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SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Sericulture, the technique of silk production, is an agro-industry, playing an


eminent role in the rural economy of India. Silk-fibre is a protein produced from the
silk glands of silk worms. Historically, sericulture was introduced for the first time,
into China by Hoshomin, the Queen of China. For a long time, sericulture was
considered to be a national secret by the Chinese Government, and as an industry it
was not known in other countries. According to reports available, sericulture was
introduced into India about 400 years back and the industry flourished as an agro-
industry till 1857, with an annual production of two million pounds of silk fibre.
The industry survived the onslaught of the pebrine disease during the period from
1857 to 1895. However, after 1928, the sericulture industry showed a decline in its
production owing to the fierce competition from advanced sericulture countries such
as Japan, China and European countries. After the independence, the industry is
flourishing as an agro-industry, giving employment to over 3.5 million people in the
country.

Among the developing countries, India enjoys a very favourable position for
doubling the present status of silk production of 2969 tonnes owing to the low cost
of labour. Sericulture is ideally suited for improving the rural economy of the
country, as it is practiced as a subsidiary industry to agriculture. The export of silk
goods steadily increased from a modest level of Rs.17 million in 1960-61 to a
whopping Rs.22353 million during 2000-02. The export of 611.66 million US dollars
(Rs. 2781.82 crore) has been achieved during April-Jan period of the year 2006-07.
However, Indian exports are mostly in the low unit price category unlike that of
Western Europe or China. The export of high value products from India is dependent
on import of quality raw silk especially from China. Sericulture as one of the
agricultural pursuits is emerging as a premier enterprise, in certain parts of the
Southern states, in recent years. In 1990s, it recorded a rapid area expansion, and
has now established at around 1.72 m ha. In the process, it has receded mostly
from the rain fed areas, and has got intensified under irrigation. New technologies
with higher production potential in mulberry varieties and their rearing technologies
have provided an unprecedented opportunity for the sericulture enterprise to
develop in the future.

Developing a new technology is not the end of any research. The real success
of a technology lies with the dissemination to larger group of farmers. Therefore,
knowledge and adoption of innovations plays a significant role in increasing the
productivity of farm enterprises. Sericulture occupation is proved to be an
important instrument of economic change in the rural India by helping to create
substantial employment while generating additional income. Right now it occupies
an important position in agricultural production system and is the most popular
and widely practiced cash crop enterprise.

Adoption of new technology in sericulture is a must because, it can make


the enterprise more remunerative though the production has gone up faster over
the last several years as a result of improved management triggered by the release of
high yielding varieties both at mulberry and sericulture sector. Even then, there
exists a wide gap in the potentiality of increase in yield at the research station and
the actual yield achieved by the farmers. Various factors can be attributed to the
existing gap in the flow of technology.

The actual experience in the field however, showed that farmers were not as
prompt in adopting improved practices as expected. The time lag between the
introduction of improved agricultural practices in village and their adoption by
farmers was often unexpectedly long. Though the economic profitability of a
practice is a powerful incentive, it does not necessarily motivate large number of
farmers to adopt them. An innovation diffuses within a social system through its
adoption by individuals. The perception of economic advantage of a recommended
practice is often influenced by factors which are personal, situational, social or
cultural.

The research study was conducted in Chittoor district of Rayalaseema region


of Andhra Pradesh with the following objectives.
1) To study the knowledge level of sericulturists about the new improved
sericultural technologies.
2) To assess the adoption of improved sericultural technologies by different
categories of farmers in the semi-arid conditions in Chittoor district of
Rayalaseema region in Andhra Pradesh.
3) To study the impact of improved sericultural technologies on cocoon yield,
income and employment with different categories of farmers and yield gap
analysis.
4) To identify the constraints and problems faced by the sericulturists in
perception of the improved technologies and to suggest suitable guidelines
for perception and adoption with precision thereby to improve productivity
and increase income level.

