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NPTEL- Advanced Geotechnical Engineering

Chapter 3
Lecture 13
Stresses in Soil Mass-3
Topics
1.1.7 Uniform Vertical Loading on an Infinite Strip on the Surface of a Semi-infinite
Mass
1.1.8 Uniform Horizontal Loading on an Infinite Strip on the Surface of a Semiinfinite Mass

1.1.7 Uniform Vertical Loading on an Infinite Strip on the Surface of a Semiinfinite Mass
Figure 11 shows the case where a uniform vertical load of q per unit area is acting on a flexible infinite strip
on the surface of a semi-infinite elastic mass. To obtain the stresses at a point (, ), we can consider an
elementary strip of width located at a distance from the center line of the load. The load per unit length
of this elementary strip is , and it can be approximated as a line load.

Figure 11 Uniform vertical loading on an infinite strip

The increase of vertical stress, due to the elementary strip loading can be obtained by substituting
for q in equation (13), or

Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

NPTEL- Advanced Geotechnical Engineering

[ 2 + 2 ]2

(30)

The total increase of vertical stress, , due to the loaded strip can be determined by integrating
equation (30) with limits of = = ; so,
=

+
3
[ 2 + 2 ]2

2 ( 2 2 2 )

= 1 1 + ( 2 + 2 2 )2 +4 2 2

(31)

In a similar manner, referring to equations (14) and (15),


=

+
2

[ 2 + 2 ]2
2 ( 2 2 2 )

= 1 1 + + ( 2 + 2 2 )2 +4 2 2
=

+
2

[ 2 + 2 ]2

4 2

= ( 2 + 2 2 )2 +4 2 2

(32)
(33)

Some nondimensional values of /, /, / are given in table 4.


The expressions for , , and given in equations (31) to (33) can be presented in a simplified form:

= [ + sin cos + 2 ]

= [ sin cos + 2 ]

= [sin sin ( + 2)]

(34)
(35)
(36)

Where and are the angles shown in figure 11b.

1.1.8 Uniform Horizontal Loading on an Infinite Strip on the Surface of a


Semi-infinite Mass
If a uniform horizontal load is applied on an infinite strip of width 2 as shown in figure 12, the stresses at a
point inside the semi-infinite mass can be determined by using method of superposition for vertical loading.
For an elementary strip of width , the load per unit length is for x in equations (20) to (22). Thus,

Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

NPTEL- Advanced Geotechnical Engineering

Figure 12 Uniform horizontal loading on an infinite strip

Table 2 Influence values for vertical stress due to a line load [equation 29]
/
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.25
1.5
1.75
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
6.0
8.0

1.0
2.634
2.539
2.573
2.471
2.400
2.291
2.144
2.021
1.840
1.711
1.525
1.389
1.223
1.092
0.954
0.830
0.721
0.615
0.536
0.447
0.357
0.294
0.121
0.111
0.010
0.043
-0.030
0.024
-0.042
0.025
-0.025
0.027
-0.010
0.022
0.006
0.008
0.005
0.000
0.002
-0.001

2.566
2.580
2.503
2.508
2.331
2.312
2.075
2.023
1.774
1.689
1.462
1.350
1.168
1.039
0.906
0.771
0.683
0.553
0.507
0.390
0.338
0.241
0.123
0.079
0.027
0.026
-0.006
0.018
-0.014
0.024
-0.003
0.034
0.004
0.032
0.005
0.019
0.000
0.006
-0.000
0.001

0.9
2.787
2.787
2.713
2.702
2.505
2.477
2.203
2.145
1.855
1.773
1.504
1.397
1.179
1.061
0.898
0.774
0.661
0.547
0.479
0.375
0.306
0.224
0.091
0.059
-0.005
0.011
-0.036
0.005
-0.042
0.015
-0.022
0.002
-0.007
0.019
0.006
0.006
0.005
-0.000
0.002
-0.001

