Ahl al-Bayt: Its Meaning and Origin

The term "ahl" signifies the members of a household of a man, including his fellow tribesmen, kin, relati es, wife !or wi es", children, and all those who share a family background, religion, housing, city, and country with him# "Ahl" and "Aal" are both the same term with the e$ce%tion that "al" is e$clusi ely used for human beings and should come before the family name, but such a condition is not e$istent in the case of "ahl"# "Bayt" refers to habitation and dwelling, including tents and buildings both# The "ahl al-bayt" of any %erson refers to his family members and all those who li e in his house !c#f# "Mufradat al&ur'an" by (aghib Isfahani) "&amus" by *iroo+abadi) "Ma,m-a al-Bahrayn"# The term "ahl al-bayt" !%eo%le of the house" has been re%eated twice in the .oly &ur'an: /# "### the mercy of Allah and his blessing are on you, O %eo%le of the house, ### !//:01"" This erse refers to the %eo%le of the .ouse of Ibrahim !s" !c#f# "2ashf al-Asrar wa -3ddat alAbrar", 4/564 and other inter%retations"# 7# "### Allah only desires to kee% away the uncleanness from you, O %eo%le of the .ouse8 And to %urify you a !thorough" %urifying !11:11""# This erse, known as the "Tathir erse", refers to the Members of the .ousehold of the .oly 9ro%het !s"# The Imamiyyah scholars of hadith and fi:h, as well as some ;unni -3lama, consider the "ahl al-bayt" cited in the "tathir erse" to include e$clusi ely Muhammad, -Ali, *atimah, .asan, and .usayn !%eace be u%on them all"# They do not consider the .oly 9ro%het's other offs%ring, wi es, sons of %aternal uncles, and dwellers of his house as the Messenger's "ahl al-bayt"# They base their argument on the genuine and authentic traditions narrated by the com%anions of the 9ro%het !s" recorded in the ;unni and ;hi-i sources# 3nder the following headings, this article will del e into some of the said traditions and refer to some features of the "ahl al-bayt" as narrated by the ;unnis: /# 2isa' tradition) 7# Mubahalah tradition) 1# Mawaddat al-&urba tradition) 4# ;afinah tradition) <# Other traditions# /# 2isa' Tradition A- =alaluddin -Abdul-(ahman bin Abi Bakr ;uyuti !d >// A#.#" in his commentary "Al-?ur alManthur", />@6<-/>>, Muhammad ibn -Isa Tirmidhi !1 70> A#.#" the author of "=ami' ;ahih", .akim Aishaburi !d 4B< A#.#" in "Al-Mustadrak ala al-;ahihayn", Ahmad ibn .usayn Bayha:i !d 4<@ A#.#" in ";unan" !all three of whom ha e considered the 2isa' tradition as authentic", Muhammad ibn =arir Tabari !d 1/< A#.#", Ibn Mun+ir Muhammad ibn Ibrahim !d 1/> A#.#", Ibn Mardawayh Isfahani, and Ahmad ibn Musa !d 4/B A#.#" ha e :uoted 3mmu ;alamah, the wife of the .oly 9ro%het !s" as saying that the erse "### Allah only desires to kee% away the uncleanness from you, O %eo%le of the .ouse8 And to %urify you a thorough %urifying !11:11"" was re ealed in her house# At that time, -Ali, *atimah, .asan, and .usayn !%eace be u%on them all" were in her house# The .oly 9ro%het !s" s%read his cloak o er them and stated: "These are the members of my .ousehold, and Allah has %urified them of all !sins and faults and uncleanness"#" B- Ahmad bin Muhammad bin .anbal, the .anbali Imam, !d 74/ A#.#", in "Musnad" 77>67 :uotes 3mmu ;alamah as saying: "The .oly 9ro%het !s" was in my house# *atimah came to her father holding a stone bowl filled with "harirah" !ty%e of food made u% of flour, milk, and egetable oil"#

The .oly 9ro%het !s" stated: In ite your husband and two sons to come as well#" -Ali, .asan, and .usayn also came there and all sat down to eat "harirah"# Then, the .oly 9ro%het !s" was sitting on a cloak in his resting %lace and I was reciting the %rayer in the chamber# At this time, Almighty Allah re ealed the erse "Allah only desires to ###"# The .oly 9ro%het !s" co ered -Ali, *atimah, .asan, and .usayn !%eace be u%on them all" with the cloak and then stretched his hand toward the sky and said: "Allah8 These are the Members of my .ousehold, so %urify them of all uncleanness'# 3mmu ;alamah said: "I asked him: "Am I also with youC" .e stated: "Dou are on good and irtue" !but did not say that you are a member of my .ousehold"'#" This tradition has also been narrated by Ahmad ibn Muhammad Tahawi !d 17/ A#.#" in "Mushkil al-Athar" 117 and 114) Eahidi in "Asbab al-Au+ul" 75@ and Muhib Tabari !d 5>4 A#.#" in "Fakhair al--3:ba" 71 ha e related this tradition# In continuation of this tradition, Tabari has written that the 9ro%het !s" stated: "I am a friend of whosoe er is friends with them and an enemy of whosoe er is an enemy of them#" The said tradition of similar statements ha e been recorded in "Mana:ib" by Ibn .anbal, 44, the microfilm co%y of the book is a ailable in the 9arliament Gibrary# Tabari remarked: "This tradition has been narrated from 3mma ;alamah by Ibn al&ubabi in "Mu',am" and ;iyuti in "Al-?ur al-Mnthur" under the title of the "tathir erse", as well as by Ibn =arir, Ibn Mun+ir, Ibn Mardawayh, Ibn Abi .atam and Ibn Tabrani#" H- 2hatib Baghdadi, Ahmad bin -Ali, !d 451 A#.#" in "The .istory of Baghdad" 70@6/B, has :uoted Abu ;aeed 2hidri ;-ad bin Malik !d 04 A#.#" as saying that after the re elation of the "tathir erse", the .oly 9ro%het !s" summoned -Ali, *atimah, .asan, and .usayn !%eace be u%on them all" and co ered them with the cloak he had on and said: "These are the members of my .ousehold, and Allah has %urified them !of e ery wrong and sin"#" The same tradition has been narrated from 3mmu ;alamah by Muhammad ibn =arir Tabari in "=am-a al-Bayan" 0677# ?- In ";ahih Muslim" !narrated by ;ayyid Murtada *iroo+abadi in "*adail al-2hamsah min ;ihah al-;itah" 7/46/", ;afiyah, the daughter of ;hayba, has narrated -Aishah, the wife of the .oly 9ro%het !s", as saying: "One morning, the Messenger of Allah left the house with a cloak made of black material and bearing the design of a camel's saddle# .asan ibn -Ali entered the %lace, and the 9ro%het !s" co ered him with the cloak# Then came .usayn, *atimah, and -Ali one after another, and all of them were also co ered by the cloak# The 9ro%het !s" then stated: "### Allah only desires to kee% away uncleanness from you, O %eo%le of the .ouse8 And to %urify you a !thorough" %urifying#" This tradition has been narrated by .akim Aishaburi in "Al-Mustadark" /461) Bayha:i in ";unan" /4>67) Tabari in the "=ami al-Bayan" ;iyuti in "al-?urri al-Manthur" under the title of the "tathir erse"# In addition, Ibn Abi ;haybah, Ahmad bin Muhammad bin .anbal, Ibn Abi .atam ha e narrated it from -Aishah# Famakhshari in "2ashshaf" and *akhr (a+i in "Tafsir 2abir" ha e also related this tradition# It seems that the recorders of traditions are unanimous about the authenticity of this tradition !"*adail al-2hamsah" 7746/"# I- In the "=ami al-Bayan" Muhammad bin =arir Tabari has :uoted ;hahr bin .ushab Ash'air !d /BB A#.#" as saying: "Ehen 3mmu ;alamah heard news of the martyrdom of .usayn bin -Ali , she cursed the %eo%le of Ira: and said: -May Allah kill the %eo%le of Ira: who decei ed him and left him alone# May Allah curse them# Jerily, I saw *atimah while bringing a stone bowl of sweet %aste for the .oly 9ro%het !s"# The .oly 9ro%het !s" stated: -Ehere is your cousinC' ;he said: -At home#' The 9ro%het !s" said: -Ko bring him here with his two sons#' *atimah returned while holding the hands of .asan and .usayn# -Ali also followed them, and they came to the .oly 9ro%het !s"# The .oly 9ro%het !s" embraced .asan and .usayn and made -Ali sit on his right and *atimah on left# .e then the cloak as the car%et on which we sle%t in Medina and %laced it o er *atimah, -Ali, .asan, and .usayn# .e held the two sides of the cloak with his left hand# .e raised his right hand toward the sky addressing Almighty Allah by saying: -O Allah, %urify them of any uncleanness # O Allah, these are the members of my .ousehold# 9urify and cleanse them of any ice, wrong, and sin,' !.e re%eated this twice"# I asked: -O Messenger8 Am I also a member of your .ouseholdC' .e said: -Dou come under the cloak#' I also went under the cloak, but only after the 9ro%het !s" finished

his %rayer for his cousin, his two sons, and *atimah !%eace be u%on them all"#" This tradition has been related by Ahmad bin Muhammad ibn .anbal in "Musnad" 7>765: Tahwi in "Mushkil alAthar" 11<6/) and Muhib Tabari in "Fakhair al--3:ba" 776/# The 2isa' tradition which has been narrated in different forms by the ;hias and the ;unnis is ery sacred for the entire Imamiyyah, es%ecially the ;hia of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, Ira:, and Demen# It is recited in "rawdah" sessions !mourning ceremony" to ha e the wishes fulfilled and %roblems remo ed# ;ome narration %ro ide more details on this tradition# ;ome say that =ibraeel and Mikaeel were also among the disci%les of the 2isa' or were %resent there# A di ine re elation was descended on the .oly 9ro%het !s" to the effect that the world and whate er is in it is indebted to these fi e %ure ones# 7# Mubahalah Tradition ;i$ty chiefs and -3lama of Aa,ran, headed by ;ayyid, A:ib, and 3s:uf !religious %ersonalities" of the region in the /Bth year A#.# came to Medina to clarify their religious and %olitical stance is-ais Islam which had s%read o er the Arab %eninsula and to engage in discussions with the Messenger !s" of Allah to reali+e the essence and truth of Islam# After lengthy discussions which ha e been %resented in details in Ibn .usham's ";irah" <016/, no agreement was reached on the %osition and standing of =esus# The Hhristians of Aa,ran belie ed in the di inity of =esus and considered him as the son of Kod# This is while, based on the e$%licit wording of the .oly &ur'an !1:<>", the Messenger !s" of Allah considered him as a %ro%het and the ser ant of Kod# At the end of the discussions, the 9ro%het !s" suggested that the two sides engage in "mubahalah", in other words, to in oke di ine malediction for the lying side# The following erse was descended in this regard: "But whoe er dis%utes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our near %eo%le and your near %eo%le, then let us be earnest in %rayer, and %ray for the curse of Allah on the liars#" !1:5/" The /Bth !and some say the 74th" of ?hul-.i,,ah was chosen for "mubahalah"# The Messenger !s" of Allah ordered that in a field outside Medina a thin black "aba" !men's loose slee eless cloak o%en in front" be used as a shade between two trees# The Hhristian chiefs and dignitaries of Aa,ran stood in orderly ranks on one side of the field, on the other side, the 9ro%het, together with -Ali, *atimah, .asan and .usayn came from the direction of Medina to the shade# Along this %ath, the 9ro%het !s", holding the hand of -Ali, .asan and .usayn walked in front with *atimah behind them !c#f# "Ma,m-a al-Bayan"# Inter%retation of the Mubahalah Jerse"# Eith such sim%licity and grandeur, they reached the shade and stood below the "aba"# The .oly 9ro%het !s" recited the "tathir erse" and addressed the "ahl al-bayt" by saying: "I will in oke malediction for them and you say -amin'#" ;eeing such glory and grandeur, the Aa,ran chiefs lost their self-confidence and felt that they were ery %uny and could not stand against 9ro%het Muhammad !s" and his .ousehold# They, therefore, acce%ted to %ay ",a+iyyah" and offered to gi e in to %eace# On behalf of the .oly 9ro%het !s", the commander of the *aithful, -Ali, signed a %eace treaty with the Hhristians# The Hhristians were to annually offer twel e thousand e$:uisite clothes, a thousand mith:al of gold, and some other items to remain Hhristians under the umbrella of Islam# On the basis of the "mubahalah erse", ;unni inter%reters such as Famakhshari, Baydawi, Imam *akhr (a+i and others regard -Ali, *atimah, .asan and .usayn !%eace be u%on them all" su%erior to all other %eo%le and argue that .assan and .usayn are the sons of the Messenger !s" of Allah# The term "anfusina" in the "mubahalah erse" %ro es the unity of the heart and soul of 9ro%het Muhammad and -Ali# The .oly 9ro%het !s" stated: "-Ali is of me and I am of -Ali#" !"*adail al2hamsah" 1416/"# The "mubahalah tradition" has been recounted in different books of "sirah" and history with arious wordings# These include those of Tirmidhi !";ahih" /5567" which :uotes ;-ad ibn Abi Ea::as as follows: "Ehen the mubahalah erse was recited, the .oly 9ro%het !s"

summoned -Ali, *atimah, .asan, and .usayn and said: -O Allah, these are the Members of my .ousehold#" This tradition has been narrated by .akim Aishaburi in "Al-Mustadrak" /<B61 and Bayha:i in ";unan" 5160# .akim regards this tradition as authentic# 1# Mawaddat al-&urba Tradition Based on the consensus of the e$egesists !"=am-a al-Bayan" Tabari /567<, /0) ".ilyat al-Awlia" 7</61) "Al-Mustadrak" /0761) "3sd al-Khabah" 1506<) "Al-;awa'i: al-Muhara:ah" /B/", the following erse has been re ealed about the members of the .ousehold of the .oly 9ro%het !s": "###;ay: I do not ask of you any reward for it but lo e for my near relati es ###" !47:71" The term "Al-&urba" in this erse, based on the traditions narrated from the .oly 9ro%het !s", embraces only -Ali, *atimah, .asan, and .usayn and no one else# The tradition from Ibn -Abbas' has it that when the "mawaddat al-:urba" erse was re ealed, the 9ro%het !s" was asked: "O messenger, who are your near relati es who should be lo edC" .e stated: "-Ali, *atimah, and their sons#" This tradition has been narrated by Muhib Tabari in "Fakhair al--3:ba" 7<6/) Ibn .anbal in "Mana:ib" //B) Mo'min ;habilen,i "Aural-Absar" /B/) and Famakhshari in "2ashshaf" as annotation to the said erse# In the "Tafsir al-2abir", *akhr (a+i has related the said narration from "2ashshaf" and has said that based on this erse, -Ali, *atimah, .asan, and .usayn should be re ered and sanctified# .e has also cited lines of erse from the ;hafii' Imam, Muhammad bin Idris ;hafii' !d 74B A#.#" in this regard# A line of it is as follows: "If lo e for the members of the .ousehold of the .oly 9ro%het is heresy, then the world should stand witness that I am a heretic#" 4# ;afinah Tradition The irtues of the "ahl al-bayt" ha e been am%ly mentioned in the authenticated and Tawatur traditions narratted by both ;hia and ;unni -3lama# 3sing different words and %hrases, these traditions ha e asked %eo%le to lo e the "ahl al-bayt" and follow thier teachings# *or instance, the .oly 9ro%het !s" has com%ared his "ahl al-bayt" to Aoah's ark# Ehoe er lo es and follows them will attain sal ation and whoe er iolates their sanctity will drown# The ser ant of the .oly 9ro%het !s", Anas bin Malik !d >1 A#.#", has been related as :uoting the 9ro%het !s" as saying: "The e$am%le of the members of my .ousehold among you is like the e$am%le of Aoah's ark# Ehoe er boards it will attain sal ation and whoe er does not board it will drown#" This tradition has been narrated by .akim Aishaburi in "Al-Mustadrak" 14167) 2hatib in "Tarikh Baghdad" >/6/7) and other great recorders of traditions !"al-Khadir" 1BB67-1B/"# In this regard, Imam ;hafii' has said the following: "Ehen I saw different schools of thought directing %eo%le toward the seas of ignorance and de iation, I boarded the ark of sal ation in the Aame of Allah# This arc is erily crystalli+ed in the "ahl al-bayt" of the ;eal of the 9ro%hets, Mustafa !s"#" Among ery famous traditions in which the "ahl al-bayt" ha e been resembled to the ark of sal ation, reference can be made to the famous "Ishbah tradition" which has been narrated from the .oly 9ro%het !s" by Abu .urayrah -Abdul(ahman bin ;akhar !d <> A#.#"# "Ehen Almighty Allah created Adam, the father of mankind, and breathed .is s%irit into him, Adam looked to the right hand side of the em%yrean# There he saw fi e figures in the form of silhouettes engaged in %rostration and genuflection# .e asked: "Kod, ha e you created any one from the dust before meC" Kod re%lied: "Ao#" Adam said, ";o who are these fi e figures which I see resembling my own sha%e and formC" Kod answered, "These are fi e of your offs%ring# If it were not for them, I would ha e not created you# They are fi e %eo%le whose names are deri ed from My Own# If it were not for them, I would ha e not created %aradise or hell, the hea ens and the earth, the skies and the lands, the angels, the human beings and the ,inn# I am "Mahmud" and this Muhammad# I am "Aala" and this is -Ali# I am "*atir" and this is *atimah, I am "Ihsan" and this is .asan# I am "Muhsin" and this is .usayn# By My Klory, whoe er bears e en an atom's

