aidos the

punishment; the

which the demands

envisaged of

respect

punishment

corpus

punishment. hope

Elektra, that aidos

then, will the already are very is to

believes be theme at

that

her in

conduct her very in

holds next rather

out

some

maintained; of lines to aidos

utterance, a different her of

however, light; which own the

resurfaces she of but 616-21, justifying

254-60 those

expresses

sentiments that in terms

close

admitting it

conduct need

discreditable

retaliate:

oci Qxvda TrCAko. I.r


11

4' w rWALIC&S EI ar'Cw v vK(/ iP j vors vr_ ai

6 VrrVwn
--Tc

w'YD(

r-O-e irvv7 11 JS y I &I T-1C C-u(C-v1S %I Ae re Jq w71.1 ',


Tr acT auf

w
Particularly

e KIT k `v Kar `+ o at kXov-rApam vcA ttocroc a. ov b


noticeable are the words of

vvI

dc

compulsion

in

both

247 (256, significant her

places less

cf.

620). than

Although in the conduct while at it later

Elektra's passage which 616 it for is also her

aischune (here unfitting implies mother), that her it

here is for disquiet there

is merely a

embarrassment woman with strong nizes aischune should in terms in of regard verbal something

regarding status, to her echoes, of the that lack

of and

aidos is

are recog-

important of not yet

Elektra her

ambivalence she her her is

conduct; as justifies 134 while way part act to is of in be V her (Ire f v(. her ways

indicates normal of loyalty which own does values feel (with she

behaving she

a noble her the only

woman conduct

circumstances, to makes and herself more her or own act

eugeneia; in it this is to

"compulsion" given that she able. her she

absolute tragedy which

outlook, compelled less sister,

perceives At 989

tells

clarity) Sid ia by

discreditOci cCts TS to ,Sy ) she

air. compels

ws k her KPC. own -nq vKorL4, yet ii f)KCwYand (608) oc, she admits might be full of anaideia).

eugene that

nature

So is duct

Elektra's immediately causes

statement qualified her to act

that by in

she

is

acting

to that

safeguard this (or in very

aidos con-

a statement which lack aidos is of for lack taken up in was at the

ways her

aidos aidos one of later 250,

aischune) this her for the just respect, parents, the play. as her by

should moreover, and other There this

normally is

preclude; dictated by

her

of

suggests

a corresponding which of for her

a d"s in and

parent, was also of

a hint mention the lines is need of

eusebeia aidos speech by

statement the about cludes murderers from the opening

immediately 254-60, words so with her her

balanced remark she

eusebeia the same pay earth;

qualified at

which father's

con-

speech penalty, she thus

307-9; she sets

unless claimed, herself up

the

eusebeia as

would of play; in

depart 135 which she

champion the speech, insults words: .

eusebeia, it she has is justifies suffered


EV

a position therefore her at 1


UVV

she

maintains that in t, she

throughout ends of the the the

surprising retaliation her mother's

terms with ev

hands,
ouTt

TOLUvrbL5.,

d$JlCUv4-LI

4 L)X, (j

OJf'

ErE-e'I

Irpc

CCTLJ '

hh'

TIAj

KaKOLS

flO)chy

'lrr'

vak7

cKsc. -ry

1r06K14'.

248 136

The and of is

pursuit once both that

of more

eusebeia, compulsion lines and (for as for an

then, is those the of

necessitates 254-60 of in for

its

negation, the meaning herself and to behaviour be sacrifather,

stressed. at

No doubt

these propriety in is to

Elektra

reference aischunomai

sophronein 254, is must to one's at the she the is the

eusebein which ficed but and nature qualms Elektra shadowed evil. dike. the the

307-8,

proper higher effect end of of

unmarried suchas two

noblewoman) loyalty coming

imperatives these speech, and

passages, is to reveal the emerges evil which it is is

beginning

her conduct

highlight that very in

problematic not is to in without between forepractise of

of in

her that her "in

to

respect; mother the midst

indeed, which of

parallelism agon

and " Both 137

necessary

justify

conduct

aischron

terms

Before might some to at this

leaving be way

the

Electra both itjnd

there because

is

one

more

passage of aidos

which goes

considered, to explaining fifth

the it

concept relates

because We have

thematically that lies; but is it 138 also and is,

those least

already by the

discussed. century, in

already to

seen tell

aischron the

emerges in (Radt).

particularly

Philoctetes, such as

assumed 79

Sophoklean other 140 The same idea experiences deceit, but His on an

passages, also some helps discomfort his

frr. i. . the by

352139 59-66, thought imagining it is,

explain at

where practising kleos

Orestes

of the is

dismisses hesitation, awareness and might and

scruple slight

he

will

win. based

though are regarded

presumably thought He too, he

that thus his

lies be

generally as aidos. an in aim his

discreditable, then, like justified up whose Segal well of his

sister by

mother, means, himself described and I not as to deceit feel, only clear do

considers sets

discreditable between

pursues 141 and and his as ... does in

deceit murderers, 142 ful. come off

a parallelism action 143 is

father's deceitseldom the dis-

frequently "Treachery " neither, and almost plans is he at

writes, in a feeling at nature

Sophocles; of

regarding Orestes' the of

aidos,

Sophokles; a sign of aidos

hesitation

59-66 of what

ambivalent his Aeschylean

as

is

the

counterpart

Choo. 899.

249

Discussion ctetes, aidos and but

of a play which

attitudes in which

to

deceit is

brings no

us

to of the

the the

Philoword in it

there

instance us with of

nevertheless account in which the of the test. of the

provides operation

a perceptive concept on be which

convincing

circumstances rests with are the put

ethical Once

suppositions again, we shall of that individual

to

concerned of in-

opposition attitudes of key

conflicting and can with differ the

aspects notion from

a complex the interto

traditional pretation dividual.

terms

Odysseus lines of must the one such is arms extreme sailing 64-7, revealed; in the on to

first 50-3, in

alludes which he

to

the

deception

of

Philoktetes for of the

in hearing the boy of

prepares in the (51); with can then Troy is

Neoptolemos execution much the of

something prove play who will is

kainon himself concern truly The that father; at that,

(52), gennaios itself

which

the

remainder of to whether out

question himself (54-69); at being

gennaios plan he left this for Troy hand, may tale; in is

bring unveiled

carry

a plan. claim of his one away the

Neoptolemos denied and an the

anger a "heroic" Achilles 144 own

in

response,

although the Iliad,

contemplates he never likes does nature against how care bad, what so. is him will At

from other

Odysseus' say

unheroic he

Neoptolemos course him say pain. about of his This him

anything no

nothing, then, anaides.

matter not

cause people

Odysseus, he is

does 144a

The with to

subject which the idea

of

anaideia

is

raised his of

explicitly speech, deceit

in where to the

the he son

lines returns of

Odysseus of the

concludes foreignness 145

Achilles

(79-85):

ourk 'lai ua t'aLXVT'oc wv(rtv

6J

vr4C /
"t'l

/"I 1dE
kTh

f -n-Cr vk41 ( xvocK, C Koc


K TS VCK

kk'
Tk

y, "

Kacac

J'

v "u

v CS Fis
L d['o fwJ

oc0'. S

S v

a/

EC'J

av

ffibc woe .

Vcf3

K roc r

e-S J* C'
-a
/l UrwV

L)
aJ
,

KC- Ki\ I o

Ev C C-CrXTOs

250

To

practise as of that uses the

deceit, "contriving the

then,

requires kaka". attitude

anaideia146 Odysseus, to deceit, in is is who other these of then,

ar is and

may not

be

described ignorant nize he

orthodox is usually

does

recogthat dis-

deceit

condemned at all He those that reputations and a concern for one

terms; the of the

pejorative nature used and value of forestall of to his

terms plan.

a'sign also avoid people, for the It reputation qualities aware

creditable of and language eusebes),

kind

commend realizes their

deceit though possession is with

(dikaios not of the he not than itself thus, prescripta reputation the normally

himself, the desire stresses irretrievably this, can as ive for qualities to

may

dikaiosyne such

eusebeia. for these

that is more in

that

one's lost he

reputation through also

discreditable that success and he not have) can and act yet retains deny but in still

act; (fie) eusebeia; the that distorts a way be

however, secure with sense eusebeia his of a

implies for

reputation use of gennaios words good

dikaiosyne in 51,

these is a

(he thing

does to

descriptive considered and eusebes).

(implying adikon or

that dussebes

one

called

dikaios

As not

both

his

use

of

anaides

and reputation

his

stress make to

that clear,

deceit it is

will the

damage

Neoptolemos' aidos and that not ads if will he he

latter's therefore, nexion able his to

is

trying

forestall. the say", that himself he

He assumes, traditional that might he will have conbe that pointed

between do so

unreasonably and "what allays suffer. any Yet Physis

given people fears he

reputation to

also and

makes this

reference something against intellectual suffering one but for that to

Neoptolemos' than Physis realization a mere to act

(79-80), for

suggests if it is

more one's

concern in

reputation; way, act be in will that

a certain one can

the way to without

that one's action by the

any carry is the

harm out the

to

reputation without reference at means this and

enough This

enable is

qualms? to

question

already it him any

foreshadowed one doubts of which

Neoptolemos' point it of is seems his

Physis, unaware; belief course

Odysseus the the moral

end-justifies about

character

a given

251

of

action out

can

be

dispelled no ill

by effects.

the

knowledge

that

it

can

be

carried

with

Neoptolemos' prospect both of

reply his

(86-95) acquiescence

seems in

at

first

to

rule

out for in

the he him

Odysseus' plan and his

scheme, arouses refers physis. expect

the the paraphrases aidos which t. (cy3 J 86, rekffK' 87) dTvrw K) , incompatibility with of such conduct then, Physis be subject another way; but this entirely; army, and he it is is to instinctive, to aidos of reject in his as deceit. reaction is at

to the 147 His from one

reaction, whose may deceit, different (90-2), enterprise by (s the

we might Yet

although to on the him in

Neoptolemos prospect rather by force the of a

sort he

aidos rather

work

would does not he is

capture he is sent to . One that Odysseus' would J, 94-5) be

Philoktetes ready as to

mean has

abandon

been

Odysseus'

assistant

reluctant

called of

a traitor concern by but for Odysseus, he is his

& v -9-COG"r15 Kochct AA , 93-4) different from reputation, even thus still and
(v

kind

envisaged arguments; rather than

makes not fail


vKZ

him ready (v#

susceptible to give etwJ in;

to he

behave succeed

honourably basely

st sac

KotKii

95).

Neoptolemos sense, Yet and neither and his

thus values kalos the

uses

' kx'A IIVS and and

)Coc, icwj

in

a co-operative ends the terms of and results.

means nor ambiguity for is forced

intentions is confined in

over to the

kakos

co-operative will facil-

sphere, itate which his

inherent in to At first, the

persuasion, he

passage

stichomythia competitive he remains true and

follows

choose

between

co-operative to principles

standards. (100): ..

however,

TI
The rules possibility this

o v t"
of out. The

vW($65
persuasion

)ko -it) of
is then

v'

Evaj

> ro q;
but Odysseus

explored,

stichomythia

continues

(108-11):

E. 01.0V
NE.

Oue(
1t two

cCI -o
/ O V

1YI
FTrwJ

oTo<

CL 17 w

w1 crf
TL j1

i 4&/, T0' of A (' j c- 1b, Evros c.


VE bC T&>t I t&C 41 / X1:

,
The

TIN
clearly

fL

I cS

SS

i-6, C

ros ,o

L"

K1 v4

Te

. E-rc'r t.
of

differ

fundamentally

over

the

definition

252

what another /)E-rtV in to

is

aischron, subordination ;

and

Neoptolemos of to end the fact to

is means;

not his

impressed question,

by

yet ov'

11Z3 of aidos

T($ ... the eyes,

alludes to who the

common that one's

manifestation makes as it

and

aidos conduct

difficult

look upon one 148 Odysseus' able. vince kerdos that arrows, Odysseus Neoptolemos' (he by will the be he the to youth, which

regards

discreditdo not of learning conthe

sophistic149 yet in 112 he

arguments, asks made of (120): after in 111,

then, the and, without

nature on

reference become to the the

was deception

cannot agrees does

sacker

Troy

Philoktetes'

tw ' -r-a1rw
hold reputation called

bra/
other will sophos he is may

-s out
both that

' iiJ. 7V a
inducements, not suffer and lose to

L3the effect the but being The deceit it the posend aischron; in believes He is is that

through 119), of these.

agathos, the not still that glory by

possibility of of Troy neither and that

sacker ition over it order that plainly thing, idealistic deceive extreme principles the world. is

he

convinced, Odysseus still holds to and as is

has

changed:

promotes lies his point says it the do are aischune he is. right

means simply to to win do

Neoptolemos he as be as duty is

that fame will

willing

abandon at this

a warrior, as naive and that is and struck easy (he behave

so

Odysseus eager honourably should intended to

portrayed to do his

(93-5), expect to reveal of his

and him his

his to

incredulity (100,108,110) innocence), may have

Odysseus

probably his swift many of in

abandonment the original idealism

untested as a harsh

audience in

inevitable

compromising

youthful

At the

the

same

time, relativist, that

however, he is

although has been the

Odysseus made to cause (80) of which, whether do

is give

very

much

cynical

several the eds

indications better; (111) dikaios, applicable been on gained, most of he his

he the

making

worse kaka

appear and gennaios, for him,

uses

pejorative and his

terms redefinitions all of on

scheme, and

eusebes or

aischron, depending that

are has

otherwise only people imply are

a success have will

these

words The

a meaning also,

which

agreed.

audience

253

then, the of

have plan

been and or will

well have

aware

of

the

reprehensible that, is It this in doing will point foundations been laid; for the the his loss demands ignoring

nature

of

realised Neoptolemos tragedy. at yet already his faced

a feeling which to

aidos have

aischune, off well'in

something not, that needless he on there will

rarely say,

comes

appeared a change will of is eyes be his of

inevitable heart, have and he is

undergo change question and in will it the

the

which is the

this

based Physis when another

concern with that

reputation, of of reputation his Physis

only of

person

reassert

themselves.

Neoptolemos' put of of to all, his deceit, the the prey, is

decision test plan and by his

to

abandon

his

aischune with

is

very

soon First

association that a form the him into

Philoktetes. win the

requires accordingly

Neoptolemos of two. philia, Even contact close Then in all

confidence based

though this with to there his is false

on friendship, being he

created however, ethical them in

between brings suppositions the which at

a human own, the it as

whose

expressed 151 in takes depart by

prologue. is 169-90. by after

seem 150

possibility seems, placed which if is to that it of

of the

pity,

raised,

sincerity, is also

chorus of at 461,

Neoptolemos Philoktetes' the the former irony to him to of do on

a position place at his effect the used to

stress

supplication, had this exactly board to made as

468-506, and entreats

although do (to

passage that ship), Neop-

Philoktetes is the that be

Neoptolemos to take also

which part tolemos may

intention of the

appeal used different

is by

reveal in the

arguments to his quite definitions

Odysseus ends and

prologue there are

also

that terms.

alternatives

of

important

From does doing is felt

485 make so

i (-n crJcirVW the thus to be to no to ritual creates

dF %(uVDC(L) contact of

it

appears "full" of hardly

that supplication,

Philoktetes and which in

a situation we have it can

tension that be that

in

aidos is

appropriate; aidos and on (501) him, of

seen

Neoptolemos the is supplicfaced individual

susceptible ation the has appeal

effect pity

especially a lame and

when

he

with

helpless

254 his

grovelling ktetes reputation grant also

at

feet. the

Most regular

important suppliant will uses and, suffer the to

of

all, appeal if he

though, that does

Philothe not from

employs of the

protection; as many
Egg ol,

supplicated 152 he thus Odysseus, the same

same complete

argument the

reputation employs

did of

parallel,

terms
6
TOLCI

(473-9):

4ca

C) vrx
-t'u

coc
a/otros
(L

J
i-'L

-rT a
"r, \

-rei

V"wj

CfC-

yEVVXCot.

r
Gt

r
cJ

'7
C. c) c0'

C-k0.1
vx-ovrt TU. /T

-r1, xe'1'; 0I vet-1cS


o X& t CTG/ -T Ov

Ko

VKXFEs. XOV,
r eCx-Sl

cre a a. vT t v t C"' OL
To Odysseus' now

tom)

'y

Jw

Ti C
of

TA.

