All praise is due to Allah Alone.

May His Peace and Blessings be upon His Messenger and slave, Prophet Muhammad, as well as his Family and Companions. The objective of this pamphlet is to explain how Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS) used to perform his salah (prayers), which are required of all Muslims five times per day. We would like to provide this demonstration to every male and female Muslim so that they may strive to utilize the Prophet's manner as a model for performing their salah. It was narrated by Al-Bukhari that Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS) said: Perform your salah in the same manner as you have seen me doing. Therefore, we will explain the Prophet's manner of prayer, Insha-Allah. In preparation for the prayer, the worshiper must perform wudu (ablution). Without wudu, the prayer is invalid and will not be accepted. To perform the complete ablution adopting the methods of our beloved Prophet (SAAWS), it is necessary to make niyah, which is a declaration of intention. The worshiper should declare in niyat that the act of performing wudu is for the purpose of cleanliness and preparation for the prayer. Niyah should be made in the heart, because it is an action of the heart and not of the tongue. Niyah by words is not approved by Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS). After niyah, the worshiper begins the wudu by saying, "Bismillah." This means: In the Name of Allah. There are several steps to performing wudu. Performing most of these actions three times is recommended, but one or two times is sufficient for wudu. First, wash both of your hands up to the wrists thrice, making sure that no part of the hands is left dry. Start with the right hand, and cleanse the left hand afterward. Second, rinse your mouth three times, taking the water to your mouth with the right hand. Third, clean the nose by sniffing water into it from the right palm and then ejecting the water with the left hand three times. The same handful of water that is used to cleanse the mouth is also used for the nose.

1 Fourth, wash your face thrice, from ear to ear and forehead to chin, making sure that no part of the face is left dry. Next, wash your forearms up to and including the elbow thrice, beginning with the right forearm, making sure that no part of them is left dry.

Next, rub your head with water once. You can do this by wetting the hands and wiping the head with them. Begin with the forehead and take them to the nape of the neck, after which you bring them back to the forehead.

With the same water used to clean the head, cleanse your ears by inserting the wet tips of the index fingers into them. Twist them around the folds of the ears, then pass the thumb behind the ears from the bottom upward. Finally, wash the feet up to the ankles thrice, beginning with the right foot. Make sure that no parts of the feet are left dry, especially between the toes. After you finish wudu, say the following dua (supplication): "Ashadu anna la illaha il allah, wah dahu la sharika lah wa ashadu anna muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluh."

2 This means: I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah alone, no partner beside Him, and I testify that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger.

It is also necessary that you take into consideration certain aspects of making the salah. First, make sure that you are praying at the correct time. Second, certain body parts have to be covered. A woman must be covered from head to toe, with the exception of her face and hands, if she chooses to uncover them. A man must be covered from the shoulders to the knees. Third, the place in which you perform the prayer must be free of any impurity. Fourth, the clothes that the worshiper wears must also be clean and free of impurity. After meeting these preconditions you are ready to perform the prayer. Worshipers should turn their bodies toward the Ka'ba, the Sacred House at Makkah, the feet being straight and shoulder width a part. Directing the face toward the Qiblah is an imperative condition for every salah. Second, he individual about to pray should make a Sutra, such as a curtain, for the salah. No people or animals should walk between you and your Sutra. Third, the worshipers should intend by heart to perform the prayer which they want to fulfill, whether it is a Fard (obligatory) prayer, or a Sunnah (optional) prayer. The presence of intentions, or niya, in the heart is necessary prior to salat. The believer must pronounce Takbirat-al-Ihram, which is to say Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest). Thus the worshiper proclaims the Greatness of Allah and meanwhile looks downward to the place where his forehead will touch the ground. From this point until the end of the Salat, the worshiper is prohibited from engaging in all activities, other than the prayer and responses to emergencies. The worshiper then raises his hands to the level of the shoulders or near the lobes of the ears, while pronounc ing Takbirat-al-Ihram. Next, the worshiper puts his right hand over his left hand and left wrist, and puts them both over his chest, as the Prophet (SAAWS) used to do. It is advisable that the worshiper recite the following Du `a-e-Istiftah (opening supplication): "Subhanaka Allahumma wa bihamdika wa tabarakasmuka wa ta `la jadduka wa la ilaha ghayruka." This means: Praise and glory is to Allah. Blessed is Your Name, Exalated is Your Majesty and Glory. There is no god but You. The believer may alternately say any other of the supplications which the Prophet (SAAWS) used to say in his prayers. It is better to recite these supplications alternately, the first one in the Fajr, or morning prayer, the second in the Zuhr, or noon prayer, each one by turn, in conformity to what the Prophet (SAAWS) used to do. After reciting the opening supplication, the worshiper says: "A `udhu billahi min ash-Shaytanir-rajim."