weight of grudge against them will be cast into hell# O Adam8 They are My chosen ones# *or them, I will sa e or cast others to %erdition# If you want anything from me, you should resort to these fi e %eo%le#" The .oly 9ro%het !s" said: "Ee ser e as the ark of sal ation# Ehoe er holds fast to this ark will reach sal ation and whoe er de iates from it will be cast into %erdition# Ehoe er wants Allah to grant him something should resort to the -ahl al-bayt'#" This tradition has been narrated by ;haykh al-Islam .amu'i in the first cha%ter of "*ara'id al-;amtayn" and 2hatib 2hwara+mi in "Mana:ib" 7<7 !c#f# "al-Khadir" 1BB67"# The Ashbah tradition has been narrated by -Allamah Amini in another %art of the al-Khadir" !1B/60" :uoting Abul-*ath Muhammad bin -Ali al-Aatan+i in "Alfa+"# <# Other Traditions About the Jirtues and Hharacteristics of the "Ahl al-Bayt" A- In the inter%retation of the erse "And en,oin %rayer on your household ###" !7B:/17", =alaluddin ;iyuti in "al-?urr al-Manthur", has related Ibn Mardawayh, Ibn -Aker, and in al-Aa,,ar as :uoting Abu ;aeed 2hidri as saying that after this erse was re ealed, for eight months, the 9ro%het went to the house of -Ali e ery morning at the time of morning %rayers and read this erse: "### Allah only desires to kee% away the uncleanness from you, O %eo%le of the .ouse8 And to %urify you a !thorough" %urifying !11:11"#" !"Al-?urr al-Manthur" />@6< and />>) "*adail al2hamsah") 7756/"# Another tradition has it that from the fortieth day after the consummation of the marriage of -Ali and *atimah, the 9ro%het !s" e ery morning went to their house and said: "9eace be u%on you, O members of the .ouse and the mercy and blessings of Allah# I will fight with whoe er fights with you and I will be reconciled with whoe er is reconciled with you#" .e then recited the "tathir erse"# Ibn -Abdul-Bar in "al-isti-ab" <>@67) Abu ?awud Tialisi in ";ahih" 7046@) and *iroo+abadi in "*adail al-2hamsah" 7156/ ha e %ut at forty the number of mornings when the 9ro%het !s" went to the house of -Ali and *atimah# In the "=ami al-Bayan" inter%retation, Tabari has said that this was done for se en months# ;iyuLi !in "Al-?urr al-Manthur", />>" has :uoted Ibn -Abbas as saying that after the erse "And en,oin %rayer on your household ###" !7B:/17" was re ealed, the .oly 9ro%het !s" for nine months went to the house of -Ali fi e times a day at the time of daily %rayers and called on the members of the house to kee% u% the %rayer# Iach time, he recited the "tathir erse"# This is %ossible because the .oly 9ro%het's house was close to that of -Ali# Its door o%ened inside the mos:ue# ;o whene er the Messenger !s" of Allah wanted to go to the mos:ue, he had to %ass the house of -Ali and *atimah# B- In "Al-Mustadrak alal-;ahihayn", .akim Aishaburi :uotes -Abdullah bin =a'afar bin Talib as saying that when the Messenger !s" of Allah looked to the blessings coming down, he said, "Hall on them#" ;afiyeh said, "O Messenger of Allah, whom should we call u%onC" .e re%lied, "The members of my .ousehold: -Ali, *atimah, .asan and .usayn#" They were called u%on# Then the 9ro%het !s" %laced his cloak o er them and raised both hands and said, "O Allah, these are the members of my .ousehold# 9eace be u%on Muhammad and u%on the .ousehold of Muhammad#" Almighty Allah re ealed the erse, "### Allah only desires to kee% away ### !11:11"#" .akim Aishaburi said this tradition is an authenticated tradition# The .oly 9ro%het !s" taught them to send greetings u%on his household !"-Ayan al-;hi-ah" 1<@6/) "*adail al-2hamsah" 7706/) "AlMustadrak" /4061"# Ibn =urir and Ibn Abi .atam ha e :uoted &utadah as saying that in relation to the erse, "### Allah only desires to kee% away ### !11:11"", the 9ro%het !s" stated, "These are the members of my .ousehold, and Allah has %urified them of any uncleanness and granted them .is mercy# Ee ser e as the tree of %ro%hethood, the %illar of mission, the %lace of %assage of angels, the house of mercy, and the wealth of knowledge" !"Al-?urr al-Manthur", />@6<-/>>"#

*atimah. /11> A#. the dwellers of the earth also be destroyed" !Muhib Tabari in "Fakhair al--3:ba".asan and .alamah and Abu . .oly 9ro%het !s" stated.usayn !%eace be u%on them all"# The .e said no more than this# If 3mmu .hi-ah". these are the members of my . .#"# . >"# Based on a tradition narrated from . the dwellers of the skies will also be destroyed# The members of my .o if the stars are destroyed.#" are among the %eo%le who ha e related that the "tathir erse" has been e$clusi ely re ealed about the wi es of the 9ro%het !s"# Of course.usayn !%eace be u%on all" under his cloak.alamah and ha e thus considered the "tathir erse" a%%licable to -Ali.unni -3lama regard the "tathir erse" %ertinent to all kin and relati es of the .ar in ". the 9ro%het !s" said: "Dou ha e your own %lace.ultan Muhammad &ari in "Mir:at al-Mafatih" 5/B6<. "Go e Allah who gi es you food out of his bounty and lo e me for . Ibn Man+ar.In "Al-Mustadrak al-.oly 9ro%het !s". 7064. &urtabi and Ibn 2athir consider -Ali.ahihayn".is lo e and lo e the members of my . the 9ro%het !s" allowed her to come under the cloak but did so after saying.#" and 3rwat bin Fubayr !d >1 A#.hias ha e mentioned se eral reasons and %roofs that the "ahl al-bayt" of the .aeed 2hidri.asan and . Igy%t /1<B A#. the 9ro%het !s" said: "O Allah. Ibn Abi . .ome traditions state that based on a re:uest from 3mmu . in whose house the "tathir erse" was re ealed. *atimah. .ousehold because of lo e for me#" . *atimah.ousehold of the .oly 9ro%het !s" are e$clusi ely -Ali. Akramah subscribe to 2hawari.-ad 2hidri: "Ehoe er shows animosity toward us the members of the . the erse will surely not a%%ly to the Messenger's other wi es# 4# .oly 9ro%het !s".H. *atimah. /4>61 and Ibn . "Allah these are the members of my .atam. /4B ha e related Ibn -Abbas as :uoting the 9ro%het !s" as saying: "The stars are the source of the earth and the members of my . Ibn =urir.hi-a".oly 9ro%het !s" including the wi es.ousehold#" This means that no one else a%art from these is iewed as the "ahl al-bayt"# 1# In res%onse to 3mmu . 1B>6/"# Also the %ronoun in the said erse is masculine not feminine# .ousehold are the refuge for the dwellers of the earth# If they are destroyed.asan and .oly 9ro%het !s".ome . .unni -3lama ha e referred to the authentic tradition of 3mmu . children. 3mmu .usayn !%eace be u%on them all" as members of the . !"Al--a'lam" Farkali. /06/ and -Ali bin .uch a narration cannot contrdict the famous tradition related by -Aishah. is not a member of the . the Bani . it has been sti%ulated that after %lacing -Ali. *atimah. Bukhari.asan and .ousehold are the source of the "ummah" !%eo%le"#" Another tradition refers to the same: "The stars are the refuge for the dwellers of the hea ens and my "ahl al-bayt" are the refuge for the "ummah" !"2an+ al-A'mal fi . and Abu .alamah. and Ibn Mardawayh ha e said that this erse has been re ealed about the wi es of the 9ro%het !s" and belie e that they are the members of the .ousehold to whom the "tathir erse" a%%lies# But Tirmidhi.akim Aishaburi.e also relates this tradition which he considers authentic from Abu . who ha e considered the "ahl al-bayt" to be e$clusi ely fi e %eo%le# They ha e said that the erses coming before and after the "tathir erse" are related to the wi es of the 9ro%het !s".alama who asked whether she was also a member of the .aeed 2hidri. 476<" and 3rwat !"-Ayan al-. you are irtuous#" . 1/<6/"# ?.akim Aishaburi has :uoted this authentic tradition from Ibn -Abbas: The .usayn !%eace be u%on all"# 7# In the 2isa' tradition.ousehold will be cast into the fire#" !"A'yan al-. the "tathir erse" has been re ealed about the .ousehold" and reciting the "tathir erse"# <# -Akramah Bariri !d /B< A#..alama.ashim and Bani-Adul-Mutallib !Ash'ari in "Ma:alat alIslamin". Igy%t.a.#"# In addition to the wi es of the .awai:".ousehold.unan al-A:wal wal-Af-al" //565"# Another tradition has said: "the stars are the refuge for the dwellers of the skies# . . .usayn to whom the "tathir erse" a%%lies# The most im%ortant of these reasons and %roofs are: /# Based on an authentic tradition narrated from 3mmu . -Ali. so this erse should also be rele ant to them# . Ibn -Aker.asan and .alamah.aeed bin =ubayer.ousehold of the Messenger !s" of Allah !"*ath al-&adir". and Bayha:i who are all .akim Aishaburi in "Al-Mustadrak".

O 9eo%le of the . *atimah. after Isaac.arah. has stated that the wi es of the .e was asked whether the 9ro%het's wi es were among his "ahl al-bayt"# .unni commentators and their an$iety to find some argument for their counting the wi es of the . is included in the term Ahlul-Bayt used in the abo e . the "ahl al-bayt" include -Ali. of =acob# M:uran //:07N: . Fayd bin Ar:am who has related the authenticated Tha:alayn tradition.ouse8 .oly 9ro%het !s" are not regarded as the members of his .aeed 2hidri's tradition only shows that these four are members of the 9ro%het's .ousehold#" This indicates e$clusi e membershi%# .aeed 2hidri and some followers.usayn !%eace be u%on all"# .e re%lied: "Ao. *atimah. the wife of Abraham. a wife li es with a husband for a while and then might be di orced and go back to her %arents#" 5# After citing the "tathir erse".ousehold"# .hi-ah".oly 9ro%het !s"# But It would go against the . 2hidir's tradition says that the 9ro%het said: "Only these !i#e# -Ali.ow then can these two traditions be combinedC *or this reason. the Imamiyyah -3lama ha e consensus on following the traditions of the immaculate Imams !%eace be u%on them all" and the distinguished disci%les to the effect that the "ahl al-bayt" of the 9ro%het !s" are only the fi e %eo%le known as the "Aal al-'Abaa" and "Ashab al-2isa'"# The Eord .e was asked: "Aren't the wi es of the . and.arah. standing by. laughed when Ee ga e her good tidings !of the birth" of Isaac.ouse of Abraham.owe er.oly 9ro%het !s"# .ince in the mercy and the bounty of Kod offered in the abo e erse to the 9eo%le of the .ected# Abu . it has been a tendency of some .ousehold and does not indicate that no one else is among the "ahl al-bayt"# But Akramah's traditions e$%licitly :uotes Ibn -Abbas as saying that erily the "ahl al-bayt" refers to the wi es of the 9ro%het# On the other hand. .ouse of Abraham !a" &uran testifies that .asan and .hall I bear a child when I am an old woman and my husband now is an old manC That would indeed be a strange thing8" M&uran //:01N: The !angles" said: ?o Dou wonder at Allah's decreeC The grace of Allah and .arah the wife of Abraham is included in the term Ahlul-Bayt mentioned in the abo e erse.usayn" are the Members of my . the wife of 9ro%het Abraham !a". was blessed by angels and was gi en the glad tiding that she will gi e birth to two %ro%hets of Kod: M&uran //:0/N: And his wife.ouse !Ahlul-Bayt" in &uran .&ur'anic erses are not classified based on the order of their re elation or contents# In addition.asan and .hifa" !as related in "-Ayan al-.ousehold of the . 1B>6/" has mentioned that according to a tradition narrated by Ibn -Abbas. -Ali &ari in the "Annotation to &a+i Aya+'s .e is indeed worthy of all %raise full of all glory8" .usayn and that they are immaculate # I en the fact that they regard the consensus of Imamiyyah -3lama as %roof to the eracity of this would be re.oly 9ro%het !s" considered as the members of the . these commentators intentionally or otherwise ignore the significance of the address by the Angels# If .asan and .ouseholdC" . *atimah. .hia idea that the "tathir erse" a%%lies only to -Ali.e re%lied: "The wi es of the 9ro%het reside in the 9ro%het's house but the 9ro%het's "ahl al-bayt" are those to whom the grant of "sada:ah" is religiously unlawful#" Another tradition has it that Fayd was asked to name the members of the .ousehold of the . then all the wi es of the 9ro%het !s" are included in the erse 11:11 relating to the %urity and the e$cellence of the Ahlul-Bayt of 9ro%het Muhammad# . .is blessings be u%on you.oly 9ro%het !s" in the terms Ahlul-Bayt# They argue that since . the 9ro%het's "ahl al-bayt" include his wi es as well# According to Abu .e says: "There is no %roblem if we gather these traditions together and consider both grou%s to be members of the .he said: "Alas for me8 .

not for being the wife of Imran.arah was called among Ahlul-Bayt after she got to know that she is ha ing Isaac !a"# .Bayt# They %erished along with the rest of community# Get's remember what Faid Ibn Ar:am said: "Ahlul-Bayt !household" of the 9ro%het are his lineage and his descendants !those who come from his blood" for whom the acce%tance of charity !Fakat" is %rohibited#" The wife of Imran was in the lineage of the Moses. and not being the wife of Abraham# The erses //:0/-01 :uoted abo e show that . so was the wife of Abraham who was in the lineage of Isaac and =acob# .ouse.ust of the . they were not considered Ahlul. and that she might know that the %romise of Allah is true# But most of them know not# The mother of Moses is termed as Ahlul-Bayt. it would be only because she would be the mother of Isaac. otherwise the wi es who are sub. it is not because she was the wife of Abraham.erse..udges#" .ouse of Imran !a" Gikewise. who says '?o not cut because it is a %art of my body'# The surgeon will re%ly.ouse of Aoah !a" And Aoah Hried unto his Gord and said: "My Gord8 Jerily my son is of my family) and erily Dour %romise is true. but for being the mother of Moses. but also she was the mother of two Imams# .ect to di orce and being substituted with women better than them !&uran 55:<" can't be considered as Ahlul-Bayt as %ointed out by Faid Ibn Ar:am as well# This is illustrated with the wife of Aoah and Got. &uran mentions the mother of Moses among the Ahlul-Bayt of Imran# Again.hall I %oint out to you a household who will take care of him for you.imilarly.o Ee restored him to his mother that she might be comforted and not grie e. though they were the wi es of such great ser ants of Kod.he was mentioned by angles in the abo e erse as a member of Ahlul-Bayt. he will not com%ly with the re:uest of the %atient. if *atimah is among the Ahlul-Bayt 9ro%het of Islam. as we can see in the following erses. the em%hasis here is the MOT.arah as a member of the . but because she was going to be the MOT.e !Allah" said: "O Aoah8 Jerily he is not of your family) Jerily he is !of" conduct other than the righteous) Therefore do not ask what you ha e no knowledge about) Jerily I ad ice you not to be of the ignorant ones#" !&uran //:4<-45" Abul Ala Maududi wrote in his commentary of the abo e erse that: "If a %art of the body of a %erson becomes rotten and the surgeon decides to cut it off. A*TI( she (IHIIJI? the glad tiding that she is %regnant of 9ro%het Isaac !a"# The matrimonial relation between and a man and a woman is only circumstantial and can be gi en u% at any moment# . and will be kind to himC M&uran 7@:/1N: . and Dou are the most . she brings a son who becomes a 9ro%het or an Imam# Thus if we consider . it is because not only she was the daughter of the 9ro%het !s".I( of two %ro%hets !Isaac and =acob"# . 'It is no longer a %art of your body because it is rotten#' Gikewise when a righteous father is told that his son .I( of Moses and not the wife of Imran: M&uran 7@:/7N: And Ee ordained that he refuse to seek any foster mother before so she said: .he could ne er be a %ermanent %artner to any husband to be included in the hea enly address who are endowed with the uni:ue and hea enly e$cellence 3AGI.

