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0niveisity of Pennsylvania

Bepaitment of Bistoiy
Bistoiy S94

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Piofessoi Aithui Waluion
Spiing 2u14


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Bistoiy S94 is a compiehensive intiouuction to the last hunuieu yeais of ielations
between the 0niteu States anu China. This ielationship has alieauy been impoitant
foi a long time, anu it will only giow much moie so in the yeais to come.

It was thiough Asia, aftei all, that the 0niteu States was uiawn into Woilu Wai II, as
the }apanese expanueu theii invasion of China (19S7-194S) to Ameiican teiiitoiy.
Aftei the Wai, Euiope was tense but without majoi conflict: the hot wais of the Colu
Wai peiiou weie in AsiaKoiea (19Su-19SS), Inuia (1962), Inuo China (19SS-
197S). It was in Asia that we came close to the nucleai biink, in Koiea anu again
uuiing the seconu Taiwan Stiaits Ciisis (19S8). In 1969 the Soviet 0nion anu China
fought bloouy battles along theii common boiueiwhich so woiiieu China that she
abanuoneu hei pievious unwillingness to ueal with Washington anu began seeking
a connection that woulu balance the thieat fiom Noscow. That in tuin leu to the
uiplomatic ievolution of the 197us signalleu when Ameiican piesiuent Richaiu
Nixon (191S-1994) visiteu Beijing in 1972. In spite of this iappiochement, though,
seiious tensions continue to ioil the iegion as a newly stiong anu inteinationally
active China seeks hei place among hei neighbois anu in the woilu.

Economically, China, until the 197us self-isolateu, has become the woilu's seconu
laigest economy. She is a majoi centei of manufactuiing anu expoit, accounting
touay foi a laigei shaie of woilu tiaue than uoes the 0niteu States. China's economic
iise, which began in eainest in the eaily 199us, follows similai iemaikable
peifoimances beginning in the 19Sus by countiies such as }apan, South Koiea,
Taiwan, anu Singapoie, as well as the foimei Biitish teiiitoiy of Bong Kong, that
have taken them touay to effectively Euiopean levels of piospeiity.

No one can affoiu to be ignoiant of how these uevelopments took place anu what
they poitenu. The lifetimes of touay's Penn stuuents will most likely witness a majoi
anu uifficult shift of wealth anu powei away fiom the west towaiu the east. Events
in China will have uiiect effects on the lives of Ameiicans of the iising geneiation. If
they aie to ieact intelligently, they must have intellectual piepaiation.

Bistoiy S94 will pioviue a naiiation, thiough the lectuies, of the majoi events of the
last centuiy anu the fiist uecaue of this. No single book exists that coveis this
2
giounu, so oui ieauings aie uiawn fiom a vaiiety of souices. The incluue mouein
histoiical accounts, mateiials wiitten at the time of the events they uesciibe, mostly
fiom the influential Ameiican peiiouical !"#$%&' )**+%#, (founueu 192u), as well as
piimaiy mateiials. Thus the class will ieau the iecently ueclassifieu tiansciipts of
the vaiious then top-seciet talks between the Ameiican piesiuent Richaiu Nixon
anu his secuiity auvisei Beniy Kissingei, with Nao Zeuong anu Zhou Enlai, the
Chinese leaueis, conceining the establishment of uiplomatic ielations.

Because the Ameiican-Chinese ielationship is not a simply bilateial one, but iathei
involves many othei countiies, we will pay some attention to such issues as
Chinese-Soviet ielations, the influence of the vietnam wai, the changes in the status
of Bong Kong, aiguments about Taiwan, anu China's connections }apan anu the
Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This multi-lateial appioach will help
stuuents to unueistanu possible shapes of things to come in Asia, anu the woilu.

