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6nalysis o- 8umping Tests -or the Characteri1ation o- )eterogeneous Transmissivity /ields

N. 9. Copty1# 8. Trinchero+# :. ;anche1$<ila+


1. Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bogazici University, Istanbul, 34342, Tur ey 2. !e"t. of #eotec$nical Engineering an% #eosciences, Tec$nical University of &atalonia, Barcelona, '('34, S"ain

6=;TR6CT> 8umping tests are routinely used in -ield applications -or the estimation o- su&sur-ace -lo, parameters. Interpretation o- these tests is normally per-ormed using conventional methods$$ such as the Theis and Cooper$%aco& methods$$ that are developed &ased on the assumption o- homogeneity. 6s a result o- this assumption# these pumping test analysis procedures yield representative single estimates o- the -lo, parameters o- the pertur&ed aqui-er volume surrounding the pumping ,ell. In reality natural su&sur-ace -ormations are heterogeneous. There-ore# the apparent -lo, parameters change as the cone o- depression due to pumping progresses in time. 6t early times the apparent -lo, parameters re-lect local conditions in the vicinity o- the ,ell# ,hile at later times# the apparent -lo, parameters are closer to a ,eighted spatial average o- the pertur&ed aqui-er. In this paper a novel procedure -or the analysis o- pumping tests in heterogeneous con-ined aqui-ers is presented. The method uses the o&served dra,do,n and its time$ derivative o&served at a single o&servation point and at a single point in time to estimate the apparent transmissivity at that point in time. The procedure is repeated -or all times during the pumping test to estimate an apparent time$dependent transmissivity curve. The estimated time$dependent transmissivty is then converted into an estimated transmissivity as a -unction o- radial distance -rom the ,ell. It is sho,n that this estimated transmissivity is related to the geometric mean# and the statistical spatial structure o- the heterogeneous transmissivity -ield. The results sho, that transient dra,do,n data -rom a single o&servation point may &e used to in-er in-ormation a&out the spatial varia&ility o- the transmissivity.

1 INTRODUCTION
Commonly used conventional pumping test interpretation techniques such as the Theis (19 !"# the Cooper$%aco& (19'("# the )antush (19!("# and the *alton (19(+" methods use dra,do,n data collected at di--erent times to estimate representative values o- the -lo, parameters. /or e0ample# the graphical curve -itting approach (Theis and *alton" attempts to -it dra,do,n data o&served at di--erent times to normali1ed dra,do,n curves. The Cooper$%aco& method is &ased on a straight line -it to the late dra,do,n data. The )anutsh in-lection method com&ines the steady state dra,do,n ,ith the dra,do,n and its time derivative at the in-lection point to estimate a representative transmissivity value. )o,ever# -or heterogeneous -ormations# the -lo, parameters in-luencing the dra,do,n vary as the dra,do,n cone o- depression e0pands ,ith time. /or instance# at early time the transmissivity in-luencing the pumping test is close to the transmissivity at the ,ell ,hile at late times# the transmissivity in-luencing the test is equal to some spatial average o- the transmissivity surrounding the ,ell. This spatial average depends on a num&er o- -actors including the local transmissivity at the ,ell# the statistical spatial structure othe transmissivity# lea2age i- present# the dimensionality o- the pro&lem# and the imposed &oundary conditions (see discussions &y Dagan# 193+# Des&arats 199+4 Copty and /indi2a2is# +55'". /urthermore# the estimated representative parameters are also dependent on the interpretation method used &ecause each method gives di--erent emphasis to di--erent portions o- the dra,do,n time series (Trinchero et al.# +553". This may -urther complicate the e--orts to characteri1e the spatial varia&ility o- the -lo, parameters. 6nother limitation o- some o- the e0isting methods such as the Cooper$ %aco& method -or con-ined aqui-ers and the )antush in-lection method -or lea2y aqui-ers is that# although they are all straight -or,ard and simple to apply# they use only part o- the availa&le in-ormation. In the case o- the Cooper$ %aco& method only the late dra,do,n date such that u75.1 are used# ,hile the )antush in-lection method uses the steady state dra,do,n and in-ormation at the in-lection point only. *hile this is appropriate ,hen the aqui-er is homogeneous# in the case o- a heterogeneous system# this means that important portions o- the time$dra,do,n data are &eing disregarded. In this paper a simple procedure -or the analysis o- pumping tests in heterogeneous aqui-ers that addresses some o- the a&ove