I( wife who was a disbelie er and %erished along with her son# It can be concluded that if any one does not hold the goodness of the correct faith in Allah.am and Dafas who were belie ers and who with their wi es entered the Ark and were sa ed and 2anan was Aoah's son by his OT. the most Merciful.ouse !AhlulBayt".usain came and entered the cloak.is a worthless act. al-. and he is to be destroyed# Thus. born through the same %arents. 7# The %urification sentence in &uran !the last sentence of Jerse 11:11" was re ealed for the irtue of the abo e-mentioned indi iduals# .ahih Muslim. Aam.ouse !Ahlul-Bayt". 4. and %urify you with a %erfect %urification"# !&uran. section of the irtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the 9ro%het !s".usain are the Ahlul-Bayt. then *atimah came and the 9ro%het entered her under the cloak. then Ali came and the 9ro%het entered him to the cloak as well# Then the 9ro%het recited: "Jerily Allah intends to kee% off from you e ery kind of uncleanness O' 9eo%le of the . the most Beneficent Ayat al-Tat'hir: "Jerily Allah intends to kee% off from you e ery kind of uncleanness O' 9eo%le of the . %150. be he the son of the A%ostle.asan. %/@@1. then al-. then al-. Hha%ter of irtues of com%anions. Arabic ersion. />@B Idition 9ub# in .ouse of the 9ro%het and doesn't co er all of those who are born from his blood# Ahlul-Bayt are only the indi iduals among 9ro%het's descendants who also had close affinity in character and utmost s%iritual attainment with 9ro%het !s"# In the name of Allah. e en one is to be the son of a %ro%het of Allah.ahih Muslim belie ed that the wi es of the 9ro%het were included in . and %urify you a %erfect %urification !the last sentence of Jerse 11:11"#" (eference: /# .is ery birth through his own %arents is denied to him. it means to im%ly that the efforts that you made to bring him u% as a good son ha e gone waste for the work is s%oilt and ended in utter failure#" (eference: Hommentary of &uran by Abul Ala Maududi !%ublished by the Islamic 9ublications !9 t" Gimited". Tradition O5/# One can see that the author of .ahih Muslim confirms that: /# Imam Ali. e en the right to be on Kod's earth is withdrawn from him. and al-.e !Muslim" did not %ut any other tradition in this section !section of the irtues of AhlulBayt"# If the author of . he is not to be of the stock of his %arentage) . under erse //:4<-45 9ro%het Aoah !a" was %leading for his own son and the re%ly was that the lad was not worthy of being his son# It is made crystal clear by this erse that though one might be of the same blood and flesh. the lack of righteousness gets him disowned from the %rogeny !Itrat" of the a%ostolic family# It is for this reason that the term Ahlul-Bayt is restricted to the deser ing members of the .asan Ibn Ali came and the 9ro%het accommodated him under the cloak. 11:11" Aarrated Aisha: One day the 9ro%het !s" came out afternoon wearing a black cloak !u%%er garment or gown) long coat". *atimah.audi Arabia. but if the issue doesn't %ossess the good :ualities of the %arents then he or she is not of his %arents' stock !as said in the second erse"# Aoah had three other sons. .

from Aisha /7#Tafsir al-?urr al-Manthoor. 7. %/7) 4. the saying of Allah :"Jerily Allah intends to ### !the last sentence of the erse 11:11"" was re ealed for Ali.7>7.alama /B#Tafsir al-2abir.ar al-. by Ibn . %% /<@.awa'i: al-Muhri:ah.a.unni commentators to belie e that the last %art was re ealed for Imam Ali. *atimah. from Abu . by al-Bayha:i.usain" 1# .ar. by Ibn . by al-Tahawi. under the commentary of erse 11:11 from 3mm . 7.aythami. and co ered them with a cloak. 1. he would ha e :uoted some traditions about them in this section# It is interesting to see that Aisha.7>@) /. <.a'id al-2hudri 5# *adha'il al-.alama" !/B traditions" /4#Tafsir al-&urtubi. %% 11B-11/) 1.ar al-.alama !another wife of 9ro%het"./07 @# al-2hasa'is. 1.usain.Ahlul-Bayt.asan. al-. the 9ro%het gathered *atimah.aythami.alama /<#Tafsir Ibn 2athir. /. by al-. as Ibn . %/55 !by se eral transmitters" #### and more #### The fact that the gender in later %art of Jerse 11:11 is switched from feminine to masculine.asan and al-. 7. and al-. and she herself is testifying that Ahlul. %77B# Ayat al-Eilaya: . *atimah. and he also co ered Ali who was behind him# Then the 9ro%het said: "O' Allah8 These are the Members of my .alama. by al-. by Ahmad Ibn . the wife of the 9ro%het !s" is the narrator of the abo e tradition.alama />#Tafsir al-2ashshaf.alama# 3%on that.ority of . 5. the son of 3mm . which is as follows: The erse "Jerily Allah intends to ### !11:11"" was re ealed to the 9ro%het !s" in the house of 3mm .akim.a. %% 4. and al-. sec# /.aythami indicated: Based on the o%inion of the ma. by al-2hateeb Baghdadi.ahih al-Tirmidhi. %7<7) 4. by al-. %art 7.alama. 7. %% 5.anbal. %% 117-115 !se en traditions" 7/#?hakha'ir al-3:ba.Bayt are the abo e-mentioned indi iduals !i#e#. /B. by al-Bukhari !the author of .ahih al-Tirmidhi. Imam Ali.ouse !Ahlul-Bayt"# 2ee% them away from e ery im%urity and %urify them with a %erfect %urification#" 3mm .a'id 2hudri 77#Ma. al-.ma' al-Fawa'id. %0> narrated from Ibn Abi . Tradition O>0@ 0# al-Mustadrak. %% /45-/4@ !fi e traditions". by Muhibb al-Tabari. because of the usage of masculine gender in the word "Ankum" and after that# (eference: al-. <. %4/5 !two traditions" from Ibn Abi .a.551 Another ersion of the "Tradition of Hloak" is written in . has led the ma.a'id al-2hudri". by *akhr al-(a+i. narrated from Ibn Abi . al-.ahih". /.alama /0#. %4@< !Hom%lete ersion" from Aisha and 3mar Ibn Abi .usain. al-. %<0@. %0BB !Istanbul".asan. %/B0 from Abu .alama /5#3sdul Khabah. Hh# //. %%7/-75.usain.awa'i: al-Muhri:ah. and al-. %% />@. %/>1 narrated from Aisha 7B#Mushkil al-Athar.5B< from Aisha and 3mm . *atimah. 7.alama /@#Tarikh. by an-Aisa'i. %% <-@ !from Aisha and Abu .@ !from Ibn Abi . Hh# //.ahaba.asan. %4/5 <# Musnad Ahmad Ibn . by al-. narrated from Aisha and 3mm . /. %5> //#Tafsir al-2abir.@ ># al-.alama /1#Tafsir Ibn =arir al-Tabari.uyuti.akim. 77.unan.ority of commentators.anbal. >. %% 1</.alama !the wife of 9ro%het" asked: "Am I also included among them O A%ostle of AllahC" the 9ro%het re%lied: "Dou remain in your %osition and you are toward a good ending#" 4# al-Mustadrak. section /. by Ibn al-Athir. %77/ from 3mm . %% 171. by al-Famakhshari. which is narrated in the authority of 3mar Ibn Abi .

Tradition O<>>/ /1#al-Awsat.I2( if Dou do not know" &/5:71 and &7/:0 This noble erse instructs the Muslims to refer to the %eo%le who know and their knowledge is dee%ly rooted and they know the inter%retation of the &ur'an# This erse was re ealed to introduce the ahl al-bayt# They are Muhammad. %# <0B# 1# Tafsir of al-Tabari in olume /4. by Allama &ush. light of those in darkness. *atima.ere are some references: /# Tafsir al-2abir.unni scholars ha e also mentioned the unanimity or consensus of o%inion in their books# . I shall say that though this erse is about Ali.7@@-7@> 1# Tafsir =amiul . <.anbal. %7/> 4# Tafsir al-2ha+in. "the %eo%le who know". %# /B># .indi. true and re%eatedly narrated by the muslims# (eferences: /# Al-Imam al-Tha'labi in his Tafsir al-2abir on the meaning of cha%ter /5 !al-Aahl"# 7# Tafsir al-&ur'an of Ibn 2athir in the 7nd olume. /. and readily do the needful without waiting till the com%letion of e en so im%ortant a duty as saying a %rayer# Ayat Ahl Al-?hikr: "####then. al-=assas.ukam al-&uran.54> 0# Asbab al-Au+ool. al-.uyuti. 5. in order to e$%ress his honor and eminence#" And masters of the Arabic language use the %lural form for an indi idual to show res%ect# Allama al-Famakshari in his Tafsir al-2ashshaf. %% /@5. by Tabarani.i /B#Ahkam al-&uran. %54>. 7. by al-Eahidi. /. 7. by Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Tha'labi.G AG-?. Igy%t /101.unni commentators of the &uran confirm the fact that the abo e erse descended on the honor of Imam Ali and many . has mentioned another nice %oint which is as follows: If you in:uire how this %lural word is a%%licable to Ali. by Ibn =arir al-Tabari. by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad &urtubi.harh al-T. "those dee%ly embedded in knowledge. who is an indi idual. Hommander of the faithful. on the authority of Ibn Abbas Allama al-Tabarsi. 5. by al-."Hertainly your Master is Allah and . 'Ali. by al-Famakhshari.is Messenger and those who belie e who eshtablish %rayer and gi e charity while they bow# And who e er takes Allah and .ma' al-Bayan states: "The %lural form has been used for Ali. %% 7>1-7>4 5# Tafsir al-2ashshaf. /.asan and al-. Ask A. by =alaluddin al-. %1>/.is Messenger and those who belie e as a guardian. %1@ /7#2an+ul 3mmal. so surely the %arty of Allah will be ictorious#" !&uran <:<<-<5" It is unanimous that the erse descended about Imam Ali when he ga e away in charity his ring while he was in a state of kneeling in his %rayer# Many . the %lural form is used in order to %resuade others to act similarly and to gi e alms as readily as Ali did# There is also an im%lied instruction that the faithful should kee% themsel es always on the look out for occasions of acts of sym%athy. %01 @# Asbab al-Au+ool. Igy%t /1@7. while commenting on this erse in Ma. 7. %% <B<. may Allah be gracious to him. narrated from Ammar Dasir /4#Ibn Mardawayh. %5@ <# Tafsir al-?urr al-Manthoor. an indi idual. on the authority of Ibn Abbas ># . and those ha e the knowledge of the book"# These narrations are well established.uyuti. bene olence and charity to the %oor and the needy." designated on many occasions and he called them the Imams of guidance. by al-Mutta:i al-. %% <47-<41 //#Musnad Ahmad Ibn . under Jerse <:<< 7# Tafsir al-2abir.rid.usayn# whom the 9ro%het of Kod !. 5.

irin# The .rah# In that year a delegation consisting of /4 Hhristian . the com%anions asked: "O' the Messenger of Allah8 Eho are those near kin whose lo e Allah has made obligatory for usC" 3%on that the 9ro%het !s" said: "Ali. 47:71" Ehen asked who his near relati es were.usein# Thus the lo e of the Ahlul Bayt !A" is the way a Muslim shows his gratitude to the .anafi. *atimah !A" and their two sons. by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari. Most Krateful#" !&uran.atam. %# 4@7 Danabi' al-Mawadda of al-&undu+i al-. *atimah.e !s" re%eated this sentence thrice# (eferences: /# Tafsir al-2abir.irin !migrants from Makka"# Once. %# 114# Tafsir al-Tustari called Ih:a: al-. under erse 47:71 4# Tafsir al-&urtubi. %/17 /1#Many others such as Ibn Abi . %7< /B#Musnad Ahmad Ibn . olume /. in olume 1. which took %lace in the >th year of . the Ansar argued that they were su%erior to the Muha.unni commentators of the . Hh# //.asan and .ar . If you lo e Allah. or in oking the curse of Allah u%on the liar". 1:1/" It has been widely re%orted by the . I do not ask any recom%ense for it !my work as a messenger".awa'i: al-Muhri:ah.4# <# 5# 0# @# Tafsir al-Alusi called (uh al-Ma'ani in olume /4. by al-Famakhshari. etc# Ayat al-Mubahala: The incident of "Mubahala" !which means im%recation. in connection with erse 47:71 ># ?hakha'ir al-3:ba. by Ibn =arir al-Tabari. Ee !AllPh" increase for him good therein# Jerily. al-. and their two sons#" . under the commentary of erse 47:71 of &uran 0# Tafsir al-2albi. under commentary of erse 47:71 5# Tafsir al-Baidhawi. by *akhr al-?in al-(a+i." for his teachings# To obey him is to obey Allah as the . the . al-Tabarani.ay !O Muhammad". .i.a. Allah will lo e you and forgi e you your sins# Jerily. Allah is Most *orgi ing. 9art 70.e reminded them that his %resence amongst them was a great blessing for them# The AnsPr were ashamed at their conduct.hawahid al-Tan+il.akim.anafi. %# 707# Tafsir al-.oly &ur'an says: ". Merciful# !&uran. under commentary of erse 47:71 of &uran <# Tafsir al-2ashshaf.hawahid al-Tan+eel. "O 9ro%het of AllPh.asakani. and said. //#al-. under the commentary of erse 47:71 of &uran 1# Tafsir al-Tabari.oly 9ro%het !.oly 9ro%het !. Allah is *orgi ing." re%lied that they were -Ali !A". then follow me.a::. %# </ and %# /4B# Ayat al-Mawaddah: The Muslims in Madina com%rised of the Ansar !original residents of Madina" and the Muha. 7. %% /5<-/55 7# Tafsir al-Tha'labi. called ." heard their words and addressed them with disa%%ro al of their %ride# .oly &uran that: Ibn Abbas narrated: Ehen the abo e erse !47:71" was re ealed. %7<> /7#. section /.aythami.oly 9ro%het !.akim . by Ibn . e$ce%t the lo e of my near relati es !Ahlul Bayt"# And whosoe er earns good. %# /14# Tafsir al-&urtubi in olume //.ay !O Muhammad". if you command us we will gi e you e erything we own !in re%ayment"#" At this time the following Ayat was re ealed: ".anbal. . under commentary of erse 47:71 of &uran @# al-Madarik.

by al-.is !faithful" ser ants#" It is held unanimious by the .%riests came from Aa. wrote: In the abo e erse !1:5/". the Hhristians were terrified and abstained from the %ro%osed malediction !Mubahala" and submitted to a treaty with the 9ro%het !s"# al-. and our women and your women.akim. al-Bukhari and Muslim# 4# ?hakha'ir al-3:ba. the 9ro%het came out of his house carrying al-.uyuti. the 9ro%het called Ali.haikhs.usain.asan and al-. %eace be u%on them all# Ehen the Hhristians saw the fi e %ure souls. 7:7B0 : "And among men there is one who selleth his self !soul" seeking the %leasure of Kod) and erily. 7. who said this tradition is authentic based on the criteria set by two . and al-.audi Arabia. %1@ Muslim and al-Tirmidhi both confirm the abo e incident. *atimah.cholars of the two Islamic schools.asan. al-.usain# Then the 9ro%het said: "O Gord8 These are my family members !Ahli"#" (eferences: /# . and behind her was Imam Ali. %5<4 1# al-Mustadrak. %/@0/.ahih al-Tirmidhi.afidh =alaluddin al-. according to what =abir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari !the great com%anion of the 9ro%het" said. 4. 1.a'd Ibn Abi Ea::as: ###And when the erse 1:5/ was re ealed. when the latter to the will of Kod had to migrate from Mecca to Medina# And it was on this ery occasion that the abo e erse was re ealed# (eferences: .ahih Muslim. and the word "our sel es" refer to the 9ro%het and Ali# Thus Ali is referred as "the self" of the 9ro%het !Aafs of the 9ro%het"# (eference: al-?urr al-Manthoor by al-.ran to meet the 9ro%het !s"# Ehen they met the 9ro%het they asked him what is his o%inion about =esus !%"# The Messenger of Allah !s" said: "Dou may take rest today and you will recei e the re%ly afterwards#" The ne$t day. />@B Idition 9ub# in . Kod is affectionate unto . %7< &uran. Hha%ter of irtues of com%anions. the word "sons" refers to al-. by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari. %/<B.usain in his arm with al-. the word "women" refers to *atimah. and how determined the 9ro%het is in his idea that he %ut the closest %eo%le to him at risk. that this erse was re aled for Imam Ali. The 9ro%het recited the last re ealed erse: But whoe er dis%utes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge. section of irtues of Ali. then say: Home let us call our sons and your sons. when he readily sle%t in the bed of the 9ro%het !s". the 9ro%het !s" challenged the Hhristians# The ne$t day the Hhristian %riests came out on one side of the field# Also on the other side. and our sel es and your sel es) then let us be earnest in %rayer and in oke the curse of Allah u%on the liars# !&uran 1:5/"# In this way.asan walking along with him while he was holding his hand# Behind him was *atimah al-Fahra. <. Arabic ersion. and recorded the following tradition in their authentic collections of traditions: Aarrated . the end of tradition O17# 7# . 1 erses of &uran !1:<>-5/" about =esus were re ealed# Ehen Hhristians did not acce%t the words of Allah.uyuti who was a great scholar.

habah al ?in in (ishfaht al .anbal.e granteth wisdom to whomsoe er . and the remaining has been di ided among the rest of the %eo%le# 1# 2an+ al-3mmal.hafi'i is re%orted by Abu Bakr ibn .akim al Mustadrak.agheer. 4 % 7< Tafseer Aisha%oori ! Allama Aisha%ori " . / % 41 &uran. by *akhr ad ?in al (a+i. that this erse was re ealed for Imam Ali# (eferences: /# . / % 7@/ 2ifyatul Talib. 7 % /@> ! for the abo e narrt " . that is their Go e As .askani".e willeth./# 7# 1# 4# <# 5# 0# @# Tafsir al 2abir.e commanded us to hold fast to the (o%e8 .old fast to the (o%e of Allah ### 7# . / %ages /4B and /@< ># Ma:tal . % @5 &uran. 5 % /<4 4# Asadul-Bilagha.oly 9ro%het !s" Eisdom has been di ided into /B !ten" %arts.adi: say: Ee are the (o%e of Allah about whom Allah has said: . and > !nine" of these are %ossessed by Ali. 4 % 77 and / % 77 <# 2itabul . / % /B5 7# al-Bidahiya wa al-Aihayiah. 0 % 1<> with a tradition from the . 1 % 4 Tafseer e &urtubi.adi to ha e said: Ehen I saw 9eo%le carried off Their de%arture to the sea of error and ignorance In the name of Allah I boarded the shi% of . the .unni scholars and commentators agree that the abo e erse reflects on the Ahlul-Bayt: /# Thalabi records on his Hommentary Tafsir al 2abir from Aban ibn Tabligh that he heard Imam =afar al-.hawahid al-Tan+eel !Allama . % /< 5# Mana:ib 2hawari+mi. % @@ Aoor ul-Absar. % 4> 0# ?hakhair al 3:ba. 7:75> : ". % //4 ?hakhiar al-3:ba. 1:/B1: "And hold ye fast by the (o%e of Kod All together and be not di ided ! among yoursel es " ###"# .ome .ahaba. and he who ha e been granted wisdom hath been gi en abundant good) and none shall mind it sa e those endowed with wisdom#" In the abo e erse the word "Eisdom" im%lies the best knowledge seeking to act with fullness and soundness of one's own conscience# True knowledge is s%iritual illumination or di ine guidance worked through the grace of Kod as and when the necessity occurs# This being the acti e result of the constant seeking for it by those who obtained nearness to the Allmighty8 It is held by many . 1 % 140 Asadul Khaiba fe Marifatil As .al ation That is the Ahl al Bayt of Mustafa.unni scholars.eal of 9ro%hecy And I caught hold of the (o%e of Allah. % 0@ @# Musnad of Ahmed .ussain.