2.759
2.865
2.682
2.774
2.471
2.528
2.162
2.170
1.810
1.766
1.455
1.365
1.130
1.008
0.850
0.711
0.619
0.478
0.443
0.309
0.279
0.162
0.082
0.020
0.003
-0.013
-0.019
-0.006
-0.019
0.010
-0.004
0.027
0.004
0.028
0.005
0.017
0.000
0.005
-0.000
0.000

0.8
2.980
3.025
2.885
2.920
2.627
2.642
2.261
2.245
1.857
1.810
1.465
1.387
1.117
1.021
0.827
0.718
0.592
0.485
0.417
0.314
0.254
0.167
0.062
0.020
-0.018
-0.014
-0.040
-0.010
-0.041
0.006
-0.019
0.018
-0.005
0.017
0.007
0.005
0.005
-0.000
0.002
-0.001

2.975
3.113
2.877
3.001
2.614
2.703
2.240
2.279
1.828
1.815
1.429
1.365
1.077
0.978
0.785
0.661
0.553
0.421
0.380
0.251
0.224
0.106
0.047
-0.023
-0.016
-0.042
-0.029
-0.027
-0.022
-0.003
-0.004
0.020
0.004
0.023
0.004
0.015
0.000
0.004
-0.001
0.000

/
0.7
3.249
3.312
3.118
3.171
2.774
2.810
2.311
2.318
1.830
1.808
1.391
1.338
1.024
0.951
0.733
0.644
0.508
0.416
0.345
0.254
0.199
0.117
0.035
-0.010
-0.028
-0.031
-0.042
-0.021
-0.039
-0.001
-0.016
0.014
-0.003
0.014
0.007
0.004
0.005
-0.001
0.002
-0.001

3.256
3.391
3.122
3.243
2.773
2.876
2.302
2.349
1.812
1.815
1.365
1.320
0.993
0.916
0.698
0.594
0.473
0.360
0.311
0.195
0.169
0.062
0.018
-0.055
-0.031
-0.064
-0.036
-0.046
-0.026
-0.014
-0.004
0.001
0.004
0.015
0.005
0.013
0.000
0.004
-0.001
0.000

0.6
3.641
3.704
3.443
3.498
2.948
2.990
2.335
2.352
1.751
1.744
1.265
1.231
0.889
0.837
0.611
0.543
0.408
0.335
0.267
0.192
0.144
0.075
0.013
-0.028
-0.033
-0.040
-0.039
-0.026
-0.035
-0.005
-0.013
0.011
-0.000
0.012
0.008
0.003
0.005
-0.001
0.002
-0.001

3.653
3.772
3.452
3.562
2.954
3.040
2.333
2.383
1.741
1.755
1.247
1.223
0.867
0.814
0.584
0.509
0.379
0.294
0.237
0.149
0.116
0.032
-0.005
-0.064
-0.040
-0.070
-0.038
-0.049
-0.026
-0.020
-0.004
0.009
0.004
0.015
0.005
0.011
0.000
0.004
-0.001
0.000

0.4
5.157
5.201
4.516
4.585
3.251
3.283
2.099
2.117
1.301
1.307
0.803
0.792
0.497
0.476
0.308
0.276
0.185
0.150
0.108
0.070
0.045
0.010
-0.016
-0.037
-0.035
-0.035
-0.032
-0.021
-0.025
-0.005
-0.006
0.007
0.003
0.008
0.009
0.001
0.005
-0.001
0.002
-0.001

5.127
5.234
4.505
4.586
3.217
3.305
2.081
2.128
1.257
1.307
0.774
0.786
0.443
0.466
0.270
0.264
0.124
0.137
0.066
0.057
-0.020
-0.005
-0.057
-0.057
-0.097
-0.061
-0.064
-0.047
-0.131
-0.026
-0.042
-0.000
0.005
0.008
0.005
0.008
0.000
0.003
-0.001
-0.000