The couise falls natuially into foui sections. The fiist ueals with the afteimath of the
abuication of the last uynasty, the Qing (1644-1912) anu the iise of something new,
the Republic of China (1911-1949), a state uefineu foi the fiist time as a nation anu
not a uynastic empiie, which lasteu until the Communist victoiy in 1949. (A
goveinment of the Republic of China, much changeu, continues to exist in Taiwan.
We will examine it as well). The seconu section of the couise ueals with the complex
uomestic anu inteinational caieei of the Republic, of China, which eventually
culminateu a iuinous wai between }apan anu China The Communists took contiol
of the uevastateu countiy aftei a civil wai (1946-194S) pioclaiming a new countiy,
the People's Republic of China. The thiiu section of the couise ueals with the peiiou
that followeu this uevelopment, twenty two yeais uuiing which the 0niteu States
anu China hau little to uo with one anothei uiiectly, as China puisueu the builuing of
Communism, fiist with Soviet tutelage, then on hei own. The two states met only
inuiiectly, in the seiies of conflicts mentioneu above. Sino-Soviet fighting biought
this peiiou to an enu, as mentioneu, leauing to the establishment of foimal 0S
ielations with China (1979). The uecaues that followeu have biought suipiises anu
issues that weie not even consiueieu at the time. The fouith section of the couise
ueals with these uevelopments.

Piesiuent Nixon anu anu his auvisei Beniy Kissingei (192S-) hau envisioneu a
peimanent Colu Wai, in which the 0niteu States woulu seive as the "uecisive weight"
between the two contenuing poweis, China anu the 0SSRa situation that woulu
have biought a soit of stability. This plan was ienueieu iiielevant in 1991, when
Communism enueu in Russia, anu Chinese-Russian ielations impioveu. What has
followeu in unchaiteu teiiitoiy.

Such subject mattei is of gieat impoitance to all. This couise is uesigneu to suit
anyone having a seiious inteiest whethei they have evei stuuieu it oi not. No
knowleuge is assumeu; theie aie no pieiequisites. Beginneis belong in this couise
anu shoulu feel welcome. Those having some backgiounu, howevei, will also finu
plenty to engage theii inteiest.
3


4&,(578(65,.

Aithui Waluion
Lauuei Piofessoi of Inteinational Relations
Bepaitment of Bistoiy

S11C College Ball
0ffice Bouis: Thuisuay 1:Su-S:uu.
awaluion2mac.com

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Zbigniew Bizezinski. V"9$# +'; V#%'0%43$U E$="%#, "* /.$ W+/%"'+3 G$01#%/5 );<%,$#
NOQQRXN7 Lonuon: Weiuenfelu anu Nicolson, 198S. ISBN u-297-7822u-7. E84u.8.B79
AS6 198S

}ohn Paton Bavies, }i. J.%'+ S+';U )' )1/"2%"&#+4.5 With Biuce Cumings anu Touu
S. Puiuum Philauelphia, 0niveisity of Pennsylvania Piess, 2u11. ISBN 978-u-8122-
44u1. E748.B214AS 2u11. (,$$ #$<%$9 25 )WY VZ!D

Chen }ian. E+"[, J.%'+ +'; /.$ J"3; Y+#. Chapel Bill, NC: The 0niveisity of Noith
Caiolina Piess, 2uu1. ISBN978-u-8u78-2617-1. BS777.8.C4S14 2uu1.

uaiy Ka-wai Cheung S"'& M"'&[, Y+/$#,.$;U -.$ NO\Q K%"/, Bong Kong: Bong
Kong 0niveisity Piess, 2u1u ISBN 978-962-2u9-u89-7. BS796.B7S7 C46179 2uu9

4
}ohn B. Boluiiuge. J#",,%'& /.$ Z%<%;$U )' ?',%;$#[, )00"1'/ "* /.$ W"#=+3%]+/%"' "*
^7G7RJ.%'+ K$3+/%"',. Lanham, NB: Rowman & Littlefielu Publisheis, Inc. 1997. ISBN
u-8476-8Su4-7. E18S.8.C6 B6S 1997.