Andhra Pradesh was purposively selected for the study as the researcher had
been working in the state under Central Silk Board for about 16 years in Chittoor
district of Rayalaseema region in Andhra Pradesh. The state of Andhra Pradesh is
divided into three regions namely Rayalaseema, Telangana and Coastal Andhra. As
Rayalaseema region has the highest area under mulberry cultivation, it was
purposively selected for the study. There are 49 mandals in Chittoor district, out of
which 10 mandals were selected randomly. From each mandal of Chittoor district 5
villages were randomly selected. Thus a total of 50 villages from Chittoor district
were selected. A list of sericulturists in each village was prepared in consultation
with the Sericultural Service Centres of Central Silk Board and Technical Service
Centres of Department of Sericulture, Andhra Pradesh. From each village 2 big, 2
small and 2 marginal farmers were selected purposively based on their total land
holdings. Thus a total of 300 respondents constituted the sample of the study. The
data interview schedule with the scales for measuring the variables of the study was
first developed and pre-tested with a sample size of 50 sericulturists who were not
included in the sample. Before finalizing the interview schedule necessary
precautions were taken through pre-testing to ensure that questions in the
schedules were unambiguous, clear, complete and comprehensive. After pre-testing,
necessary changes were incorporated in the formation of items/ questions in the
sequence. Data were collected from the sericulturists who were included in the
sample through personal interview method. The interview was conducted during
2005-2007 and the questions were explained to the respondents in the local
language i.e. Telugu for easy administration. Keeping the objectives in view the
following dependent variable was selected.

1. Knowledge of respondents on recommended sericultural practices.


2. Adoption of recommended sericultural practices by respondents.

Based on review of literature and in consultation with experts 10 independent


variables were included for this study. The variables are Age, Education, and family
size, Land holding, Experience in sericulture, Extension participation, Extension
contact, Mass media participation, Social participation, and Income from
sericulture.

Knowledge and adoption of improved sericultural technologies by


different categories of farmers

The results of the studies on the adoption of improved sericulture technologies


revealed that majority of the farmers have not adopted the soil testing, soil
correction, recommended mulberry variety, spacing, vipul, compost making, vermi
compost and green manuring. None of the improved rearing technologies were
followed by the farmers.

The findings of the study are summarised below.


1. There was non-significant difference between big, small and marginal farmers
in their overall knowledge regarding improved practices of sericulture.
2. A majority of big, small and marginal farmers have correct knowledge regarding
the recommended practices of mulberry cultivation viz., soil testing, variety,
spacing, manure, fertilizer and compost making.
3. A majority of big, small and marginal farmers have poor knowledge on soil
correction, triacontanol, compost making, vermicompost making and green
manuring.
4. Findings relating to the knowledge of farmers about individual practices of
silkworm rearing reveal that a majority of big, small and marginal farmers
have correct knowledge about usage of bleaching powder for disinfection,
hygiene, usage of bed cleaning nets, shoot rearing, bed spacing, late age
rearing, bed disinfectants, Raksha rekha, ventilation and transportation of
cocoons.
5. A majority of small and marginal farmers have inadequate knowledge about
usage of formalin for disinfection, chawki rearing, mounting care, cocoon
sorting, IPM and IPM of uzi fly.
6. There was non-significant difference among big, small and marginal farmers
with regard to overall adoption of selected recommended practices of
sericulture.
7. Cent per cent of big, small and marginal farmers have not adopted soil testing,
soil correction, spacing, triacontanol, compost making, vermicompost, green
manuring.
8. A majority of big, small and marginal farmers have partially adopted the
practices like variety of mulberry, application of manure and fertilizer
application.
9. Findings relating to the level of adoption of specific recommended practices of
silkworm rearing revealed that a majority of big, small and marginal farmers
have partially adopted the practices like use of bleaching powder for
disinfection, maintenance of hygiene, late age rearing, bed disinfectants, egg
carrying box, ventilation and maintenance of temperature and humidity. While
considerable percentage of big, small and marginal farmers have not adopted
the practices viz., use of fomalin and chlorine dioxide for disinfection, use of
bed cleaning nets, shoot rearing, use of Raksha rekha, egg carrying box etc. Big
farmers have high level of education than small and marginal farmers.
Regarding other characteristics, except extension participation and income
from sericulture, big farmers have an edge over small and marginal farmers.
10.Personal and socio-economic characteristics of big farmer’s viz., education,
experience in sericulture, social participation, mass media participation and
total land found to be significantly related to their knowledge level. Whereas
age, education, experience in sericulture, social participation, mass media
participation, extension participation and extension contact of small and
marginal farmers were significantly related to their knowledge level.
11.Regarding relationship between the adoption level and personal and socio-
economic characteristics of big farmers, education, experience in sericulture,
total land, social participation, mass media participation were found to have
significant relationship. In case of small and marginal farmers, education,
experience in sericulture, mass media participation, extension participation
and extension contact and were found to have significant relationship with
adoption.
12.Mass media participation of big farmers has explained significant contribution
towards the variation in the adoption level. Whereas, income from sericulture
has explained significant contribution towards the variation in adoption level of
small and marginal farmers.
13.Factors like education, experience in sericulture, land holding, mass media
participation and social participation influences the socio-economic status and
their adoption in big farmers, whereas education, experience in sericulture,
land holding, mass media participation, extension participation, extension
contact and income from sericulture have influence over the socio-economic
status and their adoption in small and marginal farmers .
14.The main reasons cited for full adoption of improved mulberry cultivation
practices were good knowledge, frequent visit to state and sericulture
departments, availability of labour in time, experience, mass media
participation, and good finance and irrigation facilities.
15.Important reasons cited for partial and non adoption of improved mulberry
cultivation practices were lack of knowledge, finance problem, traditional
practice, strong belief on high cost of labour, strong belief on their own ideas
and over confidence, scarcity of water, lack of sufficient electricity to run
motors, lack of technical guidance, scarcity of labour and non availability of
cuttings and bio-fertilizers in time, and other practical difficulties.
16.The reasons cited for full adoption of improved silkworm practices were good
knowledge, experience, extension participation, good finance, proper technical
guidance and availability of leaf in time.
17.In addition to that it is confirmed that there exists a wide range of differences
in the levels of adoption among the different categories of farmers. This was
due to the difference in socio-economic characters and risky job of using uzi
nets.