0.2
9.891
9.905
5.946
5.957
2.341
2.351
0.918
0.923
0.407
0.409
0.205
0.201
0.110
0.105
0.062
0.053
0.032
0.023
0.015
0.005
-0.000
-0.007
-0.014
-0.015
-0.019
-0.011
-0.017
-0.005
-0.013
0.002
0.000
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.009
0.000
0.005
-0.001
0.002
-0.001

9.899
9.911
5.952
5.960
2.347
2.343
0.922
0.907
0.409
0.389
0.204
0.187
0.107
0.099
0.056
0.058
0.024
0.035
0.006
0.020
-0.11
0.005
-0.024
-0.021
-0.026
-0.034
-0.019
-0.034
-0.011
-0.025
0.002
-0.006
0.006
0.003
0.004
0.007
0.000
0.002
-0.001
-0.001

Source: H. G., Poulos and E. H. Davis, Elastic Solutions for Soil and Rock Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1974.
The four values given under each entry are for different Poissons ratio as follows: top left, = 0; top right, = 0.2; bottom left, = 0.4; bottom right = 0.5

Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

NPTEL- Advanced Geotechnical Engineering


Table 3 values of /, /, and for vertical strip loading [equations (31) to (33)
(1)/
0

2 /
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

3 /
1.000
0.9594
0.8183
0.6678
0.5508
0.4617

4 /
1.000
0.4498
0.1817
0.0803
0.0410
0.0228

5 /
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.5

0
0.25
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

1.000
0.9787
0.9028
0.7352
0.6078
0.5107
0.4372

1.000
0.6214
0.3920
0.1863
0.0994
0.0542
0.0334

0
0.0522
0.1274
0.1590
0.1275
0.0959
0.0721

1.0

0.25
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

0.4996
0.4969
0.4797
0.4480
0.4095
0.3701

0.4208
0.3472
0.2250
0.1424
0.0908
0.0595

0.3134
0.2996
0.2546
0.2037
0.1592
0.1243

1.5

0.25
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

0.0177
0.0892
0.2488
0.2704
0.2876
0.2851

0.2079
0.2850
0.2137
0.1807
0.1268
0.0892

0.0606
0.1466
0.2101
0.2022
0.1754
0.1469

2.0

0.25
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

0.0027
0.0194
0.0776
0.1458
0.1847
0.2045

0.0987
0.1714
0.2021
0.1847
0.1456
0.1256

0.0164
0.0552
0.1305
0.1568
0.1567
0.1442

2.5

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

0.0068
0.0357
0.0771
0.1139
0.1409

0.1104
0.1615
0.1645
0.1447
0.1205

0.0254
0.0739
0.1096
0.1258
0.1266

After L. Jurgenson, The Application of Theories of Elasticity and Plasticity to Foundation Problems,
Contribution to Soil Mechanics, 1925-1940,Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Boston, 1934.

=+
() 2

= [ 2 + 2 ]2

4 2

= [ 2 + 2 2

2 +4 2 2 ]

(37)
=

=+ ()3
= [ 2 + 2 ]2

(+)2 + 2

= 2.303 ()2 + 2

4 2
2 + 2 2 2 +4 2 2

(38)
=

=+
()2

= [ 2 + 2 ]2

2 ( 2 2 2 )

= 1 1 + + ( 2 + 2 2 )2 +4 2 2

(39)
Note that equation (37) is in the same form as equation (33) and equation (39) is in the same form as
equation (32). So the nondimensional values given in col. 5 of Table 4 can be used for equation (37), and
those given in col, 4 of table 4 can be used for equation (39). Some nondimensional values for equation
(38) are given in table 5.
The expressions for stresses given by equations (37) to (39) may also be simplified as follows:
Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur

NPTEL- Advanced Geotechnical Engineering

= [sin + sin

+ 2 ]

= [2.303 12 sin( + 2)]


2

= [ sin cos
( + 2)]

(40)
(41)
(42)

Where 1 , 2 , , are as defined in figure 13.

Dept. of Civil Engg. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur