You are on page 1of 0

GSM Handover GSM Handover

Mhd. Ammar Ben Khadra


Outline Outline
GSMO i GSMO i GSM Overview GSM Overview
Handover decision & parameters Handover decision & parameters
Handover scenarios Handover scenarios
R d i h d R d i h d Reducing handovers Reducing handovers
GSM Overview GSM Overview
Overview Overview
GSM b t GSM subsystems
Base Station Subsystem
Network Switching Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem
Operation & Maintenance Subsystem
Ai i t f Air interface
GSM Subsystems GSM Subsystems
B St ti S b t (BSS) Bas Station Subsystem (BSS):
MS: Mobile Station.
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module SIM: Subscriber Identity Module.
BTS: Base Transceiver Station.
BSC: Base Station Controller.
TRAU: Transcoding Rate and Adaptation Unit.
Base Station Subsystem Base Station Subsystem
Abis-interface
Air-interface
TRAU deployment options TRAU deployment options
GSM Subsystems (contd) GSM Subsystems (contd)
N t k S it hi S b t (NSS) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS):
MSC: Mobile Switching Center.
HLR: Home Location Register HLR: Home Location Register.
VLR: Visitor Location Register.
EIR: Equipment Identity Register. q p y g
Operation & maintenance Subsystem (OSS).
Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN).
Network Switching Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem
Network Switching Subsystem (contd) Network Switching Subsystem (contd)
Public Land Mobile Network Public Land Mobile Network
GSM Overview GSM Overview
GSM b t GSM subsystems
Base Station Subsystem
Network Switching Subsystem Network Switching Subsystem
Operation & Maintenance Subsystem
Ai i t f Air interface
FDMA FDMA
GSM f GSM frequency ranges:
GSM 900: 890915MHz for uplink and 935960MHz
for downlink.
GSM1800: 17101785 MHz for uplink and 1805
1880 MHz for downlink.
GSM 850:824 849 MHz for uplink and 869 894 GSM 850:824849 MHz for uplink and 869894
MHz for downlink.
GSM 1900:18501910 MHz for uplink and 1930
1990 MH f d li k 1990 MHz for downlink.
Every channel is 200KHz bandwidth.
TDMA TDMA
Structure of a normal time slot Structure of a normal time slot
TDMA frame hierarchy TDMA frame hierarchy
Logical channels types Logical channels types
T ffi CH l (TCH) Traffic CHannels (TCH)
Control CHannel (CCH)
Broadcast Control Channels
Common Control Channels (used in idle mode)
Dedicated Control Channels (used in active mode)
Broadcast Control Channels Broadcast Control Channels
Common Control Channels Common Control Channels
Dedicated Control Channels Dedicated Control Channels
Handover decision & parameters
What is handover ?!! What is handover ?!!
The change of the currently used radio channel to
another radio channel during an existing and
active connection between MS and BTS.
GSM handover is hard handover: GSM handover is hard handover:
The connection to the current cell is broken and
then the connection to the new cell is made then the connection to the new cell is made
(break-before-make) .
Reasons for handover Reasons for handover
The phone is moving away from the area covered
by one cell and entering the area covered by
another cell another cell.
A cell reaches full capacity and a new call is
originating from an overlapped area originating from an overlapped area.
A channel becomes interfered by another phone
i th h l i diff t ll using the same channel in a different cell.
Handover, who takes the decision ? Handover, who takes the decision ?
Th h d d i i i t k b BSC The handover decision is taken by BSC.
The actual execution of handover is the
ibilit f BSC MSC responsibility of BSC or MSC.
The decision is based on the measurement results
of the BTS and the MS of the BTS and the MS.
BER mapping to RXQUAL BER mapping to RXQUAL
Power Control and RXLEVL Power Control and RXLEVL
Signal measurement Signal measurement
BTS measurements
Uplink RXQUAL, RXLEVL
Signal measurement Signal measurement
MS measurements
Downlink (RXQUAL),(RXLEVL)
The values of (RXLEV) and (RXQUAL) are
reported over a (SACCH) multiframe which reported over a (SACCH) multiframe which
consists of 104 TDMA frames (480ms).
Signal measurement Signal measurement
MS measurements of
neighboring cells (BCCH)
RXLEVL only
Measurement parameters Measurement parameters
Measurement parameters (contd) Measurement parameters (contd)
Handover scenarios Handover scenarios
Intra Intra--BTS BTS
1. RXQUAL is low (high BER) while RXLEV is good
2. TCH is changed
3. Synchronized
Intra Intra--BSC BSC
Intra Intra--MSC MSC
Inter Inter- -MSC MSC
A non A non--synchronized intra synchronized intra--BSC scenario BSC scenario
A non A non--synchronized intra synchronized intra--BSC scenario BSC scenario
Reducing handovers Reducing handovers
Reducing handovers Reducing handovers
P d it l i Proper coverage and capacity planning comes
first.
C f l t l t d i t ll Carful power control to reduce inter-cell
interference .
MS speed and signal strength evolution can MS speed and signal strength evolution can
provide more reliable handover decision to avoid
ping-pong effect (prediction based handover).
Hierarchal BTS Hierarchal BTS
Coverage area of a real cell Coverage area of a real cell
Umbrella BTS Umbrella BTS
Using MS speed measurement method like
the US patented 5884178 by Ericsson, the BSC
i th b ll BTS t th d MS can assign the umbrella BTS to the speedy MS.
Sectorized BTS Sectorized BTS
Ex. A BTS sector covering
a high way can significantly
reduce handovers reduce handovers.
Questions !!! Questions !!!