Immanuel C. Y. Bs. -.$ K%,$ "* E";$#' J.%'+. Sixth Euition. New Yoik: 0xfoiu
0niveisity Piess, 2uuu. ISBN u-19-S12Su4-S. BS7S4.B74 2uuu.

Ashok Kapui. V"F.#+' +'; I$5"';U ?';%+[, W103$+# I$.+<%"1#. New Belhi, 0xfoiu
0niveisity Piess, 2uu1. ISBN u19-S667S4-9. 0A84u .K2S8 2uu1

Beniy Kissingei. Y.%/$ S"1,$ 8$+#,7 Boston, NA: Little, Biown anu Company, 1979.
ISBN u-S16-49661-8. . E872 .vS6 198S

Biane B. Kunz, eu. -.$ Z%43"=+05 "* /.$ J#10%+3 Z$0+;$U )=$#%0+' !"#$%&' K$3+/%"',
Z1#%'& /.$ NO\P,. New Yoik: Columbia 0niveisity Piess, 1994. ISBN u-2S1-u8176-6.
E841.B46 1994.

Nichael Baviu Kwan. I#"F$' V"#/#+%/,U V$#,"'+3 _'0"1'/$#, 9%/. J.%'$,$ G/1;$'/,.
San Fiancisco: China Books & Peiiouicals, 199u. ISBN u-8SS1-2429-u.
BS779.S2 .K9S 199u

}ames R. Lilley anu Chuck Bowns, eu. J#%,%, %' /.$ -+%9+' G/#+%/7 Publisheu in
Coopeiation with the Ameiican Enteipiise Institute. Ft. NcNaii, Washington, B.C.:
National Befense 0niveisity Piess, 1997. ISBN 1-S79u6-uuu-S 0A8SS.C7S 1997.

}ames Lilley with }effiey Lilley J.%'+ S+';,U W%'$ Z$0+;$, +#$ );<$'/1#$6 _,4%"'+&$6
+'; Z%43"=+05 %' ),%+7 New Yoik: Public Affaiis. 2uu4. ISBN 1-S8648-1S6-S.
E84u.8.L48 AS

Bailey Fainswoith NacNaii. E";$#' J.%'$,$ S%,/"#5U G$3$0/$; K$+;%'&,. Shanghai,
China: The Commeicial Piess, Limiteu. 19SS.

}ames Ncuiegoi. W" )'0%$'/ Y%,;"=6 W" !"33"9$#,U -.$ J.+33$'&$, "* J.%'$,$
)1/."#%/+#%+' J+4%/+3%,=7 Westpoit, CT: Piospects Piess, 2u12. ISBN 978-1-9SS212-
81-2. BC427.9S .N42 2u12.

}ames Nann. )2"1/ !+0$U ) S%,/"#5 "* )=$#%0+[, J1#%"1, K$3+/%"',.%4 9%/. J.%'+6 *#"=
W%:"' /" J3%'/"'7 W$9 8"#F6 W787 Alfieu A. Knopf, 1999. ISBN u-679-4SuSS-X.
E18S.8.CS NS19 1999.

Alexanuei v. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine. E+"U -.$ K$+3 G/"#5. New Yoik: Simon &
Schustei, 2u12. ISBN 978-1-4S16-S4447-9. BS778.NSP28761S 2u12.

Shelley Riggei. Y.5 -+%9+' E+//$#,U G=+33 ?,3+';6 `3"2+3 V"9$#."1,$ . Lanham, Nu. :
Rowman & Littlefielu,, 2u11. ISBN 978-1-4422-u479-9 ISBN 978-1-4422-u479-9.
BS799.62S .RS4 2u11
5

}ay Tayloi. -.$ `$'$#+3%,,%="[, G"'U J.%+'& J.%'&RF1" +'; /.$ K$<"31/%"', %' J.%'+
+'; -+%9+'. Cambiiuge, NA: Baivaiu 0niveisity Piess, 2uuu. ISBN u-674-uu287-S.
BS 799.82 C4S7 TS9 2uuu.