Yield gap analysis

The yield gaps was possibly observed between experimental station and with
that of demonstration farmers and actual farmers field because of environmental
difference technology components may not be directly transferable from the
experiment station to the farmers field. Also the yield gaps arises mainly because of
the sub-optimal use of new technologies, which may be due to inadequate extension
services besides other physical or socio-economic factors operating in the farming
community in the area. In cross breed cocoon production the yield gaps between
experiment station yield and actual farmers yield is further divided in to two distinct
components by including an intermediate yield level respectively. The potential yield
or yield obtained in actual farmers fields when new technologies are adopted.

Yield gap in mulberry leaf and cocoon production

In the case of mulberry leaf production the yield gap- I was 31.429 per cent in
K2 variety and 48.668 per cent in V1-variety in big, small and marginal farmers
respectively. This yield gap was possibly observed because of environmental
difference between experimental station and demonstration farmers’ field. It was
also observed that some of the technology component may not be directly
transferable from the experimental station and demonstration farmers’ field.
Further it was also observed that some of the technology component may not be
directly transferable from the experimental station to the farmer fields.

The Yield gap-II in the case of big farmers 8.376 per cent, small farmers27.991
per cent and marginal farmers was 9.865 per cent in K2 variety and the Yield gap-II
in the case of big farmers 19.941 per cent, small farmers 37.729 per cent and
marginal farmers was 22.395 per cent in V1- variety, which indicates the yield gap
was more in V1- variety than K2 variety.
The Total Yield gap of big, small and marginal farmers were 37.172 per cent,
50.623 per cent, and 38.193 per cent in K2 variety and 58.905 per cent, 68.035 per
cent and 60.164 per cent in V1 variety in small and large and marginal farmers
respectively.

The average experimental station yield of cross breed cocoon production was
65.09 kg/crop. The potential farm yields of big, small and marginal farmers were
80kg, 78 kg and 80 kg respectively. The Yield gap II of big, small and marginal
farmers were 25.954 kg/crop, 44.006 kg/crop and 26.838 kg/crop respectively has
been observed. The Total Yield Gap between average farmers’ and the potential
farm yield was found to be 8.992 kg/crop, 32.900 kg/crop and 10.079 kg/crop in
big, small and marginal farmers respectively.