This means: I seek protection of Allah against the accursed Satan. After this, the worshiper recites the Fatiha, the opening Surah of the Glorious Qur'an. Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS) said: Salat without reciting the Fatiha is invalid. The Fatiha is as follows.

3 "Bismillah irRahman irRaheem. Alhamdulillahi rabbil aalameen. Ar-rah-manir-raheem. Maliki yaumideen. Iyyaka nabudu wa iyyaka nastaeen. Ihdinas siratal mustaqeem, Siratal lazhina unamta alaihim, Ghairil maghdubi alaihim wa ladh dhal leen." Surat al-Fatiha means: In the Name of Allah, The Most Compassionate, The Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, The Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee do we worship, and Thine Aid we seek. Show us the straight way, the way of those on whom Thou hast Bestowed Thy Grace, Those whose portion is not wrath, and who go not astray.

The worshipper should say "Ameen" after reciting the Fatiha aloud if the salat is to be said aloud, and whisper it in inaudible prayers. To be in conformity with the traditions of the Prophet (SAAWS), the worshiper is advised to recite verses from the Qur'an. The worshiper then says "Allahu Akbar", then bows in Ruku, raising his hands up to the level of his shoulders or ears. Afterward, he bends down, making his head and back on one level and putting his hands with the fingers spread on his knees. The worshiper should feel serenity and tranquility while bowing, and should say thrice: "Subhana Rabbiyal `Azim, Subhana Rabbiyal `Azim, Subhana Rabbiyal `Azim." This phrase means: Glory is to my Lord, The All-Mighty. Next, the believer should raise the head up from bowing, raising the hands to shoulder or ear-level, saying: "Sami `allahu liman hamidah." This means: Allah listens to him who praises Him. While in the standing position, the believer should say: "Rabbana wa lakal hamd." This means: Our Lord, praise is for You only. The worshiper says "Allahu Akbar", then prostrates. He should touch the ground with his hands before touching it with his knees. His fingers and toes should be directed towards the Qiblah at Makkah, and his hands should be stretched, the fingers close together and not separated. In Sajdah, or prostration, seven of the worshiper's body parts should touch the ground: The forehead, the nose, both hands, both knees, and the internal parts of the toes. Then the worshiper should say three times:

"Subhana Rabbiyal A `la."

4 This means: Glorified is my Lord, The Exalted. It is recommended that the worshiper increase more and more in supplications and ask for more from his Lord, because the Prophet (SAAWS) said: "As for Ruku (bowing), you should glorify your Lord during performing it; as for Sajdah (prostration), you should do your best to supplicate and ask for more from Him, because your supplications during prostration are more worthy to be accepted."

The worshipper should ask Allah for prosperity both in this worldly life and in the Hereafter. Whether it is an obligatory prayer or an optional prayer, the worshiper, while prostrating, should neither bring his hands close to his sides, nor stick his abdomen to his thighs, or his thighs to his legs. The worshiper's arms should be raised up from the ground because the Prophet (SAAWS) prohibited putting the arms on the ground, ordering believers to: "Adjust your prostration, keep straight in it, and stretch not your hands on the ground as dogs do." The worshiper should raise his head from prostration, saying "Allahu Akbar", and then lay his left foot flat on the ground and sit upon it, keeping his right foot erect, and his hands on his thighs and knees. Then he should say: "Rubigh firlee." This means: O my Lord, forgive me. The worshiper should feel tranquility during this pause. The worshiper says "Allahu Akbar," then prostrates again and repeats during his prostration what he did and said in the first prostration. Then the worshiper raises his head, saying "Allahu Akbar," taking a pause similar to the pause between the two prostrations. It is recommended that the worshiper take such a pause, but there is no sin if he does not. The worshiper rises up and pauses briefly in a sitting position. After that, he uses his hands to support himself as he moves to a standing position. After rising, he recites Surat al-Fatiha and some other verses of the Qur'an, and does just as he did in the first Raka. If the prayer consists of two Raka as the Fajr prayer, Eid (feast) prayer, or the Jumuah (Friday) prayer, the worshiper sits with his legs folded under him after the second prostration, with his right foot erect and its toes pointing toward the Qiblah. He sits on his left foot, which is laid down. He puts his right hand on his right thigh, with all his fingers close-fisted except the index finger. He sticks the index finger straight out, and puts his left hand on his left thigh. Alternately, the worshiper can keep both the little and ring fingers closed, while rounding his thumb and middle finger in a ring shape, and point his index finger toward the Qiblah. It has been related that the Prophet (SAAWS) had practiced both of these ways. Thus, it is advisable for the worshiper to perform