.ahih Jersions of the .ahih Muslim.akim al-Aaysaburi. 2itab fada'il al-.adith al-Tha:alayn . al-Mustadrak -ala al-.ome .adith /# .ahabah MMaktabat wa Matba-at Muhammad -Ali . %art 0.ubayh wa Awladuhu: HairoN %%# /77-/71# 7# al-Imam al-.afi+ Abu -Abd Allah al.ahihayn .

%%# /B>-//B .ahihayn M?ar al-Ma-rifah li al-Tiba-ah wa al-Aashr: BeirutN. ol# iii.afi+ Abu -Abd Allah al-.1# al-Imam al-.akim al-Aaysaburi. al-Mustadrak -ala al-.

al-Mustadrak -ala al-.unan al-kubra. 557.ahihayn <# Al-Tirmidhi in his .akim al-Aaysaburi. >5. Ao# 0>.afi+ Abu -Abd Allah al-. records the following tradition in the cha%ter "2hasa'is -Ali": . no# 10@5" records the following tradition 5# Al-Aasa'i in his al-.4# al-Imam al-.unan ! .

14 records the following narration: @# Ibn Abi . no# /15.imt al-nu. al-Muharrar al-wa.0# Ibn -Atiyyah in the introduction of his tafsir. <B7.um al-'awali. i. has narrated the following tradition: . as cited by Al--Isami in .i+. ii.haybah.

oly 9ro%het. .urist's ca%acity. al-. *atimah. on the other hand.ouse of the 9ro%het !s"# The fact that we !.hia e$isted when Ash'ari and all the four .unni Imams were unborn and unheard of# 3% to the first three generations since the .hia. we might ha e inclined towards the creed of the ma. the Messenger of Allah !s"# Ee ha e. and died in /5> A.ere# Ehy . and the leaders towards the straight %ath# But alas.oly 9ro%het left among us as the two most weighty things !al-Tha:alain"# There ha e been some e$tremists sects !al-Khulat" which a%%eared e ery now and then in course of the history of Islam) nonetheless.oly 9ro%het's time. follow the %ath of Ahlul-Bayt which include Imam Ali. and differs from the four schools of .anbal was born in /54 A. Ash'ari and the .ust men# But you are fully aware that . the main body of the . wholly and solely bound oursel es to them in our obser ances as well as our beliefs) in the deri ations of our knowledge of the &uran and the . is not due to any sectarianism or %re.) Abu .unnah# .urists is the best# It is im%ossible to follow all of them.hafi'i was born in /<B A.anifa was born in @B A. rites. %olitics began to %lay its %art in the affairs of religion and you know what took %lace in the heart of Islam as a result# ?uring all these %eriods of trials.udice# It is rather the theological reasoning which has led us to ado%t the creed of those Imams who belong to the Ahlul-Bayt of the . through whom we can attain %rotection against disagreement in religious matters) for they are the emblems of guidance.al ation.unnah of the 9ro%het) and in all our material.urists and honest and . the %ure and holy descendants of the 9ro%het !s". the Malikis and the . the .hia iews about the s%ecial im%ortance and the leadershi% of Ahlul-Bayt do not come out of the blue# In this way.ustice and greatness are not mono%oly of these four %ersons only# Then. the .anafis.# The .oly 9ro%het !s". and died in 17B A. the Ark of .urists as far as the laws.) Ibn . and died in 74/ A.asan and al-.hia" ha e ado%ted a creed which differs from that of the Ash'arites as far as the fundamental beliefs are concerned. after the demise of the . honesty. but we ha e found no answer to this. I ho%e to contribute to better understanding among Muslims and hence hel% to reduce some %eo%le's hostility against the followers of the Members of the . moral and s%iritual alues on the grounds of theological and logical %roofs# Ee ha e done this in obedience of the . and died in /<B A.hia continued to hold fast to &uran and the Imams of Ahlul-Bayt whom the .ority of the Muslims are unable to %roduce any argument to show which of their four different .hia ha e ne er de iated from this %ath since the time of Imam Ali and *atimah !%eace be u%on them" u% to the %resent day# The . before one can say that it is "com%ulsory" to follow them.usain !%eace be u%on .oly 9ro%het and in submission to his .) . and to seek to draw near to Allah only through them.) Malik was born in >< A.adith al-Tha:alayn Hlick .hafi'is. one has to %ro e which one must be followed# Ee ha e %ondered o er the arguments of the .chool of Ahlul-BaytC The %ur%ose of this article is merely to demonstrate that . how can it be "com%ulsory" to follow them onlyC Ee do not think that anyone can hold that these four Imams are in any way better than our Imams.anbalis with the eyes of a seeker of truth and we ha e searched far and wide. therefore.*or More ?etails About . and therefor. and died in 7B4 A. the Kate of (e%entance.unni . e$ce%t they were all acclaimed as ery great .unni Imams were unknown# Ash'ari was born in 70B A.ority for the sake of unity and fraternity# But incontro ertible reasons command a belie er to follow the truth regardless of all other considerations# The ma.ad we not been con inced by these %roofs to disallow all Imams e$ce%t the Ahlul-Bayt. and obser ances are concerned.

adi:# The Abbasid Hali%h.anifa %re%ared forty difficult :uestions and asked Imam =a'far about them in al-Mansoor's %resence# The Imam not only answered all the :uestions but also informed about the o%inions of the Ira:i as well as the . fasting.haikh Muhammad Abu Fahrah who was one of the outstanding .a+i .anifa commented on this e%isode saying: "Hertainly. i#e#.i.unni Imams.them all" who were all contem%oraries of the .anifa also was his student in s%ite of their being close in age. Abu .adi:".adi:"." referring to the two years he had benefited from the knowledge of Imam =a'far al-.e was a distinguished worshi%%er who was unconcerned with the material world# .haikh Muhammad Abu Fahrah in his book "al-Imam al-.haikh Muhammad Abu Fahrah in his book "al-Imam al-.unni Imams who li ed during his time were his students# Malik was one of them and those who were as contem%orary as Malik such as . %55 .adi: sitting with him" by saying: "Ehen I saw Imam =a'far.unni contem%orary .anifa to %re%are for Imam =a'far al-.cholars# Abu . and he considered Imam =a'far the most knowledgeable in the Muslim Eorld#" (eference: • .cholars of arious Islamic .anifa described his feelings !when he entered the %alace of al-Mansoor and found Imam =a'far al-.adi:". %55 .unni Imam" said: "I used to come to =a'far Ibn Muhammad and went to him for a long time# Ehene er I isited him.haikh Muhammad Abu Fahrah in his book "al-Imam al-. and Imam =a'far was a %ri ate citi+en#" (eference: • . and Malik Ibn Anas# Abu . %70 Abu .adi:# Malik also confessed straightforwardly that he had not met anyone learned in Islamic =uris%rudence better than Imam =a'far al-.chools ne er agreed unanimously on a matter as much as they agree on the knowledge of Imam =a'far and his irtue# The . it is sufficient to say that Imam =a'far al-. I felt his %ersonality commands more res%ect than that of the Hali%h himself# Det the Hali%h was ruling the Muslim Eorld. al-Mansoor.anifa said: "I$ce%t for the two years Au'man would ha e star ed. I found him %raying. or reading the &uran# Ehene er he re%orted a statement of the Messenger of Kod.adi:".adi: a number of hard :uestions concerning the Islamic Gaw and to ask the Imam those :uestions in the %resence of al-Mansoor# Abu . the most knowledgeable among %eo%le is the most knowledgeable of their different o%inions#" (eference: • . commanded Abu .cholars said: "The Muslim .oly 9ro%het !s" and raised in his .ouse# As far as the knowledge of the Imams of Ahlul-Bayt is concerned.adi: was the teacher of the two .haikh Muhammad Abu Fahrah in his book "al-Imam al-. he was with ablution# .ufyan al-Thouri and many others# Abu .e was of the Kod fearing %eo%le#" (eference: • . %70 Malik !the other .anifa al-Au'man .

by al-Mutta:i al-.hia school of thought is deri ed from the Ahlul-Bayt of the 9ro%het !s" whose su%reme knowledge and %urity are confirmed in &uran# These .unni scholars ha e acknowledged the . disagreement between the arious schools of .aban al-. which my lord has %romised me. for the face is only guided by the eyes#" (eferences: • • Is'af al-(aghibeen. the head of al-A+har 3ni ersity !in /><B's and 5B's"# Moreo er. %/<<. the e er lasting hea en should acknowledge Ali as his %atron after me.haikh Mahmood .hia and the .oly &uran. by Ibn .unni scholars ha e e en issued *atwa that the .haltoot.unnis are allowed to follow the Twel er . by .oly 9ro%het to follow them and no one else# =ust as it is im%ossible for any Muslims to turn away from the . because they are the %eo%le who will ne er lea e you outside the door of guidance nor will they let you enter the door of misguidance#" (eferences: • • 2an+ al-3mmal.hi'ite =uris%rudence# Among these grand scholars are .ince based on the tradition of Two Eeighty things Ahlul-Bayt carry as much weight in the eyes of Allah as the . by more than one authority Also:The Messenger of Allah said: "My Ahlul-Bayt are the %rotected %lace of refuge about the dis%ute in religion#" !Mustadrak . so are Ahlul-Bayt %erfect and sincere guides whose commands must be followed by all# Therefore there can be no e$cuse to esca%e from acce%ting their leadershi% and following their creed and their faith# The Muslims are bound by these sayings of the .oly &uran. and .awa'i: al-Muhri:ah. %1/.haikh Dusuf al-Aabahani.ust as it is incumbent u%on e ery Muslims to obey its commandments. %/15 The Messenger of Allah said: "Ehosoe er wishes to li e and die like me and enter that hea en !after death". the former ha e the same :ualities as the latter# =ust as the &uran is true from beginning to end without any shadow of doubt. and after him he should acknowledge the sons of Ali. or the eyes to the face.anbal <. Tradition O7<0@ Also abridged 2an+ al-3mmal on the margin of Musnad of Ahmad Ibn .oly &uran or to ado%t any set of rules which is at ariance with it.akim" . 5. the same attitude has to be ado%ted with regard to their orders.ar holds that: "These words show that those members of the Ahlul-Bayt who %osed these distinctions were su%erior to all the %eo%le#" (eference: al-.unni thought is by no means less than the lack of conformity between the .haraf al-Mua'abbad. and it cannot be %ermissible to turn away from them in order to follow any other %ersons# After mentioning the tradition of Two Eeighty Things. namely.ar. %17 Again the significance of leadershi% of Ahlul-Bayt has been confirmed by the following beautiful analogy of the messenger of Allah: The Messenger of Allah said: "(egard the Ahlul-Bayt among you as the head to the body.The ties of unity and fraternity can be strengthened and disagreement ended if all Muslims agree that to follow the Ahlul-Bayt is a must# In fact many grand .hia school as one of the richest Islamic schools for they ery reason that the knowledge of the .unnis# A large number of writings of scholars of both sides will bear this out# .indi. so when the Ahlul-Bayt ha e been une:ui ocally described as e:ual in weight and im%ortance to the .a.a. Ibn . by al-.

7. your lo e is a ?i ine duty on mankind# Kod re ealed it in . in connection with the erse 11:11 of &uran# • Brother6. by &adhi 'Ayadh. and I am sure that in your %rayers also.a.is Messenger# O Gord. 70. by Ibn . %4B Danabi al-Mawaddah.hakir 11:11N And stay in your houses and do not dis%lay your finery like the dis%laying of the ignorance of yore) and kee% u% %rayer. by al-. %10B Abdullah Ibn .ouse of the 9ro%het.ister in our %rayers.ouse of the 9ro%het is (afdh !re. "Des of course#" Then he said: "I shall hold you answerable for two things.hafi'i are too well known among the Arabic s%eaking %eo%le to re:uire any reference# But for the benefit of those who insist on reference see: • Tafsir al-2abir.adith Al 2isa" M. and obey Allah and . send Dour blessings u%on Muhammad and his family" The I ent of The Blanket !. by Allamah al-Aabahani Therefore the reason we ha e ado%ted the faith of the Ahlul-Bayt to the e$clusion of all others is that Allah himself has gi en %reference to them only# It is sufficient to :uote the %oem of al-.uyuti Arba'in al-'Arbain. %/55.hafi'i !one of the . al-&undoo+i al-. under the commentary of erse 47:71 of &uran# al-.awa'i: al-Muhri:ah. and lo e for them is a %ass%ort for crossing the bridge of the . his %rayer is oid# If the lo e of the members of the .iraat. and obedience to them is a %rotection from di ine wrath#" (eferences: • • 2itab al-. the Book of Allah and my descendants#" (eference: • • Ihyaa al-Mayyit. section 5<.anafi.These traditions. %@@.antab related: The Messenger of Allah addressed us at =uhfa saying: "?o I not ha e authority o er you more than yoursel esC" They all said.afidh =alaluddin al-.ector"# The abo e %oem of . by *akhr al-?in al-(a+i.hafa. we say: "I declare that Muhammad is the ser ant of Kod and .is Messenger# .ection". namely.unni Imams" about Ahlul-Bayt which goes as follows: Members of the . lea e no room for any doubt# There can be no other way e$ce%t to follow the Ahlul-Bayt and gi e u% all o%%osition to them# The Messenger of Allah said: "Acknowledgment of Aale-Muhammad !the family of Muhammad" means sal ation from the fire. %ublished in /17@ A. and %ay the %oor-rate. therefore.ar..is &uran# It is enough among your great %ri ileges that whoe er does not bless you. let mankind and the =inns testify that I am a (afidhi !re.