LOCV
in

C-v K%1 E LK

( (3
51 Philofew helps point of same Neoviews if he concede prospect consider deceit and he of

perverse opposes

definition a general

gennaios with eukleia not. with holds The

ktetes would him . these

formulation

which if chief he

disagree Neoptolemos and offers dv&tdvs hJ if he does and an o Kac, suppositions in what that at he is least not him the is is prologue; and the if is not that if they he agree still as hate logically a gennaios and he

those the there,

ptolemos about accepts would, that might that remain 153 and

aischron does

he the

did

and then

sennaios he behaving some

aischron, about should; itayo this might

thought as

cause Odysseus'

discomfort, that one.

he.

implication was a false

could

_ practise

sennaios

Rose (475

claims 481)154 and

that

Philoktetes' 5 ub that is case; not he

idea away" is their

of gennaios, "traditional from these terms one. how seen be

"boldness" heroic to This, any as

virtues" an

implies which not the

adapting traditional in

application is of like

however, number

we saw virtues

Theognis155 could

co-operative of those

moral designated and 409

requirements terms watching elements Similarly, reputation

by

essentially that the are for

aristocratic an audience harshest "traditional". of this good is

cennaios, a play of the there being in

should it the

remember is not Iliad enough helping only

B. C. of

morality are

which in the

instances by

acquired

others,

Odyssey 156 and

255

of

particular The pursue and

relevance idea, r

in

the

case that reject that the

of

those gennaios d it

pliants. should 157 al, of this

moreover, v' and x(lcr already be firmly sure, recognize and he

who help sup(or agathos) is by fundamentthe is and terms the of and one's entails.
far

-r% al. n6 that both

we have to I will normal that to feel

noted

seems, lying

time

aischron. the as

play, 158

established then, that

Neoptolemos use of effect standards these of

audience the more is

Philoktetes' and reminded seemed to one's the to Physis term is

traditional,

the of

passage behaviour the birth

Neoptolemos himself

which of the

subscribe and

of noble

all

imperatives which

loyalty use

proper
the it of or of part

of

gennaios
but,

Neoptolemos tell, is at does leader pity for as his only yet own feign

accepts because no sign

supplication, advances the plan aidos

as

as

we there either

can

of on At

Odysseus; his 524-5, (507-18) part,

any for

genuine Philoktetes. the the their affects in

conduct one sort as

however, and their their him he his

he

aidos: of

chorus

(522-3), Philoktetes and show


A' &Vi

deceit, willingness

have

affirmed to convey that than

and

homewards, should inferiors:

Neoptolemos initiative

embarrassment helping a xenos

less

)c ocv1PA

/V&

VI 0" "fC'C'S

QV T

ccSc-TCCf -(C Kat(c. , *' o 1C'av&ILV

There it may

is be

anote that

of he

aristocratic is simulating of the in

politeness the

about is of

this, qualities certainly

and

gentlemanly it

which true help are, they

Philoktetes that another however, conceal his use echoes

expects of aischra the

cennaios; the words we have Neoptolemos' context at

failure The

to words if

latter's and of

475-9.159 no way part. of

a simulation, any real aidos

knowing

The

deceit to he

continues get in

through on attack of pain

the

Merchant-scene, ship is must be

but

the

attempt when

Philoktetes to an

board of his

abandoned

succumbs the

illness; now

Neoptolemos' put to another being. urge

resolution test, When

pursuit with the

deception of. falls

confronted Philoktetes,

a suffering asleep, the

human chorus

exhausted,

256 (827-38). demanded


I

Neoetolemos is impossible, he

to

take he

the replies, (842):


e' r

bow

and for

leave the

the prophecy
4ieGfcri

man

This both
dEus.

(841);

goes

on
J

1C0 An-rc'4tV ,

oc-r-)

o/

Oclfx"d

As

Winnington-Ingram the in and has it. stronger, is that of in in the the twin

notes, considerations the it one is

160

in

this between

sentence which is to both to

Neoptolemos he had to to say to is that lie

combines decide fail one about the to the

prologue, idea that what

idea

that

it

disgraceful lie; fail to

disgraceful not is

achieved It is, and

has the

and which

however, the

competitive which is

aspect explicitly

disgrace an the

referred and this is first

leaving which Greek

enterprise word aischron 161

unfinished, makes its

context

appearances

literature.

It

is

extremely on the

difficult one plan, of the that hand, the bow his and 101) too, are said seems his he

to

know not

how

to

interpret carry to out be on

these Odysthe the other, it

words: seus'

does of

simply seemed (77-8,113-5);

original

aim and

which

acquisition does both not

arrows is must

seem (at

statement weapons that in he no

that

the a mere capture but

prophecy excuse;

mentioned even and bow

Philoktetes

Odysseus the and that

Philoktetes, that both assume, about both the the Philothe

Merchant, the man

doubt

required does the

(591-7); believe what he and

we should he also his of poses head be he says

then,

Neoptolemos 162 At prophecy. ktetes' and deceit good terms; this 639-40), conventional gnome) behave. conceals is it terminology can and hardly the

same at be

time,

echoes own the to when of

476-7

prologue, character desire uses for these that (cf. of virtually he should a a of a

that

thoughts this

moral his he to

contradiction do not enter it time thus of

reputation in not and this the it kind

his may that

connexion first is

relevant has

mention

prevaricated his in expression 842 are how

possible (his aidos

that words

a growing

uncertainty

about

However before

this

may

be,

when expresses

Philoktetes the pain

awakes which

it the

is

not

long

Neoptolemos

deception

257

causes comfort vexing the


to

him, is

and not

when

he

does new, At (El

so but

he

indicates something Philoktetes with and


l< he

that which

his has

disbeen

something

him-TM

Neoptolemos sight
his

r-t(906,913). "ease" on the sound


which is

874-6 K) C-vxFe

congratulates he bore which attributes


but reached

and
Physis,

of
is

his

sufferings,
15 ... easy from

this
Neothe

6vyEV, far

C-Ur-6~1, has

ptolemos'

position

point

at

which to

he his

can aporia

eo

on at

no 897: the

expression "difficulty" not to take of

longer. 163

He first Philoktetes has but him

gives asks if the him the another of (-vrX(, "C-e"c:

) of him the and on board ship has in disease produced kL -riwJ

disease (900-1),

persuaded in fact quite

tSvrxEC"K direction,

persuaded him , a different

in

sort

lP
Ta

vt

(vfXeCEUC
-rLS r

C(JTOJ

v
Od KorK (903-4).

Ta, p1 induced

Philoktetes' in His the is Neoptolemos, feeling efforts also

own pain, 164 the is he clearly must have

then, pain

has of

an it

analogous Gewissensnot. in it, his

instinctive, made on

conscience, 166 already to

pain 165 spite but own a this by -roc hj or it of

arises ignore of of

reflective, and on

based a prolonged two be it possible described is and

an

appreciation

Physis choice feeling

confrontation courses as which by TO/T of aidos

a dilemma, That

between may also since conduct,

action. is

suggested unfitting

-WCOf(iWj(, unseemly

aidos confirmed "

prevents 906: o(viw. for ads not thus is based

oci ()Ces Fear quite fact most aidos the of appearing

ocvoV4* "base"167 aidos, what

and

concern this should It it is

i L T'a)t#cL "how things is and clear on based spoken that action the

. look" on the this in the

clearly that he

indicate has of "hidden words"

and he

aischron has past.

(908-9). aspect: however, disapproval that

a retrospective It to does is the not of also, future mean others. he might he

articulated of his very others is concern clear

with

familiar

reference but the aspect whose this

OCVVV c.); simply for idea afraid the of of of

Neoptolemos

judgement of his

Despite has no incur,

outward exactly

conduct

disapproval

unless

that

Philoktetes.

258 There fitting believes and it is is the he his to do is

also is to that this, which

question one's acted thought him has the

of

abandon

Physis contrary that pain.

physis: (903-4). to he has his not not

what

not thus

Neoptolemos essential been simply true

nature, to

himself, ledge tout part "seine because aristocratic terms 5, also like that court, of

causes people deceit being that

He does deceit

acknow-

other that very claims

find is to

wrong believe

his

disgraceful; he states, ( a'r11 fcc, + is it 909), and , 168 is so. this that Physis own by and the to idea based cannot of on his loyalty be seen to of (cf. and in true his his living to father to our of himis 904as

Stebler169

Neoptolemos' his

eigentliche it also

Ich-Natut", contains

self,

imperatives represented

virtue, gennaios but must

accumulation his father

and

eugenes, is

89);

Neoptolemos be an essential

of part

noble of also image

birth, himself; being of

background up self. also

t7aaristocratic His an concern important in but of that

standards to live up and paternal to

he to

is the

point, the

particularly model model given standards of reference. whether is does

relevant a frequent not

discussion 171 a dos; observance most based deeply on

focus

reference external internalized

this

indicate a human likely We have fear of falling a it of being's to be

standards, moral source of

that are

precisely the parental a guilt possible wrong to difficulty

this

mentioned short shame would both, of or be but

deciding can

standards reaction to describe that

before;

be regarded 12 in this

as

exclusively too, in terms the

case, aidos exclude his

Neoptolemos' either to could

claim is

other.

Neoptolemos, in the me, " natural. stress aidos. vehement, on The doing so

then, is

subject and

aidos,

and

psychology thus think entirely also occasion at 927-9 lays for is of

skilfully of reference the

combination and the

realistically "what reaction, to personal to conduct of

presented; will others is

standards his so the discomfort far is

Philoktetes' the fact that

response his denunciation 929-30 he asks:

victim's and at

deceit

of o TUf "TeG6TeaG ? "GJ

I1i/ir^

t-rro

((w1 W

C KFT'

ae wJ v, , dxET C.i

259 him

If this his no he

Neoptolemos' question own longer is deaf he of

discomfort should be at to him

has answered 934-5 but for At

not in do;

already the

shown affirmative, he away, the

that then

observations speaks to is the his

Neoptolemos, his return still more head of

notices, not because but for the

turns the 967-8, once of

because return of set he the up is

appeals 173 ashamed. bow, Philoktetes nature for

bow,

pleading reminds urges of the men. thought seen, opirions

Neoptolemos him 174 not to

discreditable an clearly is oneidos trying

deceit, in the

and eyes at

himself to but, arouse as

Thereby of

aidos we have

others' emos' others.

disapproval, aidos not

already with the

Neoptolof

solely

concerned

Philoktetes' difficulty, of an oneidos of he

appeal and is Odysseus silent even of his by in the an

can

only

have direct of any the

increased response despair decision exchange however,

Neoptolemos' to (969-70). for the the mention The moment, the two

latter's expression precludes during his

arrival and old gives pain emos both

remains

between he

enemies; signs as has,

silence, and his

apparently regards his Neoptolprologue, the former at the and

discomfort, both remorse

Philoktetes pity of this, in the

provoked then,

and

(1011-2). the

recovered and

principles recognize

Philoktetes his of his bad men

Odysseus to an 971-2, lead

attributing hands that mission nition the part of

conduct in lines

education and him to 03

aischra

latter

acknowledging their . but This nobility his use recogon of

gennaiotes (1068, ? %h

could k4Vr(6 'n'Cgg

jeopardize 'rrte WV) and

Y4vvOL + of new that (cf.

Negtolemos' of here is Odysseus contrasts of

qualities is not with the the ordinary prescriptive

decency 79-80), line

gennaios that there distorting the and able. ktetes and he he

at

51,

and of

reveals the term virtually word; while

aware

significance force here the he impulse this with same of

maintained its

the

descriptive applying the but cennaios (he be little repeats

meaning; word to that denying thus it

does to

opposite, to help This at there

feel is of at

pity desir-

others, use 475-6 can of

impulse that sense

agrees in but the that

Philo1402), to

doubt

we are

supposed

260 175

regard Philoktetes in the

this

as

the

proper

application

of

the

word.

referred prologue KvAws

to

Neoptolemos' himself ,j than v, -the to as

hamartia declared v that stage undo

at that

1012, he : it

and would is

rather once when

Neoptolemos wv j "r* Neoptolemos' return he

1<*KZJ94-5) we are at his 1222.

more he

with

hamartia to intends this capture back it to

concerned At 1224 hamarrTrocroc 1234 this he on

and

Odysseus says that

Neoptolemos tia,

previous in his 176 at bases and

and at 1228 he defines i to attempt ocitxCoLl. in the his desire that this to he give

consisting bow, aischrs deceit. army

Philoktetes; the and

explains the dike, replies giving argument since in the it

recognition and again,

acquired refer the

without then him

must that (1241-3) in

Odysseus will

with back that was first restates 177

a threat the he his, place his bow has,

Achaean and case, plan In with no which reply

prevent specious give its it

a blatantly right to

any

back

Odysseus', (1247-8)! desire to

secured to

capture

simply (1248-9').

remedy

his

this Neoptolemos /Kocert-a ai r2gfA

Neoptolemos, committing himself; this this past 178 suggests scene, actions, at his

then,

recognizes and that his his

that takes conduct to is the future make

he full

has

done

wrong

in upon and In at his he is

hamartia, feels that

responsibility has been one of aischron aidos.

he

reaction his is shame not of to of then, the

it

is

moreover, and the there

entirely slightest damage good his

directed hint to his that

concerned He j

prospect however,

reputation. and describe we are to the Ajax has his this as

concerned, the It is with of his

error,

indicates remorse. confronted dictates or own the

presence clear, an own of right defy

emotion that who in

we should this passage according like

individual conscience, the and play wrong, in

acts

who, which ka o

Odysseus her name,

Antigone of to

bears and to

in 179 and

ideas

aischron, carry his is

prepared through of us dos, that

(1250-1). and these it

the 180 is

group His

order

is . convictions still that for to

terminology, of the

however, greatest

therefore particularly

inportance which seems

terms,

aischron,

261

have action in of it the his

an

intrinsic or situation of

reference (to an "how individual's his

to

the

external look"), retrospective

aspect can

of be used

an

things

context own

evaluation Sophokles, experof of conit the on the is basis being

conduct, has he of feeling

internal that simply but have

moral when reacting responding part

conscience. a human to the on of his even the

appears, aidos, disapproval standards Any

recognized is not others,

iences the moral science. explicitly activation standards and, earlier to

prospect internal when based

which

become

related of of an an

of aidos, of course, to "other people", will source but lesser of working passages is of Ajax of that used aidos, that aidos aidos of in the of reference importance extent, at the which of

indicate

internal 181 society, slightly

of

this

passage,

only

Neoptolemos' lies in their as

manifestations of the

895-975, internalized a subjective

presentation such. of We have own of

standard evaluation for in the the

met conduct

one's

absence Philoctetes clear subjective against aidos of the the

any and

pang the

as an explanation 182 it is only but we have operating so. far as course realization, be meet the of

encountered individual's action then, is that

representation awareness his can later own work in fifth of

principles. this way

a certain 183 The will and 184

presumably we shall

a phenomenon it again in

century, Demokritos.

fragments

There is

is

a certain on

paradox

in of

all key

this; terms

Neoptolemos' like to the aischron orthodox to

aidos and fifth convent-

based

interpretations must of he to roughly these is words, forced the is

gennaios century ional judgement aspect it the entails of

which senses standards and his

correspond yet to rest use of into his relief of in his

responding own society; by aidos the with

subjective the subjective fact regard that to

defy

aidos

thrown

a corresponding of others, one his same c:or, science be. in rest to of the

neglect

criticisms aid os in hiss they shared would by

the and thus are highlighted whose society. ethical ethical

roots of Necto)emos' in a way in which assumptions were however, as Neoptolemos

not. the

Philoktetes, standards

does

subscribe

262

eventually effect, seus, responds. fronts Philoktetes the latter the

does, creates

and

the

bond

created that

between

them,

in by Odys-

and

it 185

a society Athe i values An even deeper of the

outwith of this

represented that this,

society than the

Neoptolemos however, between conduct lack of the and is bask, the the thus but play face it of con-

paradox play: and the that the it which audience, end

audience and surely of yet of in the

relationship commendable

Neoptolemos demonstrate the this gods argument case that in the to

the

fundamental the must be end be so.

respectability means; is no the and will

justifies achieved, There may of in

should the

comfortable each

solution member closely of

spectator each reader values

rather is of

compelled this

examine

his

own

fundamental

paradox. in Sophokles' itself; creation his the of

The work poet's

relative belies use

paucity the of great different them of with which

of

, importance kinds

instances of of

of the

aidos concept and part is his of

aidos

tension and in the find sebas, occur both but


used present Phil. (Ant.

between influence partiality with aidos, now times,

form

an

important thought

technique, shown approach usage, areas we to etc. and the future is


with

the the

contemporary which we are his

clearly often

characters As way in

terms that is ten are of

concerned. given

regards many

having less

already than etc. not

frequent aideomai used an action


but (aischunomai

aischune; six of times in

aischunomai Sophokles, for Neither

increasingly concern
an

apprehension the present.