This gap arises mainly because of the sub-optimal use of new technologies,
which may be due to inadequate extension services besides other physical or socio-
economic factors operating in farming community in the area. In the case of
mulberry leaf production, FYM, variety, area, fertilizer and irrigation have significant
effect on potential yield realization. FYM and variety have shown the highest
magnitude of influence on potential yield realization. The reasons attributed was,
the cattle’s have been reduced drastically in most of the villages, hence there is
acute shortage of farmyard manure, even otherwise tendency of farmers normally
they give preference of application of farmyard manure to other major crops,
majority of farmers were having K2 variety and only few farmers have V1 variety and
due to less leaf production in K2 variety farmers could not able to take up more Dfls
for their rearings, though area is sufficiently made available with the farmers it is
not been maximized for cultivation of suitable mulberry variety. The other variables
were area, fertilizers and irrigation. The reasons attributed were fertilizer is not
made available in time in certain season; also there is scarcity of water in some
seasons, which were found to be constraints for potential yield realization of
mulberry production. Mulberry leaf, dfls, materials, disinfectant and mountages
were the factors, which have influenced potential yield realization in the case of
cross breed cocoon.
Constraints perceived by the farmers

Based on the constraints perceived by farmers it is observed that, the


constraints faced by the small farmers was on the higher side, when compared with
the large farmers. It is observed that factors like education, experience in
sericulture, total land holding, social participation and mass media participation
have influence over socio-economic status and adoption of various recommended
practices in sericulture of big farmers. Education, land holding, experience in
sericulture, income from sericulture, extension participation, extension contact and
mass media participation have influence over the socio- economic status and
adoption of various recommended practices in mulberry cultivation and silkworm
rearing of small and marginal farmers and their level of adaptability to various
recommended sericulture practices. This is because of socio-economic factors and
also the small farmers expect the support from the government and other agencies.
So the yield gap was influenced by the socio-economic conditions of the farmers,
which has to be considered seriously and accordingly the extension services need to
be modulated and implemented.

In cross breed cocoon production, certain factors have acted as constraints on


the potential yield realisation such as material, dfls, mulberry leaf, mountages and
disinfectants. The reasons attributed was most of the cross breed rearers do not
have proper recommended rearing houses, stands and trays while they conduct
silkworm rearing. So needs government support in this respect. In demand season
generally there was non-availability of quality of Dfls which often formed a
constraint. Hence seed distribution centres are the need of the hour in the village
level, the government agency has to look in to it. Farmers have the tendency of non-
adoption of technologies in maintaining this gardens, in quality of leaf production,
so needs extension guidance in these directions. The most important factors in
crops success was disinfectants which is again inadequate in the village level, that
too during the rearing period, which is a constraint. So farmers were of the opinion
that, Government/ NGO should extend their support on the above constraints in
better potential yield realisation.
Implications and recommendations

1. A considerable number of big, small and marginal farmers are lacking adequate
knowledge on certain recommended practices of mulberry cultivation and
silkworm rearing. Hence, the extension agents need to recognize the situation
and arrange suitable extension activities through group discussions, field visits,
training and demonstrations.
2. A considerable proportion of big, small and marginal farmers either partially
adopted or not adopted certain practices of mulberry cultivation and silkworm
rearing. This situations requires efforts on the part of extension and other
concerned agencies to develop strategy for providing the necessary education,
credit facilities, supply of good quality dfls, increasing irrigation facilities through
giving loans and subsidies, supply of new mulberry material, frequent visit of
extension officers to the villages and solving problems through their valuable
suggestions in time, less cost of supply of bed disinfectants, chemicals and
pesticides etc.
3. It is noticed that extension participation along with the habit of visiting
neighbouring sericulture places were found to have positive influence on the
knowledge and adoption level of sericulture technology. Hence, the policy
makers should take note of socio-economic characters and opinion of the
farmers while formulating developmental activities for disseminating the
improved silkworm rearing practices in any area.
4. Efforts should be made to include subject matter related to motivational factors
in farmers, training programs for making the industry sustainable in the long
run and to lighten the burden of the developmental departments in
disseminating the technology.
5. Majority of the farmers planted varieties in traditional method (mixing Local + K2
+ V1) and lacking knowledge on recommended varieties. Hence extension
agencies have to look to the need and work towards plantation of the desirable
mulberry variety.
6. It is further advisable that the extension agencies should induce the farmers
especially small and marginal farmers by teaching them how they could
successfully serve their needs by joining the existing the social organizations in
the villages. Therefore, the extension agency may strive hard in organizing social
institutes like co-operative societies; rural youth etc, and encourage them to join
in large numbers.
7. Self-confidence is one of the important psychological variables, which drives an
individual to take up new practices and also innovate to the methods of farming
for better performance. This can be built and developed in farmers by teaching
them essential skills in mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing and by
providing sufficient inputs, crop insurance and better marketing facilities etc to
ensure the profits for farmers.
8. High yielding disease resistant cross breeds suitable for different agro climatic
regions to be developed and distributed.
9. Dependence on hired labour should be reduced so as to increase the family
income and the potential for women labour in sericulture should be tapped fully,
so as top increase the family income.
10.Different institutional agencies should enhance the scale of finance to improve
the capabilities of farmers to take up new production technologies and input.
11.Marketing facilities should be improved in cocoon markets to provide better
services to the farmers.
12.As a matter of motivating farmers, introduction of support price concept for
cocoons may be thought of, apart from training and improved credit facilities.
13.State government should be supply good quality dfls of improved breeds and
more number of grainages to be started to supply timely, adequate disease free
layings on subsidized costs.
14.Frequent refreshing training programmes should be arranged for the extension
personnel to abridge their knowledge on the latest sericultural technologies.
15.For improving the process of transfer of technology sufficient conveyance facility
may be created for effective and timely transfer of technology.
16.Incentives and encouragement either in cash or kind is a must to motivate and to
sustain the interest of the extension personnel to work in the field which is not in
practice at present.
17.In villages, training programmes and study tours which are currently not found
effective may be made effective.
18.Infrastructure facilities like quantity and timely availability of credit quality
layings, marketing facilities and transport facilities may be created for the benefit
of sericulturists.
19.The yield gap was less in the case of small farmers than in large farmers in K2-
varietry, whereas in V1-variety the yield gap was less in large farmers than in
small farmers in mulberry leaf production. The reasons attributed were small
land holding and technology adoption (in K2-varierty) by the small farmers.
Management of mulberry garden (V1-variety) by imposing fertilizer and FYM was
added for large farmers, whereas the small farmers could not do it. So,
awareness through extension service is the need of the hour.
20.The small farmers obtained higher yield than the large farmers in cross breed
cocoon production. This may be due to the small rearing capacity, quite high
input rate of technology adoption and use of labour component. These were the
major advantageous factors which have influenced small farmers to achieve
higher yield there by reducing the yield gaps.

21. It was observed that area, FYM, fertilizer, irrigation and variety had significant
effect on potential yield realization in mulberry leaf production. Similarly,
mulberry leaf, Dfls, disinfectants, rearing material, mountages, transport and
marketing were significant in the case of cross breed cocoon production. This
calls for the attention of the policy makers to consider timely and adequate
supply of necessary technology inputs to the farmers, besides educating the
farmers on the optimum use of inputs.

22.The socio-economic factors such as mulberry area, extension guidance and mass
media participation have significantly influenced cocoon production in both small
and large farmers. So it needs more such programs to strengthen the farmers
approach towards yield realization and to bring down the yield gap.

23. The Total Yield Gap between average farmers and the potential farm yield in
Cross Breed cocoon production were found to be 8.992 kg/crop, 32.900 kg/crop
and 10.079 kg/crop in big, small and marginal farmers respectively. The yield
could be increased if the technology packages are adopted by the small farmers.
Exploitable yield gaps are often caused by various factors including physical,
biological, socio-economic and institutional constraints, which can be effectively
improved through participatory and holistic approaches and action by
government (Cornwell, 1996 and IRRI, 1998). The village level extension workers,
NGO’s and quality clubs (self-help groups) may be strengthened in new
technology know how. Also to impart the technical knowledge and skills to the
sericulture farmers to improve their yield and profitability.

24.The farmers perceived labour problem especially the large farmers as one of the
major constraints in realizing the potential farm yield. Hence the availability of
the labour during peak season is equally important factor influencing on the
exploitation of farm yield. Appropriate measures could be adopted to improve the
efficiency of labour, otherwise alternatively mechanization may be thought off.