limitations is developed. The main novelty o- the proposed method is that it uses the dra,do,n data and its derivatives at one particular point in time to estimate the -lo, parameters. The method is repetitively applied to all times in order to develop an estimate o- the -lo, parameters as the cone o- depression e0pands in time. The derived estimates are then related to the spatial average o- the transmissivity around the ,ell.

+ ?6T)@?6TIC6A D@RI<6TION
/or radially convergent -lo, to,ards a -ully$penetrating ,ell in a homogeneous non$lea2y con-ined aqui-er# the transient dra,do,n is given &y (Theis# 19 !">
* ' T

s =

r +S 'tT

1 * e0p(y )%y = ) (u " y ' T

(1"

,here s is dra,do,n# * is the pumping rate# T is the transmissivity# S is the storativity# t is time# r is radial distance -rom the pumping ,ell and )(u" is the ,ell -unction -or a con-ined aqui-er ,here

u=

r +S 'tT

The derivative o- the dra,do,n ,ith respect to the logarithm &ase 15 o- the time is>

s =

r +S s s +. * = +. t = e0p 'tT log t t ' T (+"

+. * = e0p( u ) ' T

Ta2ing the ratio o- @quation (1" to @quation (+" yields>

+. s = ) ( u ) e0p( u ) s

( "

6 plot o- as a -unction o- 1Bu is given in /igure 1# ,hich sho,s that increases monotonically ,ith increase in 1B u (or decrease in time". There-ore# -or an o&served value o- # one can uniquely determine the value o- u and# consequently# )(u"# and -rom that compute an apparent value o- the transmissivity using @quation (1">

Ta =

* ) (u " 's
10

('"

W(u)*exp(u) exp(u)

0.1

W(u)

0.01 0.1 1 10 1/u 100 1000 10000

/igure 1. 8lot o-

+. s s

# ratio o- dra,do,n to dra,do,n rate# as a -unction o- 1Bu

Once the transmissivity is estimated# the apparent storativity can &e estimated -rom the de-inition o- u>

Sa =

'tTa u r+

(!"

/or noise$-ree dra,do,n data due to pumping -rom a homogeneous con-ined aqui-er# the a&ove equations ,ould yield the e0act values o- the -lo, parameters -or all values o- time and all o&servation points. )o,ever# -or pumping tests conducted in heterogeneous aqui-ers# @quations ('" and (!" ,ould yield apparent estimates o- the transmissivity and storativity that are in general dependent on time. =y repeatedly applying @quations ('" and (!" to di--erent times t7 ,here is the duration o- the pumping test# a plot o- the apparent time$dependent transmissvity# Ta (t " # and storativity# S a (t " # is o&tained. In the -ollo,ing section# these t,o estimates are sho,n numerically to &e related spatial varia&ility o- the transmissivity in the pertur&ed aqui-er volume surrounding the pumping ,ell.