' A1.1307, and two

over
infinitive,

in
both

with

occur etc.

participles 929,1383; 510 aideomai

Ant. instances reinforce

540,

OT. 635, with this Ct

A1.506-7), x. 254

(epaideomai), with shift present in are begun and actions perhaps does of should one's be usage, now than this used

(aischunomai)) This it is is certainly of which the obviously

connexion certain these is

action. and more inhibit concern

sign

of that which

significant an is action merely of subjective sweeping or

verbs

frequently one with a move conduct, but changes

already

to

contemone's

plated, present interpretation conclusion

character a very values

facilitate own drawn

towards no in

about

263

society; to one's future the two

it

is

obvious, conduct (e. g. take

for may Ant.

example, still 510). object. be In

that

aidos to

with others'

regard instances

present disapproval verbs

related the

remaining

a direct

Other Sebas pattern chapter,

terms. etc. of occur usage it with is would attempt of uses conduct; because, be described as note, of great very be any frequency to in that an Sophokles, noted already of in the prolix these number or of but the last

similar to

and to Worthy general

overburden is asebes affect points might

discussion terms. very

systematic the

treatment increasing etc. aidos out, now to to 186 also

however, eusebes, does Erffa

commend a certain an be action

denigrate extent, could

this von as

which

aischron

termed

dussebes.

The text

present of (its

participle fear. being force else.


found in the

religious

occurs of hazomai aa seems to equivalent to

at make

0.155 good but

in sense the

a conat active

OC. 134 occurs

tC-ovroc)

nowhere

Nemesis 601-2, popular

etc. OC. 1753)

are

five sense (Phil.

times of 1193). divine

(El.

792,1466-7, anger, only

Phil. once

518, as

disapproval

NOTES TO CHAPTER 1. 2.
3.

FOUR.

von ibid.
The

Erffa,

p. 107.
to have a Glaukos duty a to right I1.12.310-28 their demand

famous implies

speech that that

of

Sarpedon heroes

at

similarly communities protection.

protect to

and

the

protected

have

4.
5. (ed.

Cf.
On )

above,
honour Honour

p. 166
and and

(with

n. 20,
see 32-4. also

p. 198).
Pitt-Rivers in Peristiany

oaths, Shame,

6.

The

explanation that of Iok. O. 's

objection manner

presumably "should" have departure; it

is

intended guessed is not the

to

forestall truth from

any the

tremendously

plausible,

264

but

it

does

have Burian,

the

effect

of

stressing p. 291n. to the

the 37,

extent suggests that

of

O. 's that

delusion. there really may is

Suppliant in of the O. 's

Drama, lines,

be

irony

effect

Iok.

ashamed

"misbegetting".

7.

On the

Sun see

as

the

god

who

sees

all

and

so

most for

resents that

pollution, 8. is Because polluted, see Class,


O. 's Stebler, dispute it On

Parker, shun

Miasma, and

293,310,316-7. revulsion pollution p. 74. which con-

people the Parker,

express of

consequences Miasma,

and

disgrace

verge; 9.
10. 84-8, not both, repeated in the

94,205,313-8.

See

Gewissensregungen,
guilt feelings, Entstehung the general to me, see und import place too kaka.

Class, Entwicklung, of their

Gewissensregungen, 82,95-8; observations, emphasis p. 97, Unglck no on O. 's claims und instance Leid, of rather O. , as Class sense, done, yet natural Gewissens however, as "misdeeds". in he the that I should but

seems

much

his to references k. cVol 9,doppelsinnnig exodosLis und which Bses; the " there

Stebler, ... however, is not ... in for als

Schlechtes word than (p. he still ("Oidipus bei does 11. ihm not Cf. 87) is in

is, sense 1330

primary (see esp. bears

"misfortunes" it the OE').

"misdeeds" Points not out,

ICCkaic

no

Schuld

subjective he has

"morally a kein " on the

responsible" Schuldgefhl Mensch, Class, wenn ibid.

what is

experiences wre ausbliebe, rest above, assertion form to implied

which die ); this of if there

extremely des

Stimme

distinction, his is kaka any

interpretation In (JHS of addition, 1973,36-49) we (p. anxiety

2-4.

truth self-blinding this the

Devereux' is sign cious ation). a symbolic of

that might

O. 's relate that mutilation

castration, dictum in guilt

(as uncons(castr-

guilt) threat

Piers'

2 above) is

12. Jebb, 13. Iole 14.

understanding-roe ad From is As loc. 444 in ).

with

both

phrases that that and

(so

Easterling

and that

it and 462-3 appears love H., with not only by Jebb, ad the loc.

she he Bowra,

believes is in love

with

her.

suggested p. 127. himself although

Sophoclean

T aaedy, 15. 1270, Hyllos and

raised he

question foresee it,

of-re the

cannot

c 4ttXXovr, at , audience must

265

be

intended

to that See

think Zeus

of is

the not ad

sequel, aboulos loc. and

the where her in

apotheosis, Herakles introd., disgrace is 10-1. at

and conOn all

to

recognize cerned. idea trast that fr.

Easterling gods (von can Erffa,

the con-

the 276R

be

implicated 122-3,125).

16.

On the

problem to it,
GPM,

of see

%K6(` below,

K(TKViJ pp. 541-65.

and

sophistic

approaches
17. 18. Cf. P. 76.

Dover,

p. 223.

19. 20. 21. part the

p. 115. Cf. Cf. of above, above, the pp. 8-9,117-8,168-9. "Results" p. 35. of Eros on the both "intentions" Dei. and for Iole, betraying and hand, in that of Hyllos considers of Lichas, makes and however, for

and play; H.

are, allowances does her

dialectic of

influence her

consider and, her as moral is gifts values in

husband both

responsible the H., the Dei. his

not (436-69), recognize only

we saw, both put to he in

chorus-leader on of other and

innocence. the

results, who the H. 's (cf. noted, die. two 22. 23. in Yet See

case despite

death brought

ignorance esp. 773

(772-80, from

thus

differ Segal,

those

of

- -r*1 the other but in

the nature of fl 0, '), xi 0%1 characters Dei., her as resolve between we to the

general adopts is

CS 1977,119-23), approach of of the their to

his, only

results-based one to aspect manner show Die his

This the he

parallelism deaths. all (esp. to leave it; his at

self-chosen wishes

body

1078-80. Suppliant

Kopperschmidt, 207-62, has Phoenix been

Hikesie,

89-91,

Burian, 409-21). the

Drama, 24. cinct and for they


25. coined can only

1974,408-29 persuaded contact is thereafter p. 77) him of


the expressed

O.

already to

sacred supplication, (Gould's be (a

pre-

and

relinquish plea, JHS 1973, have to on


first

with it

Antigone's

"figurative" might from

terminology, the chorus

and his

therefore Attica (229-36)).


and was aidos"

easier

expelled
E. A1c. sense by

reaction

exhibit
Aidophron in order

learning
occurs convey be

identity
659, "showing

at

presumably which

to

ambiguously

aidoios.

26.

As

Adkins his

points moral

expressing

(ME, out innocence

P. 105) (that

Oedipus' he suffered

language rather

in than

266

did, kind Tetr. Drama, that guilt novel; homicide written

266-7, of

cf.

538-9) found but 26, we Phoenix present and

is in

novel, the

and tetralogies not

clearly of Burian in

akin Antiphon

to

the (esp.

argument 3. d. 3-6), p. 222n.

should 1974, a

follow p. 414)

(Suppliant from objective is also this

assuming between which in

the

passages

"distinction responsibility" already far and present from Early

(pollution) this law, (see ), distinction which Gagarin, and

moral is

Athenian OC was Homicide Law,

was

very

"new" Athenian

when

Drakon distinguished

p. 1 etc. unintentional (cf.

which and

between

intentional, of pollution -Thus he in

justified

homicide, Homicide Law,

regardless 47,58-81). even 1132-4); K. 6c though

MacDowell, pollution

Athenian is innocence still

OC O. 's his

relevant, (see, e. g., is

maintains still he is so,

essential to him

pollution j (548: and in

adheres it seems,

even he this

though acted

he in

Va1&j

because and of the (cf. p. 177,

self-defence is of presumably the crimes

ignorance,

270-2,547-8), because and Poetry, ive earlier exangelos Iokaste other akonta; himself stood by and incest

pollution horror Miasma, that is " This the

indelible of parricide Tragic subjectthe since of and are O. the

intrinsic Parker, claims guilt" play. 1230

P. 124). "distinction

Lesky,

Greek between

objective Oidipous at and

"completely is not entirely

foreign true, suicide are incest, meaningless it was

to

distinguishes blinding the is, but when of

between Oedipus, parricide of not the course, because play was

the which and

the

hekonta, which to not

kaka, this in the

presumably distinction the Tyrannus, Athenians

under-

produced.

On of

the the

subject argument

of

lines from the

258-91, reputation this kind Perhaps,

we

should of the appeal

note

the

presence at but for on O. 's

supplicated to aidos,

258-62,282-3; of-a aidos moral appeal, dikaion 27. 28. See Cf. more qua

essentially, self-regarding suppliant. is argument A. Supp. a

is than too, of

an the the

simple whole

appeal argument

innocence the (cf. Burian, the

variation that the

another

common position

suppliant is

suppliant's

343,384,395,406,419,430). Drama, of Odysseus P. 231, at Ai. Phoenix 121-6 1974, and p. 414.

Suppliant

sentiments

n. 102

267

below. 29. 30. Cf. Cf. above, below, p. 187. rp. 363-8.

31. colon
32.

should print a question KX'. (Pearson) T after


is how 0. describes

mark
his

(Dawe)

rather
OT. 1409

than
(p.

a
212

This

crimes

at

above).

33. 34. 35.


36. 5,

Cf.

von

Erffa, Suppliant

p. 118. Drama, p. 421


p. 211, Kirkwood,

Burian, locc.
See

p. 235, resp..

Phoenix

1974,

p. 418.
1974,472Sophocles,

cit.,
Burian,

p. 242,
Suppliant

Drama,

p. 247-8,

Phoenix

Whitman, and

Sophocles, contrast

Winnington-Ingram, Study, p. 152.

p. 276,

37.

Cf.

Hesiod,

WD. 197-201 (p. 138 could above). easily

(120-1

above)

and in

Thgn.

83-6,

289-92,647-8 38. 39. in


40. 41.

aideisthai The this


Cf. Burian,

replace aidos,
Drama,

sebein sebas
p. 254.

this is

context. apparent

connexion passage;
Burian,

between see above,

and

time

pp. 188-9.
p. 250.

Suppliant Suppliant

Drama,

42. 43.

Kirkwood, It is, 683-5 Et. for

Study, example. (p. 170 in their Sept.

152-3. the reaction we might in and fulfilment the desire of also to the other how the do brother both out in at Pol. of OC.

A. Sept. in

above); act

note of

OC and for

curse battle;

concern 1424-5

honour

Antigone tKj

makes explicit Tsc IN -r-&W vvv

Burian,

avTCSuppliant "There conception itself, but are

on this: comment Ia 11 (eJ eKcECFC is ws e' it, wv L}OCKT'J J f) el o(1M d- als 9 Drama, p. 253n. 73 writes, illustrations few more poignant of the Greek by future the not as determining of prophecy only in conjunction Sophocles, with human will. " 276-7. 277-9,325-9. of of by and related wealth Teiresias Kreon to uses base gain terms: or at

44. 45. 46. the

See Cf. There

Winnington-Ingram, in general are, of by

Winninston-Innrar, several

however,

concept

aischrokerdeia means) failing with

uses minor (the pursuit is of mentioned monarchy,

advantage 1056 the as

dishonest

a particular aischros

adjective

a similar

reference

268

at

Z'39,313

and that for

1047

(cf.

Haimon

at and

747); flexibility that

at

710-1 are

Haimon not not is also 5 the or is but and 30-1). it for be a

declares aischron taken as

open-mindedness one who of in is sophos,

i. e.

they

will line

a sign motive of is

weakness. both that part the family the play by to him of main

Self-regarding characters: is ills for is her one for he by nothing of her at

aidos

Prominent statement atimon one the forces Kreon, is by indication honour

Antigone not of

there the

aischron family reputation her chief

which

concern which (cf.

own of

of is of

her

motivating

throughout too,

Gellie,

Sophocles, his

motivated honour

concern that or of

owm status: not be worsted boy

a matter

should his son,

a woman (484-5,525,677-80) (726-7), himself the slave Kreon thus against Phrase chorus I tend believe "makes the

a mere

a woman of

(746,756). deviation p. 199). in from reject this Antigone's Hdt. this phrase 3.119. passage, influences I speech a

47.

fact

Antigone's

reproach 48. to The the

(Jones, her" Aristotle, 4L4 (A rw4 recurs at 907 which draws with the or the its argument who of

While do the 49. 50. ility, context, aidos for not Cf.

to

agree that

those

repetition other.

argument The

one way (e. g. ) 29-35 of and be one's the T"'$

idea sebein that

above. rwrYxvvS being aidos one clearly

d--c/ so for owes it to effect the etc. close her all

raises in brother. one's

the this

possibtype This of

aideisthai feels which and kind family, towards

Antigone

would her

philoi, but it and Adkins,


a religit is this on to rund, of Antsee is

especially Sophokles terms of

would be so by

be possible designated, in

response achieves sebas of


Sebas (see used of of within pp.

Polyneikes

a significant by exploiting eusebeia


not originally above), to together that eusebeia also but

describing

and

applications
RR, 132-8). ious term

sebein,
is 92-3

senses varying (on which see


or exclusively its relatives and that it

with divine, with

comprnly application loyalty igone Stebler, at 745,

the the the

response words, family, on

the

centred

Sophokles as her her

assigns Bewea form nature

(511,922-4,943; P. 108). and Kreon Haimon

supports its religious

eusebeia (777-80),

recognizes

269

but patriot, lysis, The power

expresses to to sense or

contempt obey to those his

for in own for recall, in in

it.

For

him, and,

to

sebein in the

is final

to

be ana-

authority, power authority might

bow of status, as more

(166,301,514,516,730,744). or also (pp. contexts. for be 186-96 those covered above), of greater by aidos, sebas is

respect we we saw

although, now much

Aeschylus such

common

The

chorus

also at

have

pronouncements they recognize are failure second respect to

to that

make both to be

on

the

nature and

of

eusebeia: Kreon's point the 365-75, gods igone's failure are out concept

872-5 of (cf. both as

Antigone's so the the called, totality "Ode on for it and Toc is

kinds the

eusebeia the

entitled

and of Man", the Ant-

former's

recognize of law end, and

antistrophe for In seen is the the the as

where seen eusebeia to

reverence

desirable). which this is

however, important x

more

Kreon's S (E/ cf.

grasp

/ttv1 6'1 ocr6jrj 7J. Kirkwood, Study,

which (on 1349-50 p. 126). then, as (cf. well

condemned: two choral

comments,

Kreon aidos of
51. misses "whether neikes 52. 11. and

and and

Antigone, eusebeia, words


Erffa, point, she is not of

differ as on

in the

their

conceptions of Kirkwood,
(R, ask bury

of a number Study,

meanings p. 17,

common
See

Goheen, Temper,
108-9,

Imagery, p. 90).