".akim Aaysha%uri !4B< .aghir" !?ehli: /1// .ere lies the scandal) here lies the scandal) here lies the scandal." %age 4# !<" Ibn =arir Tabari !1/B .Allah only desires to kee% away the uncleanness from you. where the horn of .ahih Tirmidhi" !.oly 9ro%het said: "O Ali.am Al .ahih Muslim.haytan would be rising#" In the words of . %ages /45.oly 9ro%het %ointed towards A-isha's house and said: ".yderabad ?eccan: /145 . ol# 7.ouse8 and to %urify you a !thorough" %urifying# M9ooya6Ali Hommentary 11:11N Obedience to Allah's law sums u% all duties# (egular %rayer !seeking nearness to Allah" and regular charity !doing good to fellow-creatures" are mentioned as s%ecially symbolical of the religion of Allah.". ol# 7." "2hasa-is" !Igy%t: /14@ .adith al 2isa"# The "e ent of the blanket" has been written by the following authors whom the Muslim 3mmah acclaim with one oice# !/" Ahmad bin Muhammad bin .a.ere is the head of infidelity where the horn of ." "Musnad" !Igy%t: /1/ .B#<B7# "Jerily Allah intends to kee% off from you uncleanness. that while deli ering an address from the %ul%it.". %# /7<. O you Ahl ul Bayt and %urify you with a thorough %urification" is a se%arate erse re ealed on a %articular occasion but %laced here# 9lease refer to A:a Mahdi 9uya's note in the commentary of erses 7@ to 17# The time.." "Al Mustadrak" !." %ages 7<>." ." "Al Mu-." ol#77. you are to me as ." "Al Isti-ab" !." "Tafsir Tabari" !=ama ul Bayan fi Tafsir il &uran" !Igy%t: /11/ .ulayman bin Ahmad Al Tibrani !15B ." ol# /1 %ages 7BB. 7@<. %age <# !5" .ahih Muslim" !Igy%t: /14>" ol# 4.haytan will rise#" (efer to . 7>7# !7" Muslim bin . the .yderabad ?eccan: /114 .ahih. 0<# !0" . /40. O %eo%le of the .a. /4@# !@" Dusuf bin Abdullah ibni Abdul Birr !451 .ahih Muslim: "The 9ro%het came out of the house of A-isha and remarked: ".hu-ayb Aisa-i !1B1 . Islam# The first command in this erse "stay in your houses" was iolated by A-isha when she went to Ira: to organise a mischie ous cam%aign against Ali about whom the .anbal !74/ . Aaysha%uri !75/ .harah ibnul Arabi" !Igy%t: /1<7 .arun was to Musa# Dou are my brother in this world and the hereafter# Dour flesh is my flesh. 74@# !4" Ahmed ibn . . %age 14. your blood is my blood# Dou and me are from one and the same light#" In his sermon at Khadir 2hum !see commentary of Ma-idah: 50" he in oked Allah to be a friend of those who lo ed Ali and be an enemy of those who o%%osed Ali# Bukhari has recorded in the cha%ter "Ehat ha%%ened in the houses of the 9ro%het's wi es" in the book "=ihad and Tra el" of his ." ". occasion and %eo%le concerned in connection with the re elation of the abo e noted erse ha e been discussed and made known in many authentic books of the Muslim scholars# The one and only reference a ailable to the commentators is the e ent of the blanket !. %age //5# !1" Abi Isa Muhammad Tirmidhi !70< or 70> .

oly 9ro%het and his wi es were %olytheists before embracing Islam# Only the . and decisi ely %ro ed by the condemnation of the wi es of Auh and Gut# Innama im%lies the determined decision or will of Allah# Although the decision of a created being may not take effect at all. *atimah.o two wi es of the .akim and Tibrani ha e related from 3mmi . while those who sought shelter elsewhere were drowned# (efer to Tafsir A+i+i by . therefore they alone could be throughly %urified# Aqa Mahdi Puya says: .ol# 7. .oly 9ro%het taking Ali.asan and .usain under his mantle and heard him saying: 'O Allah. within whose :uarters the re elation came." %ages 755.oly 9ro%het cannot be included in the Ahl ul Bayt at all.ahih Muslim it is written that when Fayd bin Ar:am was asked whether the wi es of the .alima that when this erse was re ealed the .ome commentators re%ort this tradition through A-isha who says that this e ent took %lace in her house# .haykh al Islam writes that Aisha said: "Ayah al Tat-hir refers only to the . while going for fa." "Asbab ul Au+ul" !Igy%t: /1/< .usayn# Ao wife of his is included#" On %age 7@B of olume two of .asan and . but she was %olitely refused %ermission# The grou% is known e er since with the e%ithet "%an. because after the %ronouncement of di orce the wi es are re erted to their %arent) and.oly 9ro%het used to recite this erse at the door of *atimah's house# In erse 01 of .oly 9ro%het.oly 9ro%het was under a blanket or mantle along with Ali. .oly 9ro%het.e commands: "Be") it becomes# (efer to Ba:arah: //0) Aahl: 4B Maryolm: 1<) Da .oly 9ro%het with the ark of Auh wherein those who embarked were sa ed.e said: 'Ko away from here# Dou are not of my Ahlul Bayt#'" Abu ?awud and Malik relate from Anas that for si$ months after the re elation of this erse e ery morning.hura: 47 and Ali Imran : 5/ for further confirmation and %roofs# .oly 9ro%het to come under the blanket.harah Auwi of . so they could ne er be described as Ahl ul Bayt# Thalabi re%orts that when A-isha was asked as to why she iolated the command of Allah "to stay in your houses" by going to the battle of =amal against Ali. but the will of Allah takes immediate effect# There cannot be a slightest ga% of time or s%ace in the will of Allah taking effect# Ehen . sad:ah !charity" is %rohibited to be gi en to the Ahl ul Bayt#" Also %lease refer to the commentary of .ince the Ahl ul Bayt ha e been thoroughly %urified.ara is addressed as Ahli Bayt.usayn. his wife. the . *atimah. .uyuti# In Danabi al Mawaddat. not as the wife of Ibrahim but as the mother of %ro%het Is-ha:. . and he declared that his family consisted of only these %ersons# 3mmi .usayn were at that time free from the dirt of shirk. . %age 45B# Ali bin Ahmad Al Eahidi !45@ .tan %ak" or "the holy grou% of fi e"# These are the %ersons who were com%ared by the .asan and . %age @0. .in @1) Mumin: 5@ and &amar <B# It is not only the will of Allah but the declaration of its effect# . Ali.oly 9ro%het himself. *atimah.ud .oly 9ro%het ha e confirmed that they both were not gi en %ermission by the . these are my Ahl ul Bayt# 2ee% off im%urity from them#' I asked him: 'Am I not of your Ahl ul BaytC' . moreo er. *atima.oly 9ro%het are included in the Ahl ul Bayt. he said: "By Allah the wi es of the .alima. because the state of being a wife of a %ro%het gi es no %ri ilege to a woman as stated abo e and clearly indicated by the .r salat.hah Abdul A+i+ and Tafsir ?urr al Manthur by =alal al ?in al . 750# Tirmidhi.asan and . asked %ermission to be included in the grou% under the blanket. Ali. they remain thoroughly %urified for e er# The %rayer of Ibrahim in Ba:arah: /70 to /7> is %rayed to continue the e$cellence in themsel es and in their descendants mentioned in Ba:arah: /74# Ehen a :uality or attribute is described or mentioned in indefinite sense it refers to the %erfect %ossibility# The %urity in this erse is absolute %urity# 9olytheism !shirk" is described in the &uran as im%urity and also the greatest ini:uity !refer to Gu:man : /1"# (efer to the commentary of Ba:arah: /74 for the condition that imamah is not bestowed on those who ha e e er !e en once in their li es" worshi%%ed any ghayrallah# All the com%anions of the . she said: "It was my fate# I saw the . Ibn =arir Tabari.

may I . the messenger of Allah. mother#" "9eace be on you too.) (iv) The excellences of Ahl ul &ayt have !een openly demonstrated in the event of mu!ahilah (refer to the commentary of Ali Imran : )4).oin you under the blanketC" "9eace be on you.e obser ed# "True) your grandfather is under the blanket#" I confirmed# . my com%anion at the s%ring of 2awthar. The grammatical structure of the 'hole clause indicates that this a unique privilege or distinction granted to the Ahl ul &ayt only excluding all others. The e ent of re elation of this erse as re%orted by =abir bin Abdullah Ansari. O my father#" I %rayed# "*atimah8 9lease bring the Damani blanket and co er me with it#" . the beneficent. the merciful# It is re%orted by =abir bin Abdullah Ansari that *atimah Fahra said)One day my father.(i) Innama (verily or only) signifies exclusive distinction.haykh Abdullah bin Aurullah Al-Bahrayni and is re%roduced here:In the name of Allah./erily this is an honoura!le (0arim) 1uran in a hidden (preserved) !oo$ 'hich no one can touch save the purified.asan went near his grandfather !co ered with the blanket" and said: "9eace be on you. come in#" . To interpret the 'ill as the legislative 'ill as in Ma#idah: ) distorts the 'hole fa!ric of the verse and renders meaningless the exclusive particle and the constructional arrangement. my dearest darling" I answered# "I breathe the %ure aroma of the messenger of Allah. (v) The Ahl ul &ayt had only !een thoroughly purified !y Allah !ecause of their total su!mission to Allah5s 'ill and their state of !eing al'ays in communion 'ith Allah. walked in and said: "9eace be on you.asan. (iii) This verse is a preface to verses ++ to +. (ii)The ver! yuridu implies that the continuous 'ill or intention of Allah is (is creative 'ill or intention not legislative. the messenger of Allah. coming from you8" . To emphasise this exclusiveness the second o!"ect of the ver! yudh#hi!a ($eep off)#the phrase an$um (from you)#has !een put !efore the first o!"ect ri"s (uncleanness)% and for further emphasis the phrase Ahl ul &ayt has !een mentioned to explain the pronoun an$um (from you). of al -aqi#ah: . came into !my house". *ven then it means that only the Ahl ul &ayt exclusively achieved the standard. not a moment %assed before my son..e said# "May Allah kee% you safe from weakness.and said "*atimah8 9eace be on you#" "9eace be on you too#" I re%lied# "I am not feeling well#" . one of the most reliable com%anions of the . grandfather. (2efer to page 3. . my grandfather.oly 9ro%het has been mentioned in "Awalim al 3lum" by .o I brought the Damani blanket and co ered him with it# I turned my eyes u%on his face# It was shining bright like a full moon in its full glory and s%lendour# Then.e said# .e went inside the blanket# . my son.

and kee% off from them uncleanliness. the messenger of Allah.oin you both under the blanket C" "9eace be on you.asan. my son. mother#" "9eace be on you too. the messenger of Allah. may I .Then. I breathe the %ure aroma of my brother. but for the sake .asan# Amir al Muminin. before my son. and the sailing shi%. the flowing seas. the sa iour of my %eo%le. coming from you8" . O the daughter of the messenger of Allah8" "9eace be on you too. ery s%ecial to me. %rotection and fa ours on me and on them. benefits. . the le elled earth. under the blanketC" "9eace be on you) my daughter my darling. ste%%ed in and said: "9eace be on you. not a moment %assed. the rotating cosmic system. Amir al Muminin#" I answered# "*atimah. my father. come in#" Ali went inside the blanket# Then I went near the blanket and said: "9eace be on you.oin you !all". my near and dear ones. erily I ha e not created the indeclinable sky. the messenger of Allah. the messenger of Allah. held the two ends of the blanket and raised his right hand toward the hea en and said: "O Allah8 These are my Ahl ul Bayt.o send Thy blessings. my standard bearer.e obser ed# "True. come in#" I went inside the blanket# As soon as all of us united under the blanket.usayn went near the blanket !under which his grandfather was resting with his brother" and said: "9eace be on you grandfather. my grandfather. the choice of Allah. walked in and said: "9eace be on you. the son of my uncle. may I . Ali ibn abi Talib.oin you !all" under the blanketC" "9eace be on you.e obser ed # "True. coming from you8" .usayn.e went inside the blanket# In that instant Abul . come in#" . my own flesh and blood) whoso annoys them disturbs me) whoso makes them sad makes me unha%%y# I make war on those who carry on hostilities against them) I am well dis%osed towards those who make their %eace with them) I o%%ose those who run counter to them) I fa our those who lo e them# They are from me and I am from them# . he is under the blanket with your sons" I confirmed# Ali went near the blanket and said: "9eace be on you. the bright moon. your grandfather and your brother are under the blanket#" I confirmed# . the res%lendent sun. mercy. my father. the e$ecutor of my will. my successor. may I . my brother. Abul . and %urify them with a thorough %urification#" Thereu%on The Almighty and the Klorious Allah said: "O My angels and the dwellers of the hea ens. my dearest darling" I answered # "I breathe the %ure aroma of the messenger of Allah.

O Ahl ul Bayt. O the messenger of Allah# The .ighest . by the Gord of the 2a-bah. her father.oin !us"#" =ibrail came in and . on the earth.of and in the lo e of the fi e souls lying underneath the blanket#" The trusted =ibrail asked: "O Gord8 Eho are underneath the blanketC" The Almighty and the Klorious re%lied: "They are the 'Ahl ul Bayt' of the 9ro%het. so also our followers8" . and ha e been rendered successful. I ha e not created the indeclinable sky.is message.e told my father: "Jerily.igh says: "9eace be on you# And distinguishes you with greetings and blessings# . erily.o may I ha e your %ermission O the messenger of Allah#" The messenger of Allah re%lied: "9eace be on you. came down !on the earth". O the custodian of Allah's re elation. her husband and her sons#" =ibrail !submissi ely" asked: "O Gord8 May I descend on the earth and be the si$th with themC" "Des# I gi e you %ermission.oined us under the blanket# . and chose me as a redeemer to con ey . the rotating cosmic system.e said: 'Jerily Allah's wish is but to kee% off from you uncleanness. the le elled earth. and said: "9eace be on you. the flowing seas. and the sailing shi%. the custodians of the message) they are-*atimah. where this e ent is narrated shall s%end a single moment but the mercy of Allah will en elo% them. Allah has sent a re elation to you# .e who sent me as a truthful %ro%het. =ibrail. come in and . the res%lendent sun.e has also gi en me %ermission to be with you# .esty and glory. I declare that no assembly of our followers and de otees. we ha e attained our end. the bright moon.e tells you: 'In the name of My ma. tell us that which makes our assembly under this blanket an e ent of sur%assing e$cellence before Allah#" The 9ro%het re%lied: "In the name of ." said Allah# The trusted angel. but for your sake and in your lo e#' And . then and there) and countless angels of Allah shall %ray for the remission of their sins till the grou% of the faithful dis%erse#" Ali declared: "Eell then. and to %urify you !with" a thorough %urification#'" Ali asked my father: "O messenger of Allah.

has nominated them for that %ur%ose# Their knowledge is dee%ly rooted and they know the inter%retation of the &uran# .ee the translations of the . but Allah dis%erses his sorrows) nor would there be a needy. on the night %receding e ery *riday# In the name of Allah.oly 9ro%het said again: "O Ali8 In the name of . he was %urified from all disgraces# May Allah's choicest blessings and greetings also be u%on the illustrious and %urified ahlul-bayt. :uoted in the "e ent of the blanket". on the earth. he is the master of the foremost ones and the last ones. but Allah dis%els his worries) nor there would be a downcast. and found our ha%%iness) and likewise our followers ha e attained their end and found their ha%%iness in this world and in the hereafter. we ha e attained our end. because Allah. I declare that in any of the assemblies of our followers and de otees. who was sent as a mercy to the uni erse. recite the te$t of the tradition e ery day. there would not be a grief-stricken among them. ha ing taught them.The . but Allah meets his demands#" Then Ali obser ed: "In this case then. once in a week. among them. and chose me as a redeemer to con ey . where this e ent is narrated. the most Merciful All %raise is for Allah. the Gord of the uni erse# May the best of blessings and greetings be u%on our leader and master Muhammad.oly 9ro%het and the conclusi e declaration of Imam Ali ibn abi Talib.oly &uran# N Eho Are Ahl al-?hikr C This noble erse instructs the Muslims to refer to the %eo%le who know in all things which %er%le$ them so that they may discern the %ath to the truth. light of those in darkness and the Imams of the Muslims# Ask Ahl al-?hikr if Dou ?o Aot 2now "#### Ask ahl al-dhikr if you do not know"# !&uran /5:41" "#### Ask ahl al-dhikr if you do not know"# !&uran 7/:B0" The Meanings of Ahl al-dhikr: Those who know The %eo%le of al-dhikr !the Book" The followers of the (emembrance The followers of the (eminder M . among them.is message. in the name of the Gord of the 2a-bah#" In iew of the concluding discourse of the . it is but natural that the "followers and de otees of Muhammad and ali Muhammad". or at least. the standards of guidance. by Allah. the most Beneficent.e who sent me as a truthful 9ro%het.