688AIC6TION 6ND DI;CU;;ION


The a&ove procedure is applied assuming +Cln(T" can &e modeled as a multivariate Daussian spatial random -unction ,ith an e0ponential semivariogram ,ith mean m+C5 (or TgC1"# standard deviation +C1# and integral scale IC3 length units. /our transmissivity -ields ,ere randomly generated using the turning &and method (?antoglou and *ilson# 193+". The domain si1e is '31 m &y '31 m. The storativity is assumed to &e uni-orm equal to 15 $'. 6 -ully penetrating ,ell is placed at the center o- the aqui-er and a pumping test is simulated using ?OD/AO* ()ar&augh et al.# +555". 6 uni-orm grid o- 1 &y 1 length units ,as used. The transient dra,do,n ,as simulated over the entire aqui-er. )o,ever# the analysis presented &elo, is -or an o&servation point close to the ,ell located at rC1 ,hich is much smaller than the characteristic length o- the transmissivity -ield. The dra,do,n at the o&servation point ,as then used to estimate the apparent transmissivity and storativity according to @quations ('" and (!". The very late time dra,do,n at the end o- the simulation ,hich ,ould &e in-luenced &y the prescri&ed condition at the outer &oundary o- the domain ,as e0cluded -rom the analysis.

4 3.5 3 Transmissivity 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 20 40 r


/igure +. 8lot o- the apparent transmissivity (in &old" and the geometric mean as a -unction o- radial distance -or -our randomly

60

80

100

selected log transmissivity -ields /igure + sho,s the plot o- Ta as a -unction o- distance -rom the ,ell. To e0press the plot o- Ta as a -unction distance -rom the ,ell instead o- time# ,e note that the characteristic time o- a pumping test is proportional to S,T ,hich is the reciprocal o- the di--usivity term# and proportional to r+# the distance squared. The geometric mean o- the transmissivity -ield Tg(r" is superimposed on these plots. The agreement &et,een these sets o- plots is quite remar2a&le. This suggests that the apparent transmissivity estimated -rom the ratio o- the dra,do,n to dra,do,n rate according to @quation ('" is a good indicator o- the geometric mean o- the transmissivity de-ined over a continuously increasing circle centered at the pumping ,ell. 6dditional e0amples that consider &oth Duassian and Non$Duassian transmissivity -ields are used to demonstrate that the proposed analysis procedure can yield in-ormation a&out the spatial varia&ility o- the transmissivity -ield.

6C9NO*A@DD@?@NT;
N. Copty ac2no,ledges the -inancial support provided &y the =oga1ici University Research /und (=68"# 8roEect 5(?15F and 5F;15 .

R@/@R@NC@;
Cooper )# %aco& C# 19'(. 6 generali1ed graphical method -or evaluating -ormation constants and summari1ing ,ell$-ield history# Trans.# 6m. Deophys. Union# +F('"# !+(G ! '. Copty N 9# /indi2a2is 6 N# +55'# ;tochastic analysis o- pumping test dra,do,n data in heterogeneous geologic -ormations# %. )ydraul. Res.# '+# !9G (F. Dagan D# 193+# 6nalysis o- -lo, through heterogeneous random aqui-ers. +> Unsteady -lo, in con-ined -ormations# *ater Resour. Res.# 13(!"# 1!F1G 1!3!. Des&arats 6 %# 199+# ;patial averaging o- transmissivity in heterogeneous -ields ,ith -lo, to,ards a ,ell# *ater Resour. Res.# +3( "# F!FG F(F. )ar&augh 6# =anta @# )ill ?# ?cDonald ?# +555# ?od-lo,$+555 the U; Deological ;urvey modular ground$,ater model$user guide to modulari1ation concepts and the ground$,ater -lo, process# U;D; Open$/ile Report 55$9+# p. 1+1. ?antoglou 6# *ilson %# 193+# The turning &ands method -or simulation o- random$-ields using line generation &y a spectral method# *ater Resour. Res.# 13(!"# 1 F9G1 9'. Theis C <# 19 !# The relation &et,een the lo,ering o- the pie1ometric sur-ace and the rate and duration o- discharge o- a ,ell using ground,ater storage# Trans.# 6m. Deophys. Union# 1(# !19G !+'. Trinchero 8# ;anche1$<ila :# Copty N 9# /indi2a2is 6 N# +553# 6 ne, method to interpret pumping tests in lea2y aqui-ers# Dround *ater# '((1"# 1 G1' . *alton *# 19(+# ;elected analytical methods -or ,ell and aqui-er evaluation# in Illinois ;tate *ater ;urvey.