P. 125,

Knox,
von the

Heroic

Stebler, is that of orders.

p. 69; Kreon having " does tried

Adkins not to

p. 184) Antigone Poly-

which

ashamed his

in See As 32)

defiance On

n. 50. Stebler Antigone her

Antigone's out a (p.

"conscience", 107, of cf. motives, of Gellie,

see

Stebler, Sophocles,

10729 them moral is

points has

number

but an

one absolute

of

certainly imperative.

independent

recognition

53. and 54. 55. Ajax'


56.

See

especially

Kirkwood, p. 17, 59-62, with

"Homer

and 15-9.

Sophocles'

Ajax",

Winnington-Ingram, Winnington-Ingram, Kirkwood, "Homer", "preoccupation


Kirkwood, "Homer",

Sophocles, cf.

Whitman,

Sophocles,

Winnington-Ingram, in the Iliad).

p. 64. p. 16 (on

aidos"

p. 56.

270

57. 58. 59.

Winnington-Ingram, Kirkwood, On his "Homer". concern for

16-9. 57-9,62,65,67; his time and Winnington-Ingram, atimia, on his p. 24. hybris but of part at surely animals is also of 1061 this might implied Kalchas' (cf. 1088) estimatbe by see Knox, p. 16. Heroic for

Temper, his 60. by ion social Ajax' the of

p. 29,

Winnington-Ingram, Winnnington-Ingram, is described as

p. 27;

disregard

context, conduct from

far the by at

impartial

Menelaos, slaughter on the Ajax'

indiscriminate anyone. 132-3 of for the Hybris and by

shared Athena

Messenger's wrath at words

report 758-70. to

explanation 61. 411-2. 62. 63. the Cf. See latter, "Hier Menschen See,

goddess'

example,

Odysseus'

Eurykleia

at

Od. 22.

Adkins,

I($,

p. 61. p. 27, also writes: Eindringlichkeit da er einem etwas ist " und Bewutsein, er ganz Stebler, p. 67, Class, p. 72;

Winnington-Ingram, however, kommt zum mit hat, nicht vc'(sS des

zwingender vollen wofr mehr der

klaren,

vollbracht das And: "Von zur der vorog sich

rckgngig Aias

verantwortlich lt. machen lt

...

sich

eine der

Linie unter

ziehen dem

euripideischen leidet, zu he but haben. has he "

Orestes, nmlich done,

schlechten Furchtbares Aj have to and does its realize

Gewissen getan what

dem Bewutsein,

and but by only his and the

that its to

his

action

will not

consequences, as fact of he he him, of his is

attributes

initiation

himself the

a responsible that what not is has

agent, troubled but of done, part date;


not be

Athena

(367,401-2); or in with attribdevelop-

the by

rightness the ignominy concern no way between


of

wrongness which his utable


Ajax ment

it honour, to
and

involves part the


E. 's a

extreme is in difference
in of terms

character,

play's
Orestes greater

early
need

seen

towards

understanding

"conscience".

64.

Ajax'

concentration of it warrior his is attachment the than

on father's he is

his to

father the hope heroic that at

here

reveals warrior

the ideal; in a Ajax

strength the better Iliad

his 6.479,

son

will

be by

(Hektor

recalled

271

Ai. , 8.285); at Iliad reminded honour down,

550-1) the (6.209) by (on then,

and

the

father is also

shares true, in of the the

in and

the both

son's

glory in

(6.446, the

converse and their all is

Glaukos (24.508)

Telemachos fathers

Odyssey to To aidos; Leighton parents depend is shame failure

are family father we should the

need above). for and one's

preserve let one's

these, clearly how is

cf.

P. 28

occasion Kluckhohn of may

perhaps saw as on or the

remember, feeling conscience of in vocabulary terms

however, that one

unworthy it such distinction since to fail like

guilt

or choice even

(p. 5 above); whether Piers'

simply between

a feeling to to let live

guilt, transone's and

of down

and or ideal

gression father trafSaress


(cf. pp.

(p. 3 above), is both injunctions


213-4 above).

one's up to

parents an

to
vNtt14

65.462-5, imagines such 213 in the

wk that

aR -poi "v his as father a sign of be the

SIAwf'i will of

r).;

notice to

be'unable aidos the cf.

Ajax that also look upon him; on 4,106n. look 127,126, others or own of conto

behaviour above; face that which (a as

pp. 2,6n.

a sign simply shares

aidos an in

inability of judgement and 74-5). remark "if on Ajax live is, thus

may one

indication

embarrassment of one's

a sign conduct science 66.

negative others, Class,

one

expects

a sign

Gewissensregung, the truth of

Hence

Whitman's that (756-7): ... p. 70). devotion of general he

the is can on in

symbolism destined be for effect, to induced any

of to

Kalchas' end with

Pronouncement the one of present of day days" at is

Athena's

anger

day disgrace

endure number Ajax 67. Cf.

will This

(Sophocles,

what

says

475-6. above; in to the their heroes; own standards Knox, of Heroic

pp. 215-6 p. 28,

euaeneia Tempe 68. 69. 70. is , Study,

a characteristic and cf. p. 105.

see

H. Diller,

WS 1956,70-85.

See Cf.

Winnington-Ingram, pp. 28-9,38-42 and Kirkwood, Hektor above;

18-9,29-31. Andromache's that he is appeal affected at 11.6.432 by it at

similar, 454-65. 71. 72. Cf.

reveals

Stud

Winninston-Ingram

106. p. , (p. 29) refers

to

Tekmessa's

use

of

272 "a the not the may 'persuasive' man of foreign good to corpus however,

eugenes idea certainly (e. g. ) Ingram obviously ments, charis however, heroic 73. 74. that

as

redefinition" birth the should traditionalist (cf. to above, suggest may the strong; her argument

of return

Ajax', favours outlook

but

the is

of Winnington-

Theognid be right,

pp. 135-7). (p. 30) override of fact on

that such

more sentito

self-regarding and, may in not particular, be particularly

concerns that

claims the

a concubine remains, of the

that code.

Tekmessa

bases

aspects

Sophocles Segal, , loc. In the

(Eng. Tragedy

trans. and

),

21-2. p. 134; Kreon (n. 50 cf. above). Knox, Heroic

Civilisation, and

Tempe 75. 76. to

p. 90, cit. the extent of the their

on

Antigone

(n. 73). Trugrede, that the mention as of I believe that content of of sebas which for (667-8) which is the concerns Atreidai and one of us only by "yielding", one's in as I of that do without

virtue raises superiors. this this

status

leaders the that I aidos

possibility Since it of

owes

Ajax should

dissimulating him p. 49, kind to

speech, kind

follows (cf. YCS accepts in spite

regard furthermore,

aidos he

Winnington-Ingram, 1977, any of p. 82);

contrast not

(e. g. ) M. Sicherl, believe in 677 this (cf.. that speech,

recognizable his 50-6, reference Segal,

sophrosyne concept and Civilin

Winnington-Ingram, 119 and 150, the contrast general

Tragedy 82-8, to the

isation, Sophocles,

Sicherl, approach Lesky follow. W there or pejorative pity in

Whitman, Trugrede Poetry, in to his of

p. 77);

Winnington-Ingram p. 127) Sophokles pity ation me, 651 latter. 77. 78. Cf. Where earth". at fl. pp. 225-6 he says for as both and is the in one general,

(47-56) I should see and

and

(Greek

Tragic

myself Diller,

On "yielding" As certain

1956,75-8. is no

Tekmessa to his his whether ironical brusque

Eurysakes, is of genuine the of

indicto in

this use

feigned,

although, efkv6 W suggest the

dismissal

580

above. that Achilles o. u<&5trt is not Hektor but

"dumb 79.

Thus

24.406-9

Priam

concerned

lest

Achilles

may

273

have pains
80. g1.

mutilated to
Cf. CF.

his

son's him.

body,

and,

at

411-23,

Hermes

is

at

reassure

8 1. 8:.

Cf. Cf.

P. 225 and n. 60 above. 142 -& above. . fthe

Theognidean

passages ; the

on

pp. 137-8 given the

above. by Menelaos posit-

below, essentially

549-65 pp. to we can 1976, aim dike indeed, is the trying ci of and ; -rr 137-8 of to in

argument with

seems ion,

correspond tell p. 53 the the Plato's in the (below, identifies pre-social state Prot. Phil. of failing

Protagorean ). as for the

as

far

as HSCP the

550-6 pp. soteria struggle of man myth (see aischune to before (Prot. Rose, and found only

P. W. Rose, Stichwort, which of however, 1396) Prot. seeking the 84. 8$. 86. is

a sophistic survival acct sition here, Phil.

analogous and as,

a dos

322a-b); p. 79 on deos cities

soteria 322b. 1*6

product and this, n ul -rn above.

6 in

(so at wich were with aidos).

however, vl

they through

achieve and

acquisition Cf. In That pp. 56 n. 76 his

dike

above. remarks p. 78. are ); of below). p. 194. Kirkwood, 107. p. , discreditable for arguments Stud with The the Kreon of this; of the Odysseus his aims distasteful also this the writes is of stated Menelaos' is of by Whitman, "Spartanin at Thuc.

Sophocles, ism" view 1.84.3 87. 88. 89. (cf. of the (pp. Popular Cf. In

Whitman ad loc.

Jebb,

description remarks

tenable,

similarity 454-7 Ethics, and

Archidamos

1134 using thus

commendable bears

ends Ant.; in are

Menelaos cf. Phil. desirable 90. burial, objective an it idea was One

comparison 62-3.

Winnington-Ingram, is in but wonders, the hybris character; of by was wrong in real-life greca, the some his ways

position of

the

converse discreditable. whether, enemies of law burial in

methods however, of Ajax' denial divine morally

with does is Ant.,

the not

prohibition take on

of a more as play the burial some

certainly and Odysseus; in

seen this for of with

infringement is opposed that always it

the

scrupulous own belief was see It

Sophokles' (even

that carried

denial out

thoughjit Athens) 17-50.

frquency orale

G. Cerri, is certainly

Legislazione worth remark-

e tragedia

274 ing what ros' dignity -5). 91. and 92. 93. 94. 95. 96.

that from abuse

the that of

partiality point Menelaos on;

of

choral the 1119-20, be

comments leader's implying shown by

decreases criticism that, all (and cv

someof Teuk-

see at

Kat#75 cf. 1264

and

moderation breakdown

should

Another Civilisation, Cf. Cf. P. 66. See

of

communication;

see

Segal,

Tragedy

p. 135. p. 66. pp. 48-55. p. 195. are also relevant here Odysseus of of time the and gods

Winnington-Ingram, above, Pearson, the The that two it

Popular laws points is dikaion not of

Ethics, the are, dikaion to gods

Although

(1343-4). believes that (cf. 97. 98. 99. it

however, to derive the

separate: Ajax laws

is

not

transgress

Winnington-Ingram, Cf. Cf. Cf. above, above, above, pp. 81-4

p. 67). etc.. etc.. For von see what is the prepared where for by out das v? l.o whom he body denied he Erffa, 1382. aischrokerdeia p. 124. Of course, says, where his to enemy's act body Teukros but is their not. as for sees did and cf. Ant.

pp-. -10-25,82-4 pp. 119-21,142-5. and dispute his

298-9,313-4,1045-7,1056 100. the On chorus for Odysseus in its unexpectedness, would Ajax is 11.24, cf. of in that writes: steht der aus noch not and thus where

Odysseus partial opportunity his Achilles felt

concern 100a. Achilles burial to 101. the

(571-90, burial This is,

6.418-9,

personally sebas). p. 71, for who, dike,

Eetion, effect, Odysseus

denied acts

Stebler, of concern

while

recognizing nevertheless "Im Blickpunkt Verletzung baren schaft, damit Gttern The idea of of her

nicht

eigene nicht

Selbst, mit sich

das

eine

gttlichen

vereinGefolg-

kann,

sondern der Mensch

tiefst-innerer, ot. die k, , die weiter in ." ... no "

wesensmssiger , die zu

wahren zu

sind, den

ungetrbter

Beziehung

kann stehen ... "das Selbst eigene work), that but one I see

she

finds

in

Ant.

(pp. Odysand

106-16 seus'

difference not break

between divine law

conviction

should

275

Antigone's; interpreted so, cience ested of 102. below, conduct most then of the just to where like the

both in

dike line

and with he other is not

the

laws

of own in in

the

gods

in

Ai.

are and cons-

Odysseus' is

moral his that fact,

principles, own he moral is disinter-

Antigone, will Antigone of

opposing is,

people; he

a clearer

example

phenomenon. On the relevance of this to does, ways: of his see the what divine that is to at play he is those to based of explain in that familiar of God go Christian I. " 222-3. 28-30, Winnington-Ingram, 240-1. both (cf. Demokritos of course, is dikaion law forbids (in in (121-6) OC. 567-9, pity of Jones, of his for that is B264 etc. see his which on; exposure play) another, the end

pp. 559-65 in concerns there is several us, his and his is

Odysseus . different his belief there sense

motivate the aspect and the this of and p. 218 Ajax own ka

there

a corpse;

characteristic his own begining at his fate

humanity, which (1365-7) At both

ability

expressed of points the

Theseus out that

above). as a

points on his

human as is well at

being as pains

consideration enemy, this and

interests 184-8, to I do any in "the not

Aristotle,

element of

reader think, strain justification grace 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. Laws 108. 109. 110. 111. 112.

educated however, on those

a morality his

self-interest (p. 186). altruism" will have placed

sentiments with the

(often repeated phrase "There but for the altruism),

of Cf. Knox,

Winnington-Ingram, Heroic Temper, p. 165. pp. 71-6,167-9 521 lack Study, p. 158, also of

Sophocles, Cf. above, Oeoatrroc in 630b) Kirkwood, Whitman, M$, See p. 156. Dover, denies in is and

and

Kells hybris

on

517-8. compares Pl.

suggests aidos. p. 140.

(Jebb

Winnington-Ingram,

219-22.

JHS

1983, that

p. 41. au to-ke/ is which denial the is with equivalent in itself to of unlikely, later

Adkins

aischron but
poetry. 113. In

Homer no

(IR,

43-4),

there

equivalent
to those

regard

addition

passages

already

considered

(pp.

8-

276

9,117-9,134-5,185,216 84.1,5.101,111.3-4,8.27.2-3 114. 115. similar 116. 117. 118. 119. cf. 120. one 121. Keils 122. 123. not Cf. See That is pp. 181-2 the

above),

cf. (below,

E. IA. pp.

1341-4,

Thuc.

1.83.1,

331,452-3,467-9).

above. of the p. 248. 220-1. Orestes of this play is below,

position

argued

Winnington-Ingram,

P. 185. Cf. For E. P. 75 the above. aischron-dikaion Or. 194 at 515 back the to (below, chorus the how antithesis pp. 359-60). term death the of family history in the same context

E1.1050-1,

Notice of Cf. on Cf. Just persuade aikeia

right TAPA

Myrtilos. p. 221,

Segal, 582-3. P. 238 as

1966,536,540,

Winnington-Ingram,

above. recognizes (547,550-1, cf. that her arguments will

Klytaimestra Elektra

Winnington-Ingram,

p. 221). 124. 125. Cf. Cf. above, Kirkwood, p. 227 and n. 64 P. 140, (etc. ). TAPA 1966, p. 499, Elektra

Study, p. 246. which, to as

Segal,

Winnington-Ingram, 126. most 127. 128. and Diller, aischune 129. see 130. Essays, see 125ff. 131. 132. (p. 133. 134. Cf. Cf. 138 The often Cf. See on the offence attributed

she

recognized (cf.

(522-4),

her

271,790,794).

287-93,520-2,595-7. Whitman, P. 165, Lesky, of Stebler, bestimmte of whether Greek Sophokles' p. 87, Form aidos Tragic Poetry, in p. 167, general,

self-awareness "eine

charcters sees des Elektra's

WS 1956,70-85. here as

On the below, See

question PP-551-4.