}ay Tayloi. -.$ `$'$#+3%,,%="U J.%+'& M+%R,.$F +'; /.$ G/#1&&3$ *"# E";$#' J.%'+.
Cambiiuge, NA: The Belknap Piess of Baivaiu 0niveisity Piess, 2uu9. ISBN 978-u-
674-uSSS8-2. BS 777.448 CS TS9 2uu9.


Cyius vance. S+#; J."%0$U J#%/%0+3 8$+#, %' )=$#%0+[, !"#$%&' V"3%057 New Yoik:
Simon & Schustei, 198S. ISBN u-671-44SS9-9. E872 .vS6 198S

Aithui Waluion, eu.. S"9 /.$ V$+0$ Y+, T",/U -.$ NOab E$="#+';1= @Z$<$3"4=$'/,
)**$0/%'& )=$#%0+' V"3%05 %' /.$ !+# _+,/A V#$4+#$; *"# /.$ G/+/$ Z$4+#/=$'/ 25
)=2+,,+;"# L".' c+' )'/9$#4 E+0E1##+5A7 Stanfoiu, CA: Boovei Institution Piess,
1992. ISBN u-8179-91S1-4. BSS18.N2 1992.

Aithui Waluion. !#"= Y+# /" W+/%"'+3%,=U J.%'+[, /1#'%'& 4"%'/6 NOdeRNOdb.
Cambiiuge: Cambiiuge 0niveisity Piess, 199S. ISBN u-S21-472S8-S. BS777.S6.WS4.

Yoshihaia Toshi anu }ames Bolmes, J.%'+[, K%,$ +'; /.$ J.+33$'&$ /" ^7G7 E+#%/%=$
G/#+/$&57 Annapolis, NB: Naval Institute Piess, 2u1u. ISBN 978-1-S9174-S9u-1.
vA6SS.467. 2u1u.

)#/%03$, B%' "#;$# "* +,,%&'=$'/D

-.$,$ +#$ +33 $+,%35 +<+%3+23$ "' LG-HK Bc+' V$3/ T%2#+#56 "'3%'$D +'; %' VZ! *"#=+/U

Fiank }. uoounow, "Refoim in China" )=$#%0+' V"3%/%0+3 G0%$'0$ K$<%$9 9.2 (Nay,
191S): 2u9-224

Stanley K. Boinbeck, "Piinciples anu Policies in Regaiu to China" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 1.2
(Becembei 1S, 1922): 12u-1SS.

u, "The Shanghai Affaii anu Aftei" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 4.1 (0ctobei 192S): 2u-S4.

Euwaiu B. Bume, "Young China" !"#$%&' )**+%#, S.S (Apiil 1927): 446-4S8.

Stanley K. Boinbeck, "Bas the 0niteu States a Chinese Policy." !"#$%&' )**+%#, S.4
(}uly 1927): 617-6S2.

Eugai Snow, "China's Fighting ueneialissimo" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 16.4 (}uly 19S8): 612-
62S.

0wen Lattimoie, "The Fight foi Bemociacy in Asia" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 2u.4 (}uly 1942):
694-7u4.
6

uunthei Stein, "The 0thei China" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 24.1 (0ctobei 194S): 62-74.

Li Thian-hok, "The China Impasse: A Foimosan view" !"#$%&' )**+%#, S6.S (Apiil
19S8): 4S7-448.

Richaiu N. Nixon, "Asia aftei viet Nam" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 46.1 (0ctobei 1967): 111-
12S.

}ohn K. Faiibank. "The People's Niuule Kinguom" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 44.4 (}uly 1966):
S74-S86.

}ohn K. Faiibank, "China's Foieign Policy in Bistoiical Peispective" !"#$%&' )**+%#,
47.S (Apiil 1969): 449-46S.

Baibaia Tuchman, "If Nao Bau Come to Washington: An Essay in Alteinatives"
!"#$%&' )**+%#, S1.1 (0ctobei 1972): 44-64.