5 the first way once and the other way the next time. It is the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS) to point out the finger without moving it, because he did this

most. He would sometimes wiggle the finger, but did this rarely. The worshipper reads the Tashahhud while sitting, and says: "At-tahiyatu lillahi was-salawatu wat- taiyibatu assalamu alayka aiyuhannabiyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu. Assalamu alaina wa ala ibadi-Ilahis-salihin. Ashhadu an la ilaha illallahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu. Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa ala aali wa ala aali Muhammad, kama sallayata ala lbrahima wa aali lbrahima. Innaka Hamidun Majid. Wa barik ala Muhammad wa ala aali Muhammad kama barakta ala lbrahima wa aali Ibrahima. Innaka Hamidun Majid." This means: Greetings, prayers and the good things of life belong to Allah. Peace, Mercy and Blessing of Allah be on you, O Prophet. May Peace be upon us and on the devout slaves of Allah. I testify that there is no God but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. O Allah, Bless Muhammad and his family as You Blessed Ibrahim and his family. You are The Most Praised, The Most Glorious. O Allah, bestow Your grace on Muhammad and his family as You bestowed it on Ibrahim and his family. You are the Most Praised, The Most Glorious. For the first Tashahhud, the worshiper can stop after saying: "La ilaha illallahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasuluhu". However, for the second Tashahhud, he must finish the entirety. For prayers that are three or four rakat, Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS) would sit for the final tashahhud. Both the sitting and the tashahhud are obligatory. He would repeat what was done in the first tashahhud. But, in the final tashahhud, he would place the left thigh on the ground and bring out both feet to one side, by placing the left leg under the right. He would keep the right foot upright. Sometimes he would even keep the right foot spread out. He would hold the left knee with his left hand and support himself. After reciting the second Tashahhud, the worshipper asks Allah's Protection from four evils. He should say: "Allah humma innee A'udhubika min Adhabil qabri, wa A'udhubika min fitna tid dajjali, wa A'udhubika min fitna til mahya wal mamat. Allah humma innee A'udhubika minal Ma'thami wal maghrami." This means: My Lord, I ask your protection from torment of the Hell,

6 torment of the grave, the trials in lifetime and after death, and from the impostor Masih Dajjal (the Antichrist). The worshipper ends his Salah by turning his face to the right, while saying: "Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah." This means: Peace and Mercy of Allah be on you. He then turns to the left, and repeats: "Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullah." In case of a three Rak'a prayer, as that of the Maghrib (evening) prayer, or a four Raka prayer like that of Dhuhr (noon) prayer, the worshipper says "Allahu Akbar" after reciting the Tashahhud, then stands up in the manner stated before, and raises his hands up to the level of his shoulders. The worshipper puts his hands over his chest as explained before and recites the Fatiha. He may add to the Fatiha some other verses of the Qur'an while performing the third or fourth Raka of Dhuhr (noon) prayer, because this was one of the manners adopted by the Prophet, according to the Hadith narrated by Abu Sa'id. After the third Raka of Maghrib (evening) prayer, and the fourth Raka of Dhuhr, Asr and Isha prayers, the worshiper recites the Tashahhud and ends his Salat by saying: "Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatullah." He then turns first to the right, and second to the left, as previously demonstrated. It is not an obligatory duty, but it is a recommendable Prophetic tradition to invoke Allah after terminating the Salat by asking Him forgiveness thrice. As we have said earlier, the performance of prayers five times per day is obligatory. Reciting Al-Fatiha and some verses, or a short Sura in Arabic, is obligatory too. Learning the proper Arabic pronunciation of these verses and understanding their meanings is also essential. Viewing this tape may assist you with both pronunciation and prayer positions. However, there is no true substitute for a teacher. Therefore, we advise that you have your recitation checked by a teacher of the Holy Qur'an at the first available chance.

Assalaamu `alaikum. May Allah Bless you in your efforts to perfect your Salat.

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