" Gewissens. ell VIj exists or

tk

Segal, 131-2;

Tragedy on HSCP words

and and

Civilisation, deeds in the

P. 283, play in

Woodard, general, Essays,

Woodard, and cf.

1964,163-205,1965,195-233, TAPA 1966,531-5. p. 225. (p. 120 439-40 above. above), Thgn.

Segal,

Winnington-Ingram, Hes. above), n. 67 WD. 197-200 E. Med. p. 193

289-92,647-8

(P. 354

below).

Eum. 490-516, Cf.

above.

277

135. Elektra

See

589-90,968-9, claims (n. 50 eusebeia above);

and for cf.

cf, Lesky,

the

chorus no Greek The less

at Tragic

1058-97; than does Poetry, contrasts be r&+&v163-4.

herself

Antigone 136. Cf.

Winnington-Ingram, of the Aeschylean

P. 225. Elektra,

sentiment

that with 7 Grr-rc-eXand Sheppard eusebeia 84-5) themes conduct between p. 500

who

her than cuE-6F1- r mother (CR 1918, that p. 137) suggests of Elektra the the may idea have that become Sophokles' contradiction her Cho. 140-1, Tragic tragedy; cf. Poetry, with in also

to wanted (Cho. 140-1); the

J. T. and (CQ 1918,

sophrosyne and of Elektra's contrast TAPA in

proverbial, treatment

develops reveals which E1.307-9 and Lesky, clearly 223-4. Elektra the points eusebein. Cf. Cf. P. 185 P. 240

these

essential

constitutes and Greek bear

on

the Segal,

1966,

p. 163. 621; this to cf. Winnington1382 ways

137.308-9 Ingram, -3, in where which

comparison also to consider Apollo,

We might prays reward this

connexion men (TAPA for the

"Reveal " as Segal prayer

gods out,

dussebeia; is an

1966, who

p. 525) cannot 138. 139.

ominous

one

and

n. 100

(p. 205)

above.

above. GS [ %" 140. a' v wp. 644 ry 0.3 v, 1<&I 'fi't , 141. Cf. Segal, Kells, TAPA 1966,483-4,510, 'V rvJ particular of owevvis an stepping possibility significance p. 511 142. Tragedy 143. and See of the of of Kirkwood, mark, kerdos and (cf. will alert and n. 99 p. 147n. etc.; p. 254. the above). 33 the

Lr&s introd. obvious p. 6. overto the In

spectator

aischrokerdeia

traditional Segal, Phil.

pejorative TAPA 1966,

Study,

compare

108-9. p. 511,

114,125,197,279,638 and Civilisation, p. 475.

Segal,

TAPA

1966,

TAPA

1966,

144.8.9.356-63. 144a. 145. cf. 146. seems Cf. Achilles' Knox, Heroic 607-8. hatred of duplicity p. 121. (ad likely comparing duration; von loc. to be ) of the syntax he of 83 6-i$ e. 3 appears at (. 9.312-3;

Temper, explanation be most

Webster's to me to as

adverbial, of

right; \1 eo Kai

explains and rejects

f(v,

u y, as

acc.

Erffa,

78, T. , p. 117, also

278 csL-fZ3 (that seems fCKh both and could qualify, g. the purpose c, c-"S c- _ "for to require he, like would own Physis -fc. just as the prove much as (that article. important; the G-S Jebb, require will

Jebb's but his

idea

that

explanation act") interpretation

of

a shameless other avtic 147. see 148. of to 149. over seen idea Sc-S

which avtLI7C-c4 of his p. 71. Class, at or

rejects

could = tL3 N. 's awareness WS 1956, n. 65 above,

Diller, Cf. i T'&kAA lrK require

P. 74, anaideia, "daring".

Stebler, which

P. 103; is

N. 's

use felt

hints also "boldness"

commonly

from Aside Odysseus' of To promotion obvious 7% SLIk-AIL64 influence be the thought may also of sophistic T(, is an important in his soteria use of iriaOIva, c in 109; in the HSCP 1976, out, p. 53 points play and, as Rose, a term (cf. See friendship Rose the Rose, borrowed n. 83 above). on the development eventually "social arise of all harming even p. 67, from sophistic Kulturentstehungsf of ties

possibly theorien 150. of

HSCP 1976,64-80, between relates idea that it is the this two to

men which sophistic and values

become contract" from to live each before on 411-60, them kakoi; other. Neoa

genuine; theories, recognition together On real ptolemos where on cf. 151. 152. n. 30 153. 154. 155. 156. 157.

morals in the

that in points political of

interests without the

communities contact his seem between deceit, to at be see

two

confesses there of does the

Rose,

a genuine were Kirkwood,

agreement chrestoi Study, and

between which

which Alt, Rose, Cf.

heroes 1961, and

Troy

Hermes P. 66

p. 151, n. 42.

p. 146. (p. 218

OC. 258-62,282-3

(n. 27

above)

and

902-3

and

above). P. 68. Cf. Odysseus' injunction, i -r& /%4,

at

82.

Above, Cf. Cf in

pp. 139-40. general M. $, pp. 60-3,109nJ65. p. 189 (on aischron loc. ). claims that humane Neoptolemos ethics. "). and agathos in the

Adkins, of this p. 248 Rose,

prologue 158. 159. imitates Above Cf.

play). (with nn. (who, ad

p. 69

however,

Philoktetes'

"untraditionally

279

160. 161. 162.

p. 288. Cf. pp. 16-7 above. revelation as that is it or knows some with is the he but of points the final the out, prophecy, there see can given for it by is p. 292; any at by doubt 1324-36, On the

progressive

Winnington-Ingram, scarcely Neoptolemos endorsed with not 141-74 Greek 162a. lines, 163. His that say be

version, one, ask, Alt, approach) reff. of p. 284. ). in and

authoritative to N.

Herakles;

pointless how see of (with further her

connexion why Lesky, he does 1961,

passage what he (with

this,

knows

sooner; criticism 175-6

Hermes

and Tragic Cf.

Poetry, 966 and, P. 172, is Alt, the on

further

the

significance

7rKh. 9l in

these

Lesky, aporia

Winnington-Ingram, dominant Stebler, cf. Segal, note of

this

scene; Lesky, and

cf. p. 172.

895,

908,969,974; 164. p. 336. 165. Cf. See Rose,

159,163, p. 73 and

104-5, Tragedy

Civilisation, N. 's

Stebler,

P. 104.

For

words

indicating

pain,

see

806,906,913,1011. 166. 167. sense 168. be to Cf. Alt, p. 160. to a person for this moral Physis, the below, view aischros transferred standards but that this aidos ), first discourse is of both not aidos and innate receives the necessary is part innate. capacity at the of and hardly can of usually use his bears cf. a physical 1284. thus to (on the seem attribute this poet that, as a to

Applied ("ugly");

Neoptolemos' part of his

aidos us Vt&L

allows exist all on

Sophokles see writing

question is and not

551-4

because nomos to of and

a systematic because kind is it

Physis

secondly

suppose one's the

because young itself (the tetes) character ean found create 169.

a certain adult, it it emerges

Physis play education of

inherited that

From

and hands

education are (see

Neoptolemos necessary Rose, (below, for 85-9);

Philok-

development this is the and of ideas that

a sound

Protagorean/Demokritit is such education therefore as that can

position that in

pp. 551-2,562-3) was to the aware effect

possible

Sophokles B33DK,

Demok.

a new P. 104.

Physis.

280 170. Lesky, general); Physis claiming inherited must Rose, terms since 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. meet p. 87) originally become Cf. Cf. See Cf. Rose, at P. 227 On N. 's Greek the should that, virtue; with and, the as

aristocratic Tragic Poetry,

see Diller, p. 175 (191-2 on si aspect of the however, the "nobility" to

WS 1956, Physis to the in to extent

p. 71, S. in

aristocratic not in be N., N. 's proper

references "Pindaric" and become his

exaggerated, S. dramatises

of of (see

notion Physis

essential education

effective suggests, may have "

Winnington-Ingram aristocratic of and traditional 65 above.

(p. 310) virtues

denoting "simply and those nn. 64 (with and 477.

long

morality. (pp. and 270-1) n. 148

pp. 5,213-4 Class, his p. 73 words p. 90, 51 is at

n. 11) cf.

and 110 (p. 252

n. 64

above. above).

recognizes specious, acceptable refuses a sense various and to

that and

Odysseus' that sense, in but

redefinition 1368 as the word is

of (p. 254 also

gennaios used and uses at also 176. 177. writes: mistake is there in

a popularly above), term on in the

we saw

n. 153 the 475-6; Alt, Cf.

allow is

that

Philoktetes'

which

recognizably of 1965, this

conventional word, see p. 289. (ME, aischra in p. 183) is a

interpretations iiermes

P. 147, Philoktetes

H. C. Avery, at 1136. in this values, to a failure. reference above), to fail in of

On hamartia "Under that any (cf.

aischra traditional led

passage " to

Adkins

a hamartia At no failure in so some however, imperatives, succeed on this per

has

period, the as far

however, adjective to do of be and any need

intrinsic pp. 13-8 is

aischros something propriety; one not ingly, invalid. "To of a

except to question, match

aischron the large be rest He goes be able

standard could

standard number the of on: to use

traditional to remarks

simply the

requirement Adkins'

se. passage

Correspondare

such

a phrase has values understood might (ibid. be in be

as been ...

hamartia gained, The . without to this

aischra indicates new usage

in

a situation a firmly _sufficiently but only Since he finds

where rooted

a success change

is

rooted

to

explanation, overset phrase it. "

a minor assault "significant" it

needed ) that

281

occurs regards half be of

in the the

play of Sophokles, "change in values" as fifth at all. steal (the P. 144 from the century; costs, is to yet and gain of and which rooted for Homer is in similar

late

Adkins

presumably of the was but latter not in is it to in

a phenomenon Hesiod ideas of by that success are sorts, improper in

pursued

expressed

Theognis; Theognis aischron is even profit claim

to theft (cf.

a success kerdos note is

pursuit above, deceit "firmly literature, in

means) 607-10 could to

Thgn. One goes the

made that of of could, by

aischron). change" although

back

the for the

beginning the usage

Greek aischron

evidence of be implicated and 108n.

scant,

the success,

suitors

Odyssey in 152 178. excuse 179. 180. Cf. Cf. aischos

despite others'

manifest (see criticisms

their

pp. 14-6,58

above). Stebler, himself. above, Rose, pp. 223-4,234-6. p. 76, who notes that this pastage of their group opinion. and which hints would "does the mark heroic p. 106, notes the absence of any attempt to

a particularly 'shame' ethic; from up as the approval a basis this not

self-conscious terms or which disapproval the

internalization normally of group's derive the

validity held are here " Rose also

for to

defying sophistic the

relates but the 181. 182. 183. does

thought, passages Demok.

at

Demokritos, illustrate

mention namely

best

phenomenon, Cf. Cf.

B84,244,264. above. (p. 106) 1234 ...

(e. g. ) pp. 3-4,87-90 132-4,182-6 above. conscience kurze da

On Neotolemos' "Neoptolemos' zeigen weiter,

Stebler von der

writes: und 1246 ... Rechtsals was auch " getan, that claims and -f habe aware but Physis mir dieser

Angaben er den mit

Gewissens-Inhalts Empfindens zentrale nicht Stufe This was this is mir quite nicht umgreift, Instanz entspricht. von Icharbitrary: entspricht" seem to that und

inneren noch nicht

Vorstellung i kx vwdes aber 'Ich

seines spontanen sein Ich getan, wir

(noch ') -

nicht: In

habe werden

Antigone

Gewissens-Bewutsein Neoptolemos at 902-3; her of the says, Stebler remarks stress

begegnen. "Ich is here, on

might

contradict in spite

(n. 255,

p. 151)

282

p (concern renders famous Physis the her

-reoxrwars for the

in noble

those birth,

lines,

the status, different

presence shame, from Physis). as Antigone's other

of cf. Ant. But

other P. 258 523

motives above) (Ant. 's

meaning

quite about her as subject do I be 151)

statement drives latter, him too, Neither in her Ant.

loving much to see seen it

Neoptolemos' drives than which her, loyalty can in be Phil.. and to

just is

motives a

Physis.

why as seems to

phenomenon "not that do what yet" Stebler is

present From

should 256 (p.

present

note

regards right as more

Antigone's important but 184. this, See

positive than again, below,

commitment

Neoptolemos' appears pp. 559-65. to

retrospective, me a quite

"bad" arbitrary

conscience, preference.

185. 186.

Cf.

Rose,

64-80.

P. 125.

283

5.

EURIPIDES

In

Euripides, for we

while the

aidos overall them to

etc.

are in

not

generally of and

of individual

the

same (the the and

importance plays as

interpretation be Aeschylus the is

found is an

Sophokles of

Hippolytus words this, of with

obvious we are

exception), concerned comparative the other of is be the

frequency

which

greatly wealth of

increased, our

combined Euripides us whose Homeric to as

with

the

knowledge

against the

two

major relevant by named and

tragedians, terms that as while the over a by who

allows range the brought of this

examine width Poems. to must that of enables the his can

usage

only

paralleled often stage, to careful

afforded poet judgements it

Euripides the be Athenian subject there plays, us to gain into is

realism kind true

qualification, domesticity relative the insight in

is in

certainly the icity provided day

often and it

a greater is this of of

background which by

domest-

something the workings

Odyssey

aidos

every-

contexts.

Euripides, instances Messenger of of

like

Homer, in the his

provides the martial cowardice opponents:

us

with context: of

a number at

of 813-6 the the face in

aidos

I-icld.

describes from

Eurystheus

a challenge

bd

VV1-L- -ruS

OUr LO(V d--r,oxr oc. pcUTOJ uTus bus w4 I E l (} GTv )t itt C-ti CJ S G vS OC KttM. v

Xa SC-, Kh vio r&&(S vra5 ai rWV r*9

AW
As in the Iliad, Tavs reaction witness two cowardice; Homeric who might of

KaKrrvs aidos, Ki here inoperative, expresses for 1 There for ' from Homeric, that object who of here might one's not the is, is felt exactly opinion however, line to prevent the of those a 813 the 2

L)vq re, S lklcC-fts one one's of is concerned

cowardice. the

zeugma conveys phrase if

senses of

the sense S'cr S ai took

here, verb ECc. (e. g. ) oc l is very in either direct far

while

aideomai

... a direct and or of the

j'GAc' "V

since, was wit-

object

Homer, to

always ness actions;

personal, one's the actions use

referred to the

those

recipient object

impersonal

suggests

284

"I

feel

shame

before",

but

"I

am ashamed in to

of",

and seems

the to

phrase, add be to out that

6TeAT 4u3 wJ the criticism of aidos. The

probably concessive , failure of Eurystheus' Messenger's no


own one it because what of claim the

force, reject

cowardice seems to

suggestion, either
as a

then, for
general, from one's it

Eurystheus
others to be or

showed
for his that because and of

regard
status will will

the

opinions
and it discreditable reputation unworthy

of
thus seems

expected both of others regardless that any

refrain damage one

conduct eyes self, noted ation one's this to other traditional recognized aischron others' the ritos' picture, e

in of already of idea is

the one-

considers may any say. fear a of aspect of this is

others aidos, to

We have of loss

feeling a 3 or external 4 The but

reputof that referred

presupposes own worth,

honour,

subjective passage explicitly the is but of the action prospect has

novelty

subjective beside people. the

"internal" source thought

reference, the is a passage

judgement still it is as of entered Demokthe

of

behind

one, that one is

that when not

cowardice one simply A notion it .5 a rejects

aischron, course to

responding of possible

disapproval. and wvr with

"self-respect" relationship

to

aIs646w

This which in is as the not

passage we have sense

is

also

important

in

that

it an this

is

the

first

in object case it (iJ

met "I

aideisthai

am ashamed necessary (xifA(AS IFtks the verb I

governing of x. " In to ... '&(&*.