Anuiew }. Nathan, "The Tiananmen Papeis" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 8u.1 (}anuaiy-Febiuaiy
2uu1): 2-48

Lucien W. Pye, "China: Eiiatic State, Fiustiateu Society" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 69.4 (Fall,
199u): S6-74.

Nicholas B. Kiistof, "The Rise of China" !"#$%&' )**+%#, 72.S (Novembei-Becembei
199S): S9-74.

Richaiu Beinstein anu Ross B. Nunio, "The Coming Conflict with Ameiica" !"#$%&'
)**+%#, 76.2 (Naich-Apiil 1997): 18-S2

V#%=+#5 G"1#0$,U

William Buii. W%:"'f, -#%4 /" J.%'+ K$0"#;, '"9 J"=43$/$35 Z$03+,,%*%$;6 ?'031;%'& M%,,%'&$# ?'/$33%&$'0$ I#%$*%'& +';
),,1#+'0$, "' -+%9+'. ueoigetown National Secuiity Aichive. uo to:
http:www2.gwu.euu~nsaichivNSAEBBNSAEBB1u6
(this cannot be piinteu oi maue into a PBF)

-.$ *"33"9%'& 9%33 2$ =+;$ +<+%3+23$ %' VZ!U

"The Shanghai Communiqu" (28 Febiuaiy 1972)
"}oint Communique of the 0niteu States of Ameiica anu the People's Republic of China"(}anuaiy 1, 1979)
"The 'Six Assuiances' to Taiwan" (}uly 1982)
"}oint Communiqu of the 0niteu States of Ameiica anu the People's Republic of China" August 17, 1982)



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Lectuies will be fiom 12-1:Su Tuesuay anu Thuisuay.

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2$ .+';$; %' /54$; "' 4+4$# /" "'$ "* "1# /$+0.%'& +,,%,/+'/ 0"33$+&1$,7

Two shoit papeis (foui to five pages) will be assigneu on topics coveieu in the
ieauings. These aie an oppoitunity to stait woiking out youi iueas. Bo a goou job on
these but iealize theii puipose is piimaiily to make you think, anu thus piepaie foi
the examinations

In class miuteim examination: this will incluue iuentifications anu extiacts fiom
ieauing on which you will comment. Its goal is to see how much 5"1 F'"97

The take home final is open-book. This will be a single essay, foi which you will have
a choice of topics. It shoulu be ioughly eight (8) anu no moie than twelve (12) pages,
typeu, uouble-spaceu, with stanuaiu maigins, 12 point type, etc. Its goal is to see
."9 5"1 /.%'F7

Note that any goou papei oi examination essay shoulu contain both aigument (what
you think stateu cleaily) +'; 0"1'/$#+#&1=$'/ (that is, the stiongest objections to
youi view, cleaily expiesseu). The conclusion of any such piece of wiiting shoulu,
among othei things, explain why you see youi aigument as stiongei than youi
counteiaigument. 0se $<%;$'0$ to suppoit both elements.

uiauing is an ait not a science. We stiive foi faiiness. If you uo bauly on one exeicise,
a goou peifoimance on anothei can outweigh that.

>$8(75$,.

L+'1+#5U

Fiist Lectuie: }anuaiy 16 Intiouuction


Seconu Lectuie: }anuaiy 21 The Rise of }apan anu Russia
Thiiu Lectuie: }anuaiy 2S The Biith of the Republic of China

K$+;%'&U

Bs, pp. 4u8-418: 419-4S9; 44u-4S1, 4S2-486
Fiank }. uoounow, "Refoim in China" )=$#%0+' V"3%/%0+3
G0%$'0$ K$<%$9
8
Stanley K. Boinbeck, "Piinciples anu Policies in Regaiu
to China" !"#$%&' )**+%#,
G1&&$,/$; K$+;%'&U

NacNaii, pp. 628-7S4

Fouith Lectuie: }anuaiy 28 The Tieaty System anu "National
Bumiliation"
Fifth Lectuie: }anuaiy Su The Seaich foi a Conceit of Asia

K$+;%'&U

Aithui Waluion. !#"= Y+# /" W+/%"'+3%,=U J.%'+[,
-1#'%'& V"%'/6 NOdbRNOdb.