econdly: Al-Bukhari has re%orted in his . %# </ and %# /4B# The a%%arent meaning of the erse suggests that the ahl al-dhikr refers to the %eo%le of the book.ahih in "The Book of Testimony" under the cha%ter "The ahl al-shirk !%olytheists" aren't to be asked". it is not %ossible for it !the &uran" to instruct the Muslims to refer to them on issues which they do not know about# .usain whom the . after the 9ro%het and u% to the coming of the hour of reckoning. %# 707# Tafsir al-. true and re%eatedly narrated !mutawatir" by the .unni scholars and commentators ha e also re%orted them. rather.hias since the time of the .ow come you ask the %eo%le of the scri%tures.akim. %# /51# The 9ro%het !s" said: '?o not belie e the %eo%le of the book and do not consider them as liars but say: 'Ee belie e in Kod and what was re ealed'# This means we should not to refer :uestions to them. %# <0B# Tafsir of al-Tabari in olume /4. in addition to them are nine Imams from the %rogeny of Imam . if we ask the Hhristians today they will claim that =esus is Kod whilst the =ews will consider them to be liars and will not acce%t him e en as a 9ro%het# Both of them belie Islam and the 9ro%het of Islam and they call him a liar and an antichrist# Bearing this in mind.unni scholars by way of e$am%le: /# 7# 1# 4# <# 5# 0# @# Tafsir al-2abir of al-Tha'labion in the meaning of cha%ter /5 !al-Aahl"# Tafsir al-&uran of Ibn 2athir in the 7nd olume. Klory be to . %# /B># Tafsir (uh al-Ma'ani of al-Alusi in olume /4. the aforementioned fi e are the %eo%le of the blanket.oly 9ro%het !s" and some .hawahid al-Tan+il. called . olume 1.usain# This occurred in the time of %ro%hecy. has bestowed the knowledge of the book"# These narrations are well established. although your book which was re ealed to .is 9ro%het has the most recent information from Allah and you recite it. we should abandon and ignore them because the command not to belie e them nor to consider them as liars would nullify the goal of :uestioning. Imam . it is incom%rehensible that Allah would command us to ask . since. a book which has not been distortedC Allah has re ealed to you that the %eo%le of the scri%tures ha e changed with their own hands what was re ealed to them and they ha e said: 'This is from Allah' in order to get some worldly benefit thereby"# Ibn 'Abbas added: "Isn't the knowledge re ealed to you sufficient to %re ent you from asking themC By Allah. I ha e ne er seen any one of them asking !Muslims" about what has been re ealed to you"# • *ourthly: Among the %eo%le of the book. Imam Ali. *atima.oly 9ro%het Muhammad !s". i#e# =ews and Hhristians# It therefore becomes necessary for us to make it clear that they are not the ones intended in the noble erse# • *irstly: Because the noble &uran has mentioned in a number of erses that they altered the word of Kod and they wrote the book with their hands.ahih in "The Book of 3nity" in the cha%ter: "I eryday . i#e#.This erse was re ealed to introduce the ahlul-bayt# They are The . in olume 1.oly 9ro%het !s" designated on many occasions and he called them the Imams of guidance and light of those in darkness and "the %eo%le who know"# .e is concerned with matters" olume @.asan and Imam . %# 114# Tafsir al-Tustari called Ih:a: al-.im. olume /. confirming that they were re ealed concerning the ahlul-bayt# I cite from these .anafi.a::. %# 7B@. awaiting the correct re%ly# • • Thirdly: Al-Bukhari has re%orted in his . claiming that it was from Kod so as to %urchase a small %rice# It also bore witness to their lies and turning the truth u%side down# Ki en this state of affairs.e also called them "those dee%ly embedded in knowledge and those to whom Allah. %# 4@7 Danabi' al-Mawadda of al-&undu+i al-. %# /14# Tafsir al-&urtubi in olume //. Ibn Abbas said: "O Muslims8 .

wished the %eo%le to submit to the selected ones amongst them. all of them from &uraish#" M5N "Twel e Hali%hs.im.EI(: IA *AHT. .if they obey Kod and . until it is %assed by twel e Hali%hs" ### "All of them will be from &uraish#" M7N "The affairs of %eo%le will continue to be conducted !well" as long as they are go erned by the twel e men#" M1N "Islam will continue to be trium%hant until there ha e been twel e Hali%hs#" M4N "The Islamic religion will continue until the . the answer is right inside the . to these Imams whom . al-Tirmidhi. .our !day of resurrection".unni collections of traditions which all recorded the following authentic traditions from the . the Most I$alted.is sla es so that %eo%le can refer to them on the commentary and inter%retation of the &uran# Therein lies their guidance . Klory be to .is wisdom.ihah ahadith books !like al-Bukhari. Muslim. ### etc#"# There are numerous . all of them will be from &uraish#" M<N "There shall be twel e Hali%hs for this community. and sublime is .hi'as and .is Messenger# As Allah. Klory be to . ha ing twel e Hali%hs for you. all of them from &uraysh#" M>N • • • • • • • . all of them from &uraysh#" M@N "This religion remains standing until there are twel e icegerents o er you.im.TIOA: Ehere did the twel e Imams come fromC Ehy should the number of Imams be twel e and twel e onlyC AA.unnis from authentic re%orts# It is understood from this that Allah.unan Abu ?awud.e chose them and taught them the knowledge of the book so that the leadershi% could be facilitated and the affairs of the %eo%le organi+ed due to that# If they were absent from the li es of the %eo%le. which does not neglect anything in it.oly 9ro%het Mohammad !s"# • • "There will be twel e commanders !Amir"" ### "All of them will be from &uraish#"M/N "The matter !life" will not end. !like" the number of the Hhiefs of Bani Israel#" M0N "There will be after me twel e Amir !9rince6(uler".them if we acce%t that the ahl al-dhikr from the a%%arent meaning of the erse refers to the %eo%le of the book amongst the =ews and Hhristians# This does not contradict the iew that it was re ealed for the household of the 9ro%het as is established amongst the . Musnad Ahmad. all of them agreeable to the nation. the o%%ortunity would be o%en for !false" claimants and ignorant ones# I eryone would then follow his ain desires and the matter would be confusing for the %eo%le since e eryone could claim to be the most learned# The Twel e Imams &3I.e has chosen among . bestowed the knowledge of the book.

this Tradition does not conform to any sect e$ce%t the . they clearly do not include them# And beyond these. Book @>. Mutta and Abu ?awud# • . and trium%hant against the enemies. 44@B.ulayman ibn Abrahim al-&adu+i al-. 440@. Aumber 17> .ahih Muslim: Book />.hia !Twel ers" sect because its e$%lanation is ery clear according to .earch the Ahadith of al-Bukhari.hi'ism where the .arun al-(ashid. Muslim. Aumber 4441 . 'The Tradition which mentions the rule of the cali%hs after the 9ro%het are twel e %eo%le is famous and it has been recorded in many %laces# That . but they did not end with the 3mayyids or the Abbascids and the number twel e does not conform to anything# In addition.ahih Bukhari: Jolume >.hia's Imams# The famous scholar.ome of the scholars ha e said that. till twel e Hali%hs will be among them) all of them from &uraysh# Then there will be discord and confusion#" M//N "There will be twel e u%right Imams for this nation# Those who try to disgrace them will not succeed) all of them shall be from the &uraysh#" M/7N "The affair of the %eo%le will continue as long as twel e men rule o er them#" M/7N "This religion will remain till twel e Imams from &uraysh !will %ass".unan Abu ?awud: Book 15.owe er. whose number is like those of the com%anions of Musa#" M/1N • • • • • • *or Inglish ersions a ailable on the internet: • • • • Translation of . the sur i al and life of religion are in the hands of a grou% of them until the ?ay of (esurrection and all are from the &uraysh# In some. the number twel e only can a%%ly to the . . Aumber 4755 The Meaning of this Tradition: In some Traditions.ashim# .• "Islam will continue to be trium%hant until there ha e been twel e Hali%hs" ### "All of them are from &uraysh#" M/BN "This nation will always remain straight in its affairs. Ahadith Aumber 4400. then when they e$%ire the earth will swallow its inhabitants#"M/7N "The affair of this nation will always be a%%arent till the twel e Imams will rise. all of them are mentioned as being of the Bani . 44@1 . %eo%le like Mansur ?awani:. the %ower of Islam is referred to as being a %awn in the twel e cali%hs and in others. 44@/. arrogance and crimes of whom no one can deny and it is not %ossible that they be considered to be the cali%hs of the 9ro%het and among the honor of Islam# Ao matter how much we sim%lify the criteria.ahih Muslim: • Book 7B. among the 3mayyid there are %eo%le like Da+id and among the Abbascids. all of them from the &uraysh#" M/7N "There will be Hali%hs after me.anafi said in his book Danabi'a alMuwaddah: ".unnis ulama are at an im%asse trying to e$%lain it# ?oes it refer to the first four cali%hs and then the 3mayyid and Abbascid cali%hsC Ehereas we know that the number of the first cali%hs were twel e. the o%%ression. .

ihah Books is to acce%t that it refers to the Twel e Imams from the 9ro%het's Ahlul-Bayt. "All twel e are from the Bani .unni scholars about the twel e Imams. the *ollowers of Ahlul-Bayt of the . he bore witness to what he said because some %eo%le were not ha%%y about the cali%hate of the Bani . other than Amr ibn Abdal A+i+ were o%%ressors and also.hia ha e AOT been able to find any fault in the irtues of the twel e Imams of . the most illustrious. the most knowledgeable. the names of the twel e Imams ha e clearly a%%eared and their names s%ecified8 Al-=uwayni M/<N re%orts that Abdullah ibn Abbas remarked that the Messenger of Allah !s" said: "I am the chief of the 9ro%hets and Ali ibn Abi Talib is the chief of successors. %ro es beyond doubt that the conce%t of "Twel e Imams" can AOT be a Twel er .hi'a concoction8 It is ama+ing that des%ite the acknowledgment of al-Bukhari and Muslim and other %rominent . what the 9ro%het of Allah was referring to was twel e successors from the ahl al-bayt and his family because it is not %ossible that this Tradition refer to the first cali%hs because they are only four %eo%le and it does not conform to the 3mayyids because they were more than twel e %eo%le and all of them.ashim and the Tradition does not conform to the Bani Abbas. the .ashim#" Ehen Abdal Malik ibn 3mar records from =abir ibn .ahrah and how the 9ro%het :uietly said who they were from. and after me my successors shall be twel e. "Ao reward do I ask of you e$ce%t the lo e of those near of kin###" !47:71" Thus.ashim and the .unnis.o successors should come right after the other without any ga%# Also as the 9ro%het !s" suggested in the abo e traditions.unnis always sto% at the four Hali%hs8 More interestingly. we know that by the abo e traditions the . the most Kod-fearing. either. whose %iety is un:uestioned and from all %oints of iew.oly 9ro%het said. are more knowledgeable and who gained their knowledge from the 9ro%het of Islam# That which confirms this iew is the Tradition of Tha:alayn and many other Traditions which ha e come from the 9ro%het# M/4N I would like to remind you that "Hali%h" means successor6de%uty# The successor of the 9ro%het !or the %receding Hali%h" should come immediately after the demise of the 9ro%het !or the %receding Hali%h"# If there is any ga% between the successors.oly 9ro%het !s" meant the twel e Imams from his Ahlul-Bayt who are the descendants of the 9ro%het since we ha e no other /7 %ure candidates in the history of Islam u%on whose righteousness all Muslims agree# It is interesting to know that e en the enemies of .which we can surmise is that. the most %ious.unni re%orts in which the Messenger of Allah named these twel e members of his Ahlul-Bayt one by one starting with Imam Ali !a" and ending with Imam al-Mahdi !a"# The Aame of The Twel e Imams It should be noted that in some of the Traditions which ha e reached us from the . the best in %ersonal irtues.oly 9ro%het !s" refer to these /7 Hali%hs as of their /7 Imams starting with Imam Ali !a" and ending with Imam al-Mahdi !a" the leader of our time# They are Hali%hs because Allah made them Hali%hs !They are ice-regents of Allah on the earth"# Eith the %assage of time and through historical e ents. flawlessness. they did not conform to the erse. and %urity is confirmed by the holy &uran !the last sentence of erse 11:11"# Also the abo e mentioned traditions of the 9ro%het !s" which are considered to be authentic by the . and the most honored before Allah) and their knowledge was deri ed from their ancestor !the 9ro%het" through their fathers# These are the Ahlul-Bayt whose sinlessness. after the %assing of time. because they were.unnis. because they were more than twel e %eo%le and beyond this. in their times.hia# Moreo er these twel e Imams came one after another without any ga%# It is now clear that the only way to inter%ret the %re iously mentioned traditions which are narrated in . the Tradition only can relate to the twel e Imams of the ahl al-bayt and the family of the 9ro%het# It refers to those whose knowledge is higher than that of any others. those twel e Hali%hs will co er till the day of resurrection# As you may know. there are . the word "successor" does not make any sense# . they were not from the Bani . the first of them being Ali ibn Abi Talib and the last of them being Al Mahdi#" Al-=uwayni has also mentioned another tradition from Ibn 'Abbas that he narrates from the Messenger of Allah !s": "Hertainly my Hali%hs and my legatees and the 9roofs of Allah u%on his .

the one who will fill the earth with .anbal. *ath al-Bari /5:11@# Al-.unan al-Tirmidhi !Arabic" Hha%ter of *itan. "After me.ar al-'As:alani. his child. ol /7# Al-.unni scholar. Muhammad# After Muhammad. / %1>@ and %4B5# Al-.ustice and tyranny# And by the One Eho has raised me as a warner and a gi e of good tidings. 1. Hha%ter ?HHGIJ !titled: The 9eo%le are subser ient to the &uraish and the Hali%hate is the (ight of the &uraish".asan and after .unan Abu ?awud !Arabic" 1:/B5.aythami. Arabic ersion. Inglish ersion.akim al-Aisaburi. his son 'Ali and after 'Ali. Tradition O44@B M<N Ibid %/B/B.asan and . "Ali ibn Abi Talib" Then they asked.ahih al-Bukhari >:17> !Arabic-Inglish ersion" M7N . %/BB>.ustice and e:uity like it would be brimming with in. Jol /B# =ami' al-. his son =a'far and after =a'far.aythami.unan Abu ?awud !Arabic" 1:/B5. . went to the 9ro%het !s" and among the :uestions he asked who woul d succeed him# The 9ro%het !s" said.oly 9ro%het !s" re%lied.usayn lea es this world.a. a famous . and after him. Musnad. "Al Mahdi. Aame them# The 9ro%het !s" said: "Ehen . nine Imams will follow from his children#" The =ewish man said.uyuti. %/4<7.awa'i: al-Muhri:a.ahihayn 1:/50# .usayn. who is your brotherC" .ahih Muslim.indi. his son Musa and after Musa.ahih Muslim. Ma. in his book Danabi'a al-Muwaddah said: "A =ewish man named Aa'thal.ustice# (eferences M/N. *ath al-Bari /5:11># Ali b# Abu Bakr al-. Al-. then he will make (uhullah 'Isa ibn Maryam to descend and %ray behind him !Mahdi"# And the earth will be illuminated by his radiance# And his %ower will reach to the east and the west#" Al=uwayni also narrates from his chain of narrators that the Messenger of Allah !s" informed: "I and Ali and . 1. Tradition O< . 2itab alMahdi# M/BN .e was asked: "O Messenger of Allah.ar al-'As:alani. Tarikh al-2hulafa. 2itab al-Imaarah.usayn and nine of the descendants of .audi Arabia.creatures after me are twel e# The first of them is my brother and the last of them is my !grand" son#" . 7:4< !India" and 4:<B/ Tradition O 777< !Igy%t" M>N . Tradition O440@ M4N Ibid %/B/B. Tradition O4400# M1N Ibid %/B/B.usayn and after . 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and then my two sons. "And who is your sonC" The . 'Ali. 2an+ al-'3mmal. 2itab al-Mahdi# . e en if a day remains for the life of this world.a.ma' al-Fawa'id <:/>B# Ibn . . 2itab al-Mahdi# Ibn . < %/B5: M0N Ahmad b# .usayn are the %urified ones and the infallible#" M/5N .aghir /:0<# Al-Mutta:i al-.akim al-Aisaburi. Mustadrak .ulayman al-&andu+i. his child Muhammad and after Muhammad. the Almighty Allah will %rolong this day to an e$tent till he sends my son Mahdi. 'Ali and after 'Ali.e said. his child Muhammad al-Mahdi# These are the twel e Imams#" M/0N Another Tradition M/@N is :uoted from 2itab Mana:ib with their titles and it indicates that Imam Mahdi is in occultation and then he will arise and re%lace the o%%ression and tyranny which e$ists u%on the earth with . 2itab al-Mahdi# .ar al-. 4:<B/ Al?hahabi.asan.asan and . Talkhis 4:<B/# Ibn . />@B Idition 9ub# in . his son.a. Tradition O44@1 M5N Musnad Ahmad Ibn . s%ecifying them. /1:70# M@N .haykh .unan Abu ?awud !Arabic" 7:47/.anbal.unan Abu ?awud !Arabic" 7:47/. Mustadrak al.