impersonal particular

absolutely

retrospective c}Ets phrase a; this usage, in the sense and sense development in Homer or of

force the of regard 4(k #I xd might simply L) but it will the instances own the past verb be

oic) para-

'

clear

that

does

facilitate consider one's of

retrospective of actions. has aideisthai 6 Obviously place, took only

we shall of

indeed over

shame in aidos be the

some since

usage

taken and

was

uniquely object, to with it the

prospective and this frequency

a personal should of

quasi-personal related

development of instances in

presumably and 1 ads

aideomai be

aischunomai and with aischune, one's

a present seems, to

participle come one's

Sophokles: to

increasingly own present or

concerned

reactions

285

past the

conduct, future.

rather Barrett, but aideisthai the in so his

than in his

with note

the on of

inhibition Hipp. it, 244, in

of

action this

in

notes of highly

development, ination able. the 7a In one of

explanation from usage which in no

terms is

contamquestionand in

aischunesthai, of both verbs is

Homer, passage it does

parallel, a direct as aideomai. with than much latter, shame more than 9 over

aischunomai the of which aischunomai in

governs same way

object8 There is,

exactly instance done

moreover, of passage, the

aischunomai is earlier is

an this common aideomai, not a

accusative present with this the

wrong and

while

participial only association We have, might this but 10 I in the

construction obsolescence of in the fact, former met be context over some

Sophokles of the

reflects

particular own either of own x", conduct. verb and

with only

one's in which

one

passage "I

legitimately was of in the

translated not of

am ashamed over low whether by aideomai one's birth

shame

actions,

shame

another hesitation be

person's as replaced to

(01.1079); aischunomai

expressed that

passage

could

fact that but the r+ without a change remains of meaning, JurreVEuc/ "she is ashamed oc3#rxvv&r1L of clearly means ... " not " "she low birth, birth. low QT and Hcld. respects my (if latter the are probably anything, roughly contemporary 11 is likely if the OT were but to be the older), even unquestionably omai enough aideomai one likely meaning verb + acc. to in prove has to that the the the that older, sense "I one previous like from instances the same instance of x" of would one, aischunhardly in from verbs it is in most

my

am ashamed the

be which the this

passages arise since roughly synonyms, fashion.

present

sense, other; at as

contamination of time, this both

application that in

appear both, a parallel

develop

particular

Later

in

the

same to

speech

(839-40) which 'd c similar being arose TJ

the

Messenger as battle 'iecwJ i oc xvv

reports was v ? k& joined:

the

exhortations 'O

bravery 'fJaS -

fa. j

6T[`C-i0oVTE-S These the lines only clearly slight

OV K recall

C-r'

appeals the reference

in

the to

Iliad, the col-

12

difference

286

lective of his enger when homeland expresses home Iolaos Makaria's are the

honour individual

of family

the

polis or

rather his

than

the

personal

honour vis--vis the Mess-

warrior or (828-9), his

comrades, reports he urges in the the

dependants. employs to

honour collective 13 Eurystheus, to appeal (kataischunai) at 700-1 and

a similar disgrace

aidos their Iolaos staying at to says:

men not forthcoming

battle, idea that his at 541-2

while

traditional in the

cowardice determination where, in

aischron is again decision

affirming speaker

to responding he

fight.

to

offer

herself

sacrifice,

TUtS
If then the J' ov the

uts
aischune of

>
is

o'o<<t
not Iolaos

-rj
a litotes

'i aud airxvvv)wL -rvx 7 a'cY-vv1^0-t.


fors disclaims "I am very may in be proud", explained by a as

oc.r)vvrct

which a warrior

reluctance (the as

to has in

be just

outdone described

heroism Makaria's

woman14 proposal

chorus-leader the ultimate

heroism).

That plainly

victory by to his

is Theseus flee aidos

alon, at

defeat Supp.

aischron 529-30, Helen's while appeal Tro.

is

stated the to idea

quite that it to claims Astyat Hcld. is position is

aischron abandon that anax, 1000-8 the out

underlies at that Hel. grown bring the

Menelaos Hekabe

805.

At

1190-1 killed to an the

report of fear

warriors disgrace of of both and some, as killing means

the

child, Greeks; children own the an

will

and

iF. 155-70 as

enemy's one's

represented and avoiding is

a prudent

securing these clearly like

vengeance, far is of from the

but impartial,

in

passages such the

speaker of enmity

extension of Troades of

type

which regard

Odysseus In the

Sophokles' passage any more in not it

Ajax, is

might clearly

distasteful. in to of Also is Just the

Hekabe's means but on rule of her that that

intention, retaliation, evaluation account. defeat not

the

absence the

effective disgrace, be rejected to urges but of


fj j

implicate conduct Tro. we in outcome

Greeks need an age

their in

find a passof the

exception which

the

aischron, of the

consideration the way ,// in

conflict, (401-2):

which
6TE Koc

participants
vJ K "sc <

fought
s i1)#L 3.

, d
Koc. xi

C)Uo(.,, TtJt i1C-aC /wv

avas wj

ai efv-,

287

This idea the who his that

appears that analogy is killed to

to die may in

be

an

extension in down can has can an be to battle in be

by

analogy is not by in

of

the

bravely break battle

aischron, an his

Homeric 15 but

that,

whereas

individual fellows the is and, be less world. her or idea

honoured

community, death in will it to in no belongs find the

which battle be

interest glorious, confer of noble the

promoting which on kind, in the itself,

a city honours some stand

destroyed unless likely Thus, takes remarks defeated

unable to an for

alliance its

might wider

praise immediate from

context, Kassandra's the in kind of

chorus-leader clearly, to

(406-7) though, which the

comfort do represent

words; sentiments

might

turn

self-consolation. Aeschylus' are 16 same his presented of In the Septem as Sophokles' to driven/mutual and curse Eteokles and in in terms the of by their is similarity the and lines insult his to OC

We have how the

already sons for to of and their exactly

seen Oedipus

in

destruction concern subject of his in his time

fulfilment honour. the of of become


),, K

father's

Phoenissae

motivation, action

justification to that

his

namesake that this

Aeschylus of the

brother

Sophokles
7//LI

suggests had
c

aspect The
/

brothers' are 509-14:

motivation

a to pos.

relevant

a/KViL,

-Tuv

)c a010/

-ru rr', N/W o, rL5


de -r&Lr t'cc vi

11o)5
orilXuva, naL1 1% f3; T 7 4vr,. V J4

c'ScaCE . T("3 7hUS O VV -r G

TuxV
& VOLT'

A Xc1. EL " Tail


V&tZ$ himself that which to is of C-t I

ae V VK7G(,!
concerned city, it up

acs . r`
6S

/U

Eteokles reputation is say couched that

represents and in it for is the while by giving with for terms

as his reveal give

both his pure greater confuse should barely (&t in

for

his

own

but as the to

justification selfishness; share greed incur conceals -ificC&L p/ and and Eteokin with an a d&., to

anandria smaller the in

exchange manliness, oneidos

surely lest

concern to

Thebes force honour motives

a foreign own

preoccupation 7-c

Eteokles'

What were understandable . Sophokles have become base and

... Aeschylus

mean

in

Euripides,

288

les' fairness mother.

selfishness of 17 his is von ("I

is

further and first

highlighted through time suggests the we have that

by

contrast of

with his

the

brother the

criticism met the but

This

aischunomai verb has its

with

a noun clause: "root meaning" also occurs virtually with is

Erffa18

it consider consider mean "I a comparable noun in charge

aischrorO, it clause Pho. of aischron, at

aideomai and, in

must fact,

Hcld.

43-4.18a

There reputation motives must

another and of

character avoid to the who, secure

who

acts

to

preserve but the (913-4), are the the

his

cowardice, to Teiresias of

Menoikeus,

according the safety

be

sacrificed in a much

Thebes, Kreon, out of

presented father, and father resolve his belief save

more

favourable to convey

light. his having the city, in implicate for and is son

boy's city his his is in

conceives his that to life, he take that (994), with at of of the country,
loyalty the

a plan but ready own flee

Menoikeus, to life. would leave

first soon this

assured reveals decision himself his

is his to

Important be to

cowardice is to combined others;

but

Menoikeus' sense says that bore

concern of him, people is


( I,

reputation

a strong he land

duty

responsibility excuse for the loyalty his

995-6

there

no

betrayal idea to
to plain regarding operative")

the

that of

opinion

other which

combines and thus (6un(vWeiiI) with


i E rC-Wtifo and

his
show

a duty
to one's

related

to

the

requirement
(996) philoi. ("comakes Self-

parents relationship) and further

quasi-familial (or "competitive") motives are

other

other-regarding entwined at

999-1005:

ac4 "scc-I Kot K r ry6$


TCV W

i%I/ r, cc "

oL /"% g)
oaf(

oevAWK1 ' rirt 'irKs


lcIC/ BF it

OC-r ora i/ tilbvA40Gt. l ' k, r"/rt fxvf Cv w1! V


M, tYsL '7['ac1 O 7rt

FQE falls GW ACM T61 "c -TC-`ac, fCx " v1n -i 'o ! 4_c-. J loos ws JwX f} "vi5 Ti &X tJ "t &o vro -fro "
OM[-F lam. VaJSuj Koc. ICOS v1 rO Oe 1L.

He he

is will

concerned, compare how he

then, with

at others

the

charge who face

of

cowardice, in he on

about

how

death but

battleind considers co-operative

about his

might

appear to

to

others, and it

also the

responsibility

others,

is

289

note

that Et
l1i

ends r, -C X^
LjW

he

his

speech
t Kars
TaJT Z' I/ -re, J% oc V i`OL1

(1015-8): u Tt_
Ks (i/ Pct Ir"r, J/ 6-u

PW4 SI-90I
XI< t

C)UVoavrv
F G< VGA

TLS
f t1. &L

-rrDTeCo TC(-Iek"VIC,

ckarrovwJ
aJ.

6JTU7CLGV

The

combination of it,

of this

selfcharacter be

and

other-regarding is of indissoluble. the for also far fact that

impulses This it to related will, is fail to

in

the

motivation I take ionally one's

partly to

a result and but regard with it so

traditin con-

reprehensible, duty others, with debate is is ultimate his own motivated we shall in which

bad might to

oneself, be

temporary behaviour there the for often which way ful or

how

compatible

self-interest. of self to the

other-regarding 19 In Menoikeus two, and out he undertakes of concern is theme is be the

a perfect

coincidence of That this again; action in another. in one way

subjection reputation. in meet a given

community

other-regarding is a particular recurrent is or may to or the

behaviour Euripidean technique shown individual, be related that to

another or

attitude

harm-

or

reprehensible in thought, of but a particular

situation This, too,

helpful to the

commendable

contemporary character fixed

particular entity

idea

dependent of to this be

on behind

circumstances, the contrast about

is not of action course 20 and there may be between reputation bad, sometimes Eteokles is, it good. and

something Menoikeus; seems, not

concerned bad, but

one's

always

sometimes

It ides

is

almost and that

certain its date

both

that

the

Rhesus outwith however,

is the

not period drawing

by

Euripwith any note which,

which

we are

concerned. about that the the

it places 21 Without, practice of

conclusions in not refer aischron disgraceful because of he passing surprisingly to the (see

Euripides, several "Iliadic" cowardice

we might passages

play the

does

contain

given traditional

thoroughly idea that

background, and defeat The at with 756-7 the glory are

82,102-4,489-91,589-90,756-7,808-10)? nature of Rhesos' in battle bed, at death, is aischron

was death

killed in

contrasted

a brave

758-61.

290

It find such

is

not

only

in

the

context

of concern related

battle, for to

however, their aidos

that

we

characters concern Admetos is is

expressing explicitly involved wu/L\l

reputations; at with Alc. his 725-8, father:

where

in

recrimination davuVTL

A1.
G.

trav7
KaKt

rE'vt, evro. CfvrK'itC_S


vv

r. J

v
/0-41L

C-"
To be before, anaideia but Alkestis husband. is that philoi; aideomai expressing one's direct come concern

FUG c4V
11

Ti
about Pheres, it not, in in

j Ov'+( v0LJs - -r, fd'


what people however, a different that Pheres may she

Y-I

/. cs

v1&

-(.

`+ you. s .
say picks sense; gave up he

unconcerned anaideia. and uses was The for aidos what

4 E 11 v CS ova . is, have


as we up her lacks, the he idea may life be for then, differs for use one who for may, disapprove it, easily very and one's of hand of

/ eis -rr-x'.

seen

anaides, her which from

which others Alkestis,

admits say which to in of is the

oneself, respect double on of the those

exemplified the with

by distinction a direct

answers object of the the

Homer,

awareness on

criticisms signifying actions. in Both general who

witness the however, of so

actions, recipients together, to for aidos in the acting the at this

other one's

concern senses may deserves may is

of in show "what agora in that

society towards of one's say", failure

a failure aidos pass

aidos

one

recipients people

actions and this and show will

encommuch what

happens accuses and itable. of

between of

Admetos to

Pheres, respect regard

as for as

each others

other-both a way

which

people

discred-

Admetos different was place that

charges kinds of

his of the

father, aidos: old his man but to

in

effect, major

with accusation to also die part

a breach is in of his his of that

of it

two

cowardly

to it

refuse is an

son's case charis:

(642,717,721,723), his father did him failed

return

obligation but was (660-1),

Admetos towards was are ice, not

his father, dishonour not 23 (658-9), he implies yet, Pheres' own accusations reproaches in bravery

aidophron his his with aidos son cowardand is a

returned. parallel: he has

against others by

exactly yet

Admetos outdone

been

a woman

291

coward avoid

himself death
v'ovJ

(696-8,701-2), has convicted him

while of

his

determination (694-6):
90"V&t'

to

anaideia
T"'+

K . -rarJ Each, implicate tactic similar Admetos' limits other of in then, his

yS

-rt

E6w%J1J

TcJrr

vx +Vi

KoGToLKTGs accuses opponent exchanges of insults to his the other in of anaideia that is and this seeks is to

disgrace; of invective in lie

a common by 24 the Here

such

suggested Electra.

exchange anaideia human in

Sophokles' in his

seems conduct, seeking of

neglect for the his 25 in

of

accepted of

disregard to his die wife.

opinions stead and,

people his

someone aidos for

p erhaps,

lack

Pheres, his son's

as

we have accusation

seen, of

virtually anaideia: that he when, say" is

admits similarly sensitive in the (954-7):

the

validity Admetos, to exactly manner, in

of a the he

quieter charges imagines

moment,

reveals

father, made by his "what someone will

Homeric

E6c. da

aerrs

Ex6

as &w Kv/Ec

h'
Perhaps to-his more the wife prominent

rc Jai jd t h
E vy eJ
idea lies is that

"/-

X, V5 6 wb, . , av, - JO
, ' K
has

s 6-r> u FC x c
v
in

-rxC&

EocEl/
9-a t KcF much for

f'
this his

&i, '(.
his passage,

Admetos

failed

obligations but

somewhere his he is concern expresses subject of some Alkestis future by %.

behind for in to

own

reputation which aidos clearly is she her "ugly

manliness, reveals of the that

which he

language Such

aidos. at 315-6,

also

part

motivation lest a good -RC vt&X and her

where spoil an

expresses

a concern hopes ( child mother. Concern vengeance with that the for of

stepmother spreading c) : not would only also

daughter's rumour"

marriage ora k? A1

would reflect

this

harm badly

the on the

reputation,

it

time is

and

the

need in

to the of

restore surving Atreus:

honour plays at hint

through which it her deal seems

a common of

theme the

fortunes

House even the

E1.274 that

Electra

considers

slightest

292

brother ful, he for returns


i

will in

not answer to

restore to the she


e

the

honour

of what
Su

the will

family

disgracedo, if

question,
pJ

Orestes
KM'1

Argos?
'; R1y,

replies:
'' 4i11 Yace V. U'/ ;

vJ

ra

As

in

the of

other others of

tragedians, often plays

the

desire

to

forestall role a desire, Jason's means ot vif in

the the for new (381-5):

mockery motivation example, bride by

a considerable Such to any : kill other

Euripides'

characters. Medea's resolve than by

determines poisoning v'c-/

rather

h po. rE(v w

A CcO 0Q5

/aCvQV (a

Karte

kC oc.r6rc

-r'j JE is she daughter of Like for male her in

(3 c. r

-ri Ev
at as 404-6,

6'
A similar the

ra , aL v,ozk c.
concern which her, in favour will of

a/
incur

kCiL$ aJravS
where of and a result father

,.
she Jason's imagines

evidence

mockery

abandoning the house Medea's from Sun, of

a noble of

descendant royal 26 perhaps,

of

a member many status, ideas of

the-"Sisyphean" tragic is heroine, borrowed, acute.