25. While analyzing the major constraints for bringing down economically recoverable
gaps, it was found that the crucial inputs such as mulberry leaf, disinfectants,
human labour and mountages were significantly influencing the cocoon
production. Jayaram et al., (1996) attributed use of inputs at sub-optimal level
by the farmers for the low productivity and quality in mulberry as well as cocoon
production. This calls for the attention of the policy makers to ensure timely and
adequate supply of necessary technical inputs to the farmers. Further, educating
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ANNEXURE – I

Personal and Socio-economic characterestics of respondents

Mandal: Respondent
Village: Photograph

Season:
1 IDENTIFICATION DATA

1.1 Name of the Respondent :

1.2 Address & Phone No. :

2 GENERAL INFORMATION

2.1 Age
20-35 Yrs/36-50 Yrs/Above 50 Yrs
2.2 Qualification
Illiterate /Primary/Middle
Secondary/Degree/PG
2.3 Marital status
Unmarried/Married/Widow
2.4 Family size
Male/Female/Children
2.5Family Nature
Joint/Nuclear
2.6Rearing House
Roof : Thatched/Stone/Mud/
Sheet/Tiled/RCC
Floor : Mud/Stone/Cement/Others
2.7Primary Occupation
Agri./Seri./Dairy/
Poultry/Fishery/Others
3 ECONOMIC STATUS
3.1Land holding (in acres)
Land Details Rainfed Irrigated Total Value(Rs)
Own
Cultivable
Waste land
Leased in
Leased out

3.2Type of soil
Black/Red/Red sandy/Red loamy

3.3Crops grown/ year


No. of Total
Crops Extent Expenditure
crops Income
Mulberry
Ground Nut
Paddy
Sunflower
Sugarcane
Vegetable crops
Floral crops
Others (specify)

3.4Any other source of income


1.
2.
3.
3.5 Economic status
a) Total Asset value (Rs.) :
b) Total year income (Rs.):

4 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS :
Summer Rainy Winter Spring
4.1 Temperature
4.2 Rainfall
5 Training undergone in sericulture
Agency Topic Duration Remarks

6 EXTENSION PARTICIPATION
Participation
Programme Regular Occasional Never Remarks
Field Visit
Group
Discussion
Demonstration
Film Show
Exhibition
Field Day
Lectures
Workshops
Seminars
Farmer's Meet
Any other
(specify)

7 EXTENSION CONTACT
Frequency of contact
Agency Regular Occasional Never Remarks
Sericulture
Department
Central Silk Board
Progressive farmer
Any other [specify]

8 MASS MEDIA PARTICIPATION


Extent of Involvement
Programme Regular Occasional Never Remarks
Radio
Television
Newspaper
Sericultural
Magazine
Pamphlets
Booklets
Any Other [specify]
9 Social Participation
Officer Extent of Participation
/
Name of Organization Bearer Regular Occasional Never
Farmers Co-Op
Societies
Milk Co-Op Societies
Sericulture Co-Op
Societies
Self help groups
Local Organization
(Panchayat, Z.P. etc)
Others

10 Area under mulberry


Extent Variety Spacing No. of Plants

11 Inputs used for cotton production


A.
Establishment of
Mul. Garden [per
acre] Year of Plantation

Operations Materials / Hiring


Tractor / Labour / Wages
Bullocks Male-Female Quantity Amount
Tilling and
Harrowing
Final land
Preparation
FYM
FYM application
Fertilizers
Cutting /
Nursery
preparation
Cutting /
Saplings &
Transport
Planting
Irrigation
(Electricity /
Labour)
Hoeing &
weeding
Hiring charges
Wages

B. Maintenance of Mul.Garden

Operations Materials/ Hiring/


Labour Wages
Tractor/ Male- Quantit
Bullocks Female y Amount
Inter cultural operations:
Ploughing
Digging
Weeding
Ridges & Furrows
Manures:
FYM / Compost
Fertilizer
Application
charges
Irrigation:
Plant Protection +
Spraying
Harvesting
Pruning &
Cleaning
Land revenue

12 Leaf yield per crop (Kgs)


Year Crop-1 Crop-2 Crop-3 Crop-4

13 Rearing operations
No. of Chawki No. Of
Dfls Race / Direct Crops / Y

Labour Materials
Operations Male Female Quantity Amount
Cleaning &
Disinfection
Dfls / Chawki +
Transportation
Formalin
Bleaching powder
Chlorine dioxide
Lime powder
Vijetha / Resham
Jyothi
Uzicide / Uzitrap
Paraffin paper
Polythene sheet
Newspaper
Chawki rearing [No.
of Mandays]
Late age rearing [No.
of Mandays]
Third instar
Fourth instar
Fifth instar
Leaf cost [in case of
purchase]
Mounting [Labour +
Hiring cost]
Harvesting /
Cleaning [mandays]
Transport &
Marketing
[Labour + Transport
+ Commission]