Ta'rikh.hawahid al-Tan+il. %g /5B# M/0N Danabi'a al-Muwaddah.M//N Muntakhab 2an+ al-'3mmal <:17/# Ibn 2athir.uffa+. and his function is to enforce the re ealed Gaw or .unnis. the successor of the 9ro%het must fulfill only one of these functions. an Imam is one of the twel e successors of the 9ro%het listed below# The s%ecific meaning gi en to the word "imam" in . so there could be no %ro%het after him# And there was no way the community could guarantee that his successors would %ossess s%iritual ision and illumination.e was also the ruler of the early Islamic community.uyuti.a. the Imam is the leader of the Islamic community. they could still be %ossessed by men"# But undoubtedly.awa'i: alMuhri:a Jol 7@# M/7N Al-Mutta:i al-. 2an+ al-'3mmal.unnism it may also be an honorific term. %# 50# M/5N Al-=uwayni.indi.indi. Ta'rikh. Tradition Ao# 575# M/4N Danabi'a al-Muwaddah. that . the earthly e$istence of Islam largely de%ended u%on this function being fulfilled.# Tabatabai# The word "imam" in Arabic means "leader"# In Islamic terminology it generally refers to any %erson who leads others in %rayer# According to the early . /1:70# Al-. Tarikh al-2hulafa. which means that he enforced the .ority of Muslims. gi en to certain im%ortant religious leaders.unni theologians. 2an+ al-'3mmal . these things are di inely bestowed !although unlike %ro%hecy.ar al-.unni and .hafi'i. es%ecially the %erson who %erforms this function on a regular basis in a mos:ue# But more s%ecifically. Al-. so it was u% to them to choose one# . for like %ro%hecy. the .hi'ism it has two im%ortant meanings# As in .unni schools of law# In Twel e-Imam .hari'ah# As such the term is e:ui alent to "cali%h"# In .imtayn.a. 2an+ al-'3mmal . ol# /. Jol /B# Al-Mutta:i al-. al-?urar al-kaminah. ol# 4. he should enforce the . such as Imam .hi'ite branches of Islam# The roots of this difference are to be found in the differing iews held by the com%anions of the 9ro%het concerning the nature of his successor or cali%h# The 9ro%het himself %erformed three basic functions: . /1:70 M/1N Ibn 2athir.unnism. %articularly at its beginning# *inally.adruddin Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin al-. %# 41/# M/@N Danabi'a al-Muwaddah./1:75# Ibn . %# 447# The Twel e Imams M/N Taken *rom A . the leader of others in %rayer is called an "imam".hafi'i was a great scholar of . %# 7>@.hi'ite Anthology By Allamah M# . the &uran. /:4<<. . the .aythami.unnis held that the 9ro%het had not a%%ointed a successor during his lifetime.e acted as the means whereby a celestial book. 5:74># Al-.askani. %# 445 M/<N Al-?hahabi says in Tadhkirat al-.hari'ah# In fact. *ara'id al-.ar al-'As:alani. and as such he could inter%ret the inner meaning of the (e elation and guide men u%on the ascending stages of the %ath of s%iritual %erfection# According to the ma. was re ealed by Kod to mankind# Thus he was the founder of a world religion# .hari'ah which Kod had re ealed through the &uran# *inally he was the %ossessor of s%iritual illumination and ision. founder of one of the four .amawayh al-=uwayni al-.indi.hari'ah# Muhammad !s" had been the last 9ro%het. 5:74@# Al-Mutta:i al-. i#e#.hi'ism can not be understood until one gras%s the basic difference between the .adith# Also see his biogra%hical note in Ibn . the 9ro%het's successor could act as a ruler and enforce the .

e was the son of the 9ro%het's %aternal uncle. .asan. at the age of ten# . 'Ali.But the minority grou%.hi'ite grou%s and the 3mayyad and Abbasid cali%hs# *or.usayn .e and a small grou% of followers including most of his immediate family were cruelly massacred at 2arbala The day of his martyrdom !"'Ashura"" has become the most solemn day of the .hi'ite Imams and is considered the most holy of Muslim women# The Twel e Imams I# The *irst Imam.hi'ites and . and each in turn was a%%ointed by his %redecessor according to di ine decree# *atimah al-Fahra The belo ed daughter of the 9ro%het from 2hadi.usayn and Muhsin !who died stillborn".huhada !4657 -5I65@B" The younger son of 'Ali by *atimah. the last of the "(ightly-Kuided Hali%hs". and two daughters.e is buried in Aa.he was so lo ed by the 9ro%het that he called her "a %art of me#" In 76574 she married 'Ali ibn Abi Talib from whom she bore three sons. *atimah was born in Mecca fi e years before the beginning of the 9ro%het's mission# . after the death of '3thman# .e is buried in 2arbala in Ira:# .he died si$ months after her father in the year II6511 and is buried in the Ba:'i cemetery in Medina# It is said that when she was born the whole sky became illuminated) therefore she is called al-Fahra the "(adiant#" .hari'ah.ayyed al-.# 4B6A#?# 55/" . he must also %ossess di inely illuminated wisdom and be the s%iritual guide of men# . who had raised the 9ro%het like his own son and %rotected him after he declared his mission# According to the . the Imams were the only com%letely legitimate successors to the 9ro%het# The first. after fi e years as cali%h# .usayn felt it necessary to go into battle against Da+id to %rotest against the in. but was finally forced to surrender it to Mu'awiyah# *or the rest of his life he li ed in Medina in seclusion# . the 9ro%het's successor must be di inely a%%ointed. who refused to gi e it# *inally al-.e is buried in the Ba:'i cemetery in Medina# III# The Third Imam. resulting in a good deal of strife in the early centuries of Islam between certain .hi'ites" !the "%artisans" of 'Ali". known as the ". d# A#.e laid claim to the cali%hate for some si$ months after the death of his father.hi'ite calendar. he demanded allegiance from al-. marked by %rocessions and uni ersal mourning# Its celebration symboli+es the whole ethos of . Abu Talib. like his brother he li ed most of his life :uietly in Medina under the watchful eyes of the cali%h's officials and s%ies# Ehen Mu'awiyah's son Da+id became cali%h.hi'ites were concerned.hi'ites hold that the 9ro%het had in fact a%%ointed 'Ali as his cali%h#M7N This difference in iew between the .ah.ority of men.unnis was often e$%ressed in %olitical terms.asan al-Mu.hi'ism# . as far as the .he is the mother of the . al-.he was at the 9ro%het's bedside at the moment of his death and fought for her husband's succession to the cali%hate# .af in Ira:# M(ead: Aah. 'Ali al-Murtada !b# A#?# 5BB.unni cali%h.ulBalaghah N II# The .taba !1657 -<B650B" .e became the fourth . as e$%ressed in the 9ro%het's wishes# And the .ince this latter function is bestowed by Kod and cannot be . Faynab and 3rnm 2ulthum# . . and according to his %artisans was a%%ointed by the 9ro%het as his successor at a %lace known as ''Khadir al-2humm"# .e was the elder son of 'Ali by the 9ro%het's daughter *atimah# .econd Imam.hi'ites. was a%%ointed by the 9ro%het himself. 'Ali was the first to acce%t the new religion at the hands of the 9ro%het.ustices which were being carried out in the name of Islam# .usayn.e was finally assassinated by followers of the 2hawari. !an early schismatic sect". maintained that the 9ro%het's successor must not only enforce the .udged by the ma.e was the greatest warrior of early Islam. al-.

he was gi en the daughter of the cali%h al-Ma'mun in marriage and for a time was ke%t by the cali%h in Baghdad# But he was able to return to Medina until the end of al-Ma'mun's reign# The new cali%h. =a'far al-. ha ing contact with only a few select followers# .e is buried in the Ba:i' cemetery in Medina# JII# The .unni schools of law# Towards the end of Imam =a'far's life se ere restrictions were %laced u%on his acti ities. 'Ali al-. as a result of growing . and thus he was sa ed the fate of his three brothers# *or most of his life he li ed in seclusion in Medina.is %iety-which is reflected in his collected %rayers.e li ed most of his life in Medina with se ere restrictions %laced u%on him and finally died in %rison in Baghdad# After him.e is buried in the Ba:i' cemetery in Medina# JI# The .anifah. he was contem%orary with such Abbasid cali%hs as al-Mansur and . including such famous .e is buried in 2a+imayn in Ira:# JIII# The Iighth Imam.arun al-(ashid# .e is buried in 2a+imayn in Ira:# Q# The Tenth Imam.amarra by the cali%h al-Mutawakkil# There he was treated harshly by the cali%h and his successors until he died# . al-Mu'tasim.e is so im%ortant for Twel e-Imam . the last .hi'ism began to s%read e en more ra%idly# *inally he is said to ha e had the Imam %oisoned# Al-(ida is buried in Mashhad in Iran# IQ# The Ainth Imam. he li ed in an increasingly fa orable climate and was able to teach o%enly in Medina# Garge numbers of scholars gathered around him to learn. many %eo%le came to Medina to learn the religious and s%iritual sciences from him# . the Imams were often not able to li e in their traditional home of Medina. he was not able to carry arms at 2arbala because of illness. when he was summoned to . and mainly for this reason is the first Imam after 'Ali from whom large numbers of traditions are recorded# .adi !7/76@70-7<46@5@" The son of the ninth Imam.hi'ite re olts# *inally the cali%h al-Ma'mun thought he would sol e the %roblem by naming the Imam as his own successor.amarra# . summoned him back to Baghdad where he died# .hi'ite unrest# More traditions are recorded from him than from all the other Imams together# .a. he was %resent at 2arbala at a young age# Because of changing %olitical and religious conditions.adi: !@160B7-/4@605<" The son of the fifth Imam.ad !1@65<@><60I7" The son of Imam al-.amarra# . the founder of one of the four . Muhammad al-Ba:ir !<0650<II46017" The son of the fourth Imam.hi'ite law that it is named the "=a'fari .e enth Imam.. Muhammad al-=awad !/><6@B>-77B6@1<" The son of the eighth Imam. Musa al-2a+im !/7@6044-/@160>>" The son of the si$th Imam.e trained numerous well-known men of religion.usayn by the daughter of Da+digird. 'Ali Fayn al-'Abidin. for .chool" after him# . he li ed in a %eriod when the Abbasids were faced with increasing difficulties because of .ahifah al-. 'Ali al-(ida !/4@605<-7B16@/0" The son of the se enth Imam. al-Ma'mun reali+ed his mistake. but were forced to remain near the cali%h in Baghdad or ..i$th Imam.IJ# The *ourth Imam.e is buried in the Ba:i' cemetery in Medina# J# The *ifth Imam. among them the general re ulsion following the e ents at 2arbala.unni figures as Abu . ho%ing thus to ensnare him in worldly affairs and turn the de otion of his followers away from him# After finally being able to %ersuade al-(ida to acce%t. al-.assanid king of Iran. al-.a.adiyyah is %ro erbial# . he remained in Medina teaching the religious sciences until 7416@<0.e is buried in .

following instructions gi en her in a dream.QI# The Ile enth Imam. Islam and the 9erennial 9hiloso%hy.adi: • Imam Musa al-2a+im • Imam Ali al-(ida • Imam Mohammad al-=awad • Imam Ali al-.e is buried in .oly 9ro%het The Twel e Imams 2hadi. he will erase e il and in.taba • Imam .hahid • Imam Ali al-. al-.ustice from the world# The ele enth Imam married the daughter of the By+antine em%eror. he li ed in close confinement in . ch# <# /4 al-Masoomeen !as" • • • • The .amarra under the watchful eye of the cali%h.a.asan al-Mu. he became hidden from the eyes of ordinary men and a%%eared only to his ?e%uties# In the year 17>6>1> his "greater occultation" began# It will continue as long as Kod wills.amarra# QII# The Twelfth Imam. had sold herself into sla ery to become his wife# .ussain • Imam Ali ibn al-. who..chuon.ad • Imam Mohammad al-Ba:ir • Imam =a'far al-.ussain .hi'ite Islam# M7N *or a %rofound and illuminating e$%lanation of the basic difference in %ers%ecti e re%resented by .hi'ites were awaiting his son. Muhammad al-Mahdi !b# 7<56@5@" The twelfth Imam li ed in hiding under the %rotection and tutelage of his father until the latter's death# Then he went into "occultation"# In other words. The 9ro%het's Eife *atimah al-Fahra Imam Ali al-Murtada • Imam .ussain al-. but when he does a%%ear once again.unnism and .assan • Imam . es%ecially since it was known that the . see .adi • Imam .ah. the twelfth Imam.asan al-Askari • Imam Mohammad al-Mahdi Imam Ali • Imam . Gondon.ustice from the world# Aotes: M/N *or a detailed account. destined to remo e in.hi'ism see *# . who was to be the %romised Mahdi or "guided one". Aargis 2hatun. />05.asan al-'Askari !7176@4<-75B6@07" The son of the tenth Imam.

• • • • • • • • Imam Mohammad ibn Ali Imam =afar ibn Mohammad Imam Musa ibn =afar Imam Ali ibn Musa Imam Mohammad ibn Ali Imam Ali ibn Mohammad Imam .assan !a" • Imam .usain !a" • Imam Fainul-'Abedeen !a" • Imam al-Ba:ir !a" • Imam al-.usain al-.asan !a" • Imam .taba • Imam .aadi: • Imam Musa al-2a+im • Imam Ali al-(ida • Imam Muhammad al-Ta:i .asan al-Mu.assan al-Askari !a" • Imam al-Mahdi !a" 9ro%het Mohammad !s" • Imam Ali !a" • *atimah al-Fahraa !a" • Imam .hahid • Imam Ali Fainul-Abedeen • Imam Mohammad al-Ba:ir • Imam =afar al-.a+rat *atima al-Fahra • Imam .adi !a" • Imam al-'Askari !a" • Imam al-Madi !a" The *ourteen Infallibles • 9ro%het Muhammad al-Mustafa !s" • Amir al-Mu'minin Imam Ali • .adi: !a" • Imam Musa al-2a+im !a" • Imam Ali al-(ida !a" • Imam Muhammad al-Ta:i !a" • Imam Ali al-Aa:i !a" • Imam .ussein !a" • Imam Fayn al-Abidin !a" • Imam Muhammad al-Ba:ir !a" • Imam =affar al-.adi: !a" • Imam al-2a+im !a" • Imam al-(ida !a" • Imam al-=awad !a" • Imam al-.assan ibn Ali Imam al-Mahdi 9ro%het Mohammad !s" • *atimah al-Fahra !a" • Imam Ali !a" • Imam .

ow Islam Immortali+ed Imam .asan al-Askari Imam Muhammad al-Mahdi Imam Ali al-Murtada • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction The (ising of the ?awn The *irst Belie er Tasks After Imigration Islamic 9ers%ects of Imam Ali The Hali%hs' 9eriod Introduction The Imam and the Hali%h 9rogram of (eformation 9olicy of (eaction To The 2ingdom of Allah Aotes Imam .hahid • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9ublisher's Eord Introduction .ussein In 2arbala' 2arbala' .tatus of Imam .asan's (ole in Islamic Gife =ustifications of the Treaty with Mu'awiyah and its Term 9ost-Treaty Ira Indnotes Imam .is (elationshi% Eith 9eo%le A# .ussein As%ects of his Hharacter /# .is .asan al-Mu.ussein : The Blessed Infant The .ussain al-.is Thought Imam .is *orgi eness of the Erongdoers 1# As%ects of .ussein's (ole In (e i ing Islam: 9rologue 9ost-9eace Treaty I ents The 3%rising: EhyC Eind of The 3%rising 2ufan's (egression An (oute To Ira: Imam .unnah Imam .asan's Hharacters Imam .ouse Ehat a Baby8 9ro%het's Krandson in the Book and .is (elationshi% Eith Allah 7# .• • • Imam Ali al-Aa:i Imam .taba • • • • • • • • • Introduction Klorious .umbleness B# .

aroon al-(asheed Imam Hali%h Ali bin Musa al-(ida The Iternal Beacon Indnotes Imam Ali al-(ida . and .ayings .istorical as%ect of the Imam's Biogra%hy • .ocial Hoditions ?uring Imam's Time The Imam and .u%%lement • (egency ?ocument .is ?istinctions and Hharacteristics Imam and the Ea:fis Imam and the 'Hali%hs' The (egency Imam's (ole in eliminating al-*adl ibn .is Martyrdom Imam Musa al-2a+im • • • • • • • • Introduction Imam al-2a+im .is *amily The 9olitical .u%%lications !?uas" and .is Hharacter and 9ersonality .elect .adith of the Imam .is Morals and Hounsels .usain Imam Ali Bin .• • • • The ?ay of Ashura' (ole of Eomen In The 3%rising (esults of The 3%rising Indnotes Imam Ali Fainul-'Abedin • • • • • • • • • 9reface Hhildhood Adulthood Gife in Medina After Tragedy of 2erbala . .usain's .ermons.istorical and Biogra%hical (esearch • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction 9reface .hari'a !Islamic Gegislati e .ahl The Tragic Inding Imam and Alawide (e olts Intellectual As%ects of the Imam's Gife • .is Eorks Altercations Basic Beliefs I$egesis .ituation in which the Imam Gi ed.ome Miracles of Imam Ali Bin .ystem" .is .chool and 2nowledge 9olitical and .