Corinth. concern

another honour,

a concern

traditional

Another Megara inevitable death; the altar

woman in HE. that Lykos if such an the and be to

deeply At 282-3 she

influenced she her

by

the her

fear

of

disgrace that will be burn For it put

is is to at

expresses (238-46)

belief

and

fellow-suppliants threatened its sanctuary. since a fate it fame to

has they

already refuse is to to must to

to

them Megara, one's death

leave

however, enemies (284-6); glorious, would and wish accrue (291-3); ren's of

a death

intolerable, mock the betray is

afford than is do

opportunity house they

worse

which not

suppliants

belong 27 (287); to a warrior 28 (290), disgrace a passive by their

so

impair

Amphitryon's

as

(288-9), he would not

while to be

Herakles' associated family

own fame is secure with kind the of as a result of such

which

would

to his 29 for disgrace.

death childand for fame women, is

are afflicted parents noble 30 for Again, concern such is more appropriate for

honour men than

a kind

which

293 d

and at

Megara 294.

acknowledges

this

by

referring

to

her /4AL,,

nv1

The recurs

idea at

of his

the IT. 502, name

ge16s where 0

of

others, Orestes

particularly explains
r>

one's his reluctance


o. J .

enemies, to

divulge
P

vw/JNwl

pwuVTL-S

0V

At (cf.

Ba. 828 836) is

Pentheus' is clearly

aidos based by the

at on

dressing a fear by he he will of

up

in

women's but would on

clothing his be whom the he

ridicule, this Maenads led as (842). the

aidos only wishes streets avoiding should tormentor,

dispelled of spy (841); the

assurance

that the be

means to

avoiding (837) of and this of

detection that plan his

through a means That intention by public

deserted of

approves,

mockery

opponents is exactly his

Pentheus of his

be

mocked, who of

however, to

wishes his

enhance (854-6).

victory

humiliation

victim

At to ure

Or. be of

1102 an in, his

Orestes

declares and and that dead vows

Menelaos, vengeance. of daughter the concern his enemy Helen. is

properly Then At follow 1554

his

philos, the seiz-

echthros

Hermione aware wife is

"murder" his

Menelaos and to believing which he and

rushes that gives his

prisoner concern his for

(1558-9); is his of

only

voice, fear of

however, the mockery

reputation

(1559-_60):

Xk

xVA -r&?
Fear is ters, everyday noticing able murder, 371-2, justification Megara's which turns fear out light; and uses of thus the a major and no

oar'

d
of

+-o0 1rCVKiovot) -1-0'03


of one's enemies, characfeature it an is of worth the 31

cri.

To&vr<
with

trat
many was

Vs YA wS -mc,?
Euripidean

mockery

others,

especially

consideration such of

doubt

a concern real-life

a common but in

experience that such Medea's not his of of only

Athenians, often mockery, enemies, emerges for while mockery Iphigeneia; on an

motivation fear of of her

unfavourleads at to IA. in

example, Menelaos, of the

resentment the sacrifice is

of

the of

Trojans

similarly of despair the poet

mockery to be that

based

outlook then, be

ill-founded. such concerns

Perhaps, can

sometimes

suggests

harmful.

294

At

Hcld. he

567-71 considers by

Demophon, aischron, aidos

in

rejecting thus

a course suggests that be to

of he

action may on his be

which motivated

aidos, to only

which who has

seems

based her

obligations be attended
E rTOO.

Makaria, by
w

requested
roe &Evivi

that

sacrifice

women:
) Toc. v'ot E"rk

c K

T ac.

T cl G Karl wccKwl
and

ai -r'j

J 1 -1

e' b s

t.'v, wt-"c Ev

K. c wS

-11_c, lw -rro(r
Makaria's request impropriety to

7C- Lacs

request, be of

Demophon's w.,A j, mixing

recognition relate with to men, ideas but

that of

it the

is

Kor/u. EL(O-, t young

women

Demophon's

assertion request Makaria's her felt thing possible feels request to of be is

that based bravery,

it

would on the then, and to

be girl's

aischron bravery to is

for

him and her

to on

deny (ck r#

her ee'LGJ to it have is Someit is

seems this

give

a right because is &nl,

granted, correct sense this bound which to the charis

presumably where by T the

give be

honour covered to of

this that

may also by

honour fi. Kai. that in

due. but

refers a debt she herself

fact

Demophon that Justified owe of the being supphe 32 cannot of a Makaria's with Athen-

himself

gratitude, has already her kin

self-sacrifice, reference ians forced liants win virgin (503-6), either (461-3) (since is it

which

she from

and the

frees to or has

Demophon

dilemma for which

acquire to enter been in

a rep u tation a battle defeat that

abandoning he knows

prophesied order to

the the

sacrifice Argives).

required

Distaste senses is

at covered

leaving by the

an

enterprise term aischron expression why he

unfinished in the again himself and

was Iliad, at x.

one 33

of and

the it

a sentiment Agamemnon in
ax((-L'/OIL

which explains

finds

1240-2, to

where arbitrate

feels Hekabe
LAC

obliged Polymestor:
Koc{COC

the

dispute
L-V w

between
TJXUr

K/vb(,

/'ir e(Fa do'r. " o a. oCt$VVIJ o, ws d"4, k gs Pcf, rJaaf6. xar c r rr A&e' ^' (he here has already be dissimulating Agamemn given may
indications that he is concerned lest others think that he

295

has andra

taken

Hekabe's and fact of be his

side it that he

for may be is

the that not its

sake he

of is

his

concubine, to but his

Kass-

(850-6), the

attempting

conceal explanation at least

disinterested), in efficacy terms as of an

intervention or

aischune, excuse

must would be

plausible,

minimal. idea it is more for for to in the to

The

that work

aischron suitable reaction

one his the

of

a certain

status seems report to that Argive

undertake underlie Theseus dead at

inferiors Messenger's

Adrastos' himself Supp. 767:


FJ
' Cr

took

part

laying

out

of

the

O Gw OV To this the

va

rfo(Y4&0( replies
ocvO 4v7ren

k''

c/ydCx

'AA Messenger
oc j rAe J

o ,
h t. J/ 1<_ x4 _C

(768):
T 1i

The

claim

that of no the

such

action

is humanity of it be It

not the may

aischron of the menial involve to to in see king

thus and

rests the of in if the

on dead,

principle and or ion also of takes of the (an in dead

common

the 34

account

either that

nature Theseus (ccv J. how the on is one share The which only

task

possibility idea k

pollutnot

which might pI / ). )r t' might thus it be is

alluded is easy that is

handling both these

bodies and

considered likely it other has

distasteful Adrastos'

grounds, "ordinary based for the on

man's" a feeling task uses of what which the

reaction; that

certainly will

a possible is which his distaste

people in may

Theseus word

performed. a way but he

Messenger, takes of his no own feels 35 is is the to and

however, account

aischron people situation, The we

other of the

say, which

interpretation shared increasing decide is and not on by

obviously thus in

Theseus tendency, the basis 36

himself. which of one's

Messenger first noticed

represents Solon, what

personal this is

principles between contrived a product which views which in the he of

aischron.

Doubtless

contrast

ordinary by

enlightened and, of the

opinion37 expressed traditional

deliberately this way, to

Euripides sceptical while aischron attributes

in

of

the

age, but

values,

belonged; what is

contrast may to be

different between 38 "new", humanity the is not: twice

the Iliad39

Messenger Achilles

Theseus

296

takes and him

part there to do is

in

the no

burial suggestion

of

enemies that it

he was

has at

killed all

himself, for

aischron

this.

In

Aeschylus' strewn of as

Agamemnon by his so;

Agamemnon wife, in yet

wished experienced Orestes' the

to

walk aidos dos he

on led

the at the him to

garments prospect hesitate in

doing he was

Choephori to gain

about

revenge and to his his

sought; experdid

and

Sophokles' no of

Electra, misgivings

while when

Orestes

sister both deceit, conduct.

ienced signs in

committing regard and

murder,

show All

aidos, with

Orestes her then, which aidos, that they the do. their

with excessive

connexion characters, of an

unfilial aidos to even

Elektra 40

these tion

experienced they an desired anxiety conduct

in

the anct

executheir instinwith

action of this

perform, by

disregard ctive values indication were in his about

created was not

their

awareness to which of to

compatible was an of

themselves

subscribed, moral character

important what this they motif in

questionable The fact that that it

Euripides may is have

employs become aidos surfaces ? ['lJ


C wAEr / oG'v G

Electra with the is

suggests Oresteian the 44I,, verb

a topos (though at

plays

theme. which

Elektra's used) .
aoJ res p.

aischunomai H i
O

E1.900-4:

Oc 1 xn/t! Moc, l
Tl YEKeois Oli I( K

f (A i1 oart
H//S o-rrt /vt't a!

i NS G

. .

e E t LV 034L3

'Eacv"! Fr

ociJ dl:.

ie .

crva&!

--as

v/wwJ

If

rho (cf.

e. cs Tbi1c

Several
"Carpet

features
scene" of

of

this

passage

ha. 947, /mi adds has that she

rL5 ... to strength

the Ag. X&L J60Vuj, fl the

particularly 1 .10 902 n$


with that Elektra's

recall
f(ov and

the
chj with this

904

Ag. 937-8),

supposition to is that of

hesitation it is a sign Both of popular of the sister the

a similar she and knows Orestes

effect she

Agamemnon,

that

doing relate in it 902 is

something her seems significant simply fear (904): aidos to

discreditable. to cover that, to fear the

disapproval Homeric latter that are

(phthonos nemesis), regards it no has entirely but as reason

sense whereas his

sufficient to

assure her

she not

disapproval, her

misgivings concern for

dispelled

expressed

297 "what scruple iple. 42

people which

say", knows

then, that

conceals Yw uO

a vestige of a moral v{ in L G-J is wrong

princ-

In itself the

the

ion, in

Ion's two ways: of in the an

concern firstly the city

for he

his is in

reputation apprehensive taking as up he

manifests lest a position believes, he and no matter of and hate if is he the aware, is how he he incur of

resentment

Athenians despite king.

importance incomer are afraid acts: an is and mock if outsider, at the him once son

being, The

of

incomer and resent incur quiet will in the out call

Athenians, (589-90),

autochthonoi that he he will

incomers their of him

disapproval fear of the

keeps they active

reproach (593-4), will politics,

being he him will

a nobody his inferiors aloof

state, who remain

upper

classes,

from

him a fool for disapprovand call popular courting (595-601). Ion's al aidos, norm among as seems to be the 43 (he reiterates is obviously it young men, acute at 631-2) it but is also the chorus understandable, of Athenian since women at give expression and 1074-5.45 to their city's hatred of foreigners 719-22

44

The out -3, his where the The one ousa's Ion:

other to be

aspect of he low

of or

Ion's. servile that find the it

aidos birth. would she

is

his This be

fear is

that

he

may at

turn 1382

expressed never and l itself outlook from to at

where mother he result opinion might old

opines to

better a slave,

discover 1526, him as 46 as Kreof

than describes of an

that possibility

was

that as

Kreousa -roi in the

bore

illicit slavery not at

relationship is shared 854-6 discreditable by slaves;

ot; woI. is, of that

that expect, retainer

differs

sharply

e, /
rv

Xa
rv

rL

oot1Xowrt/ -ro. S
tC K of [avkos t

ai)rx/w
-rt' vrK rrL5
of is slavery no more

41(K) /
E it

vJ c%
In and claiming that

oC' -f WOCa etw/


that only who applies and thus

Fve ECwd l'wN 64r Gk05 i.


U brings kakos disgrace than to a free

the is

name esthlos these

a slave speaker 47

man the qualities,

terms both

exclusively their traditional

moral use as

ignores

298

terms socially these ance, status the

of

tendency rank and the "good" morally are also would do still of 50 birth at be be least unlikely reveal

to

that those assume 48 "good". Perhaps, to both of their was find that widespread those honour49 beginning of

who then,

are

sentiments but they

acceptlow that be

might equation

protective with moral

and to

worth

challenged,

Loss 551-2 be

of

status

is

a frequent reports

ground

for words

shame as

in she

Hec.; begged

at to

Talthybios to die

Polyxena's constraint:

allowed

without

vckCO<
DC f)(vva/Kt

YKC
.

cav
Hekabe bemoans

(&M. Kek)
her own

/3a.rL)L$ at e
fate in a similar

vein

at

822:

avr1
Here where ruse that likely than her she to she to

'
distress

6ir'
is

ai'(fitCok's
genuine, the on

^%'N
but of is in

lxwras
it her is

OI) i/A
feigned loss of true, but at

L.
968-73, as she is 51 a says, more him

expands

theme It him is

status as this against

mislead is be

Polymestor. to look she

perhaps the eye,

unable because she is

plotting of her

vengeance present

because

ashamed

condition:

ai (xvva.

aci d_F -c-eu/3E-IL

Eo

vrtci

Tro roe , if T' w wya


VTw6e KOv9

Er Tnat ( KEwcvKa.3 . d" E -rvn v ' oc Iw s ' EXet


w L

-Tr'a-r cvyt

V' rLroevoV1r L'c. VV dXL5 KoCots' r' X 6rrrLJ

kip
The at tants inability being of

aVra
to seen aidos The and look the

avlv'Lac
another downcast is here is which

vj1(. I
person eyes treated thus in are as

i 6-6-Gev.
the all

face, typical

the

concern concomiwith

(which deception

synonymous and as quite

aischune). regards (976). the

convincing, feigns

Polymestor natural

reaction

Hekabe

The whose much

eponymous loss of

heroine status

of

the-Electra her.

is She

another dwells (312-3) on

character it with an once to a

disturbs at 300-13, that

exaggeration52 of by her

ending she, should

with was

expression sought

shame53 now

whose now be

hand

Kastor,

a god,

married

299

peasant. faces guests 658 her hearing desire wretched with class the class her in poet, at

Her 404-5,

obsession where than

with she himself"

her berates to

reduced her his

circumstances husband for abode, come in terms to to of

resurinviting while her the the on at

"greater conviction of she her

humble will

that childbirth her

Klytaimestra is mother of the explained will birth. aspect marriage the of

imagines

conceive Elektra's the to

bemoan

circumstances status the in play. fact, is only

preoccupation of social allows

one

theme the

Elektra's to explore

Farmer of

legitimacy

traditional

attitudes. it less he his

The than the he but his the were

Farmer, Elektra, divergence comes the from wealth

turns and, in

out, just

is like rank.

no her,

conscious experiences of yE has the

of

status at 36), and to if he so

aischune fact that L-FxMc,

their

a noble and low

family of

He is proud clj (ov Tora his line inhibited aischunein and goes
it

nobility makes he (43-4),

declined, with (45-6): regard

present rich. to He sleep


vv

status that her


r%c

him

feels with
/v. wl

would

Elektra on

PC i rh

i c.w11 r

TE I( VA

XKc Iwv
At 261 it is of force that he suggested Orestes, for is that punishment tra nized present just fear leads her other his to as of by

cc'

S EwS. ov Kx'rpc.
that and reason, by the so Farmer does but nature, of his with of his while Farmer's 47-9, of where Elektra's Orestes to are of in 54 his terms not even and is also it appears unworthiness as the status, afraid to is take recogfrom the is of the attempt there it Elek-

sophron that

passage important punishment. to

a feeling

own him

a consideration His regard of also awareness for others, The at account

prudential then, causes for

low

him think people sympathy

show only is for

Elektra's consideration he

herself. revealed on at 364-5, by The Farmer's their an two

expresses "unhappy

Orestes

marriage" the Farmer (Orestes') appreciative society, bei

and is

assumed motivated

where

believes destroy

that his

unwillingness siblings

reputation. of the

thoroughly own of place his in eusehow-

awareness approbation (261).

and (253-4)

express and his

sophrosyne

Paradoxically,

300

ever, their and which it

they origin is leads

also to

express noble

it birth: of the

by

means he poor is

of

words

which at 253

refer

in

gennaios man's

recognition Orestes of at is of terms to

essential on the kakos, behind

and 262, "nobility"

his

disquisition euandria, The it wider is the which conclusions In in all effect, vis-A-vis him these to this, the

proper agathos this and as he

application and eugenes

like

gennaios, paradox Farmer's lead which aidos

367-90.55 that, class while

speculation acceptance does, these his very

awareness him to act

distinctions leads to 56 is, status for him

conduct distinctions. because to it his

undermine is of some aidos the aidos

importance, with which another which the whose the regard makes

it own

Farmer's and

others consider terms in of the

impossible which to earn emerge it is,

dishonouring praise comparison of Atreus and with

person allow two aidos, him

favourably of is the

representatives such as

noble

house

entirely

self-regarding.