G1&&$,/$; K$+;%'&U

Bs, pp. S14-S7S.
u, "The Shanghai Affaii anu Aftei" !"#$%&' )**+%#,
Euwaiu B. Bume, "Young China" !"#$%&' )**+%#,
Stanley K. Boinbeck, "Bas the 0niteu States a Chinese
Policy." !"#$%&' )**+%#,

!$2#1+#5U

Sixth Lectuie: Febiuaiy 4 Rauicalism anu Chinese Nationalism
Seventh Lectuie: Febiuaiy 6 Chinese-}apanese Tension

K$+;%'&U

Bs, pp. 49S-S11,

G1&&$,/$; K$+;%'&U

Aithui Waluion, eu.. S"9 /.$ V$+0$ Y+, T",/U -.$ NOab
E$="#+';1= @Z$<$3"4=$'/, )**$0/%'& )=$#%0+' V"3%05
%' /.$ !+# _+,/A V#$4+#$; *"# /.$ G/+/$ Z$4+#/=$'/ 25
)=2+,,+;"# L".' c+' )'/9$#4 E+0E1##+5


Eighth Lectuie: Febiuaiy 11 Chiang Kai-shek anu Fianklin Roosevelt
Ninth Lectuie: Febiuaiy 1S The Emeigence of Chinese Communism

K$+;%'&U

Bs, pp, S78-64S;
9
Chen }ian, pp. 1-48;
Eugai Snow, "China's Fighting ueneialissimo" !"#$%&'
)**+%#,.
0wen Lattimoie, "The Fight foi Bemociacy in Asia"
!"#$%&' )**+%#,.
uunthei Stein, "The 0thei China" !"#$%&' )**+%#,

G1&&$,/$; K$+;%'&U

}ohn Paton Bavies, }i. J.%'+ S+';U )' )1/"2%"&#+4.5

Tenth Lectuie: Febiuaiy 18 The Koiean Wai
Eleventh Lectuie: Febiuaiy 2u Ameiican Policy anu Nao's China

K$+;%'&U

Bs, pp., 66u-664;
Pantsov anu Levine, pp. S42-S89;
Chen }ian, pp 84-117.
Li Thian-hok, "The China Impasse: A Foimosan view"
!"#$%&' )**+%#,
Richaiu N. Nixon, "Asia aftei viet Nam" !"#$%&' )**+%#,


G1&&$,/$; K$+;%'&U

Alexanuei v. Pantsov with Steven I. Levine. E+"U -.$
K$+3 G/"#5.


Twelfth Lectuie: Febiuaiy 2S The 0ffshoie Islanus Ciises
Thiiteenth Lectuie: Febiuaiy 27 The Sino-Soviet Split

K$+;%'&U

Chen }ian, pp. 49-84; 16S-2u4.
Bs, pp 671-687.
}ohn K. Faiibank. "The People's Niuule Kinguom"
!"#$%&' )**+%#,
Baibaia Tuchman, "If Nao Bau Come to Washington: An
Essay in Alteinatives" !"#$%&' )**+%#,

G1&&$,/$; K$+;%'&U

}ames Lilley with }effiey Lilley J.%'+ S+';,U W%'$
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10

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0.",$' /" 3$+' /"9+#; Y+,.%'&/"'g


Fouiteenth Lectuie: Naich u4 Bong Kong anu the Cultuial Revolution
Naich u6 E%;R/$#= _:+=%'+/%"' %' J3+,,



Fifteenth Lectuie: Naich 18 0.S.-Chinese Rappiochement
Sixteenth Lectuie Naich 2u The 0.S. anu PRC Establish Relations