9ro%het.adi: • Musa al-2a+im • Ali al-(ida • Muhammad al-=awad • Ali Ibn al-.ayings .Imam Ali al-(ida • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction Birth and Iarly Dears Geadershi% !Imamate" The Imam's Hharacter 2nowledge and .ocial Honditions under Abbasside (ule 9olitical Honditions 9o%ular Goyalty to Ahlul-Bayt (e olts and 3%risings March to 2hurasan The Imam and the Ied 9rayer (eactions to the 9ledge of Allegiance The Imam's Martyrdom Indnotes al-Islam • I3A Aet • The &uran..chools of Thought in Imam Al-(ida's Time .hahid • Ali al-.a.asan al-Mu.ayings of The .oly 9ro%het Muhammad !s" .ad • Muhammad al-Ba:ir • =afar al-.adi • Al-.asan al-Askari • Muhammad al-Mahdi . Ahlul-Bayt • al-Ma'soomeen • al-Ma'soomeen • Aida al-Tha:alayn • Islamic Books • Gife of Imam Ali • Imam Ali • Imam al-Mahdi 9ro%het Mohammad !s" • *atimah al-Fahraa • Ali al-Murtada • Al-.ayings of *atimah al-Fahra Imam Gife .usayn al-.taba • Al-.

ayyid Muhammad .taba .asan al-Mu.i$th Imam The Iighth Imam The Tenth Imam The Twelfth Imam .asan al-'Askari Mohammad al-Mahdi RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR RR A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LIVES OF THE TWELVE IMAMS R Allamah .Ali al-Murtada .usain al-.econd Imam The *ourh Imam The .hahid Ali Fainul-'Abedin Mohammad Ba:ir =afar al-.adi .adi: Mousa al-2a+im Ali al-(ida Mohammad al-=awad Ali al-.usayn Tabataba'i R The *irst Imam The Third Imam The *ifth Imam The .e enth Imam The Ainth Imam The Ile enth Imam The .

is Message M/N .On the A%%earance of the Mahdi The .cience: 9 / The (elationshi% of the &uran to Modern .am+ah Abu Talib ### Abu Talib ### =afar ### A:eel Mu'awyia ### Abu .eal of the 9ro%hets and .I EA.cholars of Kenius The Inerrancy of the 9ro%hets The .cience: 9 7 9rediction of the ?efeat of a Kreat 9ower 3nity and Multi%licity in the Themes of the &uran .hiSism More Ginks About .is Ahlul-Bayt !a" T.oly 9ro%het !s" and .taba Musa i Gari About the Author 9ro%hethood: Ac:uaintance with the .alman ### Bilal ### .ahabah ### M/N ### M7N ### M1N ### M4N ### M<N ### M5N ### M0N ### M@N ### M>N Abu ?har ### Ammar ### .chool of Thought Miracles: An Iffecti e and Ilo:uent 9roof The Answer of the 9ro%hets !%" to the Illogical ?emands of the 9olytheists Ehat is re elationC The ?ifference Between 9ro%hets and .%lendor of the 9ro%het of Islam Beginning of the Mission The Beginning of Migration Get 3s 2now the &uran Better The ?emand of the &uran for a ?irect Honfrontation The (elationshi% of the &uran to Modern .aba T 2a'ab Islamic Books: M/N ### M7N ### M1N Gight of Islam ### Islamic Books ### Islamic Articles Islamic Books: M/N #### M7N #### M1N #### M4N #### M<N #### M5N #### M0N #### M@N #### M>N #### M/BN M//N #### M/7N #### M/1N #### M/4N #### M/<N #### M/5N #### M/0N #### M/@N M/N #### M7N #### M1N #### M4N #### M<N #### M5N #### M0N #### M@N #### M>N #### M/BN M//N #### M/7N #### M/1N #### M/4N #### M/<N #### M/5N #### M/0N #### M/@N Islamic Books • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • .%iritual Message of .ayyid Mu.ABIA MOJIMIAT ### /7 Imams ### *AB al-.M7N by .uraira ### Ibn .chool of the 9ro%hets To whom belongs the right to legislateC A (ich and *ruitful .

irin's Afflictions In The .• • • • • The Ine$haustibility of the ?ifferent ?imensions of the &uran The 9roclamation by =esus of the Mission of the 9ro%het of Islam The . I$alted be .ealing of 9ro%hethood An Answer to the Materialists Aotes Mohammad The Messenger of Allah !s" • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction 9ro%het's Gife Before . The Message by Mohammad Ba:ir al-. The Messenger.el% And Jictory (enouncing The 9olytheists The Jaledictory .tate of Madinah 2ey *orces In Madinah Hommunity 9ro%het's Military 9olicy The Homming of Allah's .a.adr • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9reface Author's *oreword The (e ealer • /# Belief in Kod.ow to a%%ly the method to %ro e the e$istence of the Hreator 4# The %hiloso%hical argument • An I$am%le of the 9hiloso%hical Argument for the I$istence of the Hreator The Materialist 9osition to ward this Argument • <# The Attributes of Kod. the I$alted • ?efinition of the Method and ?elineation of its . The Blessed 9ledge of Al-Khadir The 9ro%het's An$iety O er The *uture ?a'wah The Gast Eill *ootnotes The (e ealer.e • ..cientific argument for the e$istence of Kod.te%s: I aluation of the Method • 1# .is =ustice and (ectitude ?i ine =ustice as Argument for (eward and 9unishment The Messenger • A" Introduction: The general %henomenon of 9ro%hethood B" ?emonstration of the 9ro%hethood of the greatest Messengers.truggle Miracle of Al-Isra' Klim%ses of . Kod's Blessings and 9eace be u%on him and his houshold H" The (ole of outside factors and influences The Message • Islam Aotes . the I$alted 7# The . Muhammad.is 9ro%hethood (ise To 9ro%hethood 9ro%het Begins Hall To Islam Beginning of Bitter .o%e The Kreat Immigration The Muha.

HIIATI*IH GI*I Ithics I$egesis Theology I$istence and Oneness of Allah Al-Ihlil. The Origin of the Islamic Krou%ings The I$tremists and Those who ha e disagreed with Islam on some Beliefs The . AG-.I A?JI(.asan's 9olicy Da+id's Hlaim The (e olution's Moti es The (e olution's 9rocedure The (e olution's (esults The (e olution of al-.iding one's religion in time of danger" AG-. KOJI(AO(.I.3( AA? . .is Brief 9roofs on the I$istence and Oneness of Allah Aegation of Body .A?I& IA I(A& .I H(IMI of A.I 9(OTIHTIOA !Ta:iyyah6.I.I IMAMATI E. .usain Its Im%act on the Honsciousness of Muslim . ATTIT3?I.usayn al-Mu+affar • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9reface Eho Are Ahlul-BaytC Eho were the OmayyadsC BAA3 AG-'ABA.ITII.• Klossary Imam . T.I (IGIKIO3. AG-.H.A?I&C T. AA? .usain Eee%ing Imam al-.O EA. AG-. AG-MAA.usainC Eho is Da+idC Origins of ?e iation Imam Ali's (eform Muawiya's (eign Imam .adi: !a" by Mohammed al-.IHT.G3G-BADTC T.adi Al-Modaresi • • • • • • • • • • • • • *oreword Introduction The Islamic Message Eho is Imam .A?I& AA? T.usain's (e olution !Analytical (e iew" by . !The Abasids" E.us%icions of Atheists T. EIT.A?I&'.OOG.AT EA.ociety • • • • • Introduction The Fiyarat The Gamentation %oetry (ites of remembrance of al-.a !myrobalan" .

OE ?I? AG-.OOGC .IA EO(?. . . .I.is Bra ery .is Giberality .ocial (elations .I.astening toward Kood Things .is . MI(AH3GO3. may Allah bless him and his family Treating the Eomen with =ustice The Mu'ta+elites during the Aomination of Mohammed . HOMMAA?MIAT.A?I& BIHOMI A . Belief in Allah *ear and .ayyan Other . H.is 9restige .im not Medicine Al-=afr !?i ination" Hhemistry and =abir bin .ADIAK.ustice The Belie er .I.ermons on Jarious Matters . ?IBATI.I.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The &ualities of Occurrence Iyes Attain .is ?ebates on (eligious ?e otion .is (eligious ?e otion .is 9atience . GI*I AA? . . .I(MOA.el%ing the Brothers Treating the Brothers 2indly Truthful Talk and Ki ing the Trust .ome of .I.y%ocrisy In.o%e 9iety and ?e otion (eligious ?e otion Gife in this world . KOO? MAAAI(. O(ATIOA.ocial Manners .I. .is .is 2indness .is worshi% . AHT.is Hlemency .is ?ebates on Oneness of Allah !al-Tawhid" The Outstanding Merit of the 9ro%het.ecret Kifts .I.I.is aluable Hommandments .ciences . .O.I.is ?ebate on Truthfulness .is .H. .tudying (eligious =uris%rudence Kratefulness of Boons Kood *riendshi% *riendshi% during Tra el Kood Aeighborhood Acce%ting Ad ice Honsultation Making Many Brothers *orgi ing Brothers The (ights of Brothers . .

TO T.urname .I KIATGI (IA?I( AOTI. H. ..y%ocrisy .haheed Murtada Mutahhari • An Introduction to Irfan 9art Two: by Allamah .I? .is Jisitations .is Hharacteristics .is .usayn Tabatabai • .I.is Birth .tages of a .urah al-.M 7 N • • • • • • • • • • • 9reface Allamah .%iritual 9erfection 9art 1: by Ayatullah 2homeini • Inter%retation of . BI(T. Gight Eithin Me .is ?eath ?uring ?eath After ?eath .I.I.I.is Klory A%%endi$: • The In ocation of . of AG-.atred Anger Breach of 9romise Treachery Miserliness .IG?(IA . AA? .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • .is Hreation Allah and .I. T.I .%iritual =ourney The Twel e Eorlds . ?IAT.usayn Tabatabai 9art One: by . (IGIA.A?I& .urah (elationshi% between Allah and .eeking Allah's Kuidance (ules of Attaining .I(JAAT.M / N . (IGIABGI AA((ATO(.lander *ault-*inding In y Honceit O%%ression Inmity and .ha'baniyah Douth and Morals • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • *oreword Introduction Ill Aature O%timism 9essimism Gying .I'ITI *AMO3.amd The ?ifference between the &ismillah of each . AA((ATO(.is 2unya and .

al.asan Muhammad 'Ali alMu. /B years before the declaration of the 9ro%hethood# <67<65BB# --- 3mm Abiha *atimah al-Fahra'.# Munawwarah. 2arbala'.oly 9ro%het !s".ayyidu al1rd . --// A. Madina alin the Dear of // A. al-Aa. 7@th . Abu Ali al. .asan. in the <th Dear after the declaration of 9ro%hethood# /6765/<# /1th (a.• • Kreed ?is%uting A Hhronological Table of the .# 16/657<# 165650B# Akbar" . 4 A.ibt /6@6575# !alAsghar" Madina. Muhammad al-Batoul.ha'ban. al-Easi. Ira:# 5/ A.# /67@655/# 7nd Imam Abu al-.# as-.afar.# /B6/B65@B# .# @6756517# /st Imam Abu al. alMurtada. as-.aydar 7/st (amadhan. /<th 0th . 1 <B A.ibt (amadhan. the Ile%hant# <67<6517# Arabia# @67<6<0B# 7Bth =umada II. Ira:# 4B A.# !alA. Aabiy Allah# /0th (abi' I.asanayn Abu Talib Amir almu'minin . .iddi:ah.ab.afar. . his ?aughter !a" and the Twel e Imams !a" ?esignation 2unyah Aame *ather Aame Title ?ate of Birth ?ate of ?eath 9lace of burial The Gast 9ro%het of Allah Abu al&asim Muhammad 'Abdullah (asul Allah.taba.ayyidatu al-Aisa 1rd =umada II.af. Arabia# 1rd Imam Abu 'Abdillah al-.huhada'.usayn 'Ali /Bth Muharram.

Abu Ibrahim =a'far al2adhim.till ali e --al-&a'im..ayyidu 1@ A.alih.asan alMusa Awwal.ah.asan Muhammad 'Ali @th (abi' II. Ira:# 567@6@5@# @th (abi' I.ab.# " /6/6@04# /Bth Imam Abu al.# /4@ A.# Arabia# /B67B60/1# <th Imam Abu =a'far Muhammad 'Ali al-Ba:ir 0th ?hi'l1rd . Abu Musa =a'far Muhammad al-.afar. al-. 7<< but in alA.# /7616@45# /7th Imam Abu al&asim Muhammad al-. al-2a+imiyyah. >< A.ab. @1 A. <th . />< A. .. al-'Abd al-.amarra'.# .ab..# A.afar. al-Askari 717 A. /4@ A. Muhammad al-.# al/6565<># .# 467B60B7# /76/4605<# " 5th Imam Abu 'Abdillah. .usayn FaynulAbidin.adi 7nd (a.afar.ab. Mash'had.asan alThalith 'Ali al-Aa:i.ha'ban.ahibu . /<th .# 067>6@5># occultation .ha'ban. /7> A. al-Kha'ib. .# >6706@70# //th Imam Abu al-. 7B1 A. al-'Alim 0th .hawwal.# Ira:# //67<6@1<# 1rd (a. 7<4 A. /@1 A.4th Imam Abu Ali Muhammad al-.# Ira:# >6/60>># @th Imam Abu al. 7/7 A. .a. Madina. //4 A.asan alThani 'Ali Musa al-(ida //th ?hi'l:i'dah.adi: " 0th Imam Abu al. 77B al-2a+imiyyah.ad# 7<th Muharram.# Iran# @6746@/@# >th Imam Abu =a'far al-Thani Muhammad 'Ali /Bth (a.# /76/56505# /67@6011# 7<th /0th (abi' I.ahibu alFaman. .# /767>605<# /0th .u. 75B A.asan al-Mahdi.# al-=awad 46@6@//# 1Bth ?hi'l:i'dah. A.ah.# /B67@6045# 7<th (a. al-Ta:i.a.idin. <0 hi.

his ?aughter !a" and the Twel e Imams !a" .al-Amr# A Hhronological Table of the .oly 9ro%het !s".

#" in =ami'a . gi ing the Fakat. and 'Ali ibn al-.adith .#" The Ealaya !lo e and guardianshi%" of Ahl al-Bayt !A#.usayn!A#.#" concerning the following erse: "O my Gord.#A#E#" addressing Ali !A#.#" and al-.#" and =afar ibn Muhammad!A#.asan!A#.The Ealaya !lo e and guardianshi%" of Ahl al-Bayt !A#.#" in The &ur'an and .ell *ire# The Messenger of Allah !.#" and their lo e) whoe er embodies the lo e Mof Ahl al-Bayt!A#. my %arents.#" and 'Ali!A#.im like the ignorant# I asked him: May I be sacrificed to you8 Ehat is the sign of knowing AllahC . your two sons. should acce%t the guardianshi% of you.#": Islam has been based on fi e foundations: %erforming daily %rayers. and what is meant by the erse: "Jerily.ource: Ahl al-Bayt !A#. and him who enters my abode as a belie er" !0/:7@" said that it means the lo e and guardianshi%. al-.#" and Muhammad ibn 'Ali!A#.#" said: whoe er would be glad to see Almighty Allah %urified and secure.#" and al-. forgi e me.#A#E#": Ehoe er likes to li e and die like me and enter the %aradise to which I ha e been %romised. they become ha%%y.#" and Ali ibn Musa!A#.#" Fayd-ibn Ar:am: Ehen the Messenger of Allah !. but when they hear about Muhammad's !.#A#E#" returned from his "*arewell 9ilgrimage'" "and sto%%ed at Khadir 2hum.#A#E#": Go e and de otion to me and my Ahl al-Bayt make one immune from the . he ga e an order to swee% the ground under the trees then he said "Jerily Allah is my benefactor and I am the guardian of e ery belie er) he then held 'Ali's hand.oly Imams !A#.#" and following him and following the Kuided Imams!A#. Allah intends to kee% off from you !e ery kind of" uncleanness O you the %eo%le of the house and %urify you !with" a thorough %urification" !11: 11" is the .#" and Musa ibn =afar!A#.igh this is understanding of Allah the Klorious and the . this man is his %rotector# Oh Allah lo e whoe er lo es him and be the enemy of those who are his enemies# The Messenger of Allah !.am+a: Imam al-Ba:ir !A#.usayn!A#.asan!A#.#" and taking refuge in Allah the Klorious and the . whoe er acce%ts the lo e and guardianshi% enters the house of the %ro%hets.adi: !A#. worshi% .oly 9ro%het!.igh# Muhammad ibn Ali al-.#".e re%lied: Belie ing in Allah and . fasting in the holy month of (amadan. as they will ne er let you go astray# The .#" the last one# The .oly 9ro%het !.#A#E#"# Imam al-.alabi: Imam al-.adi !A#.#" and Muhammad!A#.oly 9ro%het !.#" told me: Jerily only those who know Allah worshi% Allah truly.#A#E#" soul in .#" and *inally al-Mahdi!A#. %ilgrimage to Makkah and acce%ting the lo e and guardianshi% of Ahl al-Bayt# Abu .#A#E#" family they become annoyedC8 I swear to the One who has got Muhammad's !.is hand) if on the (esurrection ?ay a belie er who has good actions of se enty 9ro%hets is %resented before Allah his good actions will not be acce%ted if those are de oid of the lo e of me and my family# Imam al-Ba:ir!A#.#"N has entered into the house of the . raised it and said: "Ehoe er that I am his guardian.u%%lication: "And the earth lit u% with your light and those who were sa ed reached this state because of you and stri ed to reach Allah's a%%ro al# Erath of Allah is u%on whoe er denies your guardianshi%"# .#" family.#A#E#": Ehat is the matter with some %eo%le that when they hear about Ibrahim's !A#.is Messenger and acce%ting the lo e and guardianshi% of Imam Ali!A#. and be free from the big horror. but those who do not know Allah. and are as light in the darkness. should acce%t 'Ali ibn Abi Talib's guardianshi% status and those of his immaculate inheritors who shall be guiding the %eo%le after me.

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