In laos' the fort

the

Hele fame as of terms

much

is

made

of

the his

discrepancy present sorry

between condition his

Meneas discom-

a warrior a shipwreck. of both

and

victim in

At

414-7 and
EfT

he aidos:

aischune

expresses 57

vo/',

E x w(S j rL5 `'a , 061 K OLSK "O dot( xXoV WCt. ('Togo i 0`aIC

E <ac^ X
(ElV

ws

I (%(waM"

ToZ evr ,
is affected her

xX XL VL OL3
by her husband's that a barbaros, explains of his his desire he sudden has while

Ke virrwJ
At drop been his 790-1 in it status, to is

u-ir'
Helen when beg for

aI twos -rku -rvxj 3.


who she expresses at the

horror of he in

forced aidos

food at Egypt he

door where

own "decision" to

resurfaces die the in fame

845-6, with

to spoil

Helen Troy:

terms

not

won

at

%(I%, Tv p w. c OU ci'
His concerns to
7t%,!

oct
the

K. focrxVVw
at 947-9,
"/

'%

/ KXEO$

Eh c' E1 6wJ ?j o
are same Theonoe:

c. -rt`k
where

v
he

explains

...

his

refusal

supplicate

ESN
v Tav

d0

auf

aJ

['CQfl
hC

C'/ Ta/
TlJ

o
Iata A aJ

hL kcc, Y-FVO v'L

4fseW V6&L

PCCK

-t&t MJ

an'r/v\/0

GVOeV

301

Clearly remes, but ure this of

Menelaos and is the is always Menelaos' he to play cuts be

carries a rather attributed

his

concern ridiculous to to the the or

for

his figure

kleos in

to doing

extso, nat-

comic/melodramatic supposition pompous of that (though pomposity). supplication but the on the on his his it is such

rather

than ridiculous without

concern is wise, to it

inherently entirely assertion may

neither Likeis nonehis is his

overtones to

that be an the

undertake

become

a coward true that suppliant with the

theless ment claim then claim of to felt to

supplication and the is

exaggeration, involve does abdication based

self-abasepart which of he of of the in to

parity to time, is

supplicated; thus in

ads

command although

abandonment the aidos is

another to 58 the

sense time

supplicated the suppliant this regard is

a response by the gods.

which whether depend

invested one decides strength

Clearly, will has for

undergo of on the what

ritual (the stake.

humiliation a' 59 os) one

on own

the

one's

status

and

at

Menelaos but found tells the in

is aidos

clearly which

not

one

to

admit

inferiority is 1622-4, also

to to

anyone, be Oedipus

inhibits context

supplication at Pho.

a more

serious

where

Kreon: 4 ies

Koc w o3

owovor.

ra

11 -rt or

Fv

ov
The aidos disclaimed
a16 K

T''od
Klytaimestra
G-re7o

1
by

oJcse -t1-'E( -rt(rd, &J tla'ws.


Menelaos at I. . and 900-2:
r (V ro d-aV W-0'/jI

experienced by t

Oedipus

is

explicitly

GTCxc,

. Gl

"Treo6`ti

0V1'rvs 11. V05 For Klytaimestra,

B"C-ecs C LK(1C d'IrOV then,

pVroc iI /&WL. the her for

' TL of

pq iil 0'/ she

C---w

cr

VVv"CL; '1rEC (,; gain by

') TKVOV hopes to

benefit concern her

supplication it is doubtless justification feels that

outweighs concern of aidos its on and her that

for status be

her which

status, prompts She

although this

temporary part is comes aideisthai

abandonment. would

clearly

circumstances, as fe',, ^Vuvo/KXc.: and, as we have

why from

she the

in the a hindrance c21r^L4-r87r rephrases same se bei root are as sebein,

semnos seen,

and

virtually

302

interchangeable ated to suppliant,

when 60

they but when here

describe semnos applied Klytaimestra itself to

the

response has

of

supplicin

pejorative the
that, akin to

overtone acr. va,


the present "pomposity". in

a particular 61 a mortal, and expresses


aidos would

using

verb

her
be

belief
something

circumstances,

In

Makaria's and Having

speech her to family show stated goes and at -

at

Hcld. is

500-34

concern with other, to why she that fear

for of

the

status

of the

herself obligation tions. sacrifice, both first

combined and intention

mockery, considerain it so. is Her

gratitude her on to

practical offer she herself believes do

she

explain that

necessary point,

honourable resembles others to follow to to that the

should made by to

503-6, where not

Menoikeus be but fellow brave, whereas citiwhich belongs. of to

at it

10.999-100262 is discreditable was

are their

prepared example; of

Menoikeus zens, decided The

referring refers

example of in the

his

Makaria to aid i?

foreign number the

state she

has

the act not in

suppliants of be kindness fitting sense a charis live up

whose

Athenians' and to then, and as be to

demands for of of to the were the

repayment

the

charis, inferior bravery, liants, seen imply this fitting, enemies

them

their

Herakleidai 63 The honour. bravery from example of of

appear

Athenians' the would suppbe and how more one's can

demands fail to would for ,

their

cowardice, Herakles' fitting KKkkcoJ than to

invite

mockery unworthy Better at 64 the

others, him; (and

that

children chrestoi 511) to such be

(507-10)? killed

hands

of

show

cowardice.

One

alternative allow is to leave course the thus

to

her

self-sacrifice, to as that the same fight on

that their

the

Herakleidai and now suppliants following which the taunts is be

should defeated, goes should this on

Athenians rejected another, on be

behalf Makaria

dishonourable; she to would and become be her for

reject Attica, she in (515-9):

fellow in

grounds,

would itself,

forced and

a beggar, to

dishonourable of others

subject

303 oc% E K'ii'ervo


KovL 1t (C-: a Ocu tG lC 1OCKuIS I Ut '(OC! il u I Kl'!

rvC
CL

-r

d'
jT Eoev 'Ec C 1. t. SCC U err Ut6l TC0.. -rts o'v (& El1'1iU, l4'y I.cilec 'V U. N/. ass

)cvVujnn.

hF(B CR)i7 15'

This

future

conditional

expresses

Homeric, reproaches particularly thoughts from notion to ting brothers she wish would to her place of

65 ii and the c ... ... -rroTE -rt5 ociJL4 ac consideration. of -r-t3 are still a major how quickly in this noticeable passage turn to from place the to In loss the the of more status involved and in

exactly "-'

the

sense

of

the

imaginary It is Makaria's wandering it is

masculine lines, event she were

militaristic however,

cowardice. material that (here be she alone her, she

following in if imagine of the

own suicide

position she returns; to

of

her

not of

commither

bereft

seems in and

another anaxia,

eventuality), and no which of one would as of of

a position this endure might with normally be is

marry as

episemos status, noble of (to if

could which

a situation not (520-7). fear This appropriate a remark a betrayal and the be pursue brothers in drawn in

one loss

however, birth, she which effect were with said to to an

be

a woman from

prefaces are more it

notions male brothers her all for bring refusing that her

honour the she

associated of she

withtre her

that survive

would them,

520-2), which it is would to her

concludes of

speech she to her to has seek the

affirmation whereas death, of having

converse disgraceful it

before: avoid

actively saved Like

would and of

renown

1o ux

Ftv/(530-4). the others

Menoikeus subjection out combination does is than so is of

FJ1Q., of concern of clearly all the selfher

then, own for interher and intended more in ,I so her own otherto in

Makaria ests status, regarding be that conduct seen she to

undertakes those and of effects

ultimate precisely

a perfect That she and less it

behaviour. as is is commendable,

perhaps that of

a woman : no a /AAr

Megara

All regard

the

passages characters

considered express for

so

far their

broadly own

concern status and

the their

304

fear cerns honour in

of too

loss far,

of

face. while

Some, in others

admittedly,

do

carry

these with

con-

a preoccupation but probable are own and this

personal not the reflects true

leads case, with to was

to

terrible and which so it these regard of the

consequences, seems for most

is

every

that

frequency the of extent others

anxieties one's

expressed status outlook in of

which part

the

eyes

motivation

ordinary

Athenians.

Such in

concerns, in but of

specifically reaction on

expressed awakening aidos it and to

as the

aidos, enormity particular about the

are

prominent of his discusrelationlearns utterconturn to of

Herakles' HF,

crime sion ship what ance ceives methods phorical, of that him his

Herakles' the questions guilt at begins 1135-9, at

deserves raises

because between he has

aidos, done

pollution. his first

Herakles connected

and 1146,

thereafter his of wish suicide and own he he

to

kill his

himself. language an before his as by flesh

he immediately where 66 thoughts As his becomes image of increasingly himself the as

metadikastes

conceives (1150), from well

crime burn As punish

considering the duskleia then, of will heavily be punished he

possibility which awaits by not

might (1151-52). to therefore, this has

grief, fear he

is

a desire only, although that and call lines by but ations fire, he this guilt.

himself that he will and

and feels weigh must the

disgrace. inckr with is which further of here of the

motivated 67 is It

reproach, him; also the idea

concern done wrong

present,

implies There are but the and the two

remorse is also

and

feeling of the one ritual

we should strand: purification is not asm combin-

a hint from of

1151-2 68

a metaphor object this ideas is in

purification the part first of

duskleia, of

only this

several play.

Herakles result it is former's latter, At 1155-6

thus from certainly shame

alludes what he true, increases and

to has as

the done

disgrace before points

which Theseus out, with the

he

imagines but the of

will

Parker noticeably

arrives, 69 that arrival respects

the (1154).

a witness he

a philos

whom

Herakles

exclaims,

305
f K (M, t-r oc TE t<vo K -ro

1,. e S c
The seen, however, by Herakles' to at
p rx K4

' cck
aidos reaction.

rocrw
then,

E 4,44 Z i. vw
leads to with fear this be of fear, affected lead as he being Together

arrival a typical

of

another is

person,

there

also

pollution. remove 1159-62:


k' &L '"W Se 01( Te oTL

that Theseus a fear will 70 Both these considerations from Theseus' sight,
(). KaKls

Herakles explains

himself

XW(K 7L'(-)Ol t9 6C I Sc04 r. 3 rTre o! 'r( T-ovS Lov

i 4vvS

Veiling

EJ kn O of one's of of be the

Kwrc head is fear with of

ocvxLrLovs typical

oaft4 %. rc -r t( a

OC) W

(FAw aidos of eyes, of others. to Theseus, not to the

another being seeing by sight,

.` reaction, general but if one's

71 a

consequence association tion is an can

seer#nd and the affecting the

aidos

polluhead

transmitted means he of

veiling

obvious lest a

avoiding his aspect of

Herakles' moreover, involve means In more of of

concern is only

transmit

pollution the desire is and aidos linked. 73 party of the lies others reproach) as would is and polluted. of a

particular in one's

outsiders the ways his verb than pollution

troubles at Or.

which 281-2

expressed IA. and 981-2.72 his is

by

aischunomai one, then, are for for but in as the the

Herakles' inextricably

awareness entirely danger of

This immediate not to it, will similar thus in

natural, pollution itself of others effect

Parker polluted reaction

shows,

the and have

pollution the reaction much reaction the

(horror, on for any its other

revulsion, recipient reason; of reproach that considered simply 75 pollution to the be

same aroused of is also conduct the a

there

"a

consequences source worth of noting which of moral pollution is pollution revulsion. is to

disgrace", Conversely, other be of

convergence 74 since it to in the the to the fact make is

it

reaction shameful as When a one

people expressed expressing

may means also that

the

language utmost that one ness

considers ads to seems others,

infectious cause

and

reluctant of the

unpleasantness of aidos with

close-

association

pollution

becomes

apparent.

This

association

is

more

or

less

present

in

several

other

306

Euripidean Hipp. she her 243-676 feels aischune

passages Phaidra aidos at

in

which the she the

the

head to

is

veiled her has

in

shame:

at

asks what of

Nurse has said

cover

head,

since made than of

and

already rather her of eyes.

(here disgrace)

subjective by the

reaction lowering and than Phaidra's of sexual be of shyness any

objective Clearly by tion, love which pollution, report contagion -rvos) veiled presumably the following in his of others but for

plain one's own

aidos are the

at

conduct here of kind

being of her

seen polluillicit

more ultimate

prominent object is the

thought aidos,

Hippolytos, at and, Phaidra's (653-5). itself head at 77 least in

transgression in the terms of

might,

figuratively, fact, passion The title us point, aidos (fr. it Hippolytos as if of that and may 436N2): her the the

described to

reacts very first

Nurse's brought (I vr-

words

Hippolytos character reaction accompanied

informs some by

eponymous that been

since have 7$

was by

prompted

exclamation

w-rrrvc'atSJS,

c'O E e i--; t$ -rr. rN IrA


of leads be the Phaidraof

flc cr 4.s
that play induces his contact Ox. 459-61, Orestes done be seen (cf. by are Ii. one head, with a are a aidos again the very poll1160 who is

The-shameful sign in as if of he her

proposals lack of and

aidos/aischune, to the veiling

and

this of by

Hippolytos, might On parallel both Ox. 461) to them feel

somehow E. 1159 in that

contaminated compares Herakles they 79

shameful. close uted, with bound

Wilamowitz both at are of what

and have to

shame both a tie

and by

reluctant philia

Emphasis after and in

on

the

contagious convinces

aspect Herakles, at 1229-54, by afraid at

of in

pollution his that speech he will

decreases at not of in be based will 1214-28 be pollutthe on the shun the Thebes, at

Theseus the

stichomythia from helping is of those 81 those persists his less

deterred 80 ion, future, awareness him as his

a friend still fear,

considerations of least, reproach must than 1286-90 should the play,

but and

Herakles part

that polluted. of shame

enlightened at encounter the end of

Theseus he

Accordingly, he will to

imagines he leave where,

reproaches and

307 1423-4, house burden

he and on

refers the fact

to

the

disgrace he will

in

which

he be

has

spent

the

that

henceforth

a wretched

Theseus.

He has, commit his that

however, suicide,

by and

that aidos in

point has fact,

given its is part

up

his to over that oneself

intention play by in the there than by

to undoing argument is in more facing 82

resolve: failed for

Herakles, to convince in of that life,

won Ajax, kill

Sophokles' choosing even is the by his 83


WPc 11T&C

occasion the The is

aidos

to

tribulations thought not overtly himself


C rKct}

a life coward's

beset way

disgrace.

suicide prompted (1347-51):


ft

out, but

however, arises

interlocutor,

within

K/^ .1V

EV

KaK&t(LV'

WV

/vt 7"ts

D (, tk d

ocV, u,

W-l xt$ rt% eo

VI rrts

K> L-rrW\/ Uf o. k'

4 DcUS . tartoc'tac. l

vrrorc. E? v(Cl, V d' u S os. cvvacf' /c&i V E1Koch-r&ylw


In be and the them, future remorse, imagines ject glory of his to as the able same to speech, carry in will his the be at 1378-85, he with So wonders which his who he does crimes will whether killed h