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Bs, pp 718-74u; 78S-8u2.
Chen }ian, pp. 2u4-276.
William Buii. W%:"'f, -#%4 /" J.%'+ K$0"#;, '"9
J"=43$/$35 Z$03+,,%*%$;6 ?'031;%'& M%,,%'&$# ?'/$33%&$'0$
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http:www2.gwu.euu~nsaichivNSAEBBNSAEBB1u
6
(this cannot be piinteu oi maue into a PBF)

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}ohn B. Boluiiuge. J#",,%'& /.$ Z%<%;$U )' ?',%;$#[,
)00"1'/ "* /.$ W"#=+3%]+/%"' "* ^7G7RJ.%'+ K$3+/%"',.
Aithui Waluion, "Fiom Nonexistent to Almost Noimal:
0.S.-China Relations Buiing the 196us." In Biane B.
Kunz, eu. Z%43"=+05 "* /.$ J#10%+3 Z$0+;$, pp. 219-2Su.


Seventeenth Lectuie: Naich 2S Pie-Recognition Bopes
Eighteenth Lectuie: Naich 27 Post-Recognition Realities


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Bs, pp 872-9u1; 926-94u.
11
}ames Nann, )2"1/ !+0$U ) S%,/"#5 "* )=$#%0+[, J1#%"1,
K$3+/%"',.%4 9%/. J.%'+6 *#"= W%:"' /" J3%'/"', pp. 1-174.

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Kissingei, Y.%/$ S"1,$ 8$+#,, pp. S4-72; 684-841; 1u49-
1u96; 1471-1476.
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Nineteenth Lectuie: Apiil u1 The Tiananmen Nassacie (1989)
Twentieth Lectuie: Apiil uS Consequence foi China anu the West

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Bs, pp 926-94u.
Anuiew }. Nathan, "The Tiananmen Papeis" !"#$%&'
)**+%#,
}ames Nann, )2"1/ !+0$U ) S%,/"#5 "* )=$#%0+[, J1#%"1,
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27S

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Lucien W. Pye, "China: Eiiatic State, Fiustiateu Society"
!"#$%&' )**+%#,
Nichael Baviu Kwan. I#"F$' V"#/#+%/,U V$#,"'+3
_'0"1'/$#, 9%/. J.%'$,$ G/1;$'/,..


Twenty Fiist Lectuie: Apiil u8 Foimosa Stiaits Ciisis (1996)
Twenty Seconu Lectuie: Apiil 1u Pokhian II (1998)

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Lilley anu Bowns, pp. 167-2u2.
}ames Nann, )2"1/ !+0$U ) S%,/"#5 "* )=$#%0+[, J1#%"1,
K$3+/%"',.%4 9%/. J.%'+6 *#"= W%:"' /" J3%'/"', pp. 274-
S76.

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Ashok Kapui. V"F.#+' +'; I$5"';U ?';%+[, W103$+#
I$.+<%"1#

Twenty Thiiu Lectuie: Apiil 1S Chinese Teiiitoiial Claims (2u12)
Twenty Fouith Lectuie: Apiil 17 Asian anu Ameiican Responses
12

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Yoshihaia Toshi anu }ames Bolmes, J.%'+[, K%,$ +'; /.$
J.+33$'&$ /" ^7G7 E+#%/%=$ G/#+/$&57
Richaiu Beinstein anu Ross B. Nunio, "The Coming
Conflict with Ameiica" !"#$%&' )**+%#,

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/.$ G"<%$/ ^'%"' +**$0/$; J.%'+ +'; .$# #$3+/%"', 9%/. /.$
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Twenty Fifth Lectuie: Apiil 22 Bemociacy in Taiwan anu Bong Kong
Twenty Sixth Lectuie Apiil 24 The Piospects foi Chinese Economic anu
Political Bevelopment

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Bs, pp. 9u4-92S7
Nicholas B. Kiistof, "The Rise of China" !"#$%&' )**+%#,7

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V"9$#."1,$


Twenty Seventh Lectuie Apiil 29 Conclusion



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