14 Cocoon yield details


Crop Details
Particulars I II III IV
Dfls
Race
Yield (Kg)
Rate
By-Product
Sale of Leaf

15 Investment on rearing house/equipment


Value
Item Quantity Rate [Rs] [Rs] Life Span
Rearing house
Rearing stands
Chawki stands
Feeding stands
Leaf chopping
Board + knife
Bamboo trays
Ant wells
Mountages
Fan, Heater,
Humidifier etc.
Cleaning Nets
Thermometer
Uzi nets
Bamboo baskets
Plastic basin /
Buckets
Others

16 Indicate the credit and subsidies received for sericulture


Source - 1 Source - 2 Source - 3
Purpose
Source
loan amount
Subsidy
Rate of Interest
Loan to be repaid

17 Indicate problems in mulberry cultivation

18 Indicate problems in silkworm rearing

19 Indicate problems in marketing

20 Indicate the improved technologies contributed for increase yield


in order of priority
ANNEXURE – II
A KNOWLEDGE AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY IN
MULBERRYCULTIVATION

S Practice Recommended Knowledge Adoption Reasons


l.N package AK IK FA PA NA for FA,PA
o & NA
1 Soil testing Information on
Ph, EC,
Organic
carbon, N,P &
K
2 Soil correction Reclamation of
Acidic, Alkaline
& Saline soils
3 Variety K2/ S36/ S54/
V1/
Others
4 Spacing 2’x2’/ 3’x2’x2’/
3’x3’

5 Manure 20 tonnes/
hectare
6 Fertilizer 300:120:120
kg/ hectare/
year in 5 splits
for row or
280:120:120
kg/ hectare/
year in 6 split
dose. For pit
350:150:150
kg/ hectare/
year.
7 Triacontanol
8 Compost Converting
making sericultural
farm wastes
into valuable
compost
9 Vermi compost Composting of
making wastes within
50-60 days
using
earthworms

10 Green manuring Sun hemp/


Dhaincha/
Horsegram/
Cowpea

B KNOWLEDGE AND ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY IN SILKWORM


REARING

S Practice Recommended Knowledge Adoption Reasons


l.N package AK IK FA PA NA for
o FA,PA &
NA
1 Formalin 2% Formalin
solution
2 Bleaching 2% Bleaching
powder powder in 0.3%
slaked lime
solution
3 Chlorine dioxide 2.5% Sanitech/
Serichlor in
0.5% slaked
lime solution
4 Hygiene

5 Bed cleaning
nets

6 Shoot rearing

7 Bed spacing

8 Chawki rearing 100 CB dfls


1st -2 trays
2nd -5 trays
Use of paraffin
paper and wet
foam pads
Tender leaf for
feeding
9 Late age Cooling &
heating devices
to maintain 24-
25°C temp. and
70-75% RH

10 Bed Lime/ RKO/


disinfectants Vijetha/
Resham Jyothi/
Formalin chaff
11 Raksha Rekha

12 Egg Time and


transportation method

13 Egg carrying
box

14 Ventilation Avoidance of
stagnation of air
by proper
ventilation
15 Temp. & 26-28°C& 85-
Humidity 90% humidity
for chawki
worms
24-26°C for late
age worms
16 Mounting care Mounting the
spinning larva
and
maintain24°C
temp. & 60-65%
humidity &
good aeration
17 Cocoon sorting Double and
flimsy cocoons
separation
18 Transportation Method
Mode
Time
19 IPM Pests of
mulberry
Chemical
control
Mechanical
control
Biological
control

20 IPM of Uzi fly Uzicide


Uzitrap
Mechanical
control
Biological
control

Note:
“AK” – For having adequate knowledge about the
particular technology [Adequate Knowledge]
“IK” – For having inadequate knowledge about the
particular technology [Inadequate Knowledge]

“FA” – For adopting the technology as per


recommendation [Full Adoption]
“PA” – For adopting the technology but not as per
recommendation [Partial Adoption]
“NA” – For not at all adopting the technology [Non